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Ethiopia’s security forces accused of torture, evictions and killings – The Guardian report May 29, 2020

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Ethiopia’s security forces accused of torture, evictions and killings – report

Prime minister Abiy Ahmed has been lauded for his democratic reforms. But Amnesty International are now urging him to investigate allegations of serious human rights abuses

A man waves an Oromo flag

A man waves an Oromo flag as people from the community gather in Addis Ababa in October 2019, on the eve of Irreecha, their thanksgiving festival. Photograph: Yonas Tadesse/AFP Tom Gardner in Addis Ababa Published on Fri 29 May 2020 06.15 BST

Ethiopia’s Nobel peace prize-winning prime minister Abiy Ahmed has been urged to investigate allegations that state security forces have committed a raft of serious human rights abuses including torture and unlawful killings since he came to power in 2018.

According to a report by Amnesty International, published on Friday, Ethiopia’s military and police in its two most populous regions arbitrarily detained more than 10,000 people, summarily evicted whole families from their homes – some of which were burnt and destroyed – and in some cases were complicit in inter-communal violence targeting minorities.

Federal authorities have not responded to the report, which focuses on the period between January and December 2019 in the regions of Amhara and Oromia.

“Given the gravity and the duration [of the period in which abuses were reported] I cannot believe top officials are not aware of what was happening,” the report’s author, Fisseha Tekle, told the Guardian. “And if they are not then it is a dereliction of duty.”

In Oromia, security forces are waging a counter-insurgency campaign against rebels from the Oromo Liberation Army (OLA), an armed guerrilla movement demanding more autonomy for Oromos, which returned from exile in 2018 after Abiy removed it from Ethiopia’s list of terrorist organisations.

The move was part of a package of democratic reforms which won the prime minister widespread acclaim and, along with making peace with neighbouring Eritrea, secured him the Nobel peace prize last year. Shortly after becoming prime minister Abiy also confessed that security officials had in the past committed torture, and promised to ensure the sector was fully accountable in the future. 

But the OLA has since returned to armed conflict, and accuses the government of failing to deliver its promises of more democracy and self-rule for Oromos. 

Fighting in western and southern parts of Oromia has involved targeted killings of local officials and community leaders and what the UN has described as “serious human rights violations”. In Oromia’s Guji district the unrest had driven 80,000 people from their homes by the start of this year.

Amnesty said it had a list of 39 people suspected of supporting the OLA who had been unlawfully executed in two parts of Guji since January 2019. It also said that on a single day in December 2018, soldiers from the federal military killed 13 people in the town of Finchawa in West Guji. One of those killed was an old woman selling milk on the street, according to an eyewitness who spoke to Amnesty.

Security forces are estimated to have detained more than 10,000 men and women suspected of supporting or working for the OLA, among other abuses documented by the organisation.

Many were detained for several months without being charged, in violation of both national and international human rights laws, under conditions which at times amounted to torture, the report found. Detainees were made to undergo two months of “training” in subjects such as constitutionalism, the rule of law and the history of the Oromo people’s struggle. 

In Amhara, according to the report, regional police, militia and local vigilante groups engaged in targeted attacks on ethnic Qemant, a minority group demanding more autonomy, in inter-communal violence which resulted in at least 130 deaths last year. In January 2019, at least 58 people were reportedly killed in less than 24 hours and buried in mass graves. 

Nobody has yet been held accountable for the atrocity.

Amnesty said it had sought responses to its findings from nine government offices including the defence ministry and the attorney-general’s office but had only received a response from Amhara’s regional security bureau, which denied that state security forces had been involved in any atrocities. Suspicion and fear linger as Ethiopia’s campus wars go quietRead more

The rights group called on the government to carry out full investigations into human rights violations and to order security forces to stop carrying out unlawful executions, arbitrary arrests and detention, as well as forced evictions and destruction of property belonging to people suspected of supporting opposition political parties or armed groups.

In February last year the former head of the Ethiopian army said it had embarked on “deep institutional reform” as part of the democratic changes sweeping the nation.

The head of the Ethiopian Human Rights Commission, Daniel Bekele, told the Guardian: “While the Amnesty findings and ongoing reports of killings and arrests in parts of Oromia region should be taken seriously and fully investigated, it is also important to understand the complex nature of the security operations where armed groups are seriously destabilising the affected areas.”

The prime minister’s office said it would put the Guardian’s request for official comment to the peace ministry, which did not respond in time for publication.

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Tyranny, Debt & Underdevelopment: Ethiopian Rail Corporation’s Debt: How Big Is It? January 31, 2017

Posted by OromianEconomist in Illicit financial outflows from Ethiopia.
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Odaa OromooOromianEconomist
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The Ethiopian Reporter (ER) newspaper has been presenting shocking facts about extents of corporate bankruptcies. These have escalated particularly since #OromoProtests started in November 2015. Such reports are becoming commonplace so much that we do not even pay much attention to them. We have been reading about a series of scandals related to Sugar Corporation, METC (the Military Engineering Complex), and lately that of the Ethiopian Railway Transport Corporation (ERC).
In this piece, I will briefly comment on the latest scandal, related to ERC’s murky finance. The ER stated quoted ERC management report and presented troubling accounts of the corporation’s escalating debt, currently standing at birr 102.5 billion or USD 4.6 billion. Let’s put this figure in a context – how big is it relative to the size of the Ethiopian economy?
  • Birr 1,031 or USD 46, if expressed as debt per person (dividing the figure by population of Ethiopia)
  • 7.4% of GDP (expressing it as a ratio to Ethiopia’s national income)
  • About 50% of the income generated in the whole of Ethiopia’s industrial sector
  • 180% of the whole of Ethiopia’s manufacturing sector (nearly twice the size of total income generated in the manufacturing sector, including small scale handcrafts)
By any stretch of imagination, ERC’s debt is a colossal figure. It is not something that Ethiopians would take as yet another financial scandal regading some corporate entity. At the end of the day, it is Ethiopians who would foot this bill. After all the money does not simply melt away, it must have been pocketed by some group who have been busy siphoning off public money. It is not without reason that the authorities have been so much addicted to mega projects. Such big projects have been convenient mechanisms for embezzlement.
We all recall circumstances through which the Addis Rail was started. A very large construction project was completed, completely revamping the Addis Road Networks. Though expensive, this was necessary. The ring road and the rest were completed. However, Addis residents barely started driving on the new and fresh looking roads when the government came up with some crazy idea – yet another mega project, a gigantic city rail network!
Ironically the rail infrastructure was put in place by digging up the newly build asphalt roads. It was madness. A logical next step would have been a tram rail system, which requires only a minor modification – burying the rails in the asphalt road so that the roads would be shared by trams and other vehicles. That option was not acceptable to the authorities because it was not big enough to generate perpetual business opportunities for their cronies.
Now we witness a rather ridiculous situation. By coincidence, the day the Addis Rail started operating, I was back home. The next day, as I was driving in Addis, I witnessed something sounding a comedy show – only one coach rail was moving up on that ugly structure. Well, in that case, if it is only a single coach that moves on it, then what is the point putting up that amorphous structure? I hear the number of coaches moving on those rail networks has been two, three, or four at most.
The bottom line is this. That kind of system can be supported only by a vibrant economy – a healthy economy that generates decent income for citizens! In a normally functioning and genuinely rapidly growing economy, business opportunities expand in all corners of a large city like Addis Ababa. This induces movements of people, commuting between their places of work and residences as well as between premises to do business. In the process income is generated and their capacity to pay for fares get enhanced. If all these things are in place, the public transport sector such as the ERC can balance its books, including meeting its domestic as well as foreign debt obligations.
The situation in Ethiopia is quite different, in fact rather perverse. To begin with, the Ethiopian Economy is growing rapidly only on paper and in official government statistics. The fact on the ground tells the exact opposite. There isn’t much vibrant business opportunity. People wish to travel but that wish remains only a desire – government policy has curtailed their capacity to pay fares at a rate that would make ERC profitable. So, ERC operates at much smaller rate than its full capacity, perhaps 10% to 20%. If circumstances would not change, ERC will never ever able to pay its debt. The principal and interest will accumulate and debt would escalate, as it already has, leaving behind a level of debt whose size will become larger and larger over the years as a share of GDP, industry and manufacturing. The debt per citizen will most certainly become even larger.
It should be noted here I confined my analysis only to the case of ERC. If I closely examine the implications of other financial scandals, it is possible to reveal how alarming each case is. In a nutshell the whole of the Ethiopian economy is in a dire state, whose severity is much more grave than most Ethiopians and the donor community may realize. The sooner the on-going madness is put to stop the better.

Why Some Countries Are Poor and Others Rich. #Africa January 11, 2015

Posted by OromianEconomist in Ethiopia's Colonizing Structure and the Development Problems of People of Oromia, Afar, Ogaden, Sidama, Southern Ethiopia and the Omo Valley.
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‘The reason why some countries are rich and others poor depends on the quality of their institutions, the culture they have, the natural resources they find and what latitude they’re on.’

Ethiopia: Habasha myth and peoples’ liberation | Hooda Habashaa fi bilisummaa Ummataa January 10, 2015

Posted by OromianEconomist in Africa, Ethiopia's Colonizing Structure and the Development Problems of People of Oromia, Afar, Ogaden, Sidama, Southern Ethiopia and the Omo Valley.
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Habasha myth and peoples’ liberation | Hooda Habashaa fi bilisummaa Ummataa

By Ibsaa Guutamaa | January 9, 2015

http://ayyaantuu.com/horn-of-africa-news/oromia/habasha-myth-and-peoples-liberation-hooda-habashaa-fi-bilisummaa-ummataa/

Ibsaa_Guutama In olden times it is customary for rulers to claim mystic origins different from their people. Such origins have some divine trait to justify limitless power for the man at the head, the king. That was how the Solomonic dynast of Abyssinia was told to have been created by a book composed in Egypt, called “Kibira Nagast”. Bara duri moototi madda hooda ummata saaniirraa adda tahe ofii kennu turan. Maddoti akkasii moototaaf aangoo hin dangahamne akka kennuuf qaccee gubbaan hidhata qabutu jira. Akka sanatt hundee mootummaa Habashaa Solomonawaa akka tahe kan himu moor “Kibira Nagast” jedhamuu Masaritt akka uumame kan himamu. Moor kun moototi Habashaa hundeen saanii Mooticha Israa’el Solomoon irraa akka bu’e hima.
It claims for Habasha kings an origin that traces to King Solomon of Israel. A son was born from out of wedlock romance between the king and the Queen of Sheba when she came to visit him from somewhere in the South as told. Queen of Sheba is known only through religious books of the Middle East and there is no history book that mentions her or her exact country. That is why she is claimed by Arabs and African alike. Even then her committing adultery with King Solomon and having a son was not mentioned in the religious books. That is why many believe that Minilik I was a creation of the Coptic Church to have permanent influence on Habashaa Kings and never existed as presented. His name started to appear in the said document, Kibra Nagast, for the first time. Thus everything surrounding him and his mother is myth told over and over by generations of Habashaa clerics known as daftaraa.The myth had served the Habashaa ruling clique to rule over their people with fear of the heavenly and iron fist. The people are never citizens with full rights over their individual life and national affairs. They were subjects that pay tributes and serve the rulers without question. The clerics play great role in cramming down the myth and the possible supernatural retribution if doubted into the minds of the masses making them believe that it would be sin to disobey the rulers, in particular the king. In the last four centuries Habashaa power was never transferred peacefully. Kings were overthrown by individuals that declare themselves kings. Except for those daredevils there were rare mass movements to overthrow the kings for they are under the fear of divine retribution. Even movement like that in Goojjam in 1960s targeted the Governor General Tsahayuu Inqusillaasee’s harsh rule not the Emperor.The kings were presented as demigod throughout their history until the over throw of Emperor Haile Sillaasee. With the last emperor a saturation point was reached where people started doubting the sinfulness of rebellion against injustice. In earlier times the chief priest from Alexandria can condemn the rebellion or untie the people from allegiance to the king. That was what the church did to Iyyaasuu; it untied the people from allegiance to him. To over throw the last emperor no priest interference was required because the chief priest was also under threat for it was not individual rebellion but mass revolution that came to change the setup of the monarchical rule. That be as it may the reverence for those holding power still persists among the Habashaa masses. It is a bone deep ethos that does not easily get erased.Through the years prior to that many changes have taken place. Many independent nations were annexed to Habashaa kingdom by force. Except for the land holding system, all autocratic vices of governance were transplanted to the colonies. The world’s technology and needs have started to grow in leaps and bounds. Africa was divided among alien colonizers. The world had carried out two world wars. These have prompted the demand for liberation and freedom by oppressed and colonized peoples of the world. But still they are the sly elites that dominate the political fields in Habashaa land. Power is yet far off from the people. It would have been advantageous for all oppressed peoples of the empire had the Habasha people asserted their right to be governed by those they truly elect. However waiting until they do that or fighting for them to achieve democratic rule cannot be a precondition for others to be free. To negotiate with a democratic state about freedom would have been easier than dealing with bunches of undemocratic dictators. For development, regional understanding and proper governance of the Horn of Africa the existence of democratic states can be the only warranty.

Unable to cop up with the new situation the emperor has to give way. Though the major role for the change was played by the colonies, power did not go to them for they were not organized. The occupation army took over and filled offices with new class. Some members of the old ruling class took individual actions opposing the change. But they were easily crushed because the oppressed sided with the junta. The remaining landed gentry were easily cajoled to get in line and pledge allegiance to the new order. The new rulers asserted that the source of power is not Devine but the people. But “One Ethiopia or Death” slogan was adopted assuring Darg’s loyalty to the empire state reassuring the Habasha people. Thus at least formally the Solomonic legend was mostly demystified. The new regime and its left leaning cohorts echoed after Mao Zedong that “Political power grows out of the barrel of a gun” making their heritage more clear. They are going to impose their rule with power of the gun alone unlike the ancient Nafxanyaa that used the gun plus the Cross. The same principle is adhered to down to the present day.

The Darg was forced out of power in the same way it came, by the power of the gun. For those that replaced them just like their predecessors, negotiation for the dissolution and sanctity of the empire was off the table. For the colonies nothing short of its destruction could answer their question. But a make believe policy that recognize peoples’ rights was put into a charter. The traditional power sharing practice between the two major Habashaa groups, Amaaraa and Tigrawayi was not respected. Tigray went alone to exploit the colonies for benefit of individual rulers and fringe benefit of their region. The causes that led to over throw of the different Habashaa regimes are not yet addressed. Material deprivation of the masses in the mother country is still continuing except for the especial advantage Tigray got at the expense of others. Amaaraa elites have turned blind eye to their people’s plight while focusing on how to snatch away Oromiyaa from their cousins.

As for the colonies their resources are busy building infrastructure of Tigray. Roads, electric power, health facilities, defense force etc are mushrooming. Education facilities that produce future leaders for the empire with exclusive curriculum are said to be flourishing in Tigray alone. For the colonies nothing significant was done. Even plans for infrastructure development started by the emperor are not completed. The previous regimes, including the Italians built roads to the colonies so that as much resources and services as possible are sifted out. From that Oromiyaa had some trickled benefits though incomparable to what colonial masters gained from it. The present ones added nothing to it to deny the indigenous smooth access to information and market. As long as they have power over the market they can force low prices on products and higher communication and transport cost locally. That gives them monopoly over movement of wealth of the colonies. The policy that allowed for land grabbing has brought in voracious groups that may side with Wayyaanee in defense of their investment, there by prolonging the subjugation of Oromiyaa and its neighbors with possible fast extinction of some minorities already on the verge.

Habashaa rulers have managed their own people with unending terror. The conquest of new land might have relieved the age old internal tension. Able bodied men were given the opportunity to share in the colonial spoils. They were infatuated by their new gains, power, land, hunting grounds, vegetation, water, gold and other natural resources and above all free labor. The rulers and their followers were guided by intuition not knowledge. They took for granted the new land and never went back to alleviate the agony of those who are still suffering under brutal rule of petty chiefs they left behind. They feed the people only with false hopes and grandeur and fame they brought for them internationally. Those are the Nafxanyaa parasites that had been reaping without sawing for over a century. It never clicks their minds that a time will come that they will be demanded to hand over to the owners all their loots. When that time arrives they know they have nowhere to go and no one to turn to. Whatever they had looted will return to the legitimate owners from wherever they were stashed. This they know and it is its nightmare that is driving them crazy terrorists in order to live a day more.

Despite the myth’s falling apart conspirators are trying to patch them together. They mix up history of ancient Kush (Nuubiyaa) cited by Greek historians and the religious books of the Middle East, with that of recent Abyssinia to confuse world public opinion. Still Ethiopia’s colonial nature is being suppressed by dishonest writers, politicians and diplomats. They tell of Ethiopia maintaining her independence untouched by “The Scramble for Africa”. But they do not tell of which Ethiopia they are talking. If they are talking of Abyssinia, that may be true. Abyssinia had participated in the Scramble for Africa. It is only racist mind that denies this. Free countries like Afar, Ogaadeeniyaa, Wala’ita, Sidaamaa, Kaficho, Oromiyaa and all the counties south of Habashaa land were colonized then with support of other colonizer buddies. Now is the time to write the true history of the region of which Habashaa is one among the many. This truth must be a part of freedom fighters manual. One has to know the driving force behind the enemy that makes it selflessly greedy and brutal. Now Ethiopian empire has become good only for history books for it cannot keep one people subservient to another anymore.

Descendants of the first “Nafxanyaa” in Oromiyaa were the most privileged members of the society distinctly different from the indigenous people around them. They were owners of land and most of the wealth it produced. That land based economic wealth came to an end with land proclamation of 1975. But their umbilical cord with the empire state was not totally severed. Most were still trusted more than the oppressed for which the revolution claimed to come. But still they were hard hit by the revolution in general terms. That be as it may, the colonial state cannot escape the responsibility by changing its name and ideology, not descendents of the first Nafxanyaa. It is the one that has to apologize and redressed all harms done. As for the descendants no one can deny them being an Oromiyaan if they desire so. But if they are still the bragging types by the broken bones and spilt blood of their forebears in the process of colonization it could be considered “rubbing salt on a wound”. But for those that stand for justice and equality there is nothing to fear from independent free Oromiyaa. Because they were born in Oromiyaa for most of them there is no other country to claim or better relations they could depend on. To support free Oromiyaa or continuation of the empire is their individual choice.

The problem in which descendant of the first Nafxanyaa find themselves in, needs to be addressed by liberation activists. Given from what they were told at bed side story or as indoctrination at schools, any change in the status quo can be freighting for they were not told about Oromo accommodativeness at the same time. Throughout their lives they had been seeing Oromo the dehumanized and timid not the real one. The real one is not vengeful but brave and passionate; to make peace is the arena of the brave and true offspring of the Gadaa fathers.

It must be understood that the sacrifices the oppressed made are not to oppress others in turn. It is to bring peace, freedom and happiness for all Oromiyaans irrespective of ethnicity or past records. Descendants of the first Nafxanyaa are being hammered from left and right by false history and gruesome consequences if the colonies were freed. That is daily reinforced by continuous propaganda of those that are not personally affected but have something to gain from chaos that may ensue. The struggle for liberation is not based on ethnicity. It is the demand for, liberation from alien domination, justice, freedom and equality. The Nafxanyaa descendant may be answerable for their own folly like all Oromiyaans not for their forefathers. As for ethnicity of the Nafxanyaa for many of them it is all a myth that their forefathers were made to accept of being Amaaraa, whether they were recruited from Abyssinia or Oromiyaa. Purposely they have made Amaaraa synonymous with Orthodox Christianity to which most gun wielders are proselytized, to keep Oromo Nafxanyaa apart from the Waaqeffataa and Muslim indigenous. It is up to them to verify if racism has anything to do with the Oromo question and even if they were real Habashaa before they are thrown to fright by made up ethnic cleansing scarecrow.

Otherwise, to join a group that denies Oromoo having land in Africa would be, denying one’s own identity or self-hatred. It will also be denying Minilik’s claim that is on record of his being “Emperor of Abyssinia and the Oromo countries”. The first Nafxanyaa had destroyed more than half the population, their sovereignty, culture, language, national identity and tradition mercilessly. That is all remembered for its historic value not to affect generations that are not responsible. But anyone that continues with that animosity and contempt for the colonial peoples even under the present situation cannot escape being responsible for condoning criminal actions.

There cannot be peace, stability and development in the region without the rule of law, democracy and freedom. The colonizer has nothing to gain from peace and stability of the region. Rule of law, democracy and freedom for all does not give it exclusive access to resources. Therefore it will not accept the right of nations to national self-determination that includes independence of the colonies which is a democratic right. In addition losing authority for those that abused human rights while in power makes them vulnerable to the wrath of justice. For these reasons it is highly unlikely for it to give up power willingly. Therefore for activists to waver at every turn is no solution, only firm stand could lead to victory. Peoples’ right is not something that one gives to another but is a birth right recognized by Assembly of nations. Today political forces of Oromiyaa are not well organized to enforce their nation’s rights but spontaneous people’s movements for liberation are fast rolling. Whether liberal Oromo or fundamentalist Habasha like it or not, the struggle for independence will never stop. OLF can stand only for independence as its program dictates and for nothing short of that as long as it remains OLF.

The following is UN resolution 3070 of 30, November 1973 for everyone to know:

The General Assembly ∙∙∙

1. Reaffirms the inalienable right of all people under colonial and foreign domination and alien subjugation to self-determination, freedom and independence in accordance with General Assembly resolutions 1514 (XV) of 14 December 1960, 2649 (XXV) of 30 November 1970 and 2787 (XXVI) of 6 December 1971;

2. Also reaffirms the legitimacy of the peoples’ struggle for liberation from colonial and foreign domination and alien subjugation by all available means, including armed struggle;

3. Calls upon all States, in conformity with the Charter of the United Nations and with relevant resolutions of the United Nations, to recognize the right of all peoples to self-determination and independence and to offer moral, material and any other assistance to all peoples struggling for the full exercise of their inalienable right to self-determination and independence;

Frightening the masses with the divine power of kings has already eclipsed. Then all the dirty policies of the kings were covered up under the saying “Kings make no mistake” and they were presented as fountains of justice with no flaws. Now with that myth broken leaders of the empire stand naked and their naked force exposed. They cannot distance themselves from implementation of their oppressive inhuman policies. Rule of law had never been a concern of Habasha rulers though there were traditional redress mechanisms in the ancient ones. The present ones have full control over all mechanism and it is only them that are judges for their actions. Therefore to save the Habasha from abuse of power, peoples of the colonies from dehumanization and extermination they have to go. To be ruled by rude gangsters is sin. Wayyaanee is on its way out soon forced by its own mistakes and corruption. But the question Oromo liberators have to answer is what next?

The cry of “terrorism” for Wayyaanee is one of the methods to get aid and attention from western countries in particular USA. But how long should the tax payer’s money prop a corrupt unsustainable dying system? The truth is there is no terrorism in Ethiopia except for the incumbent government itself. It is to hide its true terrorist nature and win appreciation when it kills and imprisons so many people for being terrorists. Actually they were not terrorists but Oromo; it is terrorizing them not to dare ask for justice. Under the pretext of fighting terrorism they fulfill their objective of keeping the Oromo nation under subjugation with the material and moral support they get. The vanguard political organization Oromo have, the OLF is branded terrorist to smear any dissenting Oromo voice as members of OLF and therefore “terrorist”!

Reports of human right organization had exposed the Ethiopian government of abusing its people in particular the Oromo. Oromo are law abiding peace loving people with democratic tradition. To which ever religion they might belong so far no extremism is observed among the Oromo. All believers understand their place and role within the Oromo national political setting. There Gadaa background seems never forgotten when it comes to maintain peace and conciliation (Nagaa and Araaraa). They were good fighters and good peace makers prior to all indoctrinations. Still they have the stamina to fight and to make peace but for freedom and independence of their country, Oromiyaa, not for “clash of civilization”. Unlike the Habashaa their civilization was known for accommodativeness. No religion or religious sect had ever been considered as second class citizen in Oromiyaa while religious segregation is obvious in Abyssinia from time immemorial as opposed to what they lecture to the world.

That has to be understood as not to be swayed by Wayyaanee smear campaign. The Oromo are victims of Wayyaanee terror not vis-versa. Oromiyaa is the country of the brave. The brave believe in fair play at any time. No violence should be used against the unarmed and there is no terrorizing the not aware innocent civilian. That is the skill Wayyaanee is trained for. That is what it is carrying out on the Oromo and crying of Oromo being “terrorists”. Oromo can be called terrorist only if resisting alien subjugation can be termed so. Be that what it may the Oromo will continue fighting with the occupation army of aliens until their right for national self-determination up to and including independence is realized.

Honor and glory for the fallen heroines and heroes; liberty equality and freedom for the living and nagaa and araaraa for the Ayyaanaa of our fore parents!

Ibsaa Guutama
December 2014

Fuudhaa alatt meshebbelaan Mootichaa fi Mootittii Saabaa irraa yeroo iseen biyya tahe gara kibbaatii isa daawwachuu dhufte akka ilmi dhalate dubbata. Mootittiin Saabaa moorota dhugeeffannoo Baha Gidduu malee moor seenaa biraan dhahuu, yookaan biyyisee bakka kam akka tahe kan agarsiisu hin jiru. Kanaafi kan Afrikaa fi Arabiyaanis keenya kan jedhaniin. Moorota dhugeeffannoo keessatt Mooticha Solomoon waliin sagaggaluu see haatahu ilma godhachuun see hin himamne. Kanaaf Minilik I galmistaana Kopti fedha mootummaa Habashaarratt dhiibbaa dhaabbataa gochuuf kan uume malee akka himameti kan hin jirre jedhanii hedduun amanuu. Maqaan saa jalqabaaf mooricha “Kibira Nagast” jedhame irratt qofa kan mullate. Egaa want naannaa saa fi naannaa haadha sa jiru hundi hooda irra deddeebi’amee dhaloota daftaroota Habashaan himamee dha.Hoodichi garee bulchituu Habashaa, soda gubbaa fi abootee sibiilan akka mo’an tajaajila bahe. Ummatichi nambiyyoota lubbuu ofii fi dantaa sabichaa irratt gonka mirga guutuu qaban hin turre. Gabbaarii gibiraa baaftuu fi bulchoota gaaffii malee tajaajiltu turan jechuu dha. Qeesoti, hoodichaa fi balaa yoo ciicatan gubbaa itt dhufuu dandahu sammuutt gad hudumuun yoo bulchoota,keessaayyuu mootichaa sarmuu didan cubbuu akka tahu sodachisaa turanii. Jaarra arfan darban keessa angoon mootii Habashaa nagaan tokko irraa kan biraatt darbee hin beeku. Moototi namoota mootii of godhaniin finqilchamu turan. Sodaa haaloo bahannaa gubbaa dhufuun,abba tokkoota xaranga’oo homaa hin sodaanneen malee sochiin ummataa bulchoota irratt godhaman hamma hin jirre turan. Sochooti 1960moota keessa Goojjam ture illee hammina Bulchaa Muumicha TSahaayuu Inqusillaasee irratt kan xiyyeeffate malee Mootii Moototaa hin laalu ture.Moottoti seenaa saanii hundaa kaasee hanga finqilchamuu Hayila Sillaaseett akka cittuuwaaq tahanitt ilaalamu turani dhumaa want halle morma nama gahuun ummattooti daba irratt finciluun cubbuu tahuu ciicachuutt kahan. Dur Qeesii muummichi Alaksandariyaa fincila sooka’uu yk ummata mootii amanamuu irraa hiikuu dandahu turani. Sana ture galmistanni kan Iyyaasuutt tolche; ummata amanama isaaf qabanirraa hiikeen. Mooticha isa dhumaa finqilchuuf gidduu seenuu qeesii hin barbaachifne ture; diddaa abba tokkee utuu hin tahin warraaqsa waan tureef qeesichi muummichuu dorsifamaa ture. Sunis tahee ulfinni ummati Habashaa kanneen aangoo irra jiranii qabu ammalee cichee jira. Hooda hamma lafeett seene waan taheef salphaatt hin haqamu.Waggooti sanaan dura geedarama hedduutu tahe. Saboota ofiin buloo hedduutu humnaan mootummaa Habashaatt dabalame. Sirna qabiyyee lafaa malee hamaan mootumma abbaa hirrumaa Habashaa akka jiruti kolonota irrati habaqalame. Tekinooloojii fi fedhi addunyaa dachaan guddachuu eegalan. Afrikaan koloneeffatoo halagaa gidduutt qircamte. Addunyaan lola waraan addunyaa lama godhe. Sanneen cunqurfamootii fi koloneefatamtooti addunyaa bilisummaa akka gaafatan jajjabeese. Haatahu malee ammayyuu dirree malbulchaa keessatt olantummaa abshaalota gurguddoo Habashaatu muldhata ture. Angoon ummata irraa ammallee fagoo jirtii. Utuu ummati Habashaa kan isaan dhugaan filatan qofa mallee eenyuu nun bulchu jedhanii ummatoota cunqurfamoota adduyaaf anjaa qaba ture. Haa tahu malee hamma isaan sana gochuu dandahanitt yk bulcha demokratawaa argachuuf lolatanitt eeguun jarri kaan bilisoomuuf hala duree tahuu hin dandahu. Finnaa demokratawe waliin waa’ee birmadummaa dhoofsisuun tuuta abbaa hirrootaa waliin gochuu irra salphata ture. Gaanfa Aftikaaf finnooti demokratawan jiraachuun misoomaa, walqayyabannoo godinaa fi bulcha akkaaf iggitii taha ture

Haala haaraan wal fudhachuu dadhabuun mootichi bakka gad dhiisuutu irra ture. Yoomallee jijjiirama taheef qooda guddaa kan gumaachan kolonoota tahan waan hin ijaaramneef aangoon isaanitt hin dabarre. Waraana biyya qabatee jirutu fudhatee gita haaraa itt naqee. Miseensoti gita dullachaa tokko tokko jijjiiramichaan mormuu yaalanii turani. Cunqurfamtooti loltuu waliin waan dhaabbataniif salphaatt macalaqfamuu dandahan. Abbaan lafaa hafan, salphaatti toora galfamanii akka sirna haaraaf kakuu seenan tolfaman. Bulchooti haaraan maddi aangoo gubbaa utuu hin tahin ummata jedhan. Garuu dhaadannoo haaraa “Itophiyaa tokko yk du’a” jedhu guddifachuun Dargiin empayeriif amanamaa akka tahe ummata Habashaaf mirkaneesse. Akkasitt hoodummaan durdurii Solomonawaa hanga tokko raawwate. Mootummaa haaraaf jala kaattuun saa bitaatt duufaa turan dhaalmaa saanii xaliila gochuun Maa’oo Zedongiin qiliwwisanii “Angoon malbulchaa afaan qawwee keessaa olbaha” jedhaa turan. Kan nafxanyaan durii qawwee fi qaxaamurroott dhimma bahe isaan kun afaan qawwee qofaan fedha saanii nama irratt fe’uuf deemu jechuu dha. Akeekuma kanatu hanga harraatt daddarbuun dhimma itt bahamaa jira.

Dargiin akkuma ofii dhufett afaan qawween dhiibamee aangoo irraa ari’ame. Kan bakka isaa bu’aniif akkuma angafa saanii digammii fi ulfummaan empayeraa kan hin dhoofisisamne jedhani. Kolonootaaf diigama saa gaditt gaaffii saaniif deebii tahuu kan dandahu hin jiru. Garuu imaammati fakkeessaa kan mirga ummataa beeku chartara keessa galfamee ture. Angoo hirmachuun durboota lamaan Amaaraa fi Tigraawaayi giduu dudhaan ture hin ulfeeffamne. Tigrayi bu’aa abba tokkootaa fi harcaatuu ummatichaaf argamuu dandahuuf samichatt kophaa bobbahe. Kaasaan mootota Habashaa finqlaachisaa ture ammayyuu deebii hin arganne. Dhabiisi waatattaa ummaticha biyya haadha, anjaa addaa Tigray dhabiisa jara kaaniin argateef malee ammayyuu itt fufa jiraa. Oromoo akkamiti durbii keenya irraa buufannaa irratt xiyyeefachuun gurguddoon Habashaa rakkina saba saaniitt ija duruufata jiru.

Waan kolonota ilaalu irratti qabeenyi saanii Tigraayiif jalcaasa akka commee margaa jiran, karaa, humna elektika, dhaabota fayyaa,humna ittisaa kkf ijaaruutt tattaafataa jira. Dhaaboti barumsaa hogganoota empayeraa egeree homishuuf adddatt kurfibarumsaa Tigray qofaaf dagaagaa jira jedhu. Kolonootaaf hagas waanti hojjetame hin jiru. Karoorri misa jalcaasaa nugusichaan diriire illee hin xumuramne. Moototi darban Xaliyanii dabalatee qabeenya fi tajaajila baafachuuf karaa ni ijaaru turanii. Sana keessaa hamma gahaa hin argatin malee Oromiyaan coccobduu hin dhabdu turte. Jarri si’anaa abbaan biyyaa iyyaatii fi gabaatt saaqaa salphaa akka hin arganneef homaa itt hin daballee. Hanga gabaa irratt dhuunfaa qabanitt gatiin hoomishaa akka cabu fi gatiin geejjibaa fi quunnamtii naannaa akka olkahu dirqisiisuu dandahu. Sun sochii qabeenyaa kolonotaa irratt humna dhuunfaa kennafi. Imaammati saamicha lafaa murnoota gomgomaa tahan horii lafarra oolchan eeggachuuf gara Wayyaanee goranii gadi qaba Oromiyaa fi olloota see dheeresuu ni gargaaru taha. Sunis sabooti bubbucuun tokko tokko kan durumaayyuu fittee irra jiran akka lafarra haqaman gochuu dandaha.

Moototi Habashaa goolii hin daangaa hin qabnneen ummata saanii gurmeessaa turan. biyyoota haaraa argachuun bokoka waggootiif keessaa turan hanga tokko afuura fudhachiisaniiru taha. Kan dandeettii qaamaa qaban saamicha koloneeffannaa keessatt akka qooda fudhatan carraan kennameefii ture. Bu’aa haaraa itt bahaniin, aangoo, lafa, dirree balla adamoo, bosona, bishaan, warqee fi qabeenya uumaa biraa fi hunda caalaa humna namaa tolaan basha’anii turan. Bulchootii fi jaleewwan saanii coraamaan masakamu malee beekumsa hin qaban turan. Lafi haaraan kan saanii tahee akka hafutt fudhatan malee deebi’anii firoota saanii ammayyuu “shuumata” xixxinnoo hacuucuucuunii dandahan harkatt dhiisanii bahan deebi’anii gadadoo saanii salphisuu hin yaadne. Abdii fi guddina sobaa addunyaa irratt argamsiisaniif laachuufii malee wanti dabalaniif hagas mara miti. Jarri sun Nafxanyaa digaloota jaarraa tookkoo oliif utuu hin facaasiin galfataa bahanii. Waanti saamichaan gurratan bar tokko abbaatt deebisuu akka dirqamuu dandahan takkaa sammuuti dhufee hin beeku. Gaafas bakka dhaqanii fi nammi itt dheessan akka hin jire beekuu. Kan saaman hundi bakka kuufatanii abbaa seerawaatt deebi’aa. Kana waan beekaniif yaaciin saa guyyaa tokko buluf gooltuu maraatuu tahuutt isaan oofaa jira.

Hoodicha gargar faca’aa jiru sadooti walitt suphuuf yaala jiru. Seenaa Kuush (Nubiyaa) durii Girikootaa fi moorota amantee Baha Gidduun dhahamee fi kan Habashaa dhiheenyaa walitt makuun ilaalcha addunyaa afanfajjeessuu barbaadu. Ammallee uumaan kolonummaa Itophiyaa innich dhugaan barreesota hin amanamne, malbulcheessoo fi malbeekotaan ukkaanfamaa jira. Itophiyaa akka waan “Hirmannaa Afrikaan” hin tuqamnee fi walabummaa see eegdee jiraatett himu. Garuu kan Itophiyaa kami akka jedhaa jiran hin himani. Yoo waa’ee Habashaa dubbatu tahe dhugaa tahuu dandaha. Habashaan “Hirmannaa Afriikaa” keessati qooda fudhatteetii. Kan kana haalu sammuu sanyeesituu qofa. Biyyooti bilisi Afar, Ogaadeeniyaa, Wala’ita, Sidaamaa, Kaficho, Oromiyaa fi biyyooti kibba biyya Habashaa jiran hundi gargaarsa miiltolee see koloneeffatoo biraatiin koloneeffatee turte. Yeroon seenaa godinichaa isa dhugaa kan Habashaas dabalatu barreessan ammaa. Dhugaan kun qaama qabattee harka duultu bilisummaa tahuu barbaachisa. Nammuu humna duubaa diinni hammma of wallaaldhalee donna fi bineensa tahuutt oofaa jiru baruu qaba. Amma empayerri Itophiyaa, ummata tokko kan biraaf jalee godhee tursuu waan hin dandeenyeef, kan inni tolu moor seenaa qofaafii.

Horeen Nafxanyaa jalqabaa Oromiyaa keessa jiran, miseensota hawaasichaa keessaa kan bashaan jiraachuu saaniin abbaa biyyaan irraa adda tahanii mullatan turanii. Lafaa fi waan inni baasu irratt abbaa turan. Qabeenyi, lafa irratt hundaawe sun labsa lafaa 1975n raawwate. Garuu hiddi handhuura saanii guutummaati Empayera irraa hin citne ture. Caalaan saanii cunqurfamoota labsichi dhufeef jedhaman caalaa amanamummaa qabu turan. Waliigalatt garuu warraaqsichaan hedduu rukutaman. Sun akka sana tahus finnaan kolonummaa maqaa fi ilaalcha jijjiirradhe jedhus balleessaa darbett kan gaafatamu isa malee horee Nafxanyaa kana miti. Badii tahe hundaaf aagii tufsiifatee kan dabe qajeelchuuf abbaawummaa isatu qaba. Horee Nafxanyaa yoo ni fedhu tahe Oromiyoo akka tahan nammi isaan haalu hin jiru. Garuu yoo isaan ammayyuu “kan abbooliin keenya dhiga itt lolaasanii, lafee saanii itt caccabsan” jedhanii dhaadatan tahe “madaa irratt soogidda dibuu” isa jedhan taha. Jara walqixxummaa fi qajeeltuuf dhaabbataniif garuu Oromiyaa walabaa fi bilisa irraa wanti sodaatan hin jiru. Oromiyaa keessatt waan dhalataniif hedduun saanii biyya biraa fi hariiroo wayyaa irratt hirkatan hin qabani. Oromiyaa walaba deggeruu haa tahu akka empayerri itt fufu, filachuun mirga saaaniiti. Yeroo rafan waan itt himamaa guddatanii fi waabariitt kan sammuu dhiqaman yoo laalamu halli jiru jijjiiramuun, walfaana akka Oromoon nama hin ciigaane waan itt hin himamneef sodaachisaa tahu dandaha. Jireenya saanii guutuu Oromoo namummaa baafame fi birdhataa malee isa dhugaa hin agarre. Inni dhugaa haaloof kan sardamu mitii, garuu jannaa fi garalaafessa; nagaa buusuun qooda jannaa fi ijoollee warra abbaa gadaati.

Kan qayyabatamuu qabu wareegammi cunqurfamooti godhan kan biraa darbanii cunqursuuf akka hin taane. Oromiyoo hundaaf, utuu lammii fi gocha darban hin laalin, nagaa, birmadummaa fi gammachuu argamsiisuufii. Horeen Nafxanyaa eegalaa wanti bitaa fi mirgaa itt afuufamaa jiru seenaa sobaa fi yoo kolonoti bilisa bahan waan hamaa irra gahuu dandahani. Kun holola kanneen dubbiin suduudaan hin tuqnee burjaajiin yoo dhalate keessaa waa arganaa lata jedhaniin jajjabaatee oofamaa jira. Qabsoon bilisummaa lammummaa irratt kan hundaawe utuu hin tahin gaaffii gadi qabaa halagaa jalaa bilisoomuu , qajeeltuu, birmadummaa fi walqixxummaati. Horeen Nafxanyaa akkuma Oromiyoo hundaa balleessaa ofiif malee kan abboolii saaniif hin gaafatamani. Waan lammumaa horee Nafxanyaa jalqabaa ilaalu irratt caalaa saaniif hooda abbooliin saanii Gondorii haa tahu Oromiyaa madaqfamanis Amaraa akka tahan fudhachiifamanii. Itt yaadamee Amaaraa fi Kiristinnaan Ortodoxii tokko jedhame. Nafxanyaa Oromoo fi Moslima fi Waaqeffannaa Oromoo abbaa biyyaa gargar baaasuuf inn nafxanyaan akka itt cuubamee, jara kaan ciigahu tahe. Gaaffiin Oromoo sanyeessaa tahuu fi dhiisuu saa yoo Habashaa dhugaa tahanillee utuu soda haxaawa lammiin hin baaragin ofumaa mirkaneeffchuu qabu.

Sana malee murna Oromoon Afrikaa keessaa lafa hinqabu jedhanitt makamuun eenyummaa ofii haaluu yk of jibbuu taha. Sanatt dabalee Minilik II illee an “Mootii Habashaa fi Biyyoota Oromoo” ti ofiin jedhe dhara jechuu taha. Nafxanyaa duraa dilormaa Oromoo walakaa ol, moo’umma, aadaa, afaan, eenyummaa sabummaa, fi dudhaa saanii garalaafina tokko malee mancaase. Sun hundi seenaaf yaadatamu malee dhaloota abbaawummaa itt hin qabne tuquuf miti. Haatahu maleehala amma jiru keessatt eenyuu kan hamajaajummaa sanaan itt fufee ummata kolonichaaf tuffii agarsiisu gocha yakka deggeruu saaf abbaawummaa fudhachuu jalaa hin bahu.

Seeraan bulummaa, demokraasii fi birmadummaan uumamu malee godinicha keessatt nagaa fi tasgabiin hin jiraatuu. Koloneeffataan nagaa fi tasgabii naannichaa irraa bu’aa argatu hin qabu. Seeraan bulummaa, demokraasii fi tasgabin qabeenya kolonootaatt saaqaa addaa hin kennuufi. kanaaf mirga hiree sabummaa ofii ofiin muteeffachuu kolonootaa kan walabummaa dabalatu, mirga demokraatawaa tahe, hin fudhatu. Kana irratt dabalee kanneen mirga ilmaan namaatt yeroo tahitaa irra jiran roorrisan dheekkamsa qajeeltuutt isaan saaxilaa. Kanaaf fedhaan tahitaa gaddhiisuun saanii waan hin yaadamne. Qabsaawoti marsaa hundatt daddaaquun furmaata hin tahuu; ejjennoo sirrii fudhachuu qofatu baasaa. Mirgi ilmaan namaa kan eenyuu namaa kennu utuu hin tahin Yaa’ii Addunyaan kan beekamee. Hardha humni Oromoo mirga sabaa kabachiisuuf jabaatee hin ijaaramne haa tahu malee sochiin walabummaa ummati godhu tasaawaan, ariitiin konkolaataa jira. Oromoo waahidhibnee hataatuu bu’uursituun Habashaa, jaallatee dhiiftee qabsoon walabummaa hin dhaabbatu. ABOn akka sagantaan saa ajajutt ABO tahee itt fufuuf walabummaa qofaaf ijaajjuu malee sanaa gaditt waanti tahu hin jiru.

Kan itt haanu akka hundi beekuuf murtoo ST (UN) 3070 30, Sadaasaa 1973tii: (furaan afaanii kan kanati)

Yaa’iin idilee ∙∙∙

1.Keessa deebi’ee mirga ummata kolonummaa fi olhantummaa halagaa jala jiran hin tuqamne kan hiree murteeffachuu, birmadummaa fi walabummaa akka murtoo Yaa’ii Idilee 1514 (XV) 14, Muddee 1960, 2649(XXV) 30, Sadaasa 1970 fi 2787 (XXVI) 6 Mudde 1971;

2. Akkasumas seerawummaa qabsoon ummatootaa bilisummaa kolonummaa fi olhantummaa biyya alaa fi gadiqaba halagaa jalaa bahuuf karaa jiru hundaan qabsoo hidhannoo dabalachuun tolchan keessa deebinee mirkaneessina:

3. Akka Chartera Saboota Tokkoomanii fi Konvenshinoota Saboota Tokkoomanii dubbiin laalutt mirga ummatooti hundii hiree saanii murteeffachuu fi walabummaaf qabanii fi gargaarsa jajjabeessaa, waatattaa fi gargaarsa biraa ummataa shakala guutu mirga saanii hin tuqamne kan hiree murteeffachuu fi walabummaaf qabsaawaa jiranii hundaaf akka godhan finnoota hundaaf waamicha goonaaf:

Ummatoota humna hoodaa moototaan sodaachisuun qaata dukkanaawe. Yeros imaammatooti moototaa xuraawoo hundi jecha “Moototi homaa hin balleessan” jedhuun golgamuun akka waan isaan burqaa qajeeltuu dogoggora hin qabneett dhiheefamu turan. Amma hoodi sun cabee hogganooti empayeritt olgaa dhaabbachuun humnni saanii qullaa tahe saaxilamaa jira. Imaammatoota saanii cunqursoo tahan hojii irra oolchuu irraa of fageessuu hin dandahanii. Mootota Habashaa duriif, dudhaan karaan itt waan tokko tokko qajeelfatan yoo jiraateyyuu, seeraan bulmaati dhimma saanii tahee hin beeku. Jarri ammaa karaa halle too’annaa jala oolfatanii waan jiraniif gocha saaniif isaanumatu abbaa dhaddachaati. Kanaaf Habashaa roorroo angoo irraa baraaruu fi ummatoota kolonii namummaa baafamuu fi badiisa irraa oolchuuf jarri baduu qabu. Tuuti addagee biyya bulchuun cubbuu dha. Wayyaaneen ulfina dabaanbulummaa ofiin dhihoo karaa bahaa qabata. Garuu gaaffiin bilisa baaftoti Oromiyaa deebisuu qaban itt haaneewoo kan jedhu?

Iyyi “Goolii” Wayyaaneef mala ittiin jara dhihaa keessaayyuu US irraa gargaarsaa fi hubannoo itt argatuu. Dhugaan saa isuma mootummaarra jiru malee, gooltuun biraa empayera Itophiyaa keessa hin jirtuu. Uumaa saa isa dhugaa dhossee shororkeessituu dha jedhee yeroo inni nama lakkoofsa hin qabne hidhuu fi ajjeesu mararfannoo akka kennaniif barbaada. Garuu jarri gooltuu utuu hin tahin Oromoo dha; mataa ol qabatanii akka hin deemnee fi ugganii qajeeltuu akka hin gaafanneef goolaani. Gargaarsa jajjabeesaa fi waatattaa argataniin akeeka ofii Oromoo gadqabaa jala jiraachisuu fiixaan baafachuuf imaammata gooltuu loluu jala gugatanii bobba’aa jiru. Sagalee Oromoo hin sarmineef faaluuf dhaaba malbulchaa Kallacha qabsoosaa tahe gooltuutt moggaase.

Gabaasii dhaboota mirga ilmaan namaa mootummaan Itophiyaa akka ummata ofiitt, keessaayyuu Oromoott roorrisu saxilaa jiru. Oromoon ummata seeraan buloo, nagaa jaallatoo fi dudhaa demokraasii qabanii. Dhugeeffannoo kamuu haa qabaatanii hanga yoonaa karisummaan Oromoo keessatt hin muldhannee. Yeroo nagaa fi araaratt dhufu duubbeen saanii Gadaa kan irraanfatame hin fakkaatuu. Amantooti hundi marsaa malbulcha sabichaa keessatt bakkaa fi qooda ofii beeku. Yaada cichaa hunda jala seenuu dura loltuu fi naga buusoo beekamoo turani. Ammallee “walitt bu’a qaroomaa”f utuu hin tahin, birmadummaa fi walabummaa biyya saanii, Oromiyaaf annisaa lolaa fi nagaa buusuu qabu. Qaroommi saanii hunda hammataa tahuun beekama. Miseensi amantee yk murna amantee kamuu Oromiyaa keessatt takkaa akka nambiyyoota sadakaa lammafaatt ilaalamanii hin beekanii; Habashaa keessatt garuu akka addunyaatt hodeessan utuu hin tahin yeroo hin beekamnee kaasee ciiga’amnii ifaa dhaa.

Duula maqaa faalaa wayyaaneen utuu hin raafamin sun qayyabatamuu qaba. Oromoon gaaga’amtoota Wayyaaneeti malee cookkoo saa miti. Oromiyaan biyya goototaati. Gooti yoomuu tapha walgitu fedha. Jeequmsi kan hin hidhannee fi noola qubaa hin qabne irratt raawwatamuu hin qabu. Sun ogummaa Wayyaaneen ittii leenjifame. Sana kan inni Oromoo irratt gochaa Oromoon gooltuu dha jedhee caraanuu. Oromoon gooltuu dha jedhamuu kan dandahu yoo gadqaba halagaa ofirraa faccisuun sana jedhame qofa. Sun waan fedhe haa tahu Oromoon waraana halagaa irra buufatee jiru loluu hanga mirgi hiree ofii murteeffachuu hojiirra ooluufitt itt fufa.

Ulfinaa fi surraan dabaankufootaaf; walabummaa, walqixxummaa fi bilisummaan kan hafaniif; nagaa fi araarri Ayyaana abboolii fi ayyoliif haa tahu!

Ibsaa Guutama
Muddee  2014 

Source: http://ayyaantuu.com/horn-of-africa-news/oromia/habasha-myth-and-peoples-liberation-hooda-habashaa-fi-bilisummaa-ummataa/