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Oromia: OSGA highlights human rights issues with the United Nations October 30, 2015

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Oromia Support Group Australia (OSGA) has voiced its concerns about the plight of Oromo refugees with the United Nation’s key refugee agency, the UNHCR.

This is the second time that OSGA has had the opportunity to submit a report for the UNHCR’s consideration; its first submission was made last year.

The organisation, which is one of Diaspora Action Australia’s diaspora partners, raises awareness of human rights issues affecting the Oromo and other oppressed people in Ethiopia. It advocates against abuses and violations and supports displaced people and refugees from Ethiopia. One of OSGA’s ongoing projects is to collect and publicise human rights abuses by recording people’s stories.

OSGA was one of several Australian-based organisation to make written and verbal submissions to the Refugee Council of Australia (RCOA), which presented the information at the UNHCR- NGO (Non Government Organisation) Consultations in Geneva in June.

RCOA delegates raised the issues in meetings with senior UNHCR representatives, including the Africa, Middle East and North Africa bureaux, and senior officers for the Horn of Africa, Yemen and Kenya.

Marama Kufi from OSGA said their report focused on the experiences of Oromo people who are seeking refuge in Horn of Africa countries.

He said security measures in refugee camps and personal safety were a major concern as there have been reports of physical attacks, harassment and kidnapping. There were also reports of asylum seekers being forcibly returned to Oromia.

Marama explained that OSGA gathered information and first-hand accounts from its network of contacts who are located in surrounding countries. OSGA compiled 87 detailed accounts of abuse and harassment, which were used to inform the report, he said.

http://diasporaaction.org.au/blogs/osga-highlights-human-rights-issues-united-nations

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Africa’s middle class is dramatically smaller than we think October 30, 2015

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It is puzzling that Africa’s middle class remains small when wealth on the continent has grown quickly, more than doubling over the past 15 years to some $1.63 trillion. One reason is that Africa’s growth has not been distributed evenly—the continent’s richest, 0.2% of the population, control over 30% of the region’s wealth.

Source: Africa’s middle class is dramatically smaller than we think

Oromo refugee stranded on a boat in the Mediterranean October 30, 2015

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A refugee from Ethiopia stranded on a boat in the Mediterranean

(ICMC News, Geneva, 23 October 2015 – Abu Kurke Kabeto is a young man from the Oromo region of Ethiopia. He currently lives in the Netherlands with his wife and his two years-old child. When you look at him, the first thing that immediately strikes you is his friendly smile and his positive attitude. You would never imagine what he has gone through in his life.

abu-kurke-kabeto

Escaping from discrimination and repression against Oromo people in his country, Abu Kurke left Ethiopia in 2008 and went to Sudan. Through the Sahara desert he then reached Libya in 2009. From there, he made various attempts to cross the Mediterranean in search of a better life in Europe. In 2010, he embarked on a rubber boat and made it to Lampedusa, Italy. However, the boat was pushed back to Libya by the Italian authorities. He ended up spending 8 months in prison in Libya.

In March 2011, he found himself again on a dinghy boat that attempted the sea crossing from Libya to Lampedusa with 72 migrants on board. After 19 hours at sea, the boat started running low on fuel, and people were beginning to feel anxious. They called Father Mussie Zerai, an Eritrean priest based in Europe, asking for help. After receiving the distress call, Father Zerai immediately alerted the Italian coast guard and NATO command in Naples. The Italian coast guard sent out an alert to all vessels in the area, asking for intervention.

The captain of the migrants’ boat suddenly received a call from the Italian authorities, who were asking for the GPS coordinates. Shortly after the call, the phone battery of the captain ran out. To make things worse, the boat completely ran out of petrol.

Abu recalls: “On the second day, the sea was getting very rough. That night two helicopters approached our boat. We saw them flying above us. We clearly recognized the word ‘Army’ written in English on one of them. Three white soldiers were on board. We thought we would be saved. But instead of rescuing us, the soldiers dropped water and some biscuits towards us. There were 72 people on the boat and, within three minutes, there was no water and no biscuits left.

We were communicating with them with our hands, as the noise of the helicopters was very loud. We showed them the two babies we had on board, and urged them to take them. But they said they couldn’t and they would come back later. We insisted, please please please, take the babies! They went away, and we never saw them again.

Three days later, two jet fighters came close to the boat. They went around us two times, the military officials took even pictures of us. In the meantime, the babies had died. We showed them their bodies, but they didn’t do anything. They went away.”

With no petrol left, no phone battery, the migrants were stranded in the middle of the Mediterranean for two weeks. Abu explains that people were going crazy. Some migrants jumped in the ocean, in despair. He started eating toothpaste in order to have the feeling to have something in his mouth. “Toothpaste is good food during these tough times” the captain said to Abu. Abu was badly suffering from an eye infection due to a sunburn. “When I ate the toothpaste, my eyes suddenly opened again”.

“It was horrible to see so many people dying in front of me, and not being able to do anything. But the worst thing was to hear the babies crying for so long and not being able to give them food, and eventually see them dying. Even today, I can’t forget the babies crying for food”.

Two weeks later the boat reached the coast. “We thought we were arriving in Italy and would finally be in Europe, but then we saw the Libyan sea flag and we realized that the boat had been drifted back to where it had started. We were back to Libya.” Abu and the other 9 survivors were very weak and needed medical care. “But instead of providing us access to medical facilities, they put us in prison”.

“Finally, it was the Catholic Church in Libya which provided us with medical care, as soon as we had been released from prison”. From Libya, he attempted the crossing again in July 2011 on a fishing boat, together with his wife. They finally made it to Lampedusa. From there, they reached the Netherlands, but were eventually arrested because of their double asylum requests in the European Union. Following the Dublin Regulation procedure, the Dutch authorities sent them back to Italy. Finally, thanks to the personal help of a Dutch Parliamentarian, Abu and his wife were finally able to get refugee status in the Netherlands.

Abu’s wife gave birth to their son in the Netherlands. Currently, the family receives a modest contribution from the government for accommodation, food, and education. Abu takes classes to learn Dutch and goes to college with the aim of getting a diploma in logistics. His wife took up training to become a nurse.

“Today, as I see many more people going through the same experience – like little Aylan Kurdi who was found dead on a beach in Turkey – my heart is broken. I feel very sad about what is still happening. The international community can do something to stop this situation. There is a solution: world leaders must remove dictators and ensure that people have rights in their countries, so that they are not forced to leave.”

 

Video

Watch the video of Abu Kurke Kabeto as he tells his story during the Global Forum on Migration and Development, held in Turkey from 12 to 16 October 2015.

Freedom House Country Report: Ethiopia’s Freedom on the Net 2015 Status: Not Free October 28, 2015

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???????????Ethiopia's net freedom in 2015 status, not free
Ethiopia: Freedom on the Net 2015 (Not Free)
STATUS:
NOT FREE
TOTAL SCORE:  82
(0 = Best, 100 = Worst)
OBSTACLES TO ACCESS:  23
(0 = Best, 25 = Worst)
LIMITS ON CONTENT:  28
(0 = Best, 35 = Worst)
VIOLATIONS OF USER RIGHTS:  31
(0 = Best, 40 = Worst)

82
Freedom on the Net Score
(0=BEST, 100=WORST)
↑ = Score improvement
↓ = Score decline

Quick Facts

Population:
Internet Penetration: 2.9 percent
Social Media/ICT Apps Blocked: Yes
Political/Social Content Blocked: Yes
Bloggers/ICT Users Arrested: Yes
Press Freedom Status: Not Free
Key Developments:

JUNE 2014—MAY 2015

  • A significant number of service interruptions in the name of routine maintenance and system updates resulted in worsening service across the country. Internet services on 3G mobile internet networks were reportedly unavailable for more than a month in July and August 2014 (see Restrictions on Connectivity).
  • A growing number of critical news and opposition websites were blocked in the lead up to the May 2015 elections (see Blocking and Filtering).
  • Six bloggers of the prominent Zone 9 blogging collective arrested in April 2014 were officially charged with terrorism in July 2014; two of the bloggers were unexpectedly released and acquitted in July 2015, joined by the four others in October (seeProsecutions and Arrests).
  • A university political science teacher known for his Facebook activism and another blogger were arrested and charged with terrorism in July 2014, among three others (see Prosecutions and Arrests).
  • Online journalists in the Ethiopian diaspora were attacked with Hacking Team’s sophisticated surveillance malware (seeTechnical Attacks).
Introduction:

Ethiopia, the second most populated country in sub-Saharan Africa, has one of the lowest rates of internet and mobile phone connectivity in the world. Telecommunication services, in general, and the internet, in particular, are among the most unaffordable commodities for the majority of Ethiopians, as poor telecom infrastructure, the government’s monopoly over the information and communication technologies (ICTs) sector, and obstructive telecom policies have significantly hindered the growth of ICTs in the country, making the cost of access prohibitively expensive.

Despite the country’s extremely poor telecommunications services and a largely disconnected population, Ethiopia is also known as one of the first African countries to censor the internet, beginning in 2006 with opposition blogs.[1] Since then, internet censorship has become pervasive and systematic through the use of highly sophisticated tools that block and filter internet content and monitor user activity. The majority of blocked websites feature critical news and opposition viewpoints run by individuals and organizations based in the diaspora. In the lead up to the May 2015 general elections, a growing number of critical news and opposition websites were blocked, while select tools, such as Storify and a popular URL shortening tool Bitly, remained blocked throughout the year. The government also employs commentators and trolls to proactively manipulate the online news and information landscape, and surveillance of mobile phone and internet networks is systematic and widespread.

In 2014–15, the Ethiopian authorities increased their crackdown on bloggers and online journalists, using the country’s harsh laws to prosecute individuals for their online activities and quash critical voices. The Zone 9 bloggers arrested in April 2014 were charged with terrorism in July 2014 and subsequently subjected to a series of sham trials through mid-2015. In July 2015, two of the imprisoned Zone 9 bloggers were unexpectedly released and acquitted of all charges, which observers attributed to U.S. President Barack Obama’s official visit to the country later that month. The four remaining Zone 9 bloggers were acquitted in October. Nevertheless, five other critical voices and bloggers who were arrested in July 2014 and charged with terrorism remain in prison. During the numerous Zone 9 trials throughout 2014–2015, several supporters were temporarily arrested for posting updates and pictures of their trials on social media via mobile devices.

Obstacles to Access:

A significant number of service interruptions in the name of routine maintenance and system updates resulted in worsening service across the country. Internet services on 3G mobile internet networks were reportedly unavailable for more than a month in July and August 2014.

Availability and Ease of Access

In 2015, access to ICTs in Ethiopia remained extremely limited, hampered by slow speeds and the state’s tight grip on the telecom sector.[2] According to the International Telecommunications Union (ITU), internet penetration stood at a mere 3 percent in 2014, up from just 2 percent in 2013.[3] Only 0.5 percent of the population had access to fixed-broadband connections, increasing from 0.25 percent in 2013.[4] Ethiopians had more access to mobile phone services, with mobile phone penetration rates increasing from 27 percent in 2013 to 32 percent in 2014,[5] though such access rates still lag behind an estimated regional average of 74 percent,[6] and cell phone ownership is much more common in urban areas than rural areas. Meanwhile, less than 5 percent of the population has a mobile-broadband subscription as of the latest available data from 2013.[7] In March 2015, Ethiopia’s single telecoms provider, the state-owned EthioTelecom, announced it had launched 4GLTE mobile technology in the capital Addis Ababa,[8] but the service is reportedly only available to a mere 400,000 subscribers.[9]  Radio remains the principal mass medium through which most Ethiopians stay informed.

While access to the internet via mobile phones increased slightly in the past year, prohibitively expensive mobile data packages still posed a significant financial obstacle for the majority of the population in Ethiopia, where per capita income stood at US$470 as of the latest available data from 2013.[10] Ethiopia’s telecom market is highly undeveloped due to monopolistic control, providing customers with few options at arbitrary prices, which are set by the state-controlled EthioTelecom and kept artificially high.[11] As of mid-2015, monthly packages cost between ETB 200 and 3,000 (US$10 to $150) for 1 to 30 GB of 3G mobile services.

The combined cost of purchasing a computer, setting up an internet connection, and paying usage charges makes internet access beyond the reach of most Ethiopians. Consequently, only 2 percent of Ethiopian households have fixed-line internet access in their homes.[12] While access via mobile internet is increasing, the majority of internet users still rely on cybercafes to log online. A typical internet user in Addis Ababa pays between ETB 5 and 7 (US$0.25 to $0.35) for an hour of access. Because of the scarcity of internet cafes outside urban areas, however, rates in rural cybercafes are more expensive.

For the few Ethiopians who can access the internet, connection speeds are known to be painstakingly slow and have not improved in years, despite rapid improvements everywhere else around the world.  Logging into an email account and opening a single message can still take as long as six minutes at a standard cybercafe with broadband in the capital city—the same rate reported over the past few years—while attaching documents or images to an email can take as long as eight minutes or more.[13] According to May 2015 data from Akamai’s “State of the Internet” report, Ethiopia has an average connection speed of 1.8 Mbps (compared to a global average of 3.9 Mbps).[14]

Despite reports of massive investments from Chinese telecom companies in recent years,[15] Ethiopia’s telecommunications infrastructure is among the least developed in Africa and is almost entirely absent from rural areas, where about 85 percent of the population resides. There are only a few signal stations across the country, resulting in frequent network congestions and disconnections, even on state controlled media.[16] Consequently, many people often use their cell phones as music players or cameras. In a typical small town of Ethiopia, individuals often hike to the top of their nearest hills to access a signal for a mobile phone call. Frequent electricity outages also contribute to poor telecom services.

Restrictions on Connectivity

The Ethiopian government’s complete control over the country’s telecommunications infrastructure via EthioTelecom enables it to restrict access to the internet and mobile phone services. Ethiopia is connected to the international internet via satellite, a fiber-optic cable that passes through Sudan and connects to its international gateway, and the SEACOM cable that connects through Djibouti to an international undersea cable. All connections to the international internet are completely centralized via EthioTelecom, enabling the government to cut off the internet at will. As a result, the internet research company Renesys classified Ethiopia “as being at severe risk of Internet disconnection,” alongside Syria, Uzbekistan, and Yemen in a February 2014 assessment.[17]

There were a significant number of service interruptions throughout the year in the name of routine maintenance of network infrastructure and system updates across the country, resulting in worsening service. Numerous users reported extremely slow internet and text messaging speeds during the coverage period, and internet services on EVDO and CDMA networks were reportedly unavailable for more than a month in July and August 2014.[18]

In a sample test conducted in March 2015 to measure the frequency and pervasiveness of mobile network interruptions, 40 to 60 percent of phone calls dropped in the middle of conversation.[19]Nearly 70 percent of the time, testers needed to make prolonged and repeated attempts for their calls to go through. Text messaging services were also found to be extremely poor and slow. The same sample test found that it took an average of six minutes to send a text message to ten individuals, while replies varied from one to six minutes. Approximately 30 percent of text messages were not delivered to the intended recipient at all. The test further found that 60 percent of mobile phone users frequently ran out of their prepaid mobile data allowances prematurely.

ICT Market

The space for independent initiatives in the ICT sector, entrepreneurial or otherwise, is extremely limited,[20] with state-owned EthioTelecom holding a firm monopoly over internet and mobile phone services as the country’s sole telecommunications service provider. Despite repeated international pressure to liberalize telecommunications in Ethiopia, the government refuses to ease its grip on the sector.[21]

China is a key investor in Ethiopia’s telecommunications industry,[22] with Zhongxing Telecommunication Corporation (ZTE) and Huawei currently serving as contractors to upgrade broadband networks to 4G in Addis Ababa and to expand 3G across the country.[23] The partnership has enabled Ethiopia’s authoritarian leaders to maintain their hold over the telecom sector,[24] though the networks built by the Chinese firms have been criticized for their high cost and poor service.[25] Furthermore, the contracts have led to increasing fears that the Chinese may also be assisting the authorities in developing more robust ICT censorship and surveillance capacities.[26] In December 2014, the Swedish telecom group Ericsson emerged as the latest partner to improve and repair the quality of Ethiopia’s mobile network infrastructure,[27] though China’s ZTE still maintains the lion’s share of the telecom infrastructure investment sector.

Meanwhile, onerous government regulations stymie other aspects of the Ethiopian ICT market. For one, imported ICT items are tariffed at the same heavy rate as luxury items, unlike other imported goods such as construction materials and heavy duty machinery, which are given duty-free import privileges to encourage investments in infrastructure.[28] Ethiopians are required register their laptops and tablets at the airport with the Ethiopian customs authority before they travel out of the country, ostensibly to prevent individuals from illegally importing electronic devices, though observers believe the requirement is an effort to keep tabs on the ICT activities of Ethiopian citizens.[29]

Local software companies in the country have also suffered from heavy-handed government regulations, which do not have fair, open, or transparent ways of evaluating and awarding bids for new software projects.[30] Government companies are given priority for every kind of project, while smaller entrepreneurial software companies are completely overlooked, leaving few opportunities for local technology companies to thrive.

Meanwhile, cybercafes are subject to onerous operating requirements under the 2002 Telecommunications (Amendment) Proclamation,[31] which requires cybercafe owners to obtain an operating license with EthioTelecom via a murky process that can take months. In the past few years, EthioTelecom began enforcing its licensing requirements more strictly in response to the increasing spread of cybercafes, reportedly penalizing Muslim cafe owners more harshly. Violations of the stringent requirements, such as a prohibition on providing Voice-over-IP (VoIP) services, entail criminal liability, though there have been no reported violations to date.[32]

Regulatory Bodies

Since the emergence of the internet in Ethiopia, the Ethiopian Telecommunications Agency (ETA) has been the primary regulatory body overseeing the telecommunications sector. In practice, executives in the government have complete control over ICT policy and sector regulation.[33] The Information Network Security Agency (INSA), a government agency established in 2011 and controlled by individuals with strong ties to the ruling regime,[34] also has significant power in regulating the internet under the mandate of protecting the country’s communications infrastructure and preventing cybercrimes in the country.

Limits on Content:

Dozens of critical news and opposition websites and blogs were blocked as the country prepared for the general elections in May 2015. Over 100 websites remained blocked overall. The activities of progovernment commentators noticeably increased during the coverage period.

Blocking and Filtering

The Ethiopian government imposes nationwide, politically motivated internet blocking and filtering that tends to tighten ahead of sensitive political events. The majority of blocked websites are those that feature opposition or critical content run by individuals or organizations based in the country or the diaspora. The government’s approach to internet filtering generally entails hindering access to a list of specific internet protocol (IP) addresses or domain names at the level of the EthioTelecom-controlled international gateway. Deep-packet inspection (DPI) is also employed, which blocks websites based on a keyword in the content of a website or piece of communication (such as email).[35]

During the coverage period, over one hundred websites remained inaccessible in Ethiopia.[36] Blocked sites included Ethiopian news websites, political party websites, blogs, television and online radio websites, and the websites of international digital rights organizations, such as the Electronic Frontier Foundation and Tactical Technology Collective. Select tools such as text messaging apps and services on Google’s Android operating system on smartphones were inaccessible at irregular intervals but for unclear reasons.

Online censorship intensified as the country prepared for the May 2015 general elections, with new blocks on dozens of social media pages, blogs, and diaspora-based opposition websites that were created to report on the general election.[37] A diaspora-operated website called AddisVoice, which published a series of critical articles about the educational qualifications of government officials, was a top target for blocking in 2014-2015.[38] International news outlets were also targeted. In June 2014, the Ethiopian authorities were accused of jamming the satellite operations of the BBC, Deutsche Welle, France 24, and the Voice of America, blocking a few of the stations’ websites as well.[39] Al Arabiya, a Saudi Arabia-based media outlet, and Al Jazeera’s Arabic and English websites were intermittently blocked throughout the coverage period.[40]

Blogs are also a prime target for blocking. In 2007, the government instituted a blanket block on the domain names of two popular blog-hosting websites, Blogspot and Nazret, though the authorities have since become more sophisticated in their censorship techniques, now blocking select pages such as the Zone9 independent blog hosted on Blogspot,[41] as opposed to the entire blogging platform. Nazret, however, remained completely blocked as of June 2015.

Facebook and Twitter platforms were otherwise generally accessible, although some individual Facebook groups belonging to opposition individuals remained blocked altogether when accessed via the unencrypted (HTTP) URL pathway. However, the social media curation tool Storify—first blocked in July 2012[42]—remained blocked during the coverage period,[43] in addition to the URL shortening tool Bit.ly.[44] Circumvention tools are also blocked, including Tor—an online tool that enables users to browse anonymously—which has been blocked since May 2012.[45]According to an independent source, key terms such as “proxy” yield no search results on unencrypted search engines,[46] reflecting the government’s efforts to limit users’ access to circumvention tools and strategies.

Some restrictions are also placed on mobile phones, such as the requirement for a text message to obtain prior approval from EthioTelecom if it is to be sent to more than ten recipients.[47] A bulk text message sent without prior approval is automatically blocked, irrespective of the content of the message.

There are no procedures for determining which websites are blocked or why, precluding any avenues for appeal. There are no published lists of blocked websites or publicly available criteria for how such decisions are made, and users are met with an error message when trying to access blocked content. This lack of transparency is exacerbated by the government’s continued denial of its censorship efforts. Meanwhile, the decision-making process does not appear to be controlled by a single entity, as various government bodies—including the Information Network Security Agency (INSA), EthioTelecom, and the ICT ministry—seem to be implementing their own lists, contributing to a phenomenon of inconsistent blocking. Government officials flatly deny the blocking of websites or jamming of international satellite operations while also stating that the government has a legal and a moral responsibility to protect the Ethiopian public from extremist content.

Content Removal

In addition to increasing blocks of online content, politically objectionable content is often targeted for removal, often by way of threats from security officials who personally seek out users and bloggers to instruct them to take down certain content, particularly critical content on Facebook. The growing practice suggests that at least some voices within Ethiopia’s small online community are being closely monitored. For instance, during the various legal proceedings of the Zone 9 bloggers throughout 2014-2015 (see “Prosecutions”), friends and reporters who posted pictures and stories of the trials on social media were briefly detained and asked to remove them.[48]

Media, Diversity, and Content Manipulation

Lack of adequate funding is a significant challenge for independent online media in Ethiopia, as fear of government pressure dissuades local businesses from advertising with politically critical websites. A 2012 Advertising Proclamation also prohibits advertisements from firms “whose capital is shared by foreign nationals.”[49] Launching a website on the local .et domain is expensive and onerous,[50] requiring a business license from the Ministry of Trade and Industry and a permit from an authorized body.[51]  While the domestic Ethiopian blogosphere has been expanding, most blogs are hosted on international platforms by diaspora community members.

Despite extremely low levels of internet access, the authorities employ progovernment commentators and trolls to manipulate the online news and information landscape. There was a noticeable increase in the number of progovernment commentators in the last few years, as confirmed in a June 2014 report by the Ethiopian Satellite Television Service (ESAT) that detailed the government’s efforts to recruit and train progovernment citizens to attack politically objectionable content online. According to the ESAT report, hundreds of bloggers reporting directly to government officials had been trained on how to post progovernment comments and criticize antigovernment articles on social media platforms.[52]

Meanwhile, increasing repression against journalists and bloggers has had a major chilling effect on expression online, particularly following the arrest of the Zone 9 bloggers in April 2014 and their ongoing trials throughout 2014-2015 (see “Prosecutions”). Fear of pervasive surveillance has also led to widespread self-censorship, and many bloggers publish anonymously to avoid reprisals.[53] Local newspapers and web outlets receive their independent news and information from regime critics and opposition organizations in the diaspora, and few Ethiopian journalists work for either domestic print media or overseas online outlets due to the threat of repercussions.

Digital Activism

Despite very low internet penetration in the country, tech-savvy Ethiopians are increasingly using social media for campaigning and social activism. Digital activism was particularly pronounced and widespread following the arrest of six Zone 9 bloggers and three journalists for their alleged affiliation with the Zone 9 collective (see “Violations of User Rights”). Ethiopian bloggers and social media users flocked online to spread the #FreeZone9Bloggers hashtag in a campaign that quickly swept across the social media sphere and garnered widespread support from around the world throughout 2014-2015. In the first five days of the campaign, the #FreeZone9Bloggers hashtag was tweeted more than 8,000 times.[54]While the international campaign elicited no official response from the government, sustained digital activism throughout the year continually informed the international community of the Zone 9 case, pushing high level diplomats to condemn the Ethiopian government’s actions, which many believe helped lead to the release of two of the bloggers in July 2015.

Following the prominence of the Zone 9 blogger campaign, hashtag campaigns on social media have become one of the most popular methods of activism in Ethiopia, enabling citizens to demand for social change and justice on a variety of issues. Two hashtag campaigns in late 2014 were particularly active on Ethiopian social media. One campaign, #BecauseIamOromo, stemmed from the release of an Amnesty International report on repression and human rights violations in the Oromo region of Ethiopia,[55]  building momentum across a three-day Twitter campaign, which attracted a significant number of followers.[56] Another campaign, #Justice4Hanna, demanded justice for a 16 year old high school girl who was gang-raped and then later died from associated injuries in Addis Ababa in October 2014.[57]

Digital activism was also prominent in the lead-up to the May 2015 general elections, though calls for protest came mostly from the Ethiopian diaspora rather than from local activists who feared the government’s violent crackdowns against protest movements. State media stepped up its campaign against the press, in general, and the use of social media, in particular, claiming that foreign agents and terrorists were using social media to destabilize the country.

Violations of User Rights:

The limited space for online expression continued to deteriorate alongside an increasing crackdown on bloggers. The Zone 9 bloggers arrested in April 2014 were charged with terrorism in July 2014 and subsequently subjected to a series of sham trials through mid-2015. In July 2015, two of the imprisoned Zone 9 bloggers were unexpectedly released and acquitted of all charges, leaving four in prison alongside five other individuals who were arrested in July 2014 and charged with terrorism for their various ICT activities. Independent journalists in the diaspora were targeted with Hacking Team surveillance spyware.

Legal Environment

The 1995 Ethiopian constitution guarantees freedom of expression, freedom of the press, and access to information, while also prohibiting censorship.[58] These constitutional guarantees are affirmed in the 2008 Mass Media and Freedom of Information Proclamation, known as the press law, which governs the print media.[59] Nevertheless, the press law also includes problematic provisions that contradict constitutional protections and restrict free expression, such as onerous registration processes for media outlets and high fines for defamation.[60] The Criminal Code also penalizes defamation with a fine or up to one year in prison.[61]

In 2012, the government introduced specific restrictions on an array of ICT activities under amendments to the 1996 Telecom Fraud Offences Law,[62] which had already placed bans on certain communication applications, such as Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP)[63] like Skype and Google Voice, call back services, and internet-based fax services.[64] Under the 2012 amendments, the penalties under the preexisting ban were toughened, increasing the fine and maximum prison sentence from five to eight years for service providers, and penalizing users with three months to two years in prison.[65] The law also added the requirement for all individuals to register their telecommunications equipment—including smartphones—with the government, which security officials typically enforce by confiscating ICT equipment when a registration permit cannot be furnished at security checkpoints, according to sources in the country.

Most alarmingly, the 2012 Telecom Fraud Offences Law extended the violations and penalties defined in the 2009 Anti-Terrorism Proclamation and criminal code to electronic communications, which explicitly include both mobile phone and internet services.[66] The anti-terrorism legislation prescribes prison sentences of up to 20 years for the publication of statements that can be understood as a direct or indirect encouragement of terrorism, a vaguely defined term.[67]

According to a December 2014 news report by Ethiopian State Television, a draft Computer and Internet Crime Bill is currently in the works by the Information Network Security Agency (INSA). The news report featured remarks by the INSA director, who insisted that the draft cybercrime law aimed to strengthen the government’s powers to prevent, control, investigate, and prosecute cybercrimes, including on social media. Observers are concerned that the law will empower state agencies to monitor private social media activities without oversight.[68]

Prosecutions and Detention for Online Activities

Ethiopia is among the world’s top five jailers of journalists.[69] In 2014-2015, the authorities intensified their crackdown against bloggers and online journalists, using the country’s harsh laws to arrest and prosecute individuals for their online activities and silence dissent. Most alarmingly, six bloggers from the critical Zone 9 blogging collective and three journalists with alleged associations to Zone 9 were arrested in late April 2014. The arrests occurred just days following a Facebook post announcing the group’s plans to resume its activism after taking a seven-month hiatus due to “a considerable amount of surveillance and harassment” the bloggers had previously suffered at the hands of security agents for their writings and social media activism.[70]

Initially held for three months without charges, the bloggers were charged in July 2014 with terrorism under the harsh Anti-Terrorism Proclamation for conspiring with the banned opposition group Ginbot 7, which the government classifies as a terrorist group.[71] The bloggers were further accused of encrypting their communications to disseminate seditious writings with the intent of overthrowing the government, the latter of which is an offense under the criminal code.[72] The government reportedly submitted 30 pages of phone and surveillance records spanning a period of three years as evidence of the terrorism charges,[73] alongside email communications and digital security handbooks.[74]

Despite widespread international condemnation of the Zone 9 arrests, the detainees were denied bail and brought to court dozens of times without any progress to their case for more than a year.[75]They remained in jail throughout the first half of 2015 until early July, when two of the bloggers and three associated journalists were unexpectedly released without charges. The four remaining Zone 9 bloggers were acquitted in October.[76] During the trials between June and November 2014, at least three other individuals were arrested temporarily for posting updates and pictures of their trials on social media via mobile devices.

Several other critical bloggers and online activists were arrested in July 2014, including Abraha Desta and Zelalem Workagegnehu, both academics and bloggers who were held without charges for four months until October 2014 when they were charged for their alleged support of the opposition group Ginbot 7.[77] They were also charged with using social media to contact members of Ginbot 7.[78] Widely known for his Facebook posts criticizing the ruling party, Abraha Desta was reportedly beaten brutally before being taken to an unidentified prison.[79] Three other individuals—Yonatan Wolde, Abraham Solomon, and Bahiru Degu—were also arrested around the same time for allegedly applying for an internet security and social media training abroad.[80] At a court hearing in August 2015, the defendants’ cases were delayed until November.[81]

Meanwhile, the well-known dissident journalist and blogger Eskinder Nega is still carrying out an 18-year prison sentence handed down in July 2012 under the anti-terrorism law.[82]

Surveillance and Anonymity

Government surveillance of online and mobile phone communications is pervasive in Ethiopia, and evidence has emerged in recent years that reveal the scale of such practices. According to 2014 Human Rights Watch research, there are strong indications that the government has deployed a centralized monitoring system from the Chinese telecommunications firm ZTE, known as ZXMT, to monitor phone lines and various types of communications, including mobile phone networks and the internet.[83] Known for its use by repressive regimes in Libya and Iran, ZXMT enables deep packet inspection (DPI) of internet traffic across the EthioTelecom network and has the ability to intercept emails and web chats.

Another ZTE technology, known as ZSmart, is a customer management database installed at EthioTelecom that provides the government with full access to user information and the ability to intercept SMS text messages and record phone conversations.[84]ZSmart also allows security officials to locate targeted individuals through real-time geolocation tracking of mobile phones.[85] While the extent to which the government has made use of the full range of ZTE’s sophisticated surveillance systems is unclear, the authorities frequently present intercepted emails and phone calls as evidence during trials against journalists and bloggers or during interrogations as a scare tactic.[86]

There has been an increasing trend of exiled dissidents targeted with surveillance malware in the past few years (see “Technical Attacks”). Recent Citizen Lab research published in March 2015 uncovered the use of Remote Control System (RCS) spyware against two employees of the diaspora-run independent satellite television, radio, and online news media outlet, Ethiopian Satellite Television Service (ESAT), based in Alexandria, Virginia, in November and December 2014.[87] Made by the Italian company Hacking Team, RCS spyware is advertised as “offensive technology” sold exclusively to law enforcement and intelligence agencies around the world, and has the ability to steal files and passwords, as well as to intercept Skype calls and chats. [88]

While Hacking Team claims that they do not deal with “repressive regimes,”[89] the social engineering tactics used to bait the two ESAT employees made it clear that the attack was targeted. Moreover, analysis of the RCS attacks uncovered credible links to the Ethiopian government, with the spyware’s servers registered at an EthioTelecom address under the name “INSA-PC,” referring to the Information Network Security Agency (INSA), the body established in 2011 to preside over the security of the country’s critical communications infrastructure.[90] INSA was already known to be using the commercial toolkit FinFisher—a device that can secretly monitor computers by turning on webcams, record everything a user types with a key logger, and intercept Skype calls—to target dissidents and supposed national security threats.[91]

Given the high degree of online repression in Ethiopia, political commentators use proxy servers and anonymizing tools to hide their identities when publishing online and to circumvent filtering, though the ability to communicate anonymously has become more difficult. The Tor Network anonymizing tool has been blocked since May 2012.

Anonymity is further compromised by strict SIM card registration requirements. Upon purchase of a SIM card through EthioTelecom or an authorized reseller, individuals must provide their full name, address, government-issued identification number, and a passport-sized photograph. EthioTelecom’s database of SIM registrants enables the government to cut-off the SIM cards belonging to targeted individuals and to restrict those individuals from registering for new SIM cards. Internet subscribers are also required to register their personal details, including their home address, with the government. In 2013, an inside informant leaked worrying details of potential draft legislation that seeks to mandate real-name registration for all internet users in Ethiopia, though there are no further details of this development as of mid-2015.[92]

While the government’s stronghold over the Ethiopian ICT sector enables it to proactively monitor users, its access to user activity and information is less direct at cybercafes. For a period following the 2005 elections, cybercafe owners were required to keep a register of their clients, but the requirement has not been enforced since mid-2010.[93] Nevertheless, some cybercafe operators revealed that they are required to report any “unusual behavior” to security officials, and officials often visit cybercafes (sometimes in plainclothes) to ask questions about specific users or to monitor user activity themselves.[94]

Intimidation and Violence

Government security agents frequently harass and intimidate bloggers, online journalists, and ordinary users for their online activities. Independent bloggers are often summoned by the authorities to be warned against discussing certain topics online, while activists claim that they are consistently threatened by state security agents for their online activism.[95] Prior to their imprisonment in April 2014, the Zone 9 bloggers reported suffering a considerable amount of harassment for their work, leading them to go silent for several months. Shortly after the bloggers announced a resumption of activities on Facebook in April 2014, six Zone 9 bloggers were arrested and sent to a federal detention center in Addis Ababa where they were reportedly mistreated and tortured to give false confessions throughout the year.[96] The active Gmail accounts belonging to several of the Zone 9 bloggers while in detention suggests that they may have been forced give their passwords to security officials against their will.[97]

Ethiopian journalists in the diaspora have also been targeted for harassment, according to one reporter of the diaspora-based website ECADF, who received death threats from an alleged government spy in Netherlands for his reporting.[98]

Technical Attacks

Opposition critics and independent voices face frequent technical attacks, even when based abroad. In recent years, independent research has found evidence that the Ethiopian authorities use sophisticated surveillance malware and spyware, such as FinFisher’s FinSpy and Hacking Team’s Remote Control Servers (RCS), to target exiled dissidents. The most recent attack was recorded in December 2014 by researchers at Citizen Lab, who discovered RCS spyware in attached documents sent in emails to journalists with the Ethiopian Satellite Television Service (ESAT), an independent TV, radio, and online news outlet run by members of the Ethiopian diaspora in Virginia.[99] Having been targeted with the RCS spyware before,[100]the journalists did not download the attachments that would have installed the spyware and enabled the attackers to access files on the infected computers. The journalists believe the attack was an effort by the authorities to ascertain ESAT’s sources within Ethiopia.

Meanwhile, a technical attack in late 2012 and early 2013 on an exiled dissident (and American citizen) is currently the basis of an ongoing legal case at a U.S. District Court filed by the Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF).[101] In April 2013, EFF sued the Ethiopian government in a U.S. court on behalf of the anonymous Ethiopian dissident for implanting malicious FinSpy malware on the individual’s computer. Linked to a server belonging to EthioTelecom, FinSpy had secretly recorded dozens of Skype calls, copied emails the individual had sent, and logged a web search conducted by his son on the history of sports medicine for a school research project.[102]

Notes:

[1] Rebecca Wanjiku, “Study: Ethiopia only sub-Saharan Africa nation to filter net,” IDG News Service,  October 8, 2009, http://bit.ly/1Lbi3s9.

[2] Tom Jackson, “Telecoms slow down development of Ethiopian tech scene – iceaddis,”humanipo republished on Ethioconstruction,  October 22, 2013, http://bit.ly/1ZlzWhw.

[3] International Telecommunication Union, “Percentage of Individuals Using the Internet, 2000-2014,” http://bit.ly/1cblxxY.

[4] International Telecommunication Union, “Fixed (Wired)-Broadband Subscriptions, 2000-2014,” http://bit.ly/1cblxxY.

[5] International Telecommunication Union, “Mobile-Cellular Telephone Subscriptions, 2000-2014,” http://bit.ly/1cblxxY.

[6] International Telecommunication Union, “Key ICT data, 2000-2015,” http://bit.ly/1cblxxY.

[7] International Telecommunication Union, “Ethiopia Profile (Latest data available: 2013),”ICT-Eye, accessed August 1, 2014, http://bit.ly/1NEnLHk.

[8] Aaron Maasho, “Ethiopia launches 4G mobile service in the capital,” ed. Mark Potter,Reuters, March 21, 2015, http://reut.rs/1FP0Pky.

[9] “A short report about Ethio-Telecom recent launch of 4G network in Addis Ababa,” EthioTube video, 8:44, April 3, 2015, http://bit.ly/1Ryeb90.

[10] World Bank, “Ethiopia Overview,” last updated April 05, 2015,http://www.worldbank.org/en/country/ethiopia/overview.

[11] Ethiopia – Telecoms, Mobile, Broadband and Forecasts, Paul Budde Communication Pty Ltd.:June 2014, http://bit.ly/1ji15Rn.

[12] International Telecommunication Union, “Ethiopia Profile (Latest data available: 2013).”

[13] According to tests by Freedom House consultant in 2015.

[14] Akamai, “Average Connection Speed: Ethiopia,” map visualization, The State of the Internet, Q4 (2014), http://akamai.me/1OqvpoS.

[15] Aaron Maasho, “Ethiopia signs $700 mln mobile network deal with China’s Huawei,”Reuters, July 25, 2013, http://reut.rs/1OpDgVj.

[16] Endalk Chala, “When blogging is held hostage of Ethiopia’s telecom policy,” in “GV Advocacy Awards Essays on Internet Censorship from Iran, Venezuela, Ethiopia,” Global Voices, February 3, 2015, http://bit.ly/1OpDvzz.

[17] Jim Cowie, “Syria, Venezuela, Ukraine: Internet Under Fire,” Renesys (blog), February 26, 2014, http://bit.ly/1R2z0IT.

[18] Freedom House interviews.

[19] Conducted by Freedom House consultant, March 2015.

[20] Al Shiferaw, “Connecting Telecentres: An Ethiopian Perspective,” Telecentre Magazine, September 2008, http://bit.ly/1ji348h.

[21] “Ethio Telecom to remain monopoly for now,” TeleGeography, June 28, 2013,http://bit.ly/1huyjf7.

[22] Paul Chapman, “New report explores the Ethiopian – telecoms, mobile and broadband – market insights, statistics and forecasts,” WhatTech, May 1, 2015, http://bit.ly/1L46Awu.

[23] “Out of reach,” The Economist, August 24, 2013, http://econ.st/1l1UvJO.

[24] “Out of reach,” The Economist.

[25] Matthew Dalton, “Telecom Deal by China’s ZTE, Huawei in Ethiopia Faces Criticism,”The Wall Street Journal, January 6, 2014, http://on.wsj.com/1LtSCkD.

[26] Based on allegations that the Chinese authorities have provided the Ethiopian government with technology that can be used for political repression—such as surveillance cameras and satellite jamming equipment—in the past. See: Addis Neger, “Ethiopia: China Involved in ESAT Jamming,” ECADAF Ethiopian news & Opinion, June 23, 2010, http://bit.ly/1LtSYI9; Gary Sands, “Ethiopia’s Broadband Network – A Chinese Trojan Horse?” Foreign Policy Blogs, Foreign Policy Association,  September 6, 2013, http://bit.ly/1FWG8X1.

[27] ENA, “Ericsson to take part in telecom expansion in Ethiopia,” Dire Tube, December 18, 2014,  http://bit.ly/1PkZfvA.

[28] The Embassy of the United Stated, “Doing Business in Ethiopia,” http://1.usa.gov/1LtTExh.

[29]  World Intellectual Property Organization, “Ethiopia Custom Regulation: No 622/2009,”http://bit.ly/1NveoeB.

[30] Mignote Kassa, “Why Ethiopia’s Software Industry Falters,” Addis Fortune 14, no. 700 (September 29, 2013), http://bit.ly/1VJiIWC.

[31] “Proclamation No. 281/2002, Telecommunications (Amendment Proclamation,” Federal Negarit Gazeta No. 28, July 2, 2002, http://bit.ly/1snLgsc.

[32] Ethiopian Telecommunication Agency, “License Directive for Resale and Telecenter in Telecommunication Services No. 1/2002,” November 8, 2002, accessed October 20, 2014,http://bit.ly/1pUtpWh.

[33] Dr. Lishan Adam, “Understanding what is happening in ICT in Ethiopia,” (policy paper, Research ICT Africa, 2012) http://bit.ly/1LDPyJ5.

[34]  Halefom Abraha, “THE STATE OF CYBERCRIME GOVERNANCE IN ETHIOPIA,” (paper) http://bit.ly/1huzP0S.

[35] Daniel Berhane, “Ethiopia’s web filtering: advanced technology, hypocritical criticisms, bleeding constitution,” Horns Affairs, January 16, 2011, http://bit.ly/1jTyrH1 .

[36] Test conducted by an anonymous researcher contracted by Freedom House, March 2015. During the test, some websites opened at the first attempt but were inaccessible when refreshed.

[37] Interview with the producer of a website called  Mircha.org,http://mircha.org/category/english/ .

[38] Abebe Gelaw, “Exposed: Prof. Constantinos Berhe has two fake degrees,” Addis Voice, January 18, 2015,  http://bit.ly/1zrOETe.

[39] “BBC condemns Ethiopian broadcast jamming,” BBC, May 30, 2014, http://bbc.in/1oCH8VO.

[40] “Ethiopia ‘blocks’ Al Jazeera aebsites,” Al Jazeera, March 18, 2013, http://aje.me/1144wNh.

[41] Zone9, blog post, October 8, 2015, http://zone9ethio.blogspot.com/.

[42] Mohammed Ademo, Twitter post, July 25, 2012, 1:08 p.m.,https://twitter.com/OPride/status/228159700489879552.

[44] Ory Okolloh Mwangi, Twitter post, November 6, 2013, 9:20 a.m.,https://twitter.com/kenyanpundit/status/398077421926514688.

[45] “Ethiopia Introduces Deep Packet Inspection,” Tor (blog), May 31, 2012,http://bit.ly/1A0YRdc; Warwick Ashford, “Ethiopian government blocks Tor network online anonymity,” Computer Weekly, June 28, 2012, http://bit.ly/1LDQ5L2.

[46] A 2014 report from Human Rights Watch also noted that the term “aljazeera” was unsearchable on Google while the news site was blocked from August 2012 to mid-March 2013. According to HRW research, the keywords “OLF” and “ONLF” (acronyms of Ethiopian opposition groups) are not searchable on the unencrypted version of Google (http://) and other popular search engines. Human Rights Watch, “They Know Everything We Do,” March 25, 2014, 56, 58,http://bit.ly/1Nviu6r.

[47] Interview with individuals working in the telecom sector, as well as a test conducted by a Freedom House consultant who found it was not possible for an ordinary user to send out a bulk text message.

[48] Reporters prevented from reporting on the trial of Zone9 Bloggers: Trial Tracker Blog,http://trialtrackerblog.org/home/ .

[49] Exemptions are made for foreign nationals of Ethiopian origin. See, Abrham Yohannes, “Advertisement Proclamation No. 759/2012,” Ethiopian Legal Brief (blog), September 27, 2012, http://bit.ly/1LDQf5c.

[50] “Proclamation No. 686/2010 Commercial Registration and Business Licensing,” Federal Negarit Gazeta,  July 24, 2010, http://bit.ly/1P3PoLy;  World Bank Group, Doing Business 2015: Going Beyond Efficiency, Economy Profile 2015, Ethiopia, 2014, http://bit.ly/1L49tO6.

[51] Chala, “When blogging is held hostage of Ethiopia’s telecom policy.”

[52] “Ethiopia Trains Bloggers to attack its opposition,” ECADF Ethiopian News & Opinions, June 7, 2014, http://bit.ly/1QemZjl.

[53] Markos Lemma, “Disconnected Ethiopian Netizens,” Digital Development Debates(blog),November 2012,  http://bit.ly/1Ml9Nu3.

[54] “#BBCtrending: Jailed bloggers spark Ethiopia trend,” BBC Trending, April 30, 2014,http://bbc.in/1kpaTDX.

[55] Mahlét Solomon, “Because I am Oromo,” Facebook page for campaign, November 15, 2014,   http://on.fb.me/1VJOKag.

[56] Amnesty International, Ethiopia: Because I am Oromo’: Sweeping repression in the Oromia region of Ethiopia, October 28, 2014, http://bit.ly/1QenAS6.

[57] Melody Sundberg, “A 16-Year-Old’s Death Is Forcing Ethiopia to Confront Its Sexual Violence Problem,” Global Voices, January 16, 2015, http://bit.ly/1OqziKr.

[58] Constitution of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (1995), art. 26 and 29, accessed, August 24, 2010, http://www.ethiopar.net/constitution.

[59] Freedom of the Mass Media and Access to Information Proclamation No. 590/2008,Federal Negarit Gazeta No. 64, December 4, 2008.

[60] Article 19, The Legal Framework for Freedom of Expression in Ethiopia, accessed September 10, 2014,  http://bit.ly/1Pl0f33.

[61] Criminal Code, art. 613, http://bit.ly/1OpHE6F.

[62] “A Proclamation on Telecom Fraud Offence,” Federal Negarit Gazeta No. 61, September 4, 2012, http://www.abyssinialaw.com/uploads/761.pdf.

[63] The government first instituted the ban on VoIP in 2002 after it gained popularity as a less expensive means of communication and began draining revenue from the traditional telephone business belonging to the state-owned Ethio Telecom. In response to widespread criticisms, the government claimed that VoIP applications such as Skype would not be considered under the new law, though the proclamation’s language still enables the authorities to interpret it broadly at whim.

[64]“Telecommunication Proclamation No. 281/2002, Article 2(11) and 2(12),” Federal Negarit Gazeta  No. 28, July 2, 2002, accessed July 25, 2014, http://bit.ly/1jTCWkV. As an amendment to article 24 of the Proclamation, the Sub-Article (3) specifically states, “The use or provision of voice communication or fax services through the internet are prohibited” (page 1782).

[65] A Proclamation on Telecom Fraud Offence.

[66] Article 19, “Ethiopia: Proclamation on Telecom Fraud Offences,”legal analysis, August 6, 2012, http://bit.ly/1Lbonjm.

[67] “Anti-Terrorism Proclamation No. 652/2009,” Federal Negarit Gazeta No. 57, August 28, 2009.

[68]  “EBS Special- The social media boom in Ethiopia,” Diretube video, 31:01, February 2015,  http://bit.ly/1Mlc0FD.

[69] Committee to Protect Journalists,“2014 prison census: 221 journalists jailed worldwide,” December 1, 2014, https://cpj.org/imprisoned/2014.php.

[70] “Six members of Zone Nine, group of bloggers and activists are arrested,” [in Amharic]Zone9 (blog), April 25, 2014, http://bit.ly/1VJn6ow.

[71]“Federal High Court Lideta Criminal Bench court, Addis Ababa,” http://1drv.ms/1OqAjlC.

[72] Endalk Chala, “What You Need to Know About Ethiopia v. Zone9 Bloggers: Verdict Expected July 20,” Global Voices Advocacy, July 17, 2015, http://bit.ly/1jTDO9b.

[73] Jared Goyette, “For this group of Ethiopian journalists, the Hacking Team revelations are personal,” Public Radio International,  July 8, 2015, http://bit.ly/1UN64ID.

[74] “Federal High Court Lideta Criminal Bench court, Addis Ababa.”

[75] Ellery Roberts Biddle, Endalk Chala, Guardian Africa network, “One year on, jailed Ethiopian bloggers are still awaiting trial,” The Guardian, April 24, 2015, http://gu.com/p/47ktv/stw; “Nine Journalists and Bloggers Still Held Arbitrarily,” Reporters Without Borders, “Nine Journalists and Bloggers Still Held Arbitrarily,” August 21, 2014, http://bit.ly/1P3TW4I.

[76] Committee to Protect Journalists, “In Ethiopia, Zone 9 bloggers acquitted of terrorism charges,” news statement, October 16, 2015, https://www.cpj.org/2015/10/in-ethiopia-zone-9-bloggers-acquitted-of-terrorism.php.

[77] “Defendants in Zelalem Workagegnehu et al Case Reappointed to December 25th,” De Birhan (blog), December 18, 2014, http://bit.ly/1Pl0Ph6.

[78] “Ethiopia Charges 10 of Links with Ginbot 7 Movement Today,”  De Birhan (blog), October 31, 2014, http://bit.ly/1ZlQJRB.

[79] “Ethiopia arrests for young, prominent opposition figures,” Ethiomedia, July 8, 2014,http://bit.ly/1MldQGC.

[80] Tedla D. Tekle, “The Journalism and Scholarship of Attachment – Ethiopia, Africa,”Transcend Media Service, May 25, 2015, http://bit.ly/1ZlR46L.

[81]“Court Day of Our Co-Blogger Celalem Workagegnehu et al,” De Birhan (blog), March 19, 2015, http://bit.ly/1Pl0Vp9; Addis Standard, Facebook post, August 20, 2015, http://on.fb.me/1JXGSWz.

[82] Such trumped-up charges were based on an online column Nega had published criticizing the government’s use of the Anti-Terrorism Proclamation to silence political dissent and calling for greater political freedom in Ethiopia. Nega is also the 2011 recipient of the PEN/Barbara Goldsmith Freedom to Write Award.“That Bravest and Most Admirable of Writers: PEN Salutes Eskinder Nega,” PEN American Center (blog), April 13, 2012, http://bit.ly/1Lm89Y7; See also, Markos Lemma, “Ethiopia: Online Reactions to Prison Sentence for Dissident Blogger,” Global Voices, July 15, 2012, http://bit.ly/1OpKaKf; Endalk Chala, “Ethiopia: Freedom of Expression in Jeopardy,” Global Voices Advocacy, February 3, 2012, http://bit.ly/1jfIEO3.

[83] Human Rights Watch, “They Know Everything We Do,” 62.

[84] Human Rights Watch, “They Know Everything We Do,” 67.

[85] Ibid, 52.

[86]  Committee to Protect Journalists, “Ethiopian Blogger, Journalists Convicted of Terrorism,” January 19, 2012, http://cpj.org/x/47b9.

[87] Bill Marczak et al., Hacking Team Reloaded? US-Based Ethiopian Journalists Again Targeted with Spyware, Citizen Lab, March 9, 2015, http://bit.ly/1Ryogmr.

[88] Hacking Team,“Customer Policy,” accessed February 13, 2014, http://hackingteam.it/index.php/customer-policy.

[89]  Declan McCullagh, “Meet the ‘Corporate Enemies of the Internet’ for 2013,” CNET, March 11, 2013, accessed February 13, 2014, http://cnet.co/1fo6jJZ.

[90] Marczak et al., Hacking Team Reloaded? US-Based Ethiopian Journalists Again Targeted with Spyware.

[91] Fahmida Y. Rashid, “FinFisher ‘Lawful Interception’ Spyware Found in Ten Countries, Including the U.S.,” Security Week, August 8, 2012, http://bit.ly/1WRPuap.

[92] Interview conducted by Freedom House consultant.

[93] Groum Abate, “Internet Cafes Start Registering Users,” The Capital republished Nazret(blog), December 27, 2006, http://bit.ly/1Lm98aX.

[94] Human Rights Watch, “They Know Everything We Do,” 67.

[95]   SIMEGNISH (LILY) MENGESHA, “CRAWLING TO DEATH OF EXPRESSION – RESTRICTED ONLINE MEDIA IN ETHIOPIA,” Center for International Media Assistance (blog), April 8, 2015, http://bit.ly/1IbxFie.

[96] Trial Tracker Blog, “Trials.”

[97] Anonymous Freedom House researcher reported seeing several of the detained Zone9 bloggers actively online in Gmail chat.

[98]ክንፉ አሰፋ  በስለላ ከሆላንድ የተባረረው የጋዜጠኛውን አንገት እቆርጣለሁ አለ,”  ECADAF Ethiopian News & Opinion,  April 12, 2015,  http://ecadforum.com/Amharic/archives/14790/ .

[99] Marczak et al., Hacking Team Reloaded? US-Based Ethiopian Journalists Again Targeted with Spyware.

[100] Bill Marczak, et al., Hacking Team and the Targeting of Ethiopian Journalists, Citizen Lab, February 12, 2014, http://bit.ly/1heE0Nm.

[101] Jenifer Fenton, “Ethiopia spying case casts spotlight on cyber surveillance in US,” Al Jazeera, July 13, 2015, http://alj.am/bhaq.

[102] Electronic Frontier Foundation,“Kidane v. Ethiopia,” last updated August 28, 2014,https://www.eff.org/cases/kidane-v-ethiopia.

The Oromo Concept of Reality or Dhugaa-Ganama October 28, 2015

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The Oromo Concept of Reality or Dhugaa-Ganama (Part 1)

By Yoseph Mulugeta Baba (Ph.D.)*

Part I

The first condition necessary in order to understand about “the” Dhugaa-Ganama (i.e. “the” Absolute Truth) is to refer to the Oromo concept of jireenya, that is, existence or the fact that things exist. (Note that the Afaan Oromo terms, le’ii and leetoo, are roughly equivalent tojireenya both in meaning and content). In the Oromo system of knowledge, theunderstanding and interpretation of the world, of oneself, and other people essentially take as their starting point the concept of jireenya — existence — with reference to jiruu-fi-jireenya-nama — ontological characteristic of human being. As such, the Oromo concept ofReality can best be subsumed under three broad concepts (a) Uumaa (Cosmology); (b)Waaqa (Undifferentiated-Being); and (c) Saffu (Human Ontology).

(A) The Concept of Uumaa — Cosmology

Uumaa is the totality of the created universe. The very term Uumaa, which derives from the verb uumuu, literally meaning “to create”, refers to all that is created — non-living things, living entities, and spiritual beings. Yet, the Oromo notion of Uumaa is not something static, but a continuous process. In order to understand, one needs first to grasp the way the concept of Waaqa has an inextricable link to the dynamic notion of Uumaa.

(B) The Concept of Waaqa — Undifferentiated-Being

The Oromo concept of Waaqa is crystal clear: The first Being was Waaqa. It must be noted that the very term Waaqa, with a capital W, should not be mistaken for waaqa, with a small w. As opposed to the former, which is under discussion, the latter simply means sky or heaven. Unlike Waaqa, waaqa is necessarily synonymous with samii, that is, heaven. (Bartles, 1990, pp. 89-111; Knutson, 1967, pp. 47-48; Geleta Koro, 2008, pp. 407, 449, 925) He continues to exist and is absolute, eternal, and infinite. Waaqa is the sustaining power of all that is. However, although Waaqa is often conceived of as the absolute unity, He is also many. (Bartles, 1990, p. 114) This is due to the notion of Ayyaanaa — the immaterial principle which determines the essence of all individual entities. In Oromo philosophical thought, everything emanates from Waaqa in the form of Ayyaanaa. Ayyaanaa can loosely be defined as an immaterial principle that underliesUumaa and determines the essence of all individual entities as well as their common properties. As G. Dahl argues, as immaterial principle,Ayyaanaa “is decisive for the character and fate of … [every]entity.” (Dahl, 1996, p. 167) Therefore, Bartle’s critical observation is correct in that “Mountains and trees, days, months and seasons, every man and his lineage –all have their own ayana. These ayana rule our lives; they make us what we are – ayana are conceived of as beings.” (Bartles, 1990, p. 113) Joseph van de Loo also affirms this depiction when he defines Ayyaanaa as the “invisible part of being, the spirit.” (Joseph van de, 1991, p. 141).

The main implication of these contentions is that everything that exists, whether as material entity or as abstract value, has its ownAyyaanaa. Accordingly, in the Oromo concept of Reality, it would be absurd to make a complete distinction between a thing and its character. Every existent being, whether actual or abstract, cannot be conceptualized without Ayyaanaa. Whatever exists has this property called Ayyaanaa. Ayyaanaa is inherent in every created individual entity. All created things are distinguished from each other by means ofAyyaanaa. From what Dahl points out it is thus justifiable that:

The traditional [sic] cosmology of the Oromo is built around a “quasi-platonic” division between the real world and the world of ideas or principles. Everything that exists in the material world as well as in the form of abstract values, has its correspondence in the form of an immaterial principle (ayaana) which is decisive for the character and fate of that entity. (Dahl, 1996, p. 167)

Yet, the philosophical question is: How can one explain the problem of one-many or the question of change-permanence, especially as this relates to the philosophical question of existence-freedom, if Ayyaanaa is conceived of as some-thing that determines the essence of every individual entity? To properly answer this question, we need to have a clear understanding of the Oromo concepts of Waaqa andSaffu, respectively.

Waaqa is the ultimate source of all that is. It is essential to note, as Bartles suggests, that the very term Waaqa would better be rendered as Divinity rather than what is meant by the English word ‘Supreme Being,’ ‘God,’ or ‘Creator.’ The main reason, he argues:

It comprises more, since it includes countless particular manifestations of Waqa in this world, particularizations of his creative work which are conceived as beings. Hence the word ‘divinity’ will often be a better translation than ‘God’. “Divinity … can be used to convey to the mind at once a being, a kind of nature or existence, and a quality of that kind of being; it can be made to appear more substantive or qualitative, more personal or general, in connotation, according to the context … (Bartles, 1990, p. 89)

In a similar vein, Knutsson himself points out the epistemological difficulty inherent in the Oromo concept of Waaqa. “It is inadvisable to translate waka by the word God, which in most western theological traditions connotes ideas of unity and independence.” (Knutsson, 1967, p. 49) Thus, he also suggests the use of the term Divinity instead of God.

Without demeaning Bartles and Knutsson’s respected contentions, however, I would like to offer a philosophical explanation of the reason why the term Undifferentiated-Being conveys a better translation than the term Divinity. First, what must be borne in mind is that the way the very term Waaqa itself is often qualified by the adjective guraacha, literally meaning “black”. In the Oromo view, the term “black” adds the notion of originality. It shows the unknown origin of Waaqa. As Dahl affirms, Waaqa “is black, gura’acha, an expression that essentially summarizes the notions of uninterferedness, originality and lack of distinction. ‘Everything flows out of this undifferentiated state in the form of ayaana.’” (Dhal, 1996, p. 169) Therefore, unlike other thinkers, I am forced to render the word Waaqa as Undifferentiated-Being instead of Divinity. (In the works of Knutsson, Bartles, and Dahl, there is a tendency to render the term Waaqa as Divinity. This is due to the influence of G. Lienhardt’s work, Divinity and Experience, on the Dinka religion and in which Lienhardt “met with similar difficulties in translation” for the word nihalic. For more detail, see Bartles, 1990, p. 89; Knutson, 1967, pp. 47-53; Dahl, 1996, p. 170)

Second, it would be absurd to separate the notion of Ayyaanaa from the concept of Undifferentiated-Being. This is mainly due to the Oromo’s concept of creation. As Dahl argues, the Oromo view of “cosmology, ecology and human ontology is one of the flow of life emanating from Divinity [i.e. Undifferentiated-Being].” (Dahl, 1996, p. 167) This contention has one important implication: The Dynamicaspect of Oromo’s view of creation. As I have stated above, the Oromo notion of creation is that it is not static, but a continuous process. “It would be wrong to regard creation as something which for Oromo was a matter of once and for all. With their conception of time, the act of creation (umaa) is still there: it continues as characteristic of the agent of creation.” (Dahl, 1996, p. 167)

Accordingly, the Undifferentiated-Being is not only the Uumaa’s ratio d’être, but also that ofAyyaanaa’s; despite the fact that the character and fate of everything is determined by the latter ― Ayyaanaa. Therefore, it would be wrong to mistake the reality conceived of the author is calling the Undifferentiated-Being for Ayyaanaa, although the two concepts are not mutually exclusive. It must be remembered that the latter is always conceived of as some-thing of the former. As Bartles points out, Ayyaanaa is Undifferentiated-Being, but it cannot be said that the reverse is true. He argues:

The crucial difference is that Waqa is invoked by everyone universally since he is concerned with all, while an ayana, linked as it is to a particular person, animal or plant, is only invoked and feared by those who linked to it either by nature or free choice. It is ‘something of Waqa’ in a person, an animal or plant making them the way they are: a particular manifestation of the divine, of Waqa as creator and as source of all life.We see the ayana as flowing out of Waqa in a way, filling the whole of creation, filling every creature whose ayana they are, making them the way they are, both inside and outside. But the ayana remain invisible to human eyes. What is visible in man is not his ayana. This visible aspect of man is rather formed and conditioned by his ayana: his ayana manifests itself in it. (Bartles, 1990, pp. 115, 118-19; Also see Sumner, 1995, p. 33)

In a similar vein, Knutson argues that “waka is the most comprehensive … It Includes ayana.” (Knutson, 1967, p. 48)

One important thing must be noted from the above contentions. Ayyaanaa, unlike Uumaa, is not necessarily subject to the idea oftemporality. Rather, it may also characterized by non-spatio-temporal reality by virtue of having the character of Undifferentiated-Being. Therefore, in contradistinction to Uumaa, Ayyaanaa exists before and after the thing it causes comes into being. Everything that exists is thus exclusively attributed to Ayyaanaa, whose act of creation has its ultimate source in Undifferentiated-Being. Hence, the Oromo conception of Reality implies a world-process or dynamic universe that has come to be by virtue of Ayyaanaa. In this manner, Ayyaanaaencompasses Uumaa, just as Uumaa embraces Ayyaanaa.

However, the incommensurability of the concepts of Uumaa versus Ayyaanaa poses the philosophical question of existence-freedom to human reason. As a result of this philosophical problem, the Oromo have adopted and developed the concept of Saffu — Human Ontology.

(C) The Concept of Saffu — Human Ontology

As Gemetchu M. argues the:

Oral tradition [sic] offered each generation words that became the vehicle of their hopes and aspirations. Each generation found its own meaning in the words in relation to its particular historical situation. This relationship between the terms of the tradition and the particular meaning of these terms in specific circumstances gives the Oromo tradition its historical character. As the result of this historical character of the tradition, early in Oromo tradition, there developed a tension between Uumaa (literally “creation”) and ayyaana as the will of Waaqa [or Undifferentiated-Being]. It is perhaps this contradiction that gave rise to the concept ofSaffu (mutual relationship between elements of the social and cosmic orders) which maintains practice obligatory through ethical conduct. (Gemetchu, 1996, p. 97)

Of this mutual relationship, Bartles has it that Saffu is “the mutual relationship (rights and duties) between individual creatures or groups of creatures according to their place in the cosmic and social order on the basis of ayana.” (Bartles, 1990, p. 373) It “is about mutual relation amongst things. Every creature should live in harmony, without inflicting harm on each other.” (Dirribi Demisse Bokku, 2011, p. 80) It must be remembered that the whole concept of Saffu derives from there being a need for such a philosophical explanation of human “existence.”

As I have stated at the beginning of this article, in the Oromo system of knowledge, the understanding and interpretation of the world, of oneself, and of the other people takes as its starting point a thought concerning jireenya — existence. This conceptual starting point constitutes the principal point of difference between my thinking and that of who have written on Oromo ideas and way of thinking individuals who tend to identify the concept of Saffu with moral philosophy alone rather than exploring its epistemological significance. To begin with, in the Oromo system of knowledge, the concept of Reality per se stems from a distinct view of jireenya. The main implication is that for the Oromo people, their concept of jireenya serves as a useful starting point for the understanding and interpretation of Uumaa, Waaqa, and Saffu. The philosophical thought Oromo have in this regard is a rich source of ideas that can provide an epistemological justification for the Oromo concept of Reality as a whole. The noun jireenya derives from the root jir — to be, to exist. (Knutsson, 1967, p. 59) Here, it is important to stress that the whole concept of jireenya implies everything that exists. In Oromo philosophy, the idea of jireenyais inclusive of everything there is within the cosmos.

However, one important distinction concerning this idea must be stated right away. The term jireenya refers to the existence of every individual entity. But when it is used for human “existence”, it has quite a different connotation. The English terms, human and man, are typically rendered as nama in the language of Afaan Oromo. In Oromo philosophy, however, there is no such thing as jireenya-nama, but rather we find jiruu-fi-jireenya-nama. The point is that whenever the concept of jireenya is used with reference to nama or the human being, it must be preceded by a noun jiruu — “activity” and a conjunction fi ― and. This name in terms of philosophical thought, has two main implications: First, in Oromo philosophical thought, it would be absurd to totally identify human “existence” with that of the existence of other entities. The very assertion, jiruu-fi-jireenya-nama, makes the concept crystal clear that human beings have a character that is in contradistinction to the existence of, for instance, saree — dog, muka — tree, dhakaa — stone, or minjaala — table. As such, there is nothing like jiruu-fi-jireenya-saree, so to compare human existence with that of a dog, for example, would be self-contradiction. On the contrary, phrases like jireenya-saree — the life/existence of dog or jireenya-muka — the life/existence of tree in accord with human reason, suggest some degrees of communality among all other entities in contradistinction to human “existence”.

Second, the difference between man’s “existence” and that of other entities stems from the element of human “activity” — jiruu. In Oromo philosophy, despite the fact that man exists the way other things do, his very existence, however, differs by virtue of his or her jiruu — “activity”. Human “existence” must be characterized by this very jiruu — “activity”. Essentially, the very conjunction fi ― which is necessarily used alongside the noun jiruu — “activity” suggests that human “existence”, unlike other things, is intrinsically linked with such “activity”.

Accordingly, in the indigenous Oromo system of knowledge, Saffu is used as the generic name for such various “activities” of individual wo/man. As we have stated above, the incompatibility that stems from the view of Uumaa versus Ayyaanaa has resulted in the construction of the concept of Saffu. Stated otherwise, the need for the construction of the concept of Saffu is due to paradoxes of bothmetaphysical and epistemological, that have resulted from existence of the concepts of Uumaa and Ayyaanaa. On the one hand, the Oromo view of Undifferentiated-Being is a representation of an ideal world or the universe of thought. This thought has its roots in thephilosophical question concerning the beginning of the universe. As a response to this fundamental question, Waaqa is often conceived of as the ultimate source of all that is; and consequently as the universe of thought. However, the Oromo do not take a precise categoricalphilosophical position on whether Waaqa produces the world out of nothing or out of His own substance. Thanks to the concept of Saffu, which I shall explicate further, the radical philosophical position just discussed has been overlooked due to there being an epistemological difficulty in coming to a human understanding of the true nature of Undifferentiated-Being.

(to be continued)

Note: The responsibility for the article is entirely mine.

Galatoomaa!

——

References

– Baxter, P. T. W., Hultin, J., and Triulzi, A. eds. Being and Becoming Oromo: Historical and Anthropological Enquires. Asmara: The Red Sea Press, Inc., 1996.

– Dirribi D. B. Oromo Wisdom In Black Civilization. Finfinnee: Finfinne Printing and Publishing S. C., 2011.

– Geleta K. Hirkoo: English-Afan Oromo-Amharic Dictionary. Aster Nega Publishing Enterprise, 2008.

– Knutson, K. E. Authority and Change: A Study of the Kallu Institution Among the Macha Galla of Ethiopia. Gӧteborg: Etnografiska Museet, 1967.

– Lambert, B. Oromo Religion: Myths and Rites of the Western Oromo of Ethiopia: An Attempt to Understand. Berlin, 1990.

– Leus, Ton. Aadaa Boraanaa: A Dictionary of Borana Culture. Addis Ababa: Shama Books, 2006.

– Loo, J. V. D. The Religious Practices of the Guji Oromo. Addis Ababa, 1991.

– Sumner, Claude, Oromo Wisdom Literature. Vol.1 Addis Ababa: Gudina Tumsa Foundation, 1995.

——

* Yoseph Mulugeta Baba received his B.A; M.A; and Ph.D. degrees in Philosophy from the CUEA. His research areas include Metaphilosophy, Oromo Philosophy, Continental Philosophy, Post-colonial African Political Philosophy, Postmodernism, and Ethiopian historiography. Currently, he is completing his forthcoming book (CUEA PRESS) — on ‘The Ilaa-fi-Ilaamee Philosophical Method of Enquiry.’ He can be reached at kankokunmalimaali@gmail.com.

The Oromo Concept of Reality or Dhugaa-Ganama (Part 2)

By Yoseph Mulugeta Baba (Ph.D.)*

Part II

(In my Previous article, I elucidated the way in which the Oromo system of knowledge essentially takes its starting point from the concept of jireenya — existence — with reference to jiruu-fi-jireenya-nama — ontological characteristic of human being; for the understandingand interpretation of the world, of oneself, and of other people. In doing so, I clearly indicated how Oromo’s concept of Reality can best be subsumed under three broad concepts: (a)Uumaa (Cosmology); (b) Waaqa (Undifferentiated-Being); and (c) Saffu (Human Ontology). The present article is a continuation of previous one.)

The Oromo mode of thought “denies” any distinction between thought and things. As a consequence, Waaqa is conceived of as being both transcendent and immanent. This is due to the Oromo concept of Uumaa — creation. Uumaa is a world-of-process. This act of creation — Uumaa — signifies Waaqa’s presence as a natural part of the entire created natural world in the form of Ayyaanaa, which, in turn, is responsible for the emergence of new creatures — uumama — at different epochs of human history. Ayyaanaa is thus something of Waaqa. In other words, Waaqa is at the same time one and many. In Oromo philosophical thought, therefore, a distinction between the universe of thought and the universe of nature is untenable.

In the absence of such distinctions, however, how to define human nature remains problematic. Such a philosophical question sets the scene for the concept of Saffu. This concept has its origin in the description of human “existence” as being related to one or another kind of human “activity”. As I argued in my pervious article, unlike other things, human “existence” is intrinsically linked to jiruu-fi-jireenya-nama — ontological characteristic of human being. This “activity” can best be a result of having a knowledge of things in accordance with the place assigned to each of them by Waaqa. The Oromo notion of jireenya includes the idea that everything relates to nature outside of itself. As it would be absurd to have this notion about human reason, however, the concept of jiruu-fi-jireenya-nama was developed which enables one to interpret and balance the “paradox” posed by Uumaa versus Ayyaanaa.

Therefore, the concept of Saffu — human ontology — is not only about the Oromo’s moral philosophy, as some scholars have tended to argue. But, it is also an epistemological notion founded on the idea of the jiruu-fi-jireenya-nama — ontological characteristic of human being. The jiruu-fi-jireenya-nama essentially relates to the physical world as well as human society. The concept of Saffu — human ontology — is thus nothing other than a proper understanding and interpretation of one’s state of “existence” as s/he radically relates to both aspects of nature — physical world and human society. It is a critical reflection upon a relationship that ought to exist between each human being and Uumaa as well as Ayyaanaa, on the one hand, and between an individual and human society, on the other. (Raayyaa Horoo, 2008, p. 13)

The above epistemological assertion has two philosophical foundations: (a) seera Waaqa — the laws of Undifferentiated-Being and (b)seera Nama — the laws of human being. The former is not a complete form of knowledge. As I have already argued, the origin ofUndifferentiated-Being is wholly “unknown” to the human mind. Yet, coming to some sort of such knowledge is not impossible. This is due to the Oromo’s notion of Ayyaanaa. Ayyaanaa can be “thought of as fractions of Divinity [Undifferentiated-Being]: fractions which arise from the continuous Creation [Uumaa] by which God expresses himself and imposes structure on the world.” (Gudrun Dahl, 1996, p. 170) Hence, knowledge gained concerning the laws of “nature,” for instance, is attributed to Ayyaanaa. These laws are conceived of as fixedand eternal. They are thus immutable.

Seera Nama — the laws of human being —, on the other hand, are subject to change in the context of jiruu-fi-jireenya-nama —human “existence”. Although the seera Waaqa — the laws of Undifferentiated-Being — underlie every jiruu-fi-jireenya-nama — at different epochs of human history, yet; the understanding and interpretation of the seera Nama — the laws of human being — may differ considerably between individuals. In the Oromo concept of Reality, however, this difference need not be seen as a “contradiction”; unless such an interpretation goes against the concept of Saffu — human ontology. That is to say, the denial of Saffu is the failure of the individual to keep a balance between seera WaaqaAyyaanaa — and seera NamaUumaa. This “activity,” as indicated already, is generally called thejiruu-fi-jireenya-nama. The clear assumption is that, although one has a considerable difficulty (in) overcoming this “contradiction,” there is always room for the interpretation and understanding of the case in question to keep a balance between all things: Saffu, which finally leads, to pluralistic interpretations of the universe, despite the fact that there is just one universe.

Accordingly, the Oromo have adopted and developed a philosophic method of enquiry to identify and determine the tenable form of interpretation whenever various competing interpretations arise. This mode of investigation is called an ilaa-fi-ilaamee — philosophic-mode-of-thought. With such foundations in mind, let us, in the following subsection explore the justification of this form of enquiry. In order to do so, I would single out Gumii Gaayo as justification of the case in point.

(to be continued)

Note: The responsibility for the article is entirely mine.

Galatoomaa!

——

References

– Baxter, P. T. W., Hultin, J., and Triulzi, A. eds. Being and Becoming Oromo: Historical and Anthropological Enquires. Asmara: The Red Sea Press, Inc., 1996.

– Dirribi D. B. Oromo Wisdom In Black Civilization. Finfinnee: Finfinne Printing and Publishing S. C., 2011.

– Geleta K. Hirkoo: English-Afan Oromo-Amharic Dictionary. Aster Nega Publishing Enterprise, 2008.

– Knutson, K. E. Authority and Change: A Study of the Kallu Institution Among the Macha Galla of Ethiopia. Gӧteborg: Etnografiska Museet, 1967.

– Lambert, B. Oromo Religion: Myths and Rites of the Western Oromo of Ethiopia: An Attempt to Understand. Berlin, 1990.

– Leus, Ton. Aadaa Boraanaa: A Dictionary of Borana Culture. Addis Ababa: Shama Books, 2006.

– Loo, J. V. D. The Religious Practices of the Guji Oromo. Addis Ababa, 1991.

– Raayyaa Horoo, Waaqeffannaa. Finfinnee, 2008.

– Sumner, Claude, Oromo Wisdom Literature. Vol.1 Addis Ababa: Gudina Tumsa Foundation, 1995.

——

The Oromo Concept of Reality or Dhugaa-Ganama (Part 3)

By Yoseph Mulugeta Baba (Ph.D.)*

 

Part III

In one of my previous articles (Part II), I tried to demonstrate how the Oromo concept of jiruu-fi-jireenya-nama — ontological characteristic of human being — has led to the conception ofSaffu, which enables one to interpret and balance the “paradox” posed by Uumaa versusAyyaanaa. It has been clearly indicated that the concept of Saffu — human ontology — is nothing other than a proper understanding and interpretation of one’s state of “existence” as s/he radically relates to both aspects of nature — physical world and human society. Suchunderstanding and interpretation of Reality (i.e. Uuma, Waaqa, Ayyaanaa) eventually leads to pluralistic interpretations of the universe. Consequently, the Oromo have adopted and developed a philosophic method of enquiry to identify and determine the tenable form of interpretation whenever various competing interpretations arise. This mode of investigation is called an ilaa-fi-ilaamee – philosophic-mode-of-thought. In the present article, I try to show and how this is the case. In order to do so, I would single out Gumii Gaayo as justification of the case in point.

To begin with, Gumii Gaayo — is the possible justification for an ilaa-fi-ilaamee – philosophic-mode-of-thought. It is one of the main and most critical institutions of the Gadaa System. Thus, I need to give clear and concise points on the latter first.

What is the Gadaa System?

“The Gada System is a system of gada classes (luba) or segments of genealogical generations that succeed each other every eight years in assuming political, military, judicial, legislative and ritual responsibilities.” (Asmarom, 2000/2006, p. 31; Asmarom, 1973, p. 81) It is the Oromo people’s central philosophical thought about the jiruu-fi-jireenya-nama — ontological characteristic of human being — which has “endured for at least four centuries of recorded history.” (Asmarom, 2000/2006, p. 30) Specifically, the Gadaa System is a political philosophy that necessarily characterizes individual men’s rights and responsibilities as each of them relates to all facets of human life from birth to death. (Yoseph, 2011, pp. 84-98)

First, in Oromo society, structural institutions are abstractly constructed in such a way that they in effect govern the jiruu-fi-jireenya-nama. They essentially explain how everything that exists in the universe has to be assumed, understood, and interpreted in accordance with whatever changes that take place in the lives of individuals. This makes the Gadaa System extremely complex. This is the main reason why the very term Gadaa can neither be precisely defined (Mohammed, 1994, p. 9) nor given a univocal interpretation. (Asmarom, 1973, p. 81) In light of this difficulty, however, the best way to understand the Gadaa philosophical system is to know how the jiruu-fi-jireenya-nama relates to the Oromo’s concept of time.

In Oromo philosophy, the concept of time and human “existence” are viewed as two sides of one coin. Time and human society are thus divided into grades and generational-“sets”, respectively. “The set or class is the group of people who share the same status and who perform their rites of passage together, whereas the grades are the stages of development through which the groups pass.” (Asmarom, 1973, p. 51) The full cycle of the Gadaa System has ten grades (Mohammed, 1994, p. 11): Daballe grade [0 – 8 years of age]; Folle orGame Titiqaa grade [9 – 16 years of age]; Qondalla or Game Gurgudaa grade [17 – 24 years of age]; Kuusa or Raba grade [25 – 32 years of age]; Raaba Doorii or Doorii grade [33 – 40 years of age]; Gadaa grade [41 – 48 years of age]; Yuba I grade [49 – 56 years of age];Yuba II grade [57 – 64 years of age]; Yuba III grade [65 – 72 years of age]; and Gadamojii grade [73 – 80 years of age]. (Gadaa Melbaa, 1985, p. 20)

Gadaa grade starts from the first eight years (0-8), counting every eight years till it reaches eleven which falls between 80-88, that is the person becomes an elderly. One Oromo stays in one Gadaa grade for eight years out of the total of his ages. In the course of his/her life time, one Oromo could not be out of these eleven grades. In each of the Gadaa grades, Oromo have their own clearly defined roles and responsibilities to be fulfilled, and there is a system or a ceremony when one passes from oneGadaa grade to the next. (Dirribi, 2011, p. 213)

The full cycle of Gadaa System is divided into two periods of forty years each. (Mohammed, 1994, p. 11) Each span of forty years is calledgogessa or mesensa — meaning “generation”. Thus, a “generation” lasts for forty years. Each “generation” consists of five parties. “A ‘generation’ is forty years long and there are five segments or gada classes within it.” (Asmarom, 2000/2006, p. 31) The five parties are theGadaa of the father (Melbaa, Muudanaa, Kilollee, Biifolee, Michille) and the gadaa of the son (Harmuufaa, Roobalee, Birmaji, Mullataa, Duulo). “The basic rule of the gada system is that the newly born infant boy always enters the system of grades exactly forty years behind the father, regardless of the age of the father. Father and son are five grades apart at all times.” (Asmarom, 1973, p. 50)

At the end, the relationship between TIME and HUMAN SOCIETY can well be subsumed under Asmarom’s words:

Here we find a society that is stratified into two distinct but cross-cutting systems of peer-group structures. One is a system in which the members of each class are recruited strictly on the basis of chronological age. The other is a system in which the members are recruited equally strictly on the basis of genealogical generation. The first has nothing to do with genealogical ties. The second has little to do with the age. Both types of social groups are formed every eight years. Both sets of groups pass from one stage of development to the next every eight years. (Asmarom, 1973, pp. 50-51)

Keeping a concise summary of the Gadaa System in mind, let us now examine Gumii Gaayo — in order to see what justification there is for an ilaa-fi-ilaamee – philosophic-mode-of-thought.

The Gumii Gaayo

Of all the ten grades, the most important, in the Gadaa cycle, is the sixth stage, i.e. 41 to 48 years. It is the kernel stage of the GadaaSystem. This stage is seen as a major landmark in the Oromo philosophical thought. This eight year period begins and ends with a formal power transfer ceremony known as baallii or jarra. (Asmarom, 2000/2006, 217) Baallii is the event that ends the Gadaa of the previous eight years and starts the new one. (Mohammed, 1994, p. 15) “Ritual leader and time reckoning agent (Ayyaantuu) decides when and where to transfer the ‘baallii,’ and creates favorable atmosphere to effect the transfer.” (Dirribi, 2011, 243)

After this formal power transfer ceremony, there is a discourse and a long debate on the substance of the new law. This discourse is the most inclusive event in the Oromo political life (Asmarom, 1973, p. 93); and consequently, the event is known as Gumii Gaayo. “Gumi means ‘the multitude’ because it is a very large assembly made up of many councilors (hayuu) and assemblies (ya’a) drawn from different sections of the Gada institution.” (Asmarom, 2000/2006, p. 97) Thus, the phrase “Gumii Gaayo” literally means “the national assembly.” Asmarom points out that the National Assembly or Gumii is “made up of all the Gada assemblies of the Oromo, who meet, once every eight years, to review the laws, to proclaim new laws, to evaluate the men in power, and to resolve major conflicts that could not be resolved at lower levels of their judicial organization.” (Asmarom, 2000/2006, p. 100) It is “the supreme juridical and formal legislative body” (Bassi, 1996, 155) or “the ultimate high court of” (Helland, 1996, p. 141) Oromo society. As Marco Bassi cautions, however, “it would be misleading to think of it in terms of a central and permanent legislative body on the model of a modern parliament. The Gumii Gaayoo only meets periodically, once every gada period (8 years), and the laws actually proclaimed during each general assembly are really very few.” (Bassi, 1996, p. 155) “The purpose of the meeting is not to promulgate new laws but by reviewing the existing ones to reinforce aadaa [custom], and occasionally to do away with some custom that is felt (usually due to external pressure) has become outdated.” (Leus, 2006, p. 237)

Here, my main concern is not to discuss either the political or the ritual aspect of Gumii Gaayo. Such a thorough discussion has already been carried out by many scholars of the social sciences – who should get all THE CREDIT in this regard. Rather, my central issue of investigation is to analyze and disclose the philosophical mode of thought being imbedded during the long debate and discourse during the major event of Gumii Gaayo as the justification of an ilaaf-fi-ilaamee – philosophic-mode-of-thought. To begin with, this philosophical mode of thought has its origin in the Oromo philosophical distinction between seera — laws and aadaa — “custom”. Of the former one, Asmarom has pointed out:

One of the most interesting aspects of Oromo tradition is that laws are treated as a product of human deliberation not a gift of God or of heroic ancestors.

… the people view the laws as being their own, not something imposed upon them by a divine force, by venerated patriarchal lawgivers, by superior class of learned men, or by “Tradition” in the generic sense. (Asmarom, 2000/2006, pp. 208-209)

In the national assembly, for instance, the Gumii deliberately alter or reaffirm both old and new laws. The Oromo thought about laws is, hence, that they are not immutable. Unlike “customs,” the existing laws can be matter of faculty abrogated to make new laws. “In Oromo culture, laws are known as ‘sera’ customs as ‘ada’ and it is the laws that are subjected to deliberate change.” (Asmarom, 2000/2008, p. 108)

In contradistinction to laws, however, the concept of “customs” is virtually immutable. This is due to epistemological issues. In Oromo philosophical thought, “customs” are considered immutable NOT because they are reasonably justified, but rather because they are BEYOND human knowledge as Reality, with a capital R, cannot be directly observed in jiruu-fi-jireenya-nama — ontological characteristic of human being. As a consequence, accepting the notion of there being a natural law is a necessary base in the Oromo concept of “customs,” for the simple reason that the latter cannot, unlike laws, be subjected to any deliberate change or interpretation. This notion is known as Dhugaa-Ganama, — “the” Primordial-Truth — which is to say “the” Absolute Truth. Any breach of the Primordial-Truth is considered a violation of the act of creation — Uumaa. To say the least, this is to go against the concept of Saffu.

As I have argued above, the whole concept of Saffu — human ontology — is one’s effort to keep a balance between Ayyaanaa andUumaa. Hence, in the Oromo concept of Reality, fatal flaws that exist in jiruu-fi-jireenya-nama — ontological characteristic of human being — are attributed to man’s failure to balance between “the” Primordial-Truth and the laws – rather than resulting from Waaqa’s very act of creation. “The Oromo believe that things go wrong because individuals or their parents might have gone out of the normal track (Safuu) and they advise the person who happens to be in a wrong direction to correct his mistakes and come back to the right track.” (Dirribi, 2011, p. 29) Therefore, what would deliberately be subjected to change is not the Primordial-Truth, which is absolute and eternal per se, but the laws. Yet, the latter ought to be founded on the former for its interpretation. The point is: the Primordial-Truth must be the ultimate ground of one’s interpretations of laws. “The concept Safuu embodies broader idea. Safuu is, in fact, about laws. However, not all laws are safuu. Man-made laws are temporary, they are made to address certain problems and they change over time. Saffu is not subject to change. Safuu is more of about the laws of nature.” (Dirribi, 2011, 75)

Despite this foundation, however, there are still various forms of interpretations. Eventually, this would lead to competing forms ofinterpretation. Hence, since Reality CANNOT be observed directly by an individual, in his/her jiruu-fi-jireenya, NONE of his/her interpretation is taken to be absolute and objective. This directly poses the epistemological problem of determining or identifying the correct or the tenable answer to the case in question. Moreover, the viable solution to the case in question might be obscured by the dominance of worn-out interpretations. At the end, this would blind the observer to an alternative solution to the case in question.

Accordingly, the Oromo have adopted a philosophical approach known as an ilaa-fi-ilaamee – philosophic-mode-of-thought to overcome such an epistemological problem. In many cases, this philosophical mode of thought has been widely manifested in the preliminary and main sessions of Gumii Gaayo. Initially, Gumii Gaayo was intended to provoke an intellectual discourse. “A remarkable aspect of the institution is that managing the assembly requires knowledge of laws, rituals, gada history, chronology and time-reckoning.” (Asmarom, 2000/2006, p. 211) The most important aspect of this intellectual discourse, however, is not the debates themselves which ensue. Rather, it is sober reflection in various discourses that is generated as a means of finding common ground for the meeting of minds.

Gumii is not a debater’s arena but a place for sober reflection. The basic guideline for the deliberations is simply this: Do not look for the worst in what others have said in order to undermine their position and win an argument; look for the best they have to offer, so as to find the common ground…There are many practical strategies that have been developed to help people approach that ideal. (Asmarom, 2000/2006, p. 213)

The main justifiable reason why the Oromo have adopted such an approach is due to their conception of Reality: Uumaa, Waaqa, andSaffu. The very term fi‘and’ — clearly indicates how human “existence” is essentially characterized by both ilaa — “objective” knowledge of an entity and ilaamee — one’s understanding and interpretation of that “entity”. It must be noted that both ilaa and ilaamee are technical terms that have been deeply embedded with philosophic concepts. Ilaa refers to peoples’ views of the “world” as presented and beingunderstood or interpreted in the systematic knowledge of the community. It is their “objective” view of the “world” or an entity in question, although not absolute per se. In Oromo philosophical thought, there is no possibility of having absolute knowledge, except in the case ofWaaqa. Yet, some basic ultimate principles, which universally govern the jiruu-fi-jireenya-nama, are comprehensible to human reason by means of Ayyaanaa. Such knowledge is a priori to and independent of ilaamee.

Ilaamee, on the other hand, refers to one’s understanding and interpretation of these ultimate principles in the space-time world — Uumaa. Put simply, it is a critical explanation of one’s understanding of Uumaa in accordance with the ultimate universal principles — expressed inAyyaanaa. The main implication is that what an individual understands and interprets (i.e. ilaamee) must be essentially conjoined (i.e. —fi—) with “the” Absolute Reality” (i.e. ilaa) of the universe that ultimately rests upon Waaqa, or the Primordial-Truth, or Universal Reality, etc.

Hence, this approach has necessitated an ilaa-fi-ilaamee – philosophic-mode-of-thought on the grounds that NO interpretation can be absolute. In the Oromo philosophy, since the concept of the Primordial-Truth equally serves as the starting point (i.e. ilaa) for an individual’sinterpretation (i.e. ilaamee) of the universe, NO interpretation (I repeat! NO interpretation) is complete in itself. Hence, the tenable form of an interpretation to the case in question must be identified and determined carefully. In so doing, one should adhere to an ilaa-fi-ilaamee – philosophic-mode-of-thought to properly make such an identification as well as any determination. Let me explicate and show how this is the case!

(to be continued)

Note: The responsibility for the article is entirely mine.

Galatoomaa!

——

References

Asmarom L. Gada: Three Approaches to the Study of African Society. New York: The Free Press, 1973.

___________. Oromo Democracy: An Indigenous African Political System. Philadelphia, PA, RSP, 2000/2006.

Baxter, P. T. W., Hultin, J., and Triulzi, A. eds. Being and Becoming Oromo: Historical and Anthropological Enquires. Asmara: The Red Sea Press, Inc., 1996.

Bassi, M. “Power’s Ambiguity or The Political Significance of Gada.” In Being and Becoming Oromo: Historical and Anthropological Enquires, eds. P. T. W. Baxter, John Hultin and Alessandro Triulzi. Asmara: The Red Sea Press, Inc., 1996, 150-161.

Dahl, G. “Sources of Life and Identity.” In Being and Becoming Oromo: Historical and Anthropological Enquires, eds. P. T. W. Baxter, John Hultin and Alessandro Triulzi. Asmara: The Red Sea Press, Inc., 1996, 162-177.

Dirribi D. B. Oromo Wisdom In Black Civilization. Finfinnee: Finfinne Printing and Publishing S. C., 2011.

Gadaa M. Oromiya. Addis Ababa, 1985.

Gemetchu, M. “Oromumma: Tradition, Consciousness and Identity.” eds. P. T. W. Baxter, John Hultin and Alessandro Triulzi. Asmara: The Red Sea Press, Inc., 1996, 92-102.

Helland, J. “The Political Viability of Boorana Pastoralism.” In Being and Becoming Oromo: Historical and Anthropological Enquires eds. P. T. W. Baxter, Jan Hultin and Alessandro Triulzi. Asmara: The Red Sea Press, Inc., 1996, 132-149.

Geleta K. Hirkoo: English-Afan Oromo-Amharic Dictionary. Aster Nega Publishing Enterprise, 2008.

Knutson, K. E. Authority and Change: A Study of the Kallu Institution Among the Macha Galla of Ethiopia. Gӧteborg: Etnografiska Museet, 1967.

Lambert, B. Oromo Religion: Myths and Rites of the Western Oromo of Ethiopia: An Attempt to Understand. Berlin, 1990.

Leus, Ton. Aadaa Boraanaa: A Dictionary of Borana Culture. Addis Ababa: Shama Books, 2006.

Loo, J. V. D. The Religious Practices of the Guji Oromo. Addis Ababa, 1991.

Raayyaa Horoo, Waaqeffannaa. Finfinnee, 2008.

Sumner, Claude, Oromo Wisdom Literature. Vol.1 Addis Ababa: Gudina Tumsa Foundation, 1995.

Yoseph Mulugeta, “The Role of Negritude in Restoring an Indigenous Gada Oromo Political Philosophy for ‘Good Governance’ in Ethiopia.” M. A. Thesis. The Catholic University of Eastern Africa, 2011.

——

* Yoseph Mulugeta Baba received his B.A; M.A; and Ph.D. degrees in Philosophy from the CUEA. His research areas include Metaphilosophy, Oromo Philosophy, Continental Philosophy, Post-colonial African Political Philosophy, Postmodernism, and Ethiopian historiography. Currently, he is completing his forthcoming book (CUEA PRESS) — on ‘The Ilaa-fi-Ilaamee Philosophical Method of Enquiry.’ He can be reached at kankokunmalimaali@gmail.com.

 

 

 

The Oromo Concept of Reality or Dhugaa-Ganama

By Yoseph Mulugeta Baba (Ph.D.)*
Part IV
In an ilaa-fi-ilaamee-philosophic-mode-of-thought, what identifies and determines the possibility or the tenability of an answer to the case in question is not a form of an interpretation that an individual employs, but the case in question itself. InGumii Gaayo, the tenability of the solution has nothing to do with the form of an interpretation that one offers. It is, rather, determined by what the problem at issue is. When Gumii meet every eight years and a long debate is held between hayyu — councilors and ya’a — assemblies, what becomes apparent first is not the proclamation of or the interpretation of the new laws. Nor, is it the resolving of whatever major conflicts could not be resolved at lower levels of their judicial organization. It is rather, the reality of various forms of questions that essentially arise from a life-crises in the jiruu-fi-jireenya-nama, crises which every individual and the community have experienced with in different Gadaa classes.
The Gumii sees and discusses what the Gadaa has done for the country during the last eight years. The Gumii shows the right direction to the Gadaa, and whenever they are on wrong ways, it suggests ways of filling the gaps observed in the duties of the Gadaa. The Gumii deposes the Gadaa who misuses the power of the people; and Oromo is governed or administered by the laws formulated by human beings (the rule of law) in contrast to the divine or religious rules; and there is no more witness than the function of Gumii for this. ( Dirribi, 2011, p. 258)
As such, each interpretation and its understanding must be radically based on the reality of the class then in leadership which will last for eight years. Hence, the period of eight years provides horizonsthrough which individuals must echo the life-crisis that they have gone through and experienced.
In this manner, whenever competing interpretations arise, one can clearly identify as well as determine the tenable mode of interpretation to the problem at hand. It would thus be absurd to try to offer a tenable answer without a proper knowledge of what the case at issue is. Therefore, the philosophical thought that characterizes Gumii Gaayo can be subsumed under three claims:
  1. A tenable solution to any problem is determined by the case in question that comes to be identified during every Gadaa class of eight years.
  2. The mode of interpretation used for the problem at issue is a determinant of the tenability of a solution to a life-crisis in the jiruu-fi-jireenya-nama— ontological characteristic of human being.
  3. Ergo, it is not impossible for the latter claim to be unconditionally determined by the former claim, but not viceversa.
As I have argued above, Gumii is not the debater’s arena but a place for sober reflection. The main reason is that once the case in question is identified, there should be little room for the radical mode of thought. A radical mode of thought is a peculiar fallacy that inherently involves defending or refuting any form of a thesis on the grounds that it was the answer when one’s own method of enquiry was used. However, ‘x’ or ‘y’ does so without admitting that, wittingly or unwittingly, a correct thesis can only be arrived at by the case in question rather than a method of enquiry of one’s choosing. 
Therefore, the assumption that the case in question essentially determines any form of interpretation and its tenability is the crux of an ilaa-fi-ilaamee-philosophic-mode-thought. Consequently, the mode of reasoning and an individual’s very intention is neither to justify his/her interpretation nor to dismiss that of the others. Rather, it is to give a proper and tenable form of interpretation in accordance with the case in question. As such, an individual should arrive at two judgments: (a) a decision to successfully dismiss any radical mode of though; and (b) a decision to impartially identify a tenable solution to the problem at hand. In this manner, one can dismiss some pseudo-epistemological assumptions inherent not only in one’s interpretation, but also in that of others. Asmarom is thus quite right when he explicitly affirms the basic principles that underlie Gumii: “Do not look for the worst in what others have said in order to undermine their position and to win an argument; look for the best they have to offer, so as to find the common ground for the meeting of minds.” (Asmarom, 2000/2006, p. 213)
Hence, in an ilaa-fi-ilaamee-philosophic-mode-of-thought, the central issue is not to take a stand, but to properly understand the case in question. It is not to win an argument. Nor is it an art of getting one’s own way. Neither is it an arguing for a desired outcome so that others get out of one’s way without being challenged intellectually. Neither is it a way to place Others under one’s mental bondage by forcing them to accept one’s understanding of Reality. Nor is it seen as a positive value to hold onto a rigid approach to the last dying effort. In contradistinction, an ilaa-fi-ilaamee-mode-of-thought involves becoming aware of alternative solutions based on whatever the case at issue is. For in reality there is nosuch thing as a solution without a consideration of the case in question, just as there is not any form of question without pondering a given life crisis in jiruu-fi-jireenya-nama.
Here the question arises whether Heidegger was always original in his way of conceiving Dasein i.e.jiruu-fi-jireenyaa-nama. According to Heidegger, the Dasein is a distinctive being (Sein) compared with all other beings (Seiendes); i.e. it is a being (Seiendes) whose Being (Sein) not only has the determinative character of existence, but also is endowed with the privilege of understanding Being. (Heidegger, 1978, p. 32) To do indigenous thinkers/philosophers justice, we need to take a closer look at the fundamental distinction which characterizes the thought of Oromo philosophy’s of jireenya—existence. This is the distinction between jiruu-fi-jireenyaa-nama and jireenya. As I argued in my previous articles, in Oromo philosophical thought, it would be meaningless or absurd to identify human “existence” with that of the existence of other entities. Man’s very “existence” differs by virtue of his/her “activity”. In contradistinction to all other entities—jireenya—the very jiruu-fi-jireenyaa-nama is endowed with understanding and interpreting his/her “activity”. It is capable of understanding Reality (UumaaWaaqa,Saffu) as this manifested in the systematic knowledge of the “world”—Ilaa.
In a similar vein, it is capable of interpretingIlaamee—one’s understanding in the space-time world—Uumaa. The jiruu-fi-jireenyaa-nama manifests itself in its temporality and everydayness has to be interpreted—IlaameeIlaamee is always a process of understanding and then interpreting the Ilaa. This is crystal clear in Gumii Gaayo where the period of eight years (Gadaa) provides horizons through which individual echoes the life-crises s/he has gone through and experienced. Therefore, Heidegger’s conceptions of Dasein and hermeneutic phenomenology can hardly be original, in a thorough sense.
(to be continued)

Note: The responsibility for the article is entirely mine.

Galatoomaa!

References

  • Asmarom L. Gada: Three Approaches to the Study of African Society. New York: The Free Press, 1973.
  • ___________. Oromo Democracy: An Indigenous African Political System. Philadelphia, PA, RSP, 2000/2006.
  • Baxter, P. T. W., Hultin, J., and Triulzi, A. eds. Being and Becoming Oromo: Historical and   Anthropological Enquires. Asmara: The Red Sea Press, Inc., 1996.
  • Bassi, M. “Power’s Ambiguity or The Political Significance of Gada.” In Being and Becoming   Oromo: Historical and Anthropological Enquires, eds. P. T. W. Baxter, John Hultin and Alessandro Triulzi. Asmara: The Red Sea Press, Inc., 1996, 150-161.
  • Dahl, G. “Sources of Life and Identity.” In Being and Becoming Oromo: Historical and Anthropological Enquires, eds. P. T. W. Baxter, John Hultin and Alessandro Triulzi. Asmara: The Red Sea Press, Inc., 1996, 162-177.
  • Dirribi D. B. Oromo Wisdom In Black Civilization. Finfinnee: Finfinne Printing and Publishing S. C., 2011.
  • Gada M. Oromiya. Addis Ababa, 1985.
  • Gemetchu, M. “Oromumma: Tradition, Consciousness and Identity.” eds. P. T. W. Baxter, John Hultin and Alessandro Triulzi. Asmara: The Red Sea Press, Inc., 1996, 92-102.
  • Heidegger, M. Being and Time. Trans. John Macquarrie and Edward Robinson. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1978.
  • Helland, J. “The Political Viability of Boorana Pastoralism.” In Being and Becoming Oromo: Historical and Anthropological Enquires eds. P. T. W. Baxter, Jan Hultin and Alessandro Triulzi. Asmara: The Red Sea Press, Inc., 1996, 132-149.
  • Geleta K. Hirkoo: English-Afan Oromo-Amharic Dictionary. Aster Nega Publishing Enterprise, 2008.
  • Knutson, K. E. Authority and Change: A Study of the Kallu Institution Among the Macha Galla of Ethiopia. Gӧteborg: Etnografiska Museet, 1967.
  • Lambert, B. Oromo Religion: Myths and Rites of the Western Oromo of Ethiopia:  An Attempt to Understand. Berlin, 1990.
  • Leus, Ton. Aadaa Boraanaa: A Dictionary of Borana Culture. Addis Ababa: Shama Books, 2006.
  • Loo, J. V. D. The Religious Practices of the Guji Oromo. Addis Ababa, 1991.
  • Raayyaa Horoo, Waaqeffannaa. Finfinnee, 2008.
  • Sumner, Claude, Oromo Wisdom Literature. Vol.1 Addis Ababa: Gudina Tumsa Foundation, 1995.
  • Yoseph Mulugeta, “The Role of Negritude in Restoring an Indigenous Gada Oromo Political Philosophy for ‘Good Governance’ in Ethiopia.” M. A. Thesis. The Catholic University of Eastern Africa, 2011.

yoseph_mulugeta_baba*Yoseph Mulugeta Baba received his B.A; M.A; and Ph.D degrees in Philosophy from the CUEA. His research areas include Metaphilosophy, Oromo Philosophy, Continental Philosophy, Post-colonial African Political Philosophy, Postmodernism, and Ethiopian historiography. Currently, he is completing his forthcoming book (CUEA PRESS)—on The Ilaa-fi-Ilaamee Philosophical Method of Enquiry. He can be reached at kankokunmalimaali@gmail.com.

North East Africa: The Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization (UNPO) welcomes the founding of the Peoples’ Alliance for Freedom and Democracy (PAFD), the Genuinely-Multinational Coalition in Ethiopia, covers over 70% area (population) in Ethiopia October 27, 2015

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???????????PAFD, the genuinely-multinational coalition for freedom and democracy in Ethiopia, covers greater than 70% of area in Ethiopia

(UNPO, 26 October 2015, Brussels)The Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization (UNPO) welcomes the founding of the Peoples’ Alliance for Freedom and Democracy (PAFD), established on 23 October 2015. This unprecedented political alliance between the peoples in Ethiopia is the result of a two-day meeting held in Oslo, Norway, between delegates of the Ogaden National Liberation Front (ONLF), Oromo Liberation Front (OLF), Benishangul People’s Liberation Movement (BPLM), Gambella People’s Liberation Movement (GPLM), and Sidama National Liberation Front (SNLF). Acknowledging the need for a united effort to put an end to the enduring repression perpetrated by successive and current Ethiopian regimes, the goal of the Peoples’ Alliance for Freedom and Democracy is to bring a new just political order for the country based on the consents of all peoples.

Although the founding document of the PAFD has just been signed, the initiative already represents a crucial milestone in the struggle for human rights and democracy in Ethiopia. Against the backdrop of decades of blatant disregard of the rule of law, and brutal suppression of the most fundamental human rights by the Ethiopian government, the PAFD arises as a platform that will unify the voices of the oppressed peoples in the country. Through diplomatic, advocacy and awareness campaigns, the PAFD will foster favourable conditions for achieving a peaceful and orderly transfer of power to the peoples by engaging representatives of all the different nationalities and other stakeholders committed to genuine democracy.

Since early 2015, UNPO has actively sought to create favourable conditions for dialogue between diverse marginalised groups in Ethiopia who seek democratic change, most notably through the convening of a high-level conference at the European Parliament on 23 April 2015, with the support of five Members of the European Parliament. In light of the conclusion of the conference – that real democratic change and cessation of ongoing human rights abuses can only be achieved through joint action involving all ethnic and political opposition movements – the founding of the PAFD represents a concrete and meaningful step forward. UNPO applauds this remarkable step towards ensuring the Ethiopian peoples’ voices are better heard and calls upon the international community, including the European Union, the United Nations and the Government of the United States of America, to seize this unique opportunity to bring democratic change in Ethiopia. By cutting direct funding to the Ethiopian government, 50% of whose budget relies on foreign aid, there is a real opportunity to achieve an end to state sponsored human rights violations and pave the way for democracy and long term stability.

UNPO Press Release

Press Release, Peoples Alliance for Freedom and Democracy

Declaration of Peoples Alliance for Freedom and Democracy

The middle class in Africa October 27, 2015

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???????????population in multidimensional poverty

 

 

Africa: Why we are getting poorer when the official figures say we are getting richer http://wp.me/p1xhGr-7n

5whaudit

The current issue (October 24) issue of The Economist posed the puzzling question of why the middle class in Africa is so small after a decade in which economic growth has averaged more than 5% a year, about twice as fast as population growth. Two reasons are opined;
(1) The proceeds of economic growth are shared very unequally. In recent years inequality has increased alongside growth in most parts of Africa, and
(2) Poverty in many parts of Africa is so deep that even though incomes may have doubled for millions of people, they are now merely poor rather than extremely poor.

I wish to put forth a third reason. Most of the economic growth comes from the fabled FDI (Foreign Direct Investment) – not a bad thing (every country is jostling for it). Except that with little or no local value addition to the operations of the transnational corporations…

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Ethiopia’s agriculture boom yields a bare harvest for poor as El Niño bites, officials attempt to downplay the crisis. October 27, 2015

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Ethiopia may be portrayed as an emerging African powerhouse, but prolonged drought has left 8.2 million people facing a major food security crisis

 in Mieso district, The Guardian
Mohammed Jibril and his family
Mohammed Jibril and his family in Mieso district West Hararghe Zone in Oromia region. Photograph: William Davison

On a bright afternoon in east Ethiopia, Mohammed Jibril’s family is passing around corncobs roasted over a fire. Bulky cows lounge on the other side of a shady tree, munching from a golden carpet of cereal.

It is a picturesque rural scene, complete with a forested mountain towering over the plains. Yet Jibril is worried and, when asked about this year’s crops from his three hectares of land, he is scathing. “What would I harvest?” he asks, gesticulating at his scrappy cornfield.

Due to a lack of rain, Jibril, 28, expects to collect only about 400kg of corn. Times were better a decade ago in the Mieso district of West Hararghe Zone, in Ethiopia’s Oromia region; back then, Jibril harvested up to 20 times that amount. Now most of his failed crop is only useful as fodder for his herd.

The story is the same across almost all of eastern Ethiopia, after a succession of supposed rainy seasons largely failed to materialise. The crisis has left 8.2 million of the country’s 96 million people in need of food aid – a number that could almost double in 2016as the effects of El Niño linger.

Jibril spent $100 (£65) renting a tractor this year; by his side is a Kalashnikov rifle worth more than $1,000. He is not among the poorest in Ethiopia, but he is worried about the immediate future. “If I don’t sell the cows they will run out of food and die before the next harvest,” he said. He has sold three this year, but at a steep discount as farmers all around him also offload livestock before the situation worsens.

As with the last dry spell, in 2011, Ethiopia’s government, with foreign assistance, looks likely to prevent the catastrophes of the past. In 1973, Emperor Haile Selassie’s neglect for the countryside led to the deaths of about 300,000 – and helped topple his regime a year later. A decade later, civil war during a socialist dictatorship led to famine when rains failed. Aid workers think the current development-focused administration, experienced at crisis management after almost 25 years in power, can cope. This month officials said the government has allocated $192m for relief efforts.

But the severity of the crisis raises questions about why Ethiopia still needs emergency aid and food imports given the nation’s agriculture-led economic growth and decades of development assistance from donors.

The government is commended by partners for its pro-poor budgeting, which means directing spending towards water, health, education, agriculture and infrastructure. With agriculture employing almost 80% of the workforce, improving farm productivity is key. The primary focus has been providing advice, seeds and fertiliser to smallholders. Over the past five years the government has also encouraged large-scale farming, which has not yet added significantly to food production. And in 2011, with assistance from donors such as the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, the government created the Agricultural Transformation Agency to boost yields and improve value chains.

Those efforts have led to agricultural growth that has averaged 6.6% a year since 2010, according to the finance ministry. What has not happened is the eradication of severe poverty and vulnerability. The UN Development Programmeconcluded this year that although Ethiopia’s poverty rate dropped from 39% in 2005 to 26% in 2013, the number of people in extreme poverty remained at roughly 25 million due to population growth.

Even if food surpluses were available from fertile areas in the highlands to the west, it is not clear they would reach those in the east. The government created a commodity exchange in 2008, again with donor support, that was supposed to modernise food markets. But seven years later, the bourse is still primarily a trading post for the country’s main exports, such as coffee and sesame. It has yet to change the way staple foods are distributed around the country.

According to the government’s bullish predictions, food surpluses should be available next year, and the economy will keep growing rapidly. During previous El Niño years, the economy shrunk by up to 5%. But the finance ministry says growth of approximately 10% – driven also by infrastructure spending and a construction boom – will not be affected this time because agriculture is now less dependent on rain, and the economy is less dependent on agriculture. The ministry’s data says 39% of gross domestic product now stems from farming, compared with 45% in 2010.

In areas like Mieso, the change is not evident. The ground under even the more arid stretches is believed to hold enough water to irrigate swaths of land, according to local experts, but the investment has not been made to harness it. After the east African food crisis in 2011, the talk was of building up the resilience of communities to drought, but achieving this will be tough, said an NGO head, who did not want to be named. “It’s really, really expensive to make boreholes, it’s really really, expensive to make irrigation. If we had unlimited funds it wouldn’t be a problem, but we don’t.”

Others blame tiny smallholdings and insecure land tenures as one of the key reasons that millions of Ethiopian farmers do not move beyond rain-dependent subsistence. The state owns all land in Ethiopia.

Whatever the underlying reasons, with the crisis running counter to the narrative of an ascendant African powerhouse leaving poverty behind, some aid agency members were concerned at official attempts to downplay the crisis.

“There is this huge competition for scarce emergency resources around the world, so you really have to push. But without a big push from the government – they’ve been saying two things at the same time, ‘Help us’, and ‘Everything’s fine’ – that mixed messaging sure does not help in getting the resources,” said another charity executive, speaking anonymously. Most foreigners working in Ethiopia for NGOs, embassies, or international organisations do not criticise Ethiopia’s government publicly due to concerns their work will be affected.

Ethiopian officials now seem to have changed their tone, with the prime minister, Hailemariam Desalegn, visiting affected areas and his government making a clear appeal for assistance in unison with the international community. A total of $340m is needed just for the rest of this year.

“The challenge we have before us is incredibly serious, and it will take the collective effort of the entire international community to support the government in preventing the worst effects of El Niño now and well into next year,” said John Aylieff, from the World Food Programme, earlier this month.

Sneak Peak: Oromo Cultural Night October 27, 2015

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Kenya: Oromo Refugees and Asylum Seekers are at Risk October 27, 2015

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HRLHA

HRLHA’s Urgent Action and Appeal

October 25, 2015

For Immediate Release

Contact Details

Appeal To: The President of the Republic of Kenya 
Your Excellency President Uhuru Kenyatta
President of the Republic of Kenya
Nairobi
Box 74434-00200
Nairobi, Kenya
Tel: 254 203 247000
Your Excellency,

First of all, the Human Rights League of the Horn of Africa (HRLHA) would like to express its appreciation to the people of Kenya and to its government for their hospitality and kindness towards thousands of Oromo and other refugees and asylum seekers who have fled their homes to escape government persecutions in Ethiopia, and who are now residing in different parts of the Republic of Kenya including in the capital city, Nairobi. Since the early 1990’s, when the TPLF government came to power to the present, hundreds of thousands of Oromo and other nationals have run away from arbitrary detentions, degrading tortures and violent killings in Ethiopia to save their lives by seeking refuge in the Republic of Kenya and other neighboring countries.

However, the Human Rights League of the Horn of Africa (HRLHA) expresses its deep concern regarding the safety of all Oromo national refugees and asylum seekers presently residing in the Republic of Kenya because of the document it recently received from its informants. The document was written by the Ethiopian Government agency, the so called “Anti-Terrorist Unit”, and sent to the Republic of Kenya Government. It addresses the bi-lateral agreement signed by both countries in 2012.

In this communique, the Ethiopian Government’s “Anti-Terrorist Unit” reminds the Republic of Kenya Government of the bi-lateral agreement made between the two countries in 2012, an agreement that expresses issues of common interest such as terrorism on which both countries should find a common

 

solution. document

The communique discloses the names of 131 Oromo Nationals and their addresses and telephone numbers in Nairobi and in different township areas; the agency claimed the source of its information was the Ethiopian intelligence unit.  In the names listed among the 131 Oromo Nationals in this communique is Mr. Dabassa Guyyo, an Oromo cultural legend who recently disappeared in Nairobi. His name was at the top of the list. (#1).

List of Oromo National Refugees and Asylum seekers in Kenya labeled as terrorists by the so- called “ANTI TERRORIST UNIT”, the Ethiopian Government agent.

No Name Sex No Name Sex
1 Dabasa Guyo M 67 Fawaz Ahmed M
2 Dirirsa Kejela (Wakjira) M 68 Lami Sori M
3 Dachas Roba M 69 Abdo Asabot M
4 Shamil Aliyi M 70 Lenco Eliyas M
5 Keranso Abdisa M 71 Asha Bire F
6 Mahamed Abaye M 72 Faxe Aniya F
7 Gaddisa Lammi M 73 Diribe Gada F
8 Alemayehu Iddosa M 74 Aman Gobena M
9 Tolera Mogasa M 75 Shafis Akil M
10 Shaga Arado M 76 Tajudin Ibrahim M
11 Abdusalam Muktar M 77 Temesgen Kumsa M
12 Galgalo Jilo M 78 Maya Dagale M
13 Fikadu Dirriba M 79 Abdata Saba M
14 Gosaye Anota M 80 Shifera Kumala M
15 Jamal Ibro M 81 Lami Dugasa M
16 Chali Nagasa M 82 Mahadi Harar M
17 Kalil Mohamed M 83 Shamsadi Abdurazak M
18 Mohamed Taha M 84 Godana Nure M
19 Mohamed Zakaria M 85 Hawi Falmata F
20 Mohamed Abdullah M 86 Fardosa Mohamed M
21 Idris Negawo M 87 Fatiya Ame F
22 Shukuri Mohamed M 88 Roba Gada M
23 Buke Chulo M 89 Yomsan Abaye M
24 Abdi Guddina M 90 Mohamed Kedir M
25 Ana Saba M 91 Ayub Hussien M
26 Bahar Harari M 92 Tahir Kadir M
27 Lemo Wariyo M 93 Adele Ahmed M
28 Wayu Malka M 94 Tura Ahmed M
29 Tamam Ahmed M 95 Alemayehu Wallaga M
30 Magarsa Bikila M 96 Chala Ragassa M
31 Galgalo Dhiri M 97 Fira’ol Ambo M
32 Kadir Jale M 98 Hailu Jifara M
33 Falma Roro M 99 Lucho Bayitu M
34 Obsa Lenco M 100 Shifera Biranu M
35 Mustafa Boki M 101 Nuradin Musa M
36 Gugsa Tulu M 102 Mahadi Jundi M
37 Dida Kena’a M 103 Waljira Mangasha M
38 Gaga Jimma M 104 Tiya Nure M
39 Gada Mulatu M 105 Anane Tamiry M
40 Bontu Ambo F 106 Dure Nagasa M
41 Barnan Saba M 107 Dika Godana M
42 Abdi Denge M 108 Dalacha Iddi M
43 Nur Kadir M 109 Galane Dasta F
44 Sa’id Hussein M 110 Alemayehu Kitaw M
45 Berhanu Mulisa (Tola) M 111 Mikael Wallaga M
46 Abdi Hirphasa M 112 Kasu Wallaga M
47 Tolasa Gada M 113 Solomon Wallaga M
48 Aman Samuna M 114 Mohamed Hussein M
49  Bilisumma Hordofa M 115 Birhanu Ambo M
50 Fita Mideksa M 116 Abdurashad Marfo M
51 Abdullah Ahmed M 117 Badhne Kafani M
52 Darara Irbo M 118 Solomon Kebede M
53 Jalata Wallaga M 119 Mekonen Beyene M
54 Milkessa Wakjira M 120 Zalalem Teshome M
55 Sanyi Wallaga M 121 Habib Hussein M
56 Yeron Biru M 122 Abdo Hebo M
57 Daku Gababa M 123 Tahir Hassen M
58 Timaj Taha M 124 Abba Arsiti M
59 Misira Mama M 125 Mohamed  Tahir M
60 Badriya Boro F 126 Abba Hussein M
61 Badriya Nur F 127 Haji Abas M
62 Maksina Amano M 128 Abdullah Hamza M
63 Abdi Ibrahim M 129 Aba Qube M
64 Aliyi Sabit M 130 Haji Hassen kalid M
65 Chala Bultum M 131 Omar Alqadir M
66 Jafar Yusuf M

dabassa_guyyo

The disappearance of Mr. Dabassa Guyyo Safarro is disheartening and HRLHA is deeply shocked.

Mr. Dabassa Guyyo Safarro, age 80, a resident of Mololongo, Kenya for more than thirty- five years disappeared on September 27, 2015 in Nairobi.  The HRLHA is highly suspicious that the disappearance of Mr. Dabassa Guyyo  Safarro is connected with the campaign of Ethiopian authorities labelling Oromo refugees in Nairobi as terrorists.  HRLHA also suspect that Mr. Dabassa Guyyo Safarro is being held in Nairobi, or might have been deported to Ethiopia. In either case the Kenyan Authorities have an international legal obligation to not hand over Ethiopian refugee and asylum seekers residing in their territory to the Ethiopian Government and need to disclose the whereabouts of Mr. Dabassa Goya Safarro to his family and the public- and give the reason for his arrest.

In case Mr. Dabassa Guyyo Safarro has been handed over to Ethiopia, it should be noted that the Ethiopian Government has a well-documented record of gross and flagrant violations of human rights, including the torturing of its own citizens who were involuntarily returned to the country. The government of Ethiopia routinely imprisons such persons and sentences them to life in prison, and often imposes the death penalty. There have been credible reports of physical and psychological abuses committed against individuals in Ethiopian official prisons and other unofficial or secret detention centers. Under Article 33 (1) of the Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees (189 U.N.T.S. 150), to which Kenya is a party, “[n] o contracting state shall expel or forcibly return a refugee in any manner whatsoever to the frontiers of territories where his life or freedom would be threatened on account of his. . . Political opinion.” This obligation, which is also a principle of customary international law, applies to both asylum seekers and refugees, as affirmed by UNHCR’s Executive Committee and the United Nations General Assembly. By deporting refugees, the Republic of Kenya Government will be breaching its obligations under international treaties as well as customary law.

  1. Under the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (1465 U.N.T.S. 185) to which Kenya agreed in 1997, Kenya has an obligation not to return a person to a place where they face torture or ill-treatment. Article 3 of the Convention against Torture provides: No state party shall expel, return (“refouler”) or extradite a person to another state where there are substantial grounds to believe that they would be in danger of being subjected to torture.
  2. For the purpose of determining whether there are such grounds, the competent authorities shall take into account all relevant considerations including, where applicable, the existence in the state concerned of a consistent pattern of gross, flagrant or mass violations of human rights. We strongly urge the government of Kenya to respect the international treaties and obligations it has signed and ratified.

Therefore, HRLHA would like to draw the attention of Western Governments, the UN Human Rights Council, the EU Human Rights Commission, the African People’s and Human Rights Commission as well as other regional and international human rights organizations and NGOs to these worrisome safety situations of Oromo refugees in the Republic of Kenya and take all necessary actions against:

Background Information:

The Kenyan Government is well known for handing over refugees to the Ethiopian Government by violating the above mentioned international obligations. It is very disheartening to recall that Engineer Tesfahun Chemeda, who was tortured to death on August 24, 2013 in Ethiopia’s grand jail of Kaliti, was handed over to Ethiopian Government Security Agents in 2007 by the Kenyan Government. Tesfahun Chemeda was arrested by the Kenyan anti-terrorist forces, along with his close friend Mesfin Abebe, in 2007 in Nairobi, Kenya, where both had lived as refugees since 2005. Both were later deported to Ethiopia. The Ethiopian Government detained them in an underground jail in a military camp for over one year, during which time they were subjected to severe torture and other types of inhuman treatment until when they were taken to court and changed with terrorism offenses in December 2008. They were eventually sentenced to life imprisonment in March 2010. (Mesfin’s death sentence was later commuted.)

The Human Rights League of the Horn of Africa (HRLHA) is highly concerned for the safety and security of  Mr Dabasa Guyyo Safarro who disappeared in Nairobi on September 27, 2015, whose name along with the above listed refugees was also labeled by the Ethiopian Government as terrorists and  those who are still living in Kenya. It urges the government of Kenya to respect the international treaties and obligations, to not cooperate with the Ethiopian unfounded allegations and disclose the whereabouts of Mr. Dabassa Guyyo Safarro. The Kenyan Government should also reject the unfounded allegations of Ethiopian Government against Oromo national refugees and asylum seekers residing in Kenya.

HRLHA requests the governments of the Western countries as well as international organizations to interfere in this matter so that the whereabouts of Mr. Dabassa Guyyo are disclosed and safety and security of the refugees of those currently staying in Kenya are ensured.

RECOMMENDED ACTION:

  1. Please send appeals to the President, the Kenyan Parliament and Ministry of Justice of the Republic of Kenya and its concerned officials as swiftly as possible, in English, or your own language expressing
  2. Urging the authorities of Kenya to ensure that Mr. Dabassa Guyyo Safarro is treated in accordance with regional and international standards on the treatment of prisoners
  3. Urging the authorities in Kenya to completely reject the unfounded allegation of the Ethiopian Dictatorial Government about Oromo refugees living in Kenya.

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The World Bank’s approach to human rights is disingenuous, outdated and “deeply troubling”, an independent UN investigator has said. October 24, 2015

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Senior UN official castigates World Bank over its approach to human rights

By Sam Jones, The Guardian,  22nd October 2015

http://www.theguardian.com/global-development/2015/oct/22/world-bank-human-rights-un-special-rapporteur-philip-alston

 

 
UN special rapporteur accuses bank of leading ‘race to the bottom’ on human rights, and says organisation is better at talking about issues than tackling them.

‘They won’t touch human rights’ … Philip Alston, the UN special rapporteur on extreme poverty and human rights, has taken aim at the World Bank.

The World Bank’s approach to human rights is disingenuous, outdated and “deeply troubling”, an independent UN investigator has said.

Professor Philip Alston, the UN special rapporteur on extreme poverty and human rights, said that after 40 years of inconclusive internal discussions, the Washington-based organisation and its 188 member countries had to realise they could no longer separate human rights from development financing.
World Bank funding ‘shrouded in darkness and riddled with abuse.’

“The bank has for a long time played a double game where a lot of the publicity suggests that they are engaging intensively with human rights. You’ll find many references on their websites. They have conferences every year where there are lots of panels on human rights and so on,” he said.

“But the reality is the exact opposite. They can talk about these issues but when it comes to country programming and the advice and so on that they give – which is their core mission – they won’t touch human rights.”

The World Bank Group, which spent $61bn (£39bn) supporting developing countries last year, has often been criticised for failing to take into account the impact its projects can have on human rights.

The World Bank has rejected Alston’s claims.

In a recent and unusually scathing report, Alston described the bank’s approach to human rights as “incoherent, counterproductive and unsustainable”, adding that it was for most purposes, “a human rights free zone”, and an institution whose operational policies treat human rights “more like an infectious disease than universal values and obligations”.

The special rapporteur, a law professor at New York University, rejects the bank’s argument that a “political prohibition” clause prevents it from becoming involved in the “political affairs of any member” and that its decisions can be governed only by economic considerations.

 

“I see that legal analysis as bankrupt,” he said. “It is not in line with anything else the bank does. They have singled out human rights as almost the only issue that they would see as political [yet] they engage in the full range of environmental issues, which are deeply political. They engage in governance, which is entirely political, they engage in anti-corruption campaigns. None of these is characterised as political. But suddenly they draw the line at human rights and I think this is very artificial.”

Such an interpretation, he added, was based on cold war thinking rather than the 21st century, when human rights are enshrined in a range of international treaties to which almost every state has signed up.

Alston argues that building human rights into the decision-making process also makes economic sense. He points to Tunisia before the revolution that triggered the Arab spring.

“If you looked at the bank’s analysis, things were going great in Tunisia. It was a good investment, etcetera. If you looked at all the human rights groups, they would tell you that things were very grim in Tunisia, that there were many problems and they would suggest that the model was not sustainable.

The World​ Bank arguing that the whole development equation can be kept separate from human rights is deeply troubling.
“That’s not to say that the bank should have switched over and been an Amnesty International when looking at Tunisia, but if you and I are sitting in Washington DC, working out what policy we’re going to have towards Tunisia, it would make a very big difference if we factor in the reports that are coming in from human rights sources and we might then start to develop the programming in a different way to take account of what the risks really were.”

Alston also said that the advent of two rival development banks – the China-led Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank and the Brics’ New Development Bank – could actually offer the World Bank an opportunity.

“Some people point at the new banks and say, ‘That’s why the World Bank can’t have high human rights standards, because it won’t be able to compete with new banks that don’t care about human rights,” he said.

“The irony in fact is that what those other banks seem to be doing so far is simply replicating the World Bank’s very low standards.”

He added: “It’s the World Bank that has led the race to the bottom rather than the other two. [Yet human rights] could be its strength.”

 

Despite his criticisms, Alston pointed to the bank’s major role in the fight against HIV/Aids and Ebola and said it would play “the key role” in the sustainable development agenda over the next 15 years.

“It has the capacity to do these things, it’s got a very sophisticated staff,” he said.

“Much of what it does is very progressive, and that’s why I think it’s a big mistake to suddenly have what one might call, in another context, this Chinese wall separating human rights out. That really just puts them at a disadvantage.

“To have the thought leader arguing, in effect, that the whole development equation can be kept separate from human rights is deeply troubling”.

Alston acknowledged that human rights policy could be extremely problematic, but said that was no excuse for the bank’s member states to avoid a debate on the issue.

“I think there’s been a lot of convenient defeatism on the part of some of the western countries who all say, ‘We stand for human rights but we just don’t see the support out there. The political environment is not strong’. I think that’s a sellout, that sort of argument. With human rights, you’re always pushing against barriers.”

He conceded that his choice of words in the report was not “the normal diplomatic language” but said he felt he had to opt for bluntness.

“The thing that frustrates me most is that a report like mine comes out and what you get are a few dismissive comments attributed to the spokesperson or whoever, but no engagement with the issues,” he said.

“Where’s it wrong? In what ways are the facts that I describe inaccurate? Where are human rights brought into any of their programming? But they haven’t engaged in that debate and I think that’s a real problem.”

A spokesman for the World Bank said Alston’s report had fundamentally misrepresented its position on human rights, adding the bank was disappointed that he was using his voluntary position as a special rapporteur to present “a distorted picture” of the its work.

The spokesman went on: “Human rights principles are essential for sustainable development and are consistently applied in our work to end poverty and boost shared prosperity. For decades, the World Bank has argued that human rights and development are mutually reinforcing.”

Oromia: Sabboonan Oromoo Barataa Tarreessaa Safaraamooraa Yunivarsiitii Mattuu keessatti Ajjeefame. Oromo national Tarreessaa Safaraa, Engineering student at Mattu University murdered by TPLF/ Ethiopian Security agents on 23rd October 2015 October 24, 2015

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(Oromedia, Mattuu, 24 Onkoloolessa 2015) Yeroo addaddaatti hidhaa keessatti dararamaa kan ture Barataa Tarreessaa Safaraa Onkololessa 23 galgala mooraa Yunivarsiitii Mattuu keessatti ajjeefamuun gabaasame.

Tarreessaa Safara_nMaddi gabaasaa keenyaa akka himetti, barataan kun yeroo hedduu humnoota tikaatiin hordofamaa ture.

Hiriyyoota isaattis, akka hordofamaa jiru himaa ture.

Tarreessaan eenyuu?

Barataa Tarreessaa Safaraa utuu barnoota idileerra jiruu bara 1999 barataa kutaa 11 ta’ee osoo jiruu yakka shororkeessummaan himatamee murteen waggaa 10 erga itti murtaa’e.  Kanumaan mana hidhaa Maa’ikelaawwii, Qaallittii, Qilinxoo fi Zuwaayitti jijjiiramee hidhamaa ture.

Haataúutii baratan kun yeroo hidhaa keessa turetti, hidhaa fi roorroof otuu hin jilbeeffanne, hiree argametti dhimma bahee beekumsaa fi dandeettii isa aguddifachaa ture.

Wayita mana hidhaa turettis tattaaffii inni waa dubbisee waa barachuuf godhaa ture namooti hedduu dinqisiifachaa kan turan hiriyooti isaa ragaa bahu.

Turtii waggaa jahaa fi ji’a saddet booda mana hidhaa bahe barnoota isaa bara 2007 xumuruun bara kana yuniversiitii Mattuutti ramadamee ture; akkanaan barnootatti deebi’uun hawwiisaa galmaan gahachuuf carraaqqii godheen Yunivarsiitii Mattuu muummee Injiinariingii seene.

Tarreessaa Eenyutu ajjeesee?

Oduun caasaa mootummaa iffaa facaafama ajiru, tarreessaan of ajjeese kan jedhuudha. Haata’uutii, Tarreessan sababa of ajjeesuuf akka hin qabne, kanneen itti dhiyaatan ragaa dha. “Tarreessaan of ajjeese jedhamee himamaa jira; kun waan taúu natti hin fakaatu,” kan jedhe barataan nageenya isaatiif jecha maqaa isaa jijjiiree “Olumaa” nuun jedhee, “Tarreessan kan ajjeefame humnoota tikaatiin; kun shakkii tokko illee hin qabu,” jedheera.

Tarreessaan goota obsa, kutannoo fi qabsoo Oromoof jaalala guddaa qabu, dargaggeessa qaroo ture.

Tarreessaan eessatti dhalate?

Barataa Engineeringii Waggaa 1ffaa kan ture, Tarreessaa Safaraa Lammeessaa Godina Horroo Guduruu Wallaggaa Magaalaa Shaambuu dhalate. Yuunivarsiitii Mattuu erga seenees amala gaarii akn qabu, naamusaa fi kabajaan hiriyyoota isaa waliin barumsa isaa hordofaa  ture.

https://www.oromiamedia.org/2015/10/omn-london-oduu-onkololeessa-24-2015/

Humni Tikaa Wayyaanee Barataa Qaroo fi Sabboonaa Tarreessaa Safaraa Yuuniversitii Mattuu Keessatti Ajjeessuun Gabaafame.

Yeroo addaddaatti hidhaa keessatti dararamaa kan ture Barataa Tarreessaa Safaraa Onkololessa 23 galgala mooraa Yunivarsiitii Mattuu keessatti ajjeefamuun gabaasame.

Tarreessaa Safara_nMaddi gabaasaa keenyaa akka himetti, barataan kun yeroo hedduu humnoota tikaatiin hordofamaa ture.

Hiriyyoota isaattis, akka hordofamaa jiru himaa ture.

Tarreessaan eenyuu?

Barataa Tarreessaa Safaraa utuu barnoota idileerra jiruu bara 1999 barataa kutaa 11 ta’ee osoo jiruu yakka shororkeessummaan himatamee murteen waggaa 10 erga itti murtaa’e.  Kanumaan mana hidhaa Maa’ikelaawwii, Qaallittii, Qilinxoo fi Zuwaayitti jijjiiramee hidhamaa ture.

Haataúutii baratan kun yeroo hidhaa keessa turetti, hidhaa fi roorroof otuu hin jilbeeffanne, hiree argametti dhimma bahee beekumsaa fi dandeettii isa aguddifachaa ture.

Wayita mana hidhaa turettis tattaaffii inni waa dubbisee waa barachuuf godhaa ture namooti hedduu dinqisiifachaa kan turan hiriyooti isaa ragaa bahu.

Turtii waggaa jahaa fi ji’a saddet booda mana hidhaa bahe barnoota isaa bara 2007 xumuruun bara kana yuniversiitii Mattuutti ramadamee ture; akkanaan barnootatti deebi’uun hawwiisaa galmaan gahachuuf carraaqqii godheen Yunivarsiitii Mattuu muummee Injiinariingii seene.

Tarreessaa Eenyutu ajjeesee?

Oduun caasaa mootummaa iffaa facaafama ajiru, tarreessaan of ajjeese kan jedhuudha. Haata’uutii, Tarreessan sababa of ajjeesuuf akka hin qabne, kanneen itti dhiyaatan ragaa dha. “Tarreessaan of ajjeese jedhamee himamaa jira; kun waan taúu natti hin fakaatu,” kan jedhe barataan nageenya isaatiif jecha maqaa isaa jijjiiree “Olumaa” nuun jedhee, “Tarreessan kan ajjeefame humnoota tikaatiin; kun shakkii tokko illee hin qabu,” jedheera.

Tarreessaan goota obsa, kutannoo fi qabsoo Oromoof jaalala guddaa qabu, dargaggeessa qaroo ture.

Tarreessaan eessatti dhalate?

Barataa Engineeringii Waggaa 1ffaa kan ture, Tarreessaa Safaraa Lammeessaa Godina Horroo Guduruu Wallaggaa Magaalaa Shaambuu dhalate. Yuunivarsiitii Mattuu erga seenees amala gaarii akn qabu, naamusaa fi kabajaan hiriyyoota isaa waliin barumsa isaa hordofaa  ture.

Haata’u malee guyyaa kaleessaa doormii dhabamuun har’a reeffi isaa argame. Ajjeechaan ilmaan Oromoo qaroo ta’an irratti raawwatamu har’as itti fufeera.

Haata’u malee guyyaa kaleessaa doormii dhabamuun har’a reeffi isaa argame. Ajjeechaan ilmaan Oromoo qaroo ta’an irratti raawwatamu har’as itti fufeera.

https://www.oromiamedia.org/2015/10/omn-london-oduu-onkololeessa-24-2015/

Why is Ethiopia hungry again? Ityophiyaan maaliif ammas beelofte ? October 24, 2015

Posted by OromianEconomist in Uncategorized.
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Why is Ethiopia hungry again?

By Jawar Mohammed

Just couple months ago, Western leaders and media outlets were fascinated with Ethiopia’s ‘miraculous’ economic growth. From Bill Gates to Obama and everyone else in between, they were convinced and tried to persuade others that Ethiopia has put that sad history of hunger behind itself and emerged as the fastest growing economy in Africa, if not the world.

Fast forward to these past few weeks, reports have begun giving back Ethiopia its old name- a starving country begging for urgent food aid. A month ago, the number of people needing aid were reported to be 4.5 million; now its 8.2 million and expected to reach 15 million by the end of this year. Two months ago when OMN first reported about the death of children from hunger in Western Hararghe, the regime dismissed the reports and suppressed the plea for emergency food aid. It has now been forced to admit the crisis and it is, as usual, asking the world for food aid to feed its hungry population. No amount of PR campaign or cooking the numbers to showcase double digit economic growth can hide the fact that Ethiopia is once again hit with famine.

Let’s ask the obvious question: why is Ethiopia hungry again? Within the Ethiopian discourse, four factors are often attributed as causing the recurring hunger. First, the government; not just the current but also past regimes, usually blame hunger on change in weather and climatic conditions for causing crop failure that results in food shortage. But how does an economy growing by double digits, whose agricultural sector apparently shows at least 9% annual growth for over a decade and produced ‘millions of millionaire farmers’, fail to produce enough surplus to feed few provinces hit with shortage of rainfall ?

The second theory attributes the problem hunger not on shortage of food but its weak circulation within the country. Popularized by Dr Eleni Gerbremedihin, this argument states that ‘market failure’ results in a situation where one province starves while another wastes food due to surplus production. So, Dr Eleni took her “idea whose time has come” to the World Bank and Meles Zenawi resulting with establishment of Ethiopian Commodity Exchange (ECX) in 2008. Launched with huge financial injection and massive public relation campaign, the project promised to make hunger history by ushering in a new system of market efficiency. As inspiring as Dr Eleni was, few of us remained skeptical from the get go. In response to her article promoting her project, I wrote a piece which argued that as long as the political market remains monopolized by one group, her ambition of creating an efficient and competitive exchange system is unlikely to be realized. I hate to say I told you so but 7 years later, ECX’s much anticipated revolution in agricultural market is not visible. Eleni herself has moved on ( quit or fired depending on who you ask). And hunger is back to being Ethiopia’s trademark. Genuine efforts to engineer market efficiency are either be rejected or sabotaged to serve the regime. If we take Dr Eleni’s project, the regime twisted and turned into a tool for further monopolizing the market. ECX enabled EFFORT owned companies to push out competitors and monopolize coffee export. A mechanism ( ECX ) that meant to open up the market to increase efficiency has turned out be a tool for control, corruption and monopolistic market practice.

The third argument blames hunger on the land tenure policy of the country. The argument goes that the source of food shortage in Ethiopia is farmers cultivating crop on small and fragmented plots of land using century old subsistent farming practices. Highly publicized during the 2005 election as key policy element of the CUD, this proposed solution advocates privatizing land ownership so that wealthy investors can help develop large plots of land using technologically advanced tools and inputs. This argument has already been put to test and failed to yield its intended result. Although land has not been officially privatized, domestic and foreign investors have been granted as much land as they request at dirt cheap price. Yet we are not witnessing the anticipated improvement in agricultural productivity and hunger remains a recurrent problem. Millions are starving even after over 3 million hectare of land has been leased out to the rich. Privatizing land while the political system is not competitive means, land would be transferred from millions of smallholders to few with connection to the ruling class. These few ‘investors’ are driven with profit maximizing incentives hence mostly produce for export, or hoard their product to limit circulation with the market to keep price high.

This leaves us with the fourth argument which asserts that lack of freedom is the real cause of hunger. This idea was developed by India’s Amartya Sen, who used Ethiopia as main example on a thesis that would net him Nobel Prize. Basically the argument affirms that hunger occurs only in dictatorship not in democracy. In democracy drought doesn’t necessarily lead to starvation as the media, civic society and elected officials preemptively publicize and exert pressure on the government to act early to ensure food supply. Let’s take Ethiopia and Kenya for instance. Their shared border provinces are inhabited by same people who mostly live nomadic life, and the climate condition is the same. Whenever drought hits Southern Ethiopia, it also hits Northern Kenya. But hunger in Ethiopia side of the border is a frequent phenomenon; Kenya rarely witnesses it. Hence, lack of democracy is the only argument of the four which has not been tested and still stands as plausible in Ethiopia. As long as the country is governed by authoritarian regimes, drought projection are unlikely to be acted up on, leaving farmers natural calamity whenever climate changes.

This current famine did not only bust the myth of Ethiopia’s economic miracle. It has also debunked the argument that the country could imitate the East Asian model of rapid economic growth while suppressing freedom. They can cook numbers, they could fool western diplomats and media outlets but, hunger has come back once again to unravel deception of the regime and illusion of its supporters. Poverty, and its worst form hunger, will remain the hallmark of Ethiopia until the people attain freedom and establish a government that depends on their consent rather its own gun and external aid.

Ityophiyaan maaliif ammas beelofte ?

Barruu xiixalaan siyaasaa beekamaan Obbo Jawar Mohammadiin Afaan Ingiliziin maxxansee ture  Obbo Boruu Barraaqaa akka armaan gadiitti afaan Oromootti hiikee dhiheessee jiraa. Konoo armaa gaditti argama. Obbo Boruun galatoomi jenna.

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Baatiilee lamaan tokko dura, hogganoonni Dhihaa fi miidiyaaleen isaanii guddina dinagdee ‘ajaahibsiisaa’ Itoophiyaatiin maalalamuu turani. Bill Gate irraa hanga Obaamaattii kanneen jiran hundi Itoophiyaan seenaa beelaa gaddisiisaa durii san of duubatti dhiiftee amma guddina shaffisaa Afriikaa keessattiifi tarii addunyaattuu tokkofaa ta’uu danda’u agarsiisaa jirti jechuun amananii warra hafes amansiisuuf carraaqaa turan. Torbaanota as dhihoo dabran keessa ammoo dubbiin tun cookkoo deebiteetti. Gabaasaaleen amma bahaa jiran, maqaa Itoophiyaa duraan beekamu san deebisuudhaan, biyya beeloftuu gargaarsa midhaanii ariifachiisaa kadhattu tahuu isii himaa jirani. Baatii takka dura, lakkoofsi ummata gargaarsa midhaanii barbaaduu miliyoona 4.5 tahuun yeroo himamu amanuun isaan rakkisee ture.. Amma ammoo gara miliyoona 8.2tti ol guddachuu isaa fi dhuma waggaa kanaa irratti miliyoona 15 dhaqqabuuf akka jiru gabaafamaara. Baatiilee lama dura wayta OMN yeroo duraaf waa’ee daa’imman Harargee Dhihaa keessatti balaa beelaatiin du’ani gabaase, mootummaan gabaasaa kana sobsiisuu fi oduun tunis akka gadi hin baane ukkaamfsuuf yaalaa ture. Amma garuu balaa haaluun hin danda’amne kana amanee fudhachuuf dirqameera. Akkuma baratametti ummata beela’e kana himachuun gargaarsa nyaataa addunyaa yoo gaafatu dhagahaa jirra.

Duulli ololaa kan guddina diinaggee diijitii dachaa garsiisaa jirra jedhun saaxil bahuun har’as Itoophiyaan balaa beelaatiin qabamuu isii kan dhoksuu danda’u hin taane. Gaafiin namuu if gaafatuu male, mee Itoophiyaan maalif ammas beelofte ? Sababa balaa beelaa Itoophiyaa deddeebi’ee mudatuuf ilaalcha adda addaa afurtu kennama. Kan duraa, mootummaan, kan amma aangoo irra jiru qofa osoo hin taane warri dabres, hanqina nyaataa dhalatuuf jijjiirama haala qilleensaa sababfatu. Jechuunus yoo roobni yeroo isaatti roobuu dhabe, hoongee uumuun, midhaan facaafame badee hanqinni nyaataa mudataa jedhan . Haa tahu malee, akkamitti dinagdeen diijitii dachaadhaan guddachuun himamu, kan omishni qonnaa 9% waggaa waggaatti guddachaa ganna kudhanoota lakkoofsise jedhamu tokko balaa kanaaf saaxilama ? Diinaggeen damee qonnaa kun ‘qonnaan bultoota miliyoonaroota’ hore jedhamee baara baraan badhaasni dhihaatuuf kun akkamitti nyaata gahaa omishuu hanqatee naannoolee muraasa balaa hongeetiin dhawaman sooruu dadhabe ? Kanaafu hanqini roobaa beelaaf sababa gahaa jedhanii fudhatuun hin dandayamu.

Sababni akka lammaffattii balaa beelaa kanaaf kaafamu tokko ammoo akkana jedha. Wanni beelli biyya san hubuuf biyyattiin midhaan gahaa oomishuu dadhabdee osoo hin taane, rakkoo midhaan kuufamee jiru biyya keessa raabsuu dadhabuuti jedha. Yeroo kutaan biyyattii tokko midhaan nyaataa dabraa omishee bakk itti gurguruufi kuusu dhabee rakkatu, kutaan biyyattii biroon akka beela’u kan godhe ‘kufaatii mala gabaa ti’ kan kan jedhu. Jechuunis qonnaan bulaan Jimmaa boqqolloo hanga nyaataaf isa barbaachisu caalaa omishee, gabaan guuttee, gatiin rakasee yeroo horii nyaachisu, kan Walloo sababa caamaatin midhaan jalaa badee beelaya. Kanaaf ammoo furmaanni gabayaafi geejjiba midhaan Jimmaatti haalaan tole kana wallo kn hanqinni mudate san geessu baasuu barbaachisa. Yaanni kun nama Dr. Eleni Gebremedihin jedhamtuun akka malee afarfamaa ture. Kanaafuu Dr. Eleniin yaada isii kana gara Baankii Addunyaa fi Mallas Zeenaawiitti dhiheessuudhaan bara 2008 keessa Ethiopian Commodity Exchange (ECX) jaaran. Pirojektiin maallaqa guddaa nyaatee fi hojii qunnamtii hawaasaa bal’aadhaan hundeeffame kun Itoophiyaa keessatti beela seenaa taasisuu fi sirna gabaa haaraa milkeessuuf waadaa seene. Yeroma Dr. Elenii yaada kana dhaadhessaa tortetti gariin keenya karoorri isii kun rakkoo beelaa biyya sanii hiddaan furuuf akka hin dandeenye shakkii qabnu ibsaa turre. Xalayaanin kallattiidhaan isiif barreesse tokkorratti anuu rakkoo pirojektiin sun mudachuu malu akeekkachiiseen ture. Barruu kiyya saniin, hanga gabaan siyaasaa biyyattii ol’aantummaa garee tokkootiin dhunfatame jirutti sirna bittaa-bittaa gurgurtaa namuu bilisaan itti wal dorgomu dhaabuun waan hin yaadamne ta’uun agarsiisuuf yaalee ture.

Har’a waggaa 7 booda yaanni kara ECX sirna gabayaa callaa qonnaa bifa haarayatti qindeessuun sossohinaafi waljijjirraa meeshaafi maallaqaa uumuuf waadaa galame warraaqsi sirna gabaa qonnaa hawwiin eegamaa ture, haga ammaatti firiin inni buuse hin mul’atu. Dr Eleeninuun , abdii kutatteet dhiifteefi aangorraa ari’amteefu erga ECX’n addaan baate waggaa sadi ta’e. Abdiin isiiin qabdu cilee bushaan seente taatee, waandaan isiitis jiddutti nyaadhamtee, kun egaa ammas beelti mallattoo Itoophiyaa tahuutti deebitee jirti. Akkuma gaafa duraa akeekkachiifne tattaaffiileen dhugaadhaan milkii gabaa fiduuf godhaman mootummaa abbaa irreetiin gufachiifamniiru. Pirojektii Dr. Ellenii kana yoo fudhannee laalle, mootummichi meeshaa ittiin daranuu gabaa biyyattii harkatti galfatuun godhatee itti fayyadame. ECX akka kubbaaniyaaleen EFFORT jalatti hammataman dorgoomtota biroo dhiibanii baasuudhaanfi warra harayaatittis balbla cufuun gabaa buna alatti erguudhaa dhuunfatan dandeessise. ECX kan sirna gabaa milkii fiduuf yaadame jedhamee dhaabbate, dhuma irratti gara meeshaa ittiin sirna gabaa biyyattii daranuu harka murna tokkootti galchaniin fi malaammalutummaan keessatti hanqaaqu tahee argame.

Sababni inni sadaffaan beelaaf biyya saaxila jdhamee dhiheetu haala qabeentaa lafaa (land tenure) biyyattiin hordoftu komata. Akka yaada kanaatti hanqinni midhaan nyaataa Itoophiyaa keessatti kan mudateef qonnaan bultoonni lafa qonnaa xixiqqoo irratti mala moofaa fi duubatti hafaadhaan omishu kan jedhuu dha. Dhimmi kun wayta filmaata bara 2005 san warra Qindoominaa (CUD) biratti mata duree guddaa godhamee laalamaa ture. Warri CUD sun akka furmaataatti kan dhiheessan lafa qonnaa biyyattii abbootii qabeenyaa gurguddoodhaaf laatanii, teknooloojii ammayyaatiin gargaaramanii qotuudhaan callaa midhaanii dacha dachaan ol guddisuutu fala jedha. Garuu ammoo furmaanni jedhame kun hojii irra oolfamee laalamee akka hojjechuu hin dandeenye hubatameera. Lafti biyyattii labsii seeraatiin gara qabeenyaa dhuunfaatti jijjiiramuu baatu illee, investeroonni biyya keessaa fi alaa lafa babal’aa gaafatanii gatii rakasaatiin fudhataniiru. Hanga ammaatti garuu fooyya’iinsi omisha qonnaa hawwame akka hin argaminii fi beelli ammas dhibee maraammartoo irraa hin fayyamin tahuu isaa taajjabaa jirra. Lafti qonnaa hektaarri miliyoona 3 ol tahu dureeyyiidhaaf eega laatamee booda har’as lammiileen biyyattii miliyoonotaan shallagaman beela’aa waxalamaa jiru. Haala sirni siyaasaa wal dorgoomu hin jirre keessatti lafa qonnaa dhunfaan qabachuu jechuun ummata miliyoonota irraa lafa fudhatanii harka namoota hagoo kan hidhata warra biyya bulchuu qabanitti galchuu jechuu dha. ‘Investeroonni’ hagoon kun bu’aa mataa isaanii guddifachuuf jecha midhaan gabaa alaa gurgurmu irratti xiyyeeffatu. Omisha biyya keessa raabsamu gad xiqqeessanii gatii gabaa qaalessuudhaan bu’aa guddaa hammaarrachuu barbaadu.

Kun gara sababa isa afraffaatti kan, maddi beelaa biyya tokkoo guddaan bilisummaa dhabuu ummataati kan jedhutti nu geessa. Tiyooriin kun hayyuu biyya Hindii, Amartya Sen jedhamuun bal’inaan addunyaatti akka beekamu godhame. Namni kun Itoophiyaa akka fakkeenya guddaatti fudhatee qorannoo Badhaasa Nobeelaaf isaaf argamsiise hojjete. Qorannoon Amartya Sen akka agarsiisetti seenaa keessatti balaan beelaa biyyoota abbaa irree keessatti malee warra dimokraasiidhaan bulan tokkollee keessatti uumamee akka hin beeyne mirkaneessa. Warra demokraasiin bulu biratti roobni dhabamee hongeen yoo dhalateyyuu gara balaa beelaa fiduutti hin guddatu. Sababni isaas, miidiyaan, hawaasni siiviikii fi qondaalonni ummataan filaman dhoksaa tokko malee dhiibbaa mootummaa isaanii mudachuu maluuf dursanii furmaata barbaaduudhaan balaa kana qacaleetti irra aanu. Fakkeenyaaf Itoophiyaa fi Keeniyaa wal biratti haa laallu. Ummata wal fakkaataa jireenya tikfattummaan bulantu lafa haala qilleensi isaa wal fakkaatu irra wal daangessanii qubatu. Yeroo hongeen gama Kibba Itoophiyaa dhawu hundumaa Kaabni Keeniyaas balaa kanaan dhawama. Haa tahu malee balaan beelaa daangaa Itoophiyaa gama kibbaatti beekamaa yoo tahu daangaa Keeniyaatiin garuu dabree dabree malee hin mul’atu. Kana kana irraa ka’uun wanni hubatamu, hanqinni demokraasii sababoota afran olitti ibsaman keessaa sababa isa hanga ammaatti qormaataaf dhihaatee hin kufin tahuu isaa ti. Beela Itoophiyaatti deddeebi’uuf sababni inni guddaan isa kana ta’uu isaati. Hanga biyyattiin sirnoota abbaa irreetiin bultutti, hanqina nyaataa dhabamiinsa roobaa (hongee) tiin dhufuofirraa ittisuuf dursanii waan itti hin qopphoofneef balaan beelaa ummata gaaga’uu ittuma fufa .

Dhumarratti balaan beelaa amma mudate kun olola guddina dinagdee Itoophiyaa ajaa’ibaa jedhamu fudhatama dhabsiisee qofa hin dhiifne. Biyyattiin bilisummaa ummataa ukkaamsaa guddina shaffisaa warra Eeshiyaa Bahaa akkeessitee tarkaanfachuu dandeessi ilaalcha jedhus kijibsiiseera. Lakkoofsota dharaa tottolfatanii himachuu danda’u. Dippilomaatota Dhihaa fi miidiyaalee addunyaas gowwoomfachuu malu. Haa tahu malee, beelli ammas as marmaaree gowwoomsaa sirnichaa fi gowwoomfamuu deeggartoota isaanii ifatti saaxilaa jira. Hanga ummatoonni biyyattii bilisummaa isaanii argatanii sirna isaaniif dhaabbate hin hundeeffatinitti, hanga sirni qawwee fi gargaarsa alaatti irratti irkate aangoo irra jirutti, hiyyummaa fi hammeenya irra hamaa isaa kan tahe beelli mallattoo Itoophiyaa tahee ittu fufa.

Related:-
10 Poorest Countries in The World (All in ‪#‎Africa‬, ‪#‎Ethiopia‬ is the 2nd poorest after Niger).

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Unity of the Oppressed in Ethiopia: The Founding of Peoples’ Alliance for Freedom and Democracy (PAFD) October 24, 2015

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???????????

Final Press Release: The Founding of Peoples’ Alliance for Freedom and Democracy (PAFD)

October 23, 2015

pafd1

Delegates of Benishangul People’s Liberation Movement (BPLM), Gambella People’s Liberation Movement (GPLM), Ogaden National Liberation Front (ONLF), Oromo Liberation Front (OLF) and Sidama National Liberation Front (SNLF) met in Oslo, Norway from 22 October to 23 October 2015 to lay the foundation of political alliance between the peoples in Ethiopia and have formed the Peoples Alliance for Freedom and Democracy (PAFD).The PAFD will create an opportunity for all peoples in Ethiopia to co-create a transitional political order that is based on the consent of all peoples, where the outmoded hegemonic culture of a single group dominating the rest is dismantled and a new just political order is established, where the respect of the right to self-determination is genuinely granted to all.PAFD will conduct diplomatic, advocacy, information and other campaigns to change the current undemocratic political culture and oppressive system in Ethiopia.PAFD will have a Governing Council (GC) composed of representatives of the political leadership of the founding organisations and members representing the civil societies of the respective communities.The Governing Council will elect an Executive Committee (EC), a chairperson and two vice-chairpersons that rotate yearly among the organization members. The Executive Committee will be the standing committee and will have the bureaus of diplomacy, organization, finance, information and others.PAFD call upon all peoples in Ethiopia to join the alliance and support it in order to end the suffering and dehumanization of all peoples in Ethiopia by the current government. PAFD call upon the regional and international communities, to play a positive role in diffusing this looming danger by supporting the peoples in Ethiopia rather than the illegitimate government before it is too late.

Finally, PAFD call upon the current government in Ethiopia to refrain from all acts of violence, respect human rights, obey the rule of law, and commit to peaceful and democratic resolution of political conflicts.

Issued by PAFD

Oslo, Norway
October 23, 2015

Contacts

PAFD22102015@gmail.com

  1. ONLF +447940624477;
  2. OLF +4797357264;
  3. GPLM +12042185988;
  4. SNLF +44 7984480752;
  5. BPLM +2917296477

https://www.oromiamedia.org/2015/10/omn-oduu-onk-23-2015/

http://qeerroo.org/2015/10/24/sbo-onkoloolessa-252015-oduu-tumsa-bilisummaa-fi-dimookraasii-ummattootaa-hundeeffame-irratti-gaaffii-fi-deebii-bakka-buootaa-dhaabaa-waliin-taasifame-akkasumas-tumsa-fi-hundeeffama-waggaa-27ffaa/

https://www.oromiamedia.org/2015/10/omn-amharic-news-oct-24-2015/

International News Media Report about PAFD, Newly Established Coalition of National Liberation Movements for the Right to National Self-Determination in Ethiopia

PAFD_News2015.jpg

International media outlets continue to report about the founding of the Peoples’ Alliance for Freedom and Democracy, PAFD – the newly formed coalition of national liberation struggles for the right to national self-determination in Ethiopia (the member organizations of PAFD, i.e. BPLM, GPLM, OLF, ONLF and SNLF, represent more than 60% of the nations, nationalities and peoples in Ethiopia – a population that is inhabiting an area that is ~70% of Ethiopia). Below is how ‘U.S. News & World Report’ reported about the formation of PAFD; other news outlets, such as ABC News, The New York Timesand The Washington Post have also carried the story.

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http://gadaa.net/FinfinneTribune/2015/10/international-news-outlets-outs-reports-about-pafd-newly-established-coalition-of-national-liberation-struggles-for-the-right-to-national-self-determination-in-ethiopia/

Magaalota Oromiyaa Adda Addaa Keessatti Dhiibbaan Afaan Oromoo Irratti Godhamaa Jiru Hammaachaa Akka Jiru Dargaggoo Sabboonaa Ibsaa Dhugaa Gaaffii fi Deebii SBO Waliin Taasiseen Beeksise October 23, 2015

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???????????Say no to the master killer. Addis Ababa master plan is genocidal plan against Oromo peopleSay no to the master killer. Addis Ababa master plan is genocidal plan against Oromo people. Say no.

(SBO) – Afaan, seenaa fi aadaan Oromoo walumaagalatti eenyummaan Oromummaa duula gabroomfattootni dhabamsiisuuf irratti banan irra aanee sadarkaa har’a irra gahee jiru kana irra gahuu isaatiif galanni kan gootowwan Oromoo ti. Keessumattuu Afaan Oromoo kaleessa dubbatamuudhumtuu akka cubbamaatti nama lakkoofsisuu fi Raadiyoo cabsa faa jedhamee Habashootaan irratti duulamaa ture qabsoo sabboontonni Oromoo roga hedduun gaggeessaniin ummanni Oromoo qaanii fi dhoowwaa tokko malee dubbataa, barnoonni ittiin kennamaa fi afaan hojii tahee jira.

Afaan Oromoo wareegama qabsaawota Oromootiin sadarkaa har’a irra gahe kana irraan gahamuun injifannoo galmaahe haa tahu iyyuu malee, Oromiyaa keessatti afaanicha afaan barnootaa fi afaan hojii taasisuu irratti har’ayyuu dhiibbaan diinaa kan irraa hin hafne tahuun sirriitti hubatamaa jira. Bakkoota hedduutti Afaan Oromoo afaan Amaaraatiin bakka buufamee wayta hojiin hojjetamuu fi dhimmoonni adda addaa raawwataman agarra. Gartuun mootummaa wayyaaneetiin bixxillame, ergamaan sirnichaa OPDOn, maqaaf Oromoofin dhaabbadhe haa jedhu malee har’aan tana fedhii diinnan Oromoo tiksuudhaaf hojjechuu irraa guddina Afaan Oromootiif wayta danqaa tahu mul’ata. Afaan Oromoo har’aan tana Oromiyaa keessatti sadarkaa maalii irra jira? Wanneenii fi warreen afaan saba guddaa kanaaf gufuu tahan hoo maal faa dha? dhimmoota jedhan irratti, walumaa galatti ammoo dhiibbaa Afaan Oromoo irratti godhamaa jiruu fi Afaan Amaaraan bakka buusuuf shira xaxamaa jiru ilaalchisee Oromiyaa irraa dargaggoo Ibsaa Dhugaa gaaffii fi deebii SBO waliin godhe keessatti yaada bal’aa kennee jira.

Impaayera Itoophiyaa keessatti mootummaan wayyaanee maqaadhaaf naannoleen hundumtuu afaan isaaniitiin barnootaa fi hojii gaggeeffatu jechuudhaan haa labsuyyuu malee kun Oromiyaa keessatti hojii irra oolaa hin jiru. Haala qabatamaadhaan Oromiyaa keessaa mul’atuun walgahii fi waltajjiilee dhimmoota adda addaatiif jedhamanii ergamtuu sirnichaa OPDOdhaan magaalota Oromiyaa garaagaraa keessatti adeemsifaman irratti Afaan Oromoo afaan Amaaraatiin bakka buufamee dhimma bahamaa jira. Akka fakkeenyaatti kaasuudhaaf mariin ykn walgahiin magaalota Oromiyaa kan akka Ciroo, Shaashamannee, Adaamaa, Sululta, Sabbata, Laga xaafoo laga daadhii, Buraayyuu, Galaan, Bishooftuu, Kamisee, Darraa, Fiichee fi magaalota kanneen biroo keessattis adeemsifaman afaan Amaaraatiin tahuu dubbata dargaggoo Ibsaan. Kanatti dabalee waajjiraalee keessattis tahu dhimmoota adda addaatiif Afaan Oromoo gabaasaadhuma hojii galchuudhaaf sadarkaa barreeffamaatti dhimma bahuuf yoo taheen ala namoonni Oromiyaa keessatti hojiif guutummaa guutuutti Afaan Oromoo yoo fayyadaman hin mul’atani jedha.

Biyyattiin biyya sabootaa fi sab-lammootaa ti jedhamtee wayyaaneedhaan lallabamaa jirtu tana keessatti mirgi ummatoonni naannoo isaanii irratti afaan isaaniitiin dhimma bahuu ni tikfama jedhamee kan ololamu Oromiyaa keessatti hojii irra oolaa hin jiru. Oromiyaa keessatti Afaan Oromoo ukkaamamaa afaan saba biraa keessumaa afaan Amaaraa iddoo hojii fi barnootaatti dhimma bahamaa kan jiru yoo tahu, Afaan Oromoo garuu naannolee biyyattii biroo keessatti dhimma bahamuun hafee TV fi Raadiyoo irraa Afaan Oromoo akka hin dhaggeeffatamne iyyuu dhiibbaan taasifamaa fi akka yakkaatti ilaalamaa jira.

Oromiyaa OPDOn bulchaan jira jettu keessatti akkuma sirnoota darbanii har’a iyyuu afaan, aadaa fi seenaan Oromoo ukkaamamee akka afaan saba biraa keessumaa afaan amaaraa akka ol’aantummaa qabaatuuf hojjetama. Kun immoo kan tahaa jiruuf namoonni waajjiraalee Oromiyaa adda addaa keessa dalagaa jiran Oromoota odoo hin taane namoota Afaan Oromoo dubbachuu dandahan garuu ammoo dagaagina afaanii fi eenyummaa Oromoo hin feeneen kan guutame waan tahaniifi.

Danqaan Afaan Oromoo mudataa jiru kun mormii Maastar Pilaaniin durayyuu kan ture akka tahe kan SBOtti hime dargaggoon Oromiyaa kun, manneen barnootaa Oromiyaa keessattuu Afaan Oromoo bifa adda addaatiin afaan amaaraatiin bakka buufamaa jiraachuus saaxileera.

OPDOn wanta afaan, aadaa fi eenyummaa Oromoo calaqqisuu fi dagaagsu gadi qabuu fi ukkaamsuudhaan dantaa siyaasaa gooftolii isaa Wayyaanotaa tiksuuf hojjeta malee eenyummaa Oromoof dhimmaa hin jiru kan jedhu dargaggoo Ibsaa Dhugaa, kana ammoo gaaf eebba kitaabota Afaan Oromoo, ayyaana Irreechaa fi sagantaalee adda addaa irratti wayta Afaan Oromootiin sirboonni aadaa Oromoo sirbaman OPDOn kan TV fi Raadiyootti dhiyeessu yoo gulaalamanii kan dantaa wayyaanee tuqu keessaa hambifame ykn kan siyaasaa OPDO lallabu yoo tahe qofaa dha. Yookaan ammoo namoonni sirba sana sirban warreen Afaan Oromoo hin dandeenye kan afaanicha baran yoo tahanii fi wallisichi yoo miseensa OPDO tahee akka isaan barbaadanitti sirbeef qofaa dha kan isaan sirba sana miidiyaatti dabarsuudhaaf eyyaman jedha.

Itti dabaluunis galma aadaa Oromoo jedhamee kan Finfinneetti ijaarame keessattis namoonni sabboontota Oromoo tahan akka isaan aadaa fi seenaa waliigalatti eenyummaa Oromummaa achi keessatti calaqqisanii fi guddisuudhaaf hojjetaniif hin eyyamamuuf. Kunis sirnichi irra keessa fakkeessuudhaaf malee dhuguma aadaa fi Afaan Oromoo guddisuuf akka galmicha hin ijaarre agarsiisa.

Fakkeenyaaf Sagantaan walliisaa Oromoo Sayyoo Dandanaatiif galii walitti sassaabuuf dhiyoo kana gaggeeffame akka galma aadaa Oromoo keessatti tahuuf gaaffiin dhiyaatee OPDOn diduudhaan akka waltajjii aadaa Finfinnee kan afaan amaaraatiin “Ye Addis Ababaa Mahil Addaaraash” jedhamu keessatti akka tahu taasifame. Dhuguma galmichi yoo aadaa fi Afaan Oromootiif ijaarame tahe maaliif wayta ilmaan Oromoo dhimma aartii fi artiistota Oromoo ilaallatu gaggeessuuf yaalan dhoowwaman kan jedhu eenyummaa dhaaba jalee kanaa kan ibsuu dha.

Karaa kaaniin ammoo magaalota Oromiyaa Kaabaa-Kibba, Bahaa-Dhiha jiran keessatti ilmaan Oromoo wayyaa fi faaya aadaa Oromoo uffatan akka dhiphootti ilaalamu. Dabballoonni OPDO kan maqaaf aadaa Oromoo guddisna jedhan wayta ummatichi uffannaa fi mallattoolee aadaa fi eenyummaa isaa calaqqisan uffatee fi kaasseeta Afaan Oromoo dhaggeeffate akka yakkamaatti lakkaawu.

OPDOn akkuma sirnoonni kaleessaa gochaa turan Oromoon akka eenyummaa isaatti qaana’uu fi eenyummaa alagaatiin dhaalamuuf hojjechaa jiru. Kun diinummaa hundaan olii ti. Ummata Oromoo ololaan afanfajeessanii sirna isaanii cinaa hiriirsudhaafi malee OPDOn seenaa, aadaa fi Afaan Oromoo dagaagsuudhaaf dhimmee hojjetee hin beeku kan jedhu dargaggoo Ibsaan, dhalataan Oromoo keessumaa dhaloonni Qubee (Qubee Generation) tokkoon isaayyuu diinaaf gowwoomaa hin jiru. Dammaqiinsi dargaggoota Oromoo akka biyyattiitti mitii akkuma Baha Afrikaattuu eenyuyyuu caalaa guddaa ta’uu ibse.

Wanti Impaayera Itoophiyaa keessatti hojjetamu akka dantaa gabroomfattootaa tiksu taasisuuf malee Oromoof dhimmuuf tahee hin beeku. Fakkeenyaaf artiistonni Oromoo wayta qophii tokko irratti sagantaa qopheeffatan yoo dantaa isaanii lallabaniif, isaan faarsan malee hin eyyamaniif, ni danqu. Artiistonni Oromoo ammoo irra hedduun jechuutu dandahama kanneen saba isaaniif dhimman waan tahaniif wayyaanee fi OPDOf hin hojjetan. Rakkatanis, danqamanis harka hin kennatan. Kan harka kennanii OPDOf waa hojjetanis yoo tahe, akkuma gargalchi waaqaa miilli mataa hooqa jedhan san tahee warreenuma kanaan dura guddina aadaa fi Afaan Oromootiif hojjetaa bahan keessaa isaan muraasa.

Artiistoonni Oromoo biyya jiran keessumaa dhaloonni ammaa garuu hojii farra Oromoo tahe keessaa hin qaban, kutannoodhaan aartii, aadaa fi Afaan Oromoo dagaagsuuf hojjechaa jiru malee, ergama diinaa fi lukkeelee fudhatanii jala fiiguu fi kan isaanii lallabuutti ni qaana’u, tole hin jedhan jechuun sabboonummaa artistoota Oromoo ragaa baheera dargaggoon Oromoo dhimmicha irratti SBOf yaada laate.

Fakkeenyaaf Irreecha Malkaa Ateetee irratti artiistota Oromoo qophii dhiyeessuuf eyyama argatanii sagantaa xumurataniin OPDOnni nu jala galaatii nuuf sirbaa qarshii 5000 mata mataatti isinii laanna jechuudhaan wayta kadhatanitti artiistonni Oromoo qophii keenya irratti isin hin faarsinu hafu maallaqni keessan hafa malee jechuudhaan diddaa mul’isan; OPDOnnis kanatti aaruun eeyyama dhoowwatan. Egaa kun kan agarsiisu biyyattii sana keessatti afaan, aadaa fi seenaa Oromoo guddisuu fi mul’isuudhaaf hojjechuun fedhii fi tattaaffii sabboontota Oromoo tahus kuni akka hin taane ammoo warreen diinaaf ergaman maqaaf Oromoof dhaabbanne jedhaniin danqaan guddaan uumamaa jiraachuu isaa ti. OPDOn ummataa fi artistota Oromoo birattis jibba waan qabaniif yeroo isaan akka aadaa, seenaa fi Afaan Oromoo irratti hacuuccaa geessisan ifatti argama.

Ummanni Oromoo yeroon itti gabroomfattootaaf tole jedhee jilbeenfate hin jiru. Ummanni Oromoo shira bittootaan gosaan, lagaan, amantii fi wantoota adda addaatiin akka gargar qoqqoodamuuf hojjetamus jabinaan dura dhaabbatee tokkummaa isaa akkuma eeggatetti jira. Dhaloonni haaraan biyya keessa jirus falmaa fi fincila wayyaanee irratti gaggeessaa jiru tokkummaa Oromummaatiin adeemsisaa jira. Hawaasni Oromo biyyoota alaa adda addaa keessa jiraatu Tokkummaa Oromummaa ummanni Oromoo biyya keessaa hacuuccaa diinaa jala jiru jabeeffatee irree tokkoon falmaa gaggeesaa jiru kana fakkeenya taasifatuu qabu.

Waan taheef, ummanni keenya ala jiraatu hiriira nagaa fi bifa adda addaatiin hawaasa addunyaatti iyyachuudhaan, wayta diinni lammii Oromoo hidhu maatii isaanii biyya keessatti gargaaruu, abukaatoo bitee falamsiisuun, hamilee fi deeggarsa bifa adda addaatiin qabsicha cinaa dhaabbachuun falmaa mirga abbaa biyyummaa Ummatni Oromoo gaggeessaa jiru cinaa akka dhaabbatan dargaggoo Ibsaa Dhugaa gadi jabeessee gaafateera.

Yakki amma Maastar Pilaanii Finfinneetiin walqabatee Oromoo irratti raawwatamaa jiru harka muraa fi harma muraa Aanoleetiin adda baafamee hin ilaalamu. Dhaloonni haaraan ammoo yakka kana wareegama barbaachisu hunda baasee dhaabsisuu fi mirga Oromoo tiksuuf qophaawaa dha; falmaattis jira. Waan taheef ummanni Oromoo biyya keessaa fi ala jiru tokkummaadhaan harka walqabatee sa’aatii diinaaf dhumatte tana keessatti falmaa caalaatti finiinsuudhaan bilisummaa fi walabummaa isaa mirkaneeffachuuf akka duulu dhaammateera dargaggoo Ibsaa Dhugaa gaaffii fi deebii Sagalee Bilisummaa Oromo (SBO) waliin taasise keessatti.

Gaaffii fi deebii Dargaggoo Ibsaa Dhugaa waliin taasisame sagantaa SBO Dilbata dhufu Onkoloolessa 25,2015 tamsa’u keessatti akka caqastan kabajaa waliin isin beeksisna.

Sagalee Bilisummaa Oromoo

Onkoloolessa 23, 2015

Bulchiinsi Magaalaa Naqamtee Maqaa Eyyama Daldalaa Hin Qabdan Jedhuun Manneen 150 Ol Seeraa Ala Cufee Uummata Rakkisaa Jiraachuu Qeerroon Gabaase.

IMG_20151022_130910

Oromoon Eyyamaa fi pilaanii qidaawaa magaalaa hin qabdan jechuun uummatarratti mana diiguufi aantummaan uummataa mootummaa itti hin dhaga’amne ta’uu isheetiin tuffiifi qabsoo hadheeffannoo hawaasiifi maqaa leenjii barattootaa jedhuun wayita sababaa barattootaan hojjettoota walitti qabanitti mormii mootummaa Wayyaanee  mudateen dabballoonni Wayyaanee OPDON uummata magaalaa manneen tarsiimoo fi pilaana hin qabdan jechuun mancaasuu itti fufan.
Onkoloolessa 22,2015 magaalaa Naqamtee keessaa manneen dhibba tokkoo fi shantamaa ol ta’an ganda 07 fi 03 keessaa qofa cufamanii akka hojii dhaaban taasisamaniiruManneen dukkaanaa,manneen rifeensaa,manneen bunaa manneen nyaataa manneen cuunfaa fi manneen raabsaa dhugaatii kaaffeewwaniifi hoteelonni utuu hin hafin maqaa”eyyama Daldalaa hin haaromsine ykn eyyamichi hin sirranne,kana maleellee abbaa feshaniin ati jiraataa magaalaa kanaa ta’uun keeyyuu hin beekamu” jechaa uummaticha gooluun mana isaanii irratti SAAMSAMEERA jedhanii irratti barreessanii maxxansuun cufaa oolanii jiru.
Ergamtoonni mootummaa kana godhan kun xiyyeeffatanii kana kan godhaniif mootummaan IHIADEG filannoo darbee taayitaas walii laatee waan mormiin uummataas irraa laaffateef ammaan booda warreen isaaf miseensummaa didaniifi wayita filmaataa isa hin filatin hafaniifis maqaa eyyama gahaa hin qabdan jedhuun mana irratti cufuun tooftaa ishee addaati jedhu keessa beektonni Jiraattonni dubbifne maaliif eyyama baafachuu dhabdan jenneen yeroo dubbatan “yeroo biiroo isaanii dhaqnu qaama garagaraatti nu’ergu eyyamicha baafachuuf matta’aa kanfallu gaafatamna yoo isa hin kaffalle immoo gatii galii guyyaa nurratti baa’isuun qaraxa guddaa kisaaraasaa keessaa hinbaane waan gaafatamnuuf haalli waajjira dhimma galiif gibiraa ykn faayinaansii yaaddessaa waan nutti ta’eefi gama biraanis warrumti dhaqanii eyyama gaafatan kan dhorkatamaniif matta’aa akka laataniif eyyami isaaniif hin laatamne” jedhu.
Namooti adda durummaan uummata keenya karaa matta’aan hiyyoomsuu fi diinagdeedhaan uummata keenya kuffisuuf magaalaa Naqamtee bara dhufee darbu saamanii TPLF saamsisan
1 Tolasaa Waggaarii
2 Raqiiq Akiliiluu
3 Tasfaayee Wandaafiraash
4 Asaffaa Baqqalee
5 Roomaan Tasfaayee
6 Eelsaa Barhee
7 Immiruu
Namoota jedhaman yeroo ta’u namoota kana uummati Oromoo ija qalbii qaduun akka ilaalamuu qaban hubachiifna

OROMIA: OROMO MUSIC ASAANTII HAJII ´´WAYYAANE´´ October 23, 2015

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???????????Oromo artsist Asaantii Hajii Tufaa





Oromia (Indigenous peoples of East African Rift valley): Ark of Taste: Karrayyuu Oromo Herders’ Camel Milk [via BBC4] October 23, 2015

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???????????Karrayyuu Oromo men hair styleKarrayyuu Oromo and camel milk

http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p035rkyc/player

Superfood (Camel Milk) can Beat the Challenge of Superbug (Bacterial Resistance to Antibiotics)

https://oromianeconomist.wordpress.com/2015/03/15/superfood-camel-milk-can-beat-the-challenge-of-superbug-bacterial-resistance-to-antibiotics/

Global Creativity Index 2015 (Index for Tech, Talent, and Tolerance): Australia has topped the world for advanced economic growth and sustainable prosperity. South Africa is the only African country that is in top 50 spots. October 23, 2015

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???????????Economic output and global creative index

What that makes a country creative? A new research shows that  it’s talent, technology, and tolerance: (3T’s).

The Martin Prosperity Institute (MPI), housed at the University of Toronto, published the 2015 edition of its ‘Global Creativity Index’ (GCI). The GCI is a broad-based measure for advanced economic growth and sustainable prosperity based on the three T’s of economic development: - talent, technology, and tolerance. It aimed at rating and ranking 196 countries worldwide on each of these dimensions and on an overall measure of creativity and prosperity.

Technology rankings were based on investment levels in research and development, plus how many patent applications per capita each country had.

Talent was evaluated by using a composite of the percentage of adults who owned an advanced degree, as well as the percentage of the workforce that had jobs in the creative industry.

Rankings for the third factor, tolerance, were found based on how each country treated their immigrants, the diversity of the racial and ethnic minorities, and how many LGBT residents were in each country.

To obtain their rankings, the researchers analyzed 139 countries, with many countries of low economic status being left off the list as complete data couldn’t be sourced, and ranked them in each category. Overall creativity was determined by each country’s ranking across the T’s, then divided by the total observations made in each category patent applications per capita, creative-class measure, etc.

Australia was found to be the most creative on the GCI, supplanting Sweden, which took top spot in the previous 2004 and 2011 editions, with a global ranking of 1 in talent, 4 in tolerance, and 7 in technology.

As Australia has taken the number one spot on the index with a score of 0.97 out of one, the US has been second and New Zealand third.

Luxembourg has the largest share of the creative class (54%), which spans science and technology; arts and culture; and business, management, and the professions.

South Korea leads in technology. Japan is second, Israel third, the United States fourth, and Finland is fifth. Australia, New Zealand, Germany, Singapore and Denmark round out the top ten. Australia leads in talent. Iceland is second. The United States and Finland are tied for third with Singapore in fifth. Denmark, Slovenia, Belarus, New Zealand, and Sweden round out the top ten.

Canada takes the top spot in tolerance which is measured as openness to ethnic and other minorities . Iceland is second, New Zealand third, Australia fourth, and the United Kingdom fifth. The Netherlands, Uruguay, Ireland, Norway, and Sweden round out the top ten.

Among African countries, only South  Africa (39) making among the top 50. Mauritius is in 59th and Kenya is ranked 70th.

27 of  50 lowest scoring countries are from Africa.

global creative index 2015 map

According to the report: “The GCI is closely associated with key measures of economic and social progress. Nations that score highly on the GCI have higher levels of economic output, entrepreneurship, economic competitiveness, and overall human development… .Creativity is also closely associated with urbanization, with more urbanized nations scoring higher on the GCI.”

Global creativity, as measured by the GCI, is closely connected to key measures  economic development and social progress, competitiveness, and prosperity of countries.The GCI is associated with higher levels of equality. The researchers also claimed to have found a link between social equality and creativity, especially in the countries that ranked high on the GCI. “While some countries, like the United States and the United Kingdom, achieve high GCI scores alongside relatively high levels of inequality, generally speaking, higher levels of global creativity are associated with lower levels of inequality.”

http://www.medicaldaily.com/global-creativity-index-measures-tech-talent-and-tolerance-these-are-most-creative-357534

http://martinprosperity.org/media/Global-Creativity-Index-2015.pdf

Oromia (Finfinnee): KFO fi Fincila Diddaa Saamicha Lafaa (FDSL). The public meeting convened by Oromo Federalist Congress (OFC) in Finfinne on Sunday, October 18, discussed the so called the ‘Master Plan’ and concluded that it is a land grab policy disguised as a development plan and called on Ethiopian authorities to halt it, and on the public to continue rejecting it. October 22, 2015

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???????????Say no to the master killer. Addis Ababa master plan is genocidal plan against Oromo people. Say no.Say no to the master killer. Addis Ababa master plan is genocidal plan against Oromo peopleOromo Federalist Congress Public Meeting in Finfinnee to protest TPLF's landgrab in the name of Master Plan. picture2Oromo Federalist Congress Public Meeting in Finfinnee to protest TPLF's landgrab in the name of Master Plan. picture3Oromo Federalist congress public meetingin Finfinnee against landgrab in Oromia, 18th October 2015Oromo Federalist congress public meetingin Finfinnee against landgrab in Oromia, 18th October 2015. picture2

Oromo Federalist Congress Public Meeting in Finfinnee to protest TPLF's landgrab in the name of Master PlanOromo Federalist congress public meetingin Finfinnee against landgrab in Oromia, 18th October 2015. picture3

“Siyaasi guddaan siyaasa lafaati. Namni lafa isaarraa buqqa’e eenyummaan isaas achitti dhaabbate.”  Dr Maraaraa Guddinaa

“Dubbiin Lafaa Dubbii Lafeeti.”
Obbo Baqqalaa Garbaa

Ibsa Ejjannoo
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Labsiin Fulbaana 21/2008 caffeen Oromiyaa raggaasise heera sirna federalummaan buluuf ba’e kan diiguu waan ta’eef jabeessinee balaaleffachaa akka haqamu gaafanna
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Mootummoonni habashaa waggoota dhibbaan dura humna qawween deeggaramanii lafa Oromoo fi ummata kibbaa weeraranii qabachuun Qe’ee fi lafa isaarraa buqqisanii aangoo isaaniitti dhimma ba’uudhaan dinagdee saba humnaan bitan laaffisuuf sadarkaa adda addaatti aangoo siyaasa murteessaa ta’e namoota isaanii muuddatanii magaalota waraanni isaanii keessa qubatu hundeeffachuun jiraattoota naannoo balleessuun aangoo siyaas-dinagdee isaanii cimsatanii aadaaf afaan jiraattoota naannoo keessumaa kan Oromoo balleessuun aadaa, afaanii fi amantii isaanii hundeessanii cimsachaa akka turan ni beekkama.Haaluma kanaan mootonni isaanii jijjiiramanus tooftaa ittiin ummata Oromoo dadhabsiisaanii qe’ee fi lafa isaarraa buqqisan baafachuun samichi lafa isaan gaggeessan itti fufeeti argama.

Seeronni isaaan baafatan hundi sirna saamichaa fi garboofannaa isaanii qofa kan jabeessu ture. Har’as waggoota dhibba tokkoo booda mootummaan ADWUI wayyaaneen hoogganamu karoora ummata Oromoo gabroomsuu, qe’ee isaarraa buqqisuun saamicha lafaa karoorfamee cimsee itti fufuudhaaf akka isaatti tolutti maqaa misoomaa magaalaa fi investimentiitiin Finfinneerraa ka’ee kallattii arfaniinuu hanga kilo-metira dhibba tokkoof shantamaatti jiru hunda qonnaan bultoota Oromoo hedduu buqqisuun aangoo murteessaaa fi mirga ofiin-of-bulchuu naannolee heera mootummaan tumame cabsuun mirga ofiin of bulchuu ummata Oromoo sarbuun weerara Miinilikii as yeroo lammaffaaf jibbaaf gara jabeenyaan ummata Oromoo qe’eesaarraa buqqisuuf karaa bakka buutoota DHDUO/OPDO saba Oromoo irraatti labsii baasee jira. Labsiin Caffeen Oromiyaa ajajamee Oromoo hedduu qe’eef lafa isaarraa buqqisuuf baase kun seera ofiin of bulchuu heeraan tumame sabni Oromoo qabu kan irraa mulquu fi qonnaan bultoota Oromoo daran buqqisuuf kan karoorfame waan ta’eef hatattamaan akka haqamee bulchiinsi magaalota Oromiyaa handhura Oromiyaa finfinnee dabalatee aangoo siyaasaa murteessaa ta’ee Oromoon akka argatu qabsoo karaa nagaatiin aarsaa gafatamu hunda baasuuf qophoofnee jirra.

Yeroo ammaa kana itti yaadamee maqaa misooma magaalaa fi investimeentiitiin qonnaan bultoota Oromoo naannoo magaalaa jiran dachee isaaniirraaa buqqisuuf Maaster pilaanii Finfinnee fi magaalota godina addaa naannawaa finfinnee walitti hiina jechuun Minilikiitti aanee waggoottan dhibbaa booda yeroo lammaaffaaf Oromoo lafa isaarra buqqisuuf dabni Ummata keenyarratti raawwatamaa jiru akka dhaabbatu Cimsinee ni balaaleffanna akkanni dhaabbatus ni gaafanna! Kanarraatti hundaa’uudhaan ibsa ejjaannoo qabxii sagal qabu kana baafnee jirra.

1. Qonnaan bulaan Oromoo lafa isaa irratti of ijaaree iddoo jirutti abbaa qabeenyaa akka ta’u gaafanna. Lafti isaa misoomaaf yo barbaadame Yeroo ammaa kana itti yaadamee maqaa misooma magaalaa fi investimeentiitiin qonnaan bultoota Oromoo naannoo magaalaa qubatan dachee isaaniirraaa buqqisuuf Maaster pilaanii Finfinnee fi magaalota godina addaa naannawaa finfinnee walitti hiina jechuun dabna Ummata keenyarratti raawwatamaa jiru Cimsinee ni balaaleffanna akkanni dhaabbatus ni gaafanna!
2. Labsiin magaalota Oromiyaa hundeessu jedhuun caffeen Oromiyaa gafa Fulbaana 21/2008 raggaasise;
a. Aangoo Oromoo Naannoo isaa bulchuuf heera Motummaatiin kennameef mulquun jiraattoota magaalaatii kan kennu waan ta’eef
b. Maqaa misoomaatiin Qonnaan bultoota Oromoo hedduu lafa isaarraa buqqisuuf kan karoorfamee waan ta’eef
c. Jiraattoota Oromoo Naannawaa Finfinnee buqqisuun Aadaa, Afaan, Seenaa fi Eenyummaa Saba Oromoo dhabamsiisuuf waan ta’eef
Seera sirna fideraalummaa diiguu fi faallaa heera mootummaa waan ta’eef akka haqamu jabeessinee gafanna. Hanga haqamee mirgii hiree murteeffaannaa Oromoo mirkanaa’utti Oromoo hundi cichee akka falmatu waamicha dhiyeessina.
3. Dacheen Oromoo yeroo saamamuu fi fudhatamu Ummanni Oromoo callisee laalee hin beeku. Mirga isaatiif gara kuteenyaan falmaa akka ture seenaan raga ni ba’a. Har’as taanaan saamicha lafa Oromoo mormuun karaa nagaa osoo qabsaa’anii kan kufan maraa ni yaadanna. Keessumaa barattoota Oromoo karoora master pilaanii magaalaa Finfinnee fi godina addaa naannawaa Finfinnee walitti hidhuu fi saba Oromoo lafasaarraa buqqisu mormuun Eebla 22/2006 fi karaa nagaa osoo falmanii gootummaadhaan lubbuu kaffalan guyyaa isaan itti wareegaman yaadachuun qabsoo mirgaaf abbaa biyyummaa ummanni Oromoo godhu keessatti iddoo seenaa guddaa qabatee jiru ta’uu amannee guyyaan kun seenaa qabsoo Oromoo keessatti weerara isa lammaffaa dura dhaabbachuun guyyaa itti du’an waan ta’eef Oromoon Eebla-22 hanga qabsoon Oromoo galma ga’ee mirgi hiree murteeffannaa ummata Oromoo dhugoomutti guyyaa gaddaa guddaa ta’ee waggaa waggaan akka yaadatamee kabajamu jennee labsineerra. Ummanni keenyaas kanuma hubatee akka hojiirra oolchu waamicha dabarsina.
4. Qabsoon ummanni Oromoo mirgaa fi abbaa biyyummaa isaatii karaa nagaatiin godhu daran akka cimee galma isaa ga’uuf Oromoon hundi ilaalcha: naannummaa, siyaasaa fi amantiidhaan osoo wal hin qoodin tokkummaa isaa cimsee ijaarsa tooftaa qabsoof barbaachisuun hundeeffatee ciminaan akka itti fufu waamicha dhiyeessina!
5. Bakka Oromoon jiru hundatti mormii fi diddaan karaa nagaa cimuun qabsoon itti fufinsa qabu akka qindaa’uuf soda tokko malee Oromoo hundi aarsaa bilisummaaf kanfalee akka waliif birmatu ta’ee Sagantaan hiriira nagaa Oromiyaa iddoo hundatti kan qophaa’u ta’uu ibsina. Qabsaa’oonni Oromoo hundi qabsoo saba isaanii waliin tokko ta’anii akka dhaabbatan waamicha seenaa dabarsina.
6. Mirgi sabummaa fi dimokiraasummaa ummata Oromo kabajamee hireen murteeffaannaa hanga dhugoomutti arsaa qabsoon karaa nagaa gaafatu hunda cichaan Oromoon marti biyya keessaas ta’ee biyya ambaa jiran walta’uudhaan milkaa’ina qabsoo saba Oromoof qooda keessan akka gumaachitan waamicha isiniif goona!
7. Sabaa fi sablammoonni biyya keenyaa deeggartoonnii fi falmitoonni mirga namoomaa yeroo rakkoo eenyummaan Oromoo sarbamee lafarraa buqqifamuuf qophiin godhamaa jiru kanatti waliin dhaabbachuun deeggarsa barbaachisu gochuudhaan sirna gabroofataa kana dhaabamsiisuun jaalalaaf kabajaan wal qixxummaan akka waliin jiraannu ga’ee keessan akka gumaachitan waamicha seenaa isiniif goona.
8. Oromoon Hojjattoota mootummaa, raayyaa ittisa biyyaa ,poolisii humni tikaa fi abbootii amantaa taatan hundi seerri yeroo amma Oromoo Miliyoonotaan dachee isaarraa buqqisuun dhabamsiif weerara lafaa fi fixinsa sanyii yeroo lammaffaa Oromoo irratti aggaamamaa jiru ta’uu hubattanii qabsoo seena qabeessa Oromoon mirga isaatii gochaa jiru bira akka daabattan waamicha isinii goona
9.Seer a faallaa heera mootummaa ta’ee fi sirna federaalizimii diigu baasuudhaan Ummata keenya dachee isaarra dhamsiisuuf godhaamaa jiru mormuuf qabsoo karaa nagaa ummaanni keenya gochaa jiru gufachisuuf tarkaanfii fudhatamaa tureefi fudhatamuuf jiru motummaan biyya bulchaa jiru itti gaafatamaa fudhachuu kan qabu ta’uusaa addunyaan akka nuuf hubatu gaafanna

Injifannoo Ummata Oromootiif
Kongiresii Federaalawaa Oromoo (KFO)
Onkololeessa 18/2015
Finfinnee

The public meeting convened by Oromo Federalist Congress (OFC) in Finfinne Sunday, October 18, to discuss the so-called Addis Ababa and Oromia Special Zone Integrated Development Master Plan has ended adopting a 9-point resolution.The meeting concluded that the Master Plan is a land grab policy disguised as a development plan and called on Ethiopian authorities to halt it, and on the public to continue rejecting it.
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Walgayiin ummataa Kongreseii Federaalawaa Oromootiin Finfinneetti har’a (Dilbata, 18/10/15) geggeeffamee ture ejjennoo qabxii 9 qabu irratti waliigaleetee uummachuun xumurameera.  Walgayichi maqaa Maastar Pilaan jedhuun karoorri mootummaan Itoophiyaa Finfinnee fi Godiina Addaa Oromiyaa keessatti hojiirra oolchuuf qophaawaa jiru karoora saamicha lafaa akka ta’e hubachiisee hatattamaan akka dhaabu gaafateera. Ummatis mormii isaa akka itti fufu dhaamsa dabarseera.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qZQXRKFIgrw&feature=youtu.be&app=desktop

http://www.oromiapress.com/breaking-news-the-public-meeting-convened-by-oromo-federalist-congress-ofc-in-finfinne-sunday-october-18/

Mormiin karoora Maaster pilaanii Finfinnee irratti taasifamu cimee itti fufuu qaba jedhame.

https://www.oromiamedia.org/2015/10/omn-london-oduu-onkololeessa-18-2015/

(OMN:Oduu Onk 18,2015) Paartiin Koongireensii Federalawa Oromoo har’a magaalaa Finfinneetti dhimma maaster pilaanii Finfinnee irratti marii hawaasaa gaggeesseera. Marii hawaasaa kanarratti bakka bu’oonni Paartii kanaa godinaalee Oromiyaa hundumaarraa bakka bu’uun irratti argamaniiran. Mariin kunille ijannoo tokkoon, uummanni Oromoo Maaster pilaanii Finfinnee dura dhaabachuun akka irra irra jiraatu walii gaaluudhaan, ibsa ijannoollee bafachuun mariin kun raawwateera.
Dura bu’aan paartii KFO Dr. Mararaa Guddinaa OMNtti akka himanitti, “kaayoon guddaan walgayii uummataa kana waamneef, maqaa maaster pilaanii Finfinneetiin lafa qonnaan bulaa keennaa Oromoorraa fudhachuuf yennaa mootummaan Itoophiyaa yaalii taasise, baratoota mormii dhageessisan hedduu ajjeeseera. Barana immoo mala malatanii karaa biraatiin seera lafa Oromoo ittiin saman hojiirraa olfachuuf socho’aa waan jiraniif, uummaanni Oromoo kana beekuun waan irra jiraatuuf” jedhaneeran.
Uummanni Oromoo barattoota universiitii dabalatee godinaallee adda addaa irraa kora kanarratti hiramaachuun, Maaster pilaanii Finfinnee kana dura dhaabachuu akka qaban yaadaa kennaaniin himuu isaanii Dr. Mararaan Dubbataneeran.
Lafti Oromoo waggaa dhibba dura saamamaa ture, bara dargii keessatti qonnaan bulaaf deebi’ee, ammalle kunoo yeroo lammeessoof lafti Oromoo qonnaan bulaa irraa fudhatamaa akka jiru, marii kanarratti dubbatamaa akka ture Dr. Maraaraan dabalanii himaneeran.
Guyyaa lafti Oromoo yeroo lameessoof Oromoo irraa fudhatameefi guyyaa ilmaan Oromoo itti dhuman yaadachuuf, Paartiin isaanii guyyaa gaddaa guddaa biyya keessaafi biyya alaatitti labsuuf akka karoofatanille Dr. Mararaan yaadachiisaneeran.
Partiin KFO marii taasiseen ibsa ijannoo bal’aa bafateera. Mariifi ibsa ijjannoo keessattille akka kaafametti, Oromoonni mootummaa mirga Oromoo sarbaa jiran wajjiin hojjatanille gara saba isaanitti akka deebi’aniif ibsa ijannoo kanaan waamichi akka dhihaateef Dr. Mararaan addeessaneeran.
Gabrummaa marsa lammeessoof itti dhufte kana, uummanni Oromoo sadarkaan jiru hundumtu, osoo ilaalchaafi amantaan wal-hinqoodin ka’ee qabsa’uun akka irra jiraatu Dr. Maraaraan dhaamsa gama isaanii dhaamaneeran.

Gabaasaan Daani’el Bariisoo Areeriiti

https://www.oromiamedia.org/2015/10/mormiin-karoora-master-pilaanii-finfinnee-irratti-taasifamu-cimee-itti-fufuu-qaba-jedhame/

KFO fi Fincila Diddaa Saamicha Lafaa (FDSL)

Onkololeessa 18, 2015 KFOn abbaa quba shani Walgahi Fincila Diddaa Saamicha Lafaa (FDSL) uummata Oromoo waliin godhee ammallee Wabii uummata Oromoo ta’ee akka qabsoo itti fufu ibsa ejjannoo qabxii sagal of keessa qabu baafachuun milkii guddaan xummurateera. Walgahi sanirratti namootni Oromoo hundi fageenyaf umuriin osoo hin daangeffamne kutaa Oromiyaa hundarraa dhufuun irratti hirmaataniiru. Qeerroo qacalee kan takkaa areeda hin baasinirraa qabee hanga manguddoo lafa bulan kan mataa isaanirra aarrii jibrii fakkaattu malee rifeensa gurraacha tokkicha irraa hin argineetti walgahi sanirratti hirmaataniiru. Walgahi guyyaa kana taasifame irrattii ajandaawwan akka armaan gadii ka’uun irratti mari’atameera.

1.Saamichi lafaa haala akka ammaa kanatti Oromiyaarratti gaggeeffamaa jiru kun dhaabbachu qaba.
2.Mana qotatee bulaa Oromoorraa diigani qabeenya isaatirraa buqqisuun hafuu qaba.
3. Maqaawwaan biyyaatifi kan naannoo jijjiirun hafuu qaba.
4. Manneen Barnoota afaan Oromoo magaala Finfinnee keessatti baballate afaan Oromoo afaan Hojii Finfinnee Keessatti ta’uu qaba kan jedhuufi ajandaaleen biroollee ka’ani irratti mari’atameera.

Walgahii kana kan hoogganan Dura taa’an KFO abbaa quba Shani Dr.Mararaa Guddinaa “Oromiyaa cunqursaaf gabrummaa jalaa baasuf dura of ijaaruf achiin booda biyya ijaarun dirqama keenya bahuu qabna” jechuun gorsa kennaniru.

Hirmaattotni walgahii kanarratti hirmaatan jechamoota hamilee namaa kakaasan hedduu tokko kaasaniru mee hangan yaadadhu keessa kunoo sadeen kana akka armaan gadiitti isiniin gaheera.
1. Ilmi laafan lafa abbaa isaat dhaba; Soddaa jabaan lafa abbiyyuut dhaala.
2. Maqaa jijiirun lafa keenyaa tuffidha; Yoo abbaa tuffatan malee qotiyyoo isaa maqaa sareetin hin waaman.
3.Diinni jalqaba barruu harkaat nama qabata. Yoo barruu harkaa nama qabatu ofirraa dhoowwuu yoo dadhaban ciqilee nama qabata. Yoo ciqilee nama qabatu ofirraa dhoowwuu yoo dadhaban morma qabeet hudhee nama kuffisa. Kanaafu, qabsoo keenya jalqabne kana hanga lafeen nu cabduufi lubbuun teenya baatutti itti fufuu qabna malee duubatti deebi’uu hin qabnu jedhaniiru.

Itti aanaan dura taa’aa KFO abbaa quba shani Ob. Baqqalaa Garbaa “Yeroo ammaa kana Oromiyaa keessatti namni hidhamee hin beekne nama hunda hidhanii fixani ana na tuffatanit na dhiisan moo anatu sabboonaa miti jedheet aaraa of gaafachaa jiraa” jechuun bifa qoosatin dubbatani warra wal gahiirratti hirmaate hunda kofalchiisaa erga cimaa dabarsaniiru.

Walumaagalatti, haalli wal gahii guyyaa kanaa irra hubatamu wayyaaneen uummata Oromoo ofumaa ofitti tuttuqtee umurii aangoo isii gabaabsa akka jirtu waan ifaaf bilisa ta’e. Yaa hattuu harree tana oofte ooftee booda abbaaf galchuu teessaa kan jedhan san waan dhihootti jechaan osoo hin ta’in gochaan arguuf deemnu fakkaata. Dhumarratti eebbi erga Godhamee booda ibsa ejjannoo qabxii sagal qabu baafachuun walgahiin kun xumurameera.
Fincilli Diddaa Saamicha Lafaa itti fufa.
‪#‎La_Lutta_Continua‬

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Finfinnee Radio: Historian Edao Boru talks about History of Hunger in Ethiopia October 22, 2015

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???????????Famine in Ethiopia 2015https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=m2H1Np650A8

In drought (famine) ravaged Ethiopia there is a thin line between life and death. The last decent rains fell here two years ago. Families watch their animals die and wonder if they are next. October 22, 2015

Posted by OromianEconomist in Famine in Ethiopia, Food Production, Free development vs authoritarian model, Illicit financial outflows from Ethiopia, Land Grabs in Africa.
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???????????Famine in Ethiopia 2015povertyAfrica is still struggling with povertyTPLF Ethiopian forces destroyed Oromo houses in Ada'a district, Central Oromia, July 2015Tigrean Neftengna's land grabbing and the Addis Ababa Master plan for Oormo genocide

“…UN now warning that without action some “15 million people will require food assistance” next year, more than inside war-torn Syria.  ….Hardest-hit areas are Ethiopia’s eastern Afar and southern Somali regions, while water supplies are also unusually low in central and eastern Oromo region.” Unicef

Millions hungry as Ethiopia drought bites

(Unicef,  News24, October 22,  2015): The number of hungry Ethiopians needing food aid has risen sharply due to poor rains and the El Nino weather phenomenon with around 7.5 million people now in need, aid officials said on Friday.

That number has nearly doubled since August, when the United Nations said 4.5 million were in need – with the UN now warning that without action some “15 million people will require food assistance” next year, more than inside war-torn Syria.

“Without a robust response supported by the international community, there is a high probability of a significant food insecurity and nutrition disaster,” the UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, OCHA, said in a report.

The UN children’s agency, Unicef, warns over 300 000 children are severely malnourished.

The Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET), which makes detailed technical assessments of hunger, predicted a harvest “well below average” in its latest report.

“Unusual livestock deaths continue to be reported,” FEWS NET said. “With smaller herds, few sellable livestock, and almost no income other than charcoal and firewood sales, households are unable to afford adequate quantities of food.”

Ethiopia, Africa’s second most populous nation, borders the Horn of Africa nation of Somalia, where some 855 000 people face need “life-saving assistance”, according to the UN, warning that 2.3 million more people there are “highly vulnerable”.

El Nino comes with a warming in sea surface temperatures in the equatorial Pacific, and can cause unusually heavy rains in some parts of the world and drought elsewhere.

Hardest-hit areas are Ethiopia’s eastern Afar and southern Somali regions, while water supplies are also unusually low in central and eastern Oromo region.

Sensitive issue

Food insecurity is a sensitive issue in Ethiopia, hit by famine in 1984-85 after extreme drought.

Today, Ethiopia’s government would rather its reputation was its near-double-digit economic growth and huge infrastructure investment – making the country one of Africa’s top-performing economies and a magnet for foreign investment.

Still, nearly 20 million Ethiopians live below the $1.25 poverty line set by the World Bank, with the poorest some of the most vulnerable to weather challenges.

Ethiopia’s government has mobilised $33m in emergency aid, but the UN says it needs $237m.

Minster for Information Redwan Hussein told reporters at a recent press conference that Ethiopia is doing what it can.

“The support from donor agencies has not yet arrived in time to let us cope with the increasing number of the needy population,” he said.

http://www.news24.com/Multimedia/Africa/Malnutrition-in-Ethiopian-children-20110916

http://www.news24.com/Africa/News/Millions-hungry-as-Ethiopia-drought-bites-20151002

Related:-

Jiraattonni aanaaAdaamii Tulluu , gargaarsa dhabanii beelaan miidhamaa jiru.

OMN:Oduu Onk. 21,2015 Beelli godinaalee Oromiyaa hedduu miidhaa jiru, gara godina Shawaa bahaa aanaa Adaamii Tulluu Jidduu Kombolachaa jedhamutti, babaldhatee akka jiru himame.

Jiraattonni aanaa kanaa, gargaarsa dhabanii beelaan miidhamaa jiraachuu isaanii dubbatan.

Beelli Oromiyaa godinaalee adda addaa keessatti bara kana namootaa fi loon miidhaa jiru, ammas kan hin dhaabbanne ta’uun himamaa jira.

Haaluma kanaan gara godina Shawaa Bahaa aanaa Adaamii Tulluu Jidduu Kombolchaatti babaldhatee akka jirullee jiraattonni dubbatan.

Jiraataan aanichaa tokko OMN f akka himanitti, rooba dhabameen wal qabatee, hoongee uumameen, namoonni hedduun araddaalee gara garaa keessa jiraatan, beelaaf saaxialamanii jiru.

Bara kana keessa bokkaan si’a lama qofa reebe kan jedhan namni kun, sababa kanaan namoonni midhaan facafachuu qaban, nyaataaf oolfataniiru.

Kan hafe ammoo kafaltii xaa’oo akka baasaniif wayta mootummaan dirqisiiseetti, midhaan facafachuuf qopheeffatan gurguranii baasiif kennanii jiru.

Namoonni hedduun qabeenya harkaa qaban waan fixataniif, beelaaf saaxilamuu danda’aniiru jedhan.

Akka namni kun jedhanitti, namoonni hedduun baadiyaa keessa jiraatan, beela sukaneessaa isaan miidhaa jiru jalaa, qe’ee isaanii dhiisanii gara magaalatti deemaa jiru.

Namoota gara magaalatti deemaa jiran keessaa manguddoonni humna dhabeeyyi ta’anis ni jiru.
Erga magaalaa gahanii booda, lubbuu ufii jiraachisuuf jecha, hujii humnaa olii hojjatanii jiraachuudhaaf dirqamanii jiran.

Hujii humnaa kana hojjachuudhaaf kan dirqaman, lubbuu ufii du’a irraa hambisuuf kan jedhan namni kun, beelli bara kana aanaa isaanii muudatee jiru, haalan yaddessaa ta’uu dubbatan.

Namoota beela kanaan miidhamanii asii fi achi deemaa jiran kana, gama mootummaa biyya bulchaa jiruun, haga ammaatti birmannaan taasifameef tokkollee akka hin jirre namni kun dubbatan.

Namoonnii baay’een daa’imman isaanii waan nyaachisan dhabanii rakkataa jiru. Loon ammoo marga dheedan dhabuun du’aaf saaxilamaniiru jedhan.

Rakkoo kanaan dura muldhatee hin beekne kana, mootummaanis gargaaruu dhiisee caldhisee ilaalaa jira kan jedhan namni kun, sababa kanaaf haalli ammaan kana jiru garmalee yaaddessaadha.

Mootummaan humanan taaytaa qabatee jiru, diinaggeen biyyattii dijiitii lamaan guddatee jira jechuun wayta faarsaa jiru kanatti, lammiileen biyyattii hedduun beelaan saaxilamuu isaanii midiyaalee gara garaa gabaasaa jiraachuun ni yaadatama.

Usmaan Ukkumetu gabaase.

https://www.oromiamedia.org/2015/10/jiraattonni-aanaaadaamii-tulluu-gargaarsa-dhabanii-beelaan-miidhamaa-jiru/

https://www.oromiamedia.org/2015/10/omn-oduu-onk-21-2015/

Why is Ethiopia hungry again?

https://oromianeconomist.wordpress.com/2015/10/20/why-is-ethiopia-hungry-again/

The Cause of Ethiopia’s Recurrent Famine Is Not Drought, It Is Authoritarianism

https://oromianeconomist.wordpress.com/2015/08/27/the-cause-of-ethiopias-recurrent-famine-is-not-drought-it-is-authoritarianism/

Drought, food crisis and Famine in Ethiopia 2015: Children and adults are dying of lack of food, water and malnutrition. Animals are perishing of persisting drought. The worst Affected areas are: Eastern and Southern Oromia, Afar, Ogaden and Southern nations.

https://oromianeconomist.wordpress.com/2015/08/14/drought-food-crisis-and-famine-in-ethiopia-2015-children-and-adults-are-dying-of-lack-of-food-water-and-malnutrition-animals-are-perishing-of-persisting-drought-the-worst-affected-areas-are-e/

The tale of two countries (Obama’s/TPLF’s Ethiopia and Real Ethiopia): The Oromo (Children, Women and elders) are dying of genocidal mass killings and politically caused famine, but Obama has been told only rosy stories and shown rosy pictures.

https://oromianeconomist.wordpress.com/2015/08/02/ethiopia-the-oromo-children-women-and-elders-are-dying-of-genocidal-mass-killings-and-politically-caused-famine-but-obama-has-been-told-only-rosy-stories-and-shown-rosy-pictures-africa-oromia/

Google is supporting yet another huge clean energy project in Africa October 22, 2015

Posted by OromianEconomist in Uncategorized.
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???????????solar energy

It is no secret that Google wants to grow its users in Africa—the company’s investment in last-mile internet infrastructure and its Project Loon initiative to bring connectivity to remote areas in Africa points to this. But to grow its users, Google needs electricity. Internet providers need it to distribute internet and people need it to power up their devices.

Source: Google is supporting yet another huge clean energy project in Africa

ANALYSIS: African Unity Will Remain Illusionary Without Values October 20, 2015

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???????????Africa cartoons1(B)
Indeed, civil society organisations (CSOs) have played a major role in democratic transitions in various African countries, and have at times checked questionable government agendas – such as the successful campaigns against extending presidential tenures in Zambia in 2001 and Nigeria in 2006.

But the environment that enables activist groups to contest political matters in South Africa or Ghana does not exist in, say, Algeria or Ethiopia. Restrictive legislation in many countries imposes strict conditions on CSOs, effectively giving governments powers to veto their activities. In Ethiopia, measures such 2009 Charities and Societies Proclamation (CSP) have placed politically-inclined activism largely out of bounds.

African Unity Will Remain Illusionary Without Values
Analysis  
 ‘African unity’ has been one of the most consistent themes in African political thought. Since independence, the vision of a continental order stretching from Cape Town to Cairo and from Dakar to Dar es Salaam has been an entrancing one. Africa, rather than being a geographical descriptor, would be a geopolitical identity.

Can Africa plausibly find common ground for a common future? Unity requires more than intra-African cooperation or opening borders – it needs a foundation of common values. ‘Africa’ must stand for something.

This has been recognised, implicitly and explicitly, by the African Union (AU) since its founding. In 2011, an AU Summit was dedicated to ‘Greater Unity and Integration through Shared Values’. It pledged to ‘promote and encourage democratic practices, good governance and the rule of law, protect human rights and fundamental freedoms, respect for the sanctity of human life and international humanitarian law, as part of efforts for the prevention of conflicts.’ Unity features prominently in the continent’s current 50-year developmental blueprint, Agenda 2063.

These are worthy objectives, aligned with the demands of African and international governance and human rights agreements. And the values they represent are far more in evidence in Africa today than they once were. Multi-party politics is ascendant, and, in contrast to the laissez faire approach of the erstwhile Organisation of African Unity, coups are forthrightly condemned. However, there is still no strong condemnation of leaders tampering with constitutions to circumvent term limits.

But it is increasingly recognised that democracy implies different things in different environments. Democracy should not be equated with ‘freedom’ – recent history has shown that electoral regimes can coexist with authoritarian governance, producing what has been termed ‘illiberal democracy’ or ‘competitive authoritarianism’. The standard of constitutional governance, the willingness to allow citizens to form pressure groups and of the media to report and comment are arguably better gauges of countries’ values than holding elections.

Freedom House puts this in perspective. Using data on political rights and civil liberties, its annual Freedom in the World Index grades countries as ‘free’, ‘partly free’ and ‘not free’.

Of the AU’s 54 states, 11 are rated free, 18 partly free, and 25 – or nearly half the total – not free. The AU encompasses states ranging from among the freest on earth to among the most repressive.

The Country Review Reports of the African Peer Review Mechanism (APRM) – the continent’s innovative governance review system – underline what this means for political life.

Click here to visit SAIIA’s APRM Toolkit, a comprehensive repository of APRM reports and other documents for civil society, academics, students, journalists and donors.

Thus, constitutional governance – separation of powers, the rule of law and so on – is respected in parts of the continent, but not in others. Mauritius can celebrate a long tradition, while post-apartheid South Africa has made a considerable contribution to international jurisprudence, particularly through the concept of ‘transformative constitutionalism’. In other countries, weak courts and legislatures, and executive dominance undermine robust constitutionalism. And in some countries, formal governance arrangements are not designed to limit powers. The APRM report on Rwanda, for example, says that ‘instead of separation of powers, what seems to have prevailed in the strictures of the Constitution is, in fact, fusion of powers.’

Perhaps more serious is the lack of continental consensus on freedom of association. The ability of citizens to combine to press their interests is a vital asset for democracies. Indeed, civil society organisations (CSOs) have played a major role in democratic transitions in various African countries, and have at times checked questionable government agendas – such as the successful campaigns against extending presidential tenures in Zambia in 2001 and Nigeria in 2006.

But the environment that enables activist groups to contest political matters in South Africa or Ghana does not exist in, say, Algeria or Ethiopia. Restrictive legislation in many countries imposes strict conditions on CSOs, effectively giving governments powers to veto their activities. In Ethiopia, measures such 2009 Charities and Societies Proclamation (CSP) have placed politically-inclined activism largely out of bounds.

That these contrasts in governance values are accommodated within the AU – its professed commitment to democracy, constitutionalism and human rights notwithstanding – raise serious questions about the prospects for continental unity. They also question the plausibility of Agenda 2063. It is difficult to imagine a functioning continental order when the orientations of its individual countries are so different.

These divergences also raise questions about the nature of Africa’s emerging democratic order. Thomas Carothers has argued that it is mistaken to see the contemporary blend of democracy and authoritarianism as a transitional phase. It may prove a durable form of governance, and one with an attraction for many governments on the continent. An observer of Ethiopian politics notes confidentially that around 20 African countries have expressed an interest in the CSP as a possible model. All of this advances the possibility that if a value consensus did emerge among the AU’s members, it might be based on the perceived need for security and state dominance over society.

This is a jarring prospect for Africans who envisage an Africa of greater openness and freedom. The implication of this is that Africa’s civil society and its activist community must recognise that campaigning for democracy and freedom cannot be confined exclusively within national boundaries. What happens elsewhere matters.

Until ‘Africa’ can decide what values it embodies, unity will be elusive. What those values are depends on the will of Africans, governors and citizens alike, to make them a reality.

*Terence Corrigan is a Research Fellow with the Governance and APRM Programme at the South African Institute of International Affairs. This article was first published in the Mail & Guardian, and is based on a forthcoming SAIIA Research Report entitled Building Freedom? Securing Constitutionalism and Civil Liberties in Africa – An Analysis of Evidence from the APRM. To sign up for an email alert when this and other governance-related SAIIA work is published, click here.

 

The views expressed in this post (site) are those of the author/ authors and do not necessarily reflect the position of OromianEconomist. Posting/Publication does not imply endorsement of views by the author/ authors.

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Sidama Scholar Says It’s an Outrage Language Spoken by 40% Is Not Federal Language Yet; Proposes Making Afan Oromo the Language of Cultural Integration of Cushites in Ethiopia October 20, 2015

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???????????Dr. Wolassa Kumo, Sidama scholar

Cushitic people of East Africa

Source: Onkoloolessa/October 20, 2015 · Finfinne Tribune | Gadaa.com

Dr. Wolassa L. Kumo, a Sidama scholar, has proposed that Afan Oromo be the language of the cultural integration of Cushites in Ethiopia (by teaching it in schools throughout the regions and zones where Cushites live); he has also expressed his support for making Afan Oromo, the largest Cushitic language in the world, the Federal Language in Ethiopia. Dr. Wolassa L. Kumo wrote about the topic in September 2015 in an article entitled “Deepening Cultural Integration among the Cushitic Peoples in Ethiopia.” To quote from the article:

Introducing Afaan Oromoo as an additional language course in primary and secondary schools in Cushitic language speaking regions would not only ensure deeper cultural integration among the Cushites but also the entire country. It is an affront to our conscious that the language spoken by over 40% of the population in Ethiopia is not recognized as official and national language in the country. Adopting Afaan Oromo as a second official and national language would not only benefit the Oromo and other Cushitic peoples but the entire country. The Amhara and Tigray people would benefit by learning Afaan Oromoo and the undistorted history and culture of the Cushites. Regardless of the manner in which the Cushites learned the Amharic language, the knowledge of the Amharic language and the Amhara culture is beneficial to the Cushitic peoples.

History of human societies has shown that it is impossible to unite a country by a barrel of gun forever. That is why empires crumbled throughout human history. Nonetheless, it is possible to unite a country through the will of the people who live in it. That will can only be there when there is a level playing field for everyone to take part in the building of a particular territory. Today, in Africa, we have dozens of countries where more than two official and national languages have been adopted. In South Africa, all eleven languages in the country are official languages. Did South Africa disintegrate because it adopted eleven official languages? Far from it. One of the most celebrated achievements of South Africa’s democracy is the adoption of all the languages in the country as official languages. A country of eighty ethnic groups can learn a lesson or two from South Africa and many other African countries.

Read more at:-

http://gadaa.net/FinfinneTribune/2015/10/sidama-scholar-says-its-an-ourtage-language-spoken-by-40-is-not-federal-language-yet-and-proposes-making-afan-oromo-the-language-of-cultural-integration-of-cushites-in-ethiopia/

http://www.afroarticles.com/article-dashboard/Article/Deepening-Cultural-Integration-among-the-Cushitic-Peoples-in-Ethiopia/261351

http://www.afroarticles.com/article-dashboard/Article/Deepening-Cultural-Integration-among-the-Cushitic-Peoples-in-Ethiopia/261351

The views expressed in this post (blog) are those of the author/authors and do not necessarily reflect the position of OromianEconomist. Posting/publication does not imply endorsement of views by the author/ authors.

Copyright © OromianEconomist 2015 and Oromia Quarterly 1997-2015,  all rights are reserved. Disclaimer.

Oromia: WBO: Irree fi Gaachanni Ummata Oromoo WBOn Loltootni TPLF 14 Ol Godina Kibba Bahaatti, 22 Ol Godina Bahaatti Galaafate. October 19, 2015

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Gootichi WBO Godina Bahaa, Bahaa fi Lixa Harargee Keessatti Loloota Godheen Loltoota Diinaa 22 Ol Hojiin Ala Taasise

Onkoloolessa 19 Bara 2015

Abdii fi Gaachanni Ummata Oromoo WBOn kan Godina Bahaa keessa sossohu humna gabroomfattuu wayyaanee irratti tarkaanfii fudhatu jabeessee itti fufuun tibbanas Godinoota Bahaa fi Lixa Harargee keessatti waraana wayyaanee sochii WBO danquu fi ummata irratti dalagaa gooltummaa raawwatuuf bobbaa irra turan haleelee 22 ol hojiin ala gochuun meeshaalee waraanaa irraa hiikkachuu Ajaji WBO Godina Baha Oromiyaa oduu tarkaanfii waraanaa SBOtti ergeen ifa godhee jira.

Haaluma kanaan Onkoloolessa 13,2015 Waraanni Bilisummaa Oromoo Baha Harargee Ona Fadis naannoo Miidhagaa Lolaa bakka Mudhii Baallii jedhamutti humna waraana wayyaanee kan sakattaa fi maqaa WBO nyaachistu jedhuun ummata gooluuf bobbaa irra ture haleeluun 4 irraa ajjeesee, 7 ol madeessuu fi qawwee AK-47 4 fi mi’oota waraanaa biroo irraa booji’uu Ajaji WBO Godina Bahaa beeksiseera.

Gootichi WBO Godina Bahaa tarkaanfii isaa itti fufuun Onkoloolessa 16, 2015ttis Lixa Harargee Ona Bookee naannoo lakkoobsa 25 jedhamu keessaa bakka Haroo Diimtuu jedhamutti qubsuma diinaa haleeluun 5 irraa ajjeesee, 6 madeessuun addaan akka bittinneesse, akkasumas qawwee AK-47 6 fi meeshaalee biroo irraa booji’uu Ajaji WBO Godina Baha Oromiyaa dabalee beeksiseera.

Onkoloolessa 08 fi 09,2015 Gartuun Mahaandisaa Humna Addaa WBO Godina Kibba Bahaa,  Baalee keessaa Gindhiir bakkoota Qarsaa Allaattii fi Laga Dharroo bakka Malkaa Aadee jedhamanitti fanjii konkolaataa fi fanjii farra namaan Ajajoota Waraana Wayyaanee lama dabalatee loltoota diinaa 18 olii fi konkolaataa tokko hojiin ala gochuu isaa gabaasuun keenya kan yaadatamuu dha.

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Ajajootni Waraana Wayyaanee Lama Waardiyoota Isaanii Waliin Gartuu Mahaandisaa Humna Addaa WBO Godina Kibba Bahaan Haleelamanii Ajjeefaman. Loltootni 14s Tarkaanfii Fudhatameen Hojiin Ala Ta’an.

Onkoloolessa 16 Bara 2015

Irree fi Gaachanni Ummata Oromoo WBOn Godinoota adda addaa tarkaanfilee gara garaa humna gabroomfattuu diinaa irratti fudhatu yeroo irraa gara yerootti jabeessaa fi babal’isaa kan jiru si’a ta’u, haaluma kanaanis Humni Addaa WBO Godina Kibba Bahaa Baalee keessatti ajajoota waraana wayyaanee ummata dararaa turan waardiyoota isaanii waliin tarkaanfii boonsaa irratti fudhateen du’aan adabuu Ajaji WBO Godina Kibba Bahaa Oduu Tarkaanfii SBOf ergeen beeksiseera.

Onkoloolessa 08, 2015 Gartuun Humna Addaa Mahandisoota WBO Kibba Bahaa Godina Baalee ganama keessaa sa’aa 8:00 irratti ajajoota waraana wayyaanee Abbaa Buttaa (A/100) fi Abbaa Muraasaa (A/50) waardiyoota isaanii 4 waliin kutaa waraana wayyaanee 12ffaaGindhiiritti argamu irraa ka’anii gara magaalaa Saallaat konkolaataan deemaa turan bakka Qarsaa Allaattii jedhamutti fanjii farra konkolaataa kiyyeessuufiin daaressee, ajajoota waraanaa lamaanii fi waardiyoota isaanii 4n, ajjeesuu, konkolaataan ittiin deemaa turanis guutuutti barbadaawuu Ajaji WBO Godina Kibba Bahaa beeksiseera.

Gartuun Humna Addaa Mahandisoota WBO Godina Kibba Bahaa dirqama itti kenname injifannoo boonsaan galmaan gahuu kan hubachiise Ajaji WBO Godina Kibba Bahaa, tarkaanfii kanaan diinni guddoo rifatuun akkuma bare ummata nagaa fi meesha maleeyyiitti roorrisaa jiraachuu hubachiisa.

Haaluma kanaan waraanni faashistii wayyaanee tarkaanfii fudhatametti rifate abdii kutannaan naannoo Qarsaa Allaattiitti bobba’uudhaan lammiilee Oromoo nagaa irratti tarkaanfii diinummaa adda addaa fudhachaa jira. Haaluma kanaan jiraattota naannoo kanaa dhiiraa dhalaa osoo hin jedhin marsee dhaanuu irra darbee, jaarolee Oromoo lama Obbo Abdullaahii Sheekaa fi Obbo Awwal Sheek Qaasim jedhaman qabanii WBO fidaa jedhanii yeroo rakkisan, maanguddootni Oromoos nu hin agarre, kan qawwee qabu isinii deemaa barbaadaa waan ittiin jedhaniif, saanjaan wawwaraananii gocha diinummaa akka irratti raawwatan beekameera.

Humni waraana wayyaanee naannoo Qarsaa Allaattiitti bobba’ee ummata goolu kun WBO tarkaanfii kana fudhate sakatta’uu fi hordofuuf dirqama addaa fudhatee bobbaa akkuma eegaleen gartuun Mahandisaa Humna Addaa WBO odeeffannoo argateen Onkoloolessa 09,2015 Laga Dharroo bakka Malkaa Aadee jedhamu iddoo karaan sadii itti walqaxxaamuru irratti fanjii farra namaa hidhuufiin loltoota 14 ol hojiin ala godhee jira. Loltoota wayyaanee fanjii mahaandisoota Humna Addaa WBOn kiyyeeffameef irra bahanii haleelaman kana keessaa 8 battalatti yeroo du’an 6 ammoo miilli irraa ciccituu fi haala hamaan madaa’anii gara mooraa waraana wayyaanee Gindhiir jiruutti akka geeffaman Ajaji WBO Godina Kibba Bahaa ifa godhee jira.

Tarkaanfiin waraana gabroomfattuu fi lukkeelee wayyaanee/TPLF gufuu QBO ta’an irratti fudhatamu kan itti fufu ta’uus Ajaji WBO Godina Kibba Bahaa dabalee hubachiisee jira.

Choosing A Career in Economics October 18, 2015

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Oromia: OBS: Qophii Harka fuunee: Gaafiif Deebii Wallisaa Habtaamuu Gazzahany (PhD) October 17, 2015

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‘A Night in Oromia’ – A Cultural Show in Toronto October 17, 2015

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Iyyaasee: Firaol Debere, ‘Iyyaasee’ New Oromo/ Oromia Music October 16, 2015

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Mootummaan EPRDF(TPLF) Labsii Master Plan Finfinnee fi Magaaloota Oromiyaa To’achuuf Baasee Caffeen Oromiyaa Raggasiise Guutummaatti Dura Dhaabbachuun Qeerroon Bilsummaa Ibsa Qabxii 8 Baase. October 16, 2015

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???????????Say no to the master killer. Addis Ababa master plan is genocidal plan against Oromo people. Say no.Say no to the master killer. Addis Ababa master plan is genocidal plan against Oromo peoplecropped-qeerroo-edit.jpg

Mootummaan EPRDF(TPLF) Labsii Master Plan Finfinnee fi Magaaloota Oromiyaa To’achuuf Baasee  Caffeen Oromiyaa Raggasiise Guutummaatti Dura Dhaabbachuun Qeerroon Bilsummaa Ibsa Qabxii 8 Baase.

Onkoloolessa 12,2015
Finfinnee

Sochiin Dargaggoota Oromoo Biyyoolessaa (Qeerroon Bilisummaa Oromoo) Labsii Master Plan Finfinnee fi Magaaloota Oromiyaa to’achuuf labsame Caffeen Oromiyaa raggasiise duula Oromoo qe’ee isaa irraa balleessuu fi diigumsa Oromiyaarratti raggaasifame dha jechuun gadi jabeessee balaaleffachuun ibsa ejjennoo qabxii torba dabarsan.

Duula lammiilee Oromoo dhabamsiisuu fi Biyyaa Balleessuutu Uummata Oromoo fi  Oromiyaa  irratti labsame.Labsii mootummaan Wayyaanee maqaa OPDOn  Caffee Oromiyaa teessisuun yaa’ii Onkololessaa 1-3tti taa’ame  irratti labsii Master Plan Finfinnee mirkaneessuuf taa’ame , Finfinnee dabalatee Magaalotni Oromiyaa hundi akka harka mootummaa EPRDF/TPLF’n to’atamutti raggaaasifamee waan jiruuf Qeerroon Bilisummaa Oromoo dhimma labsii Caffeen Oromiyaa dabarsee kana gadi jabeessuun balaaleffachuun ibsa murtii qabasoon dura dhaabbachuu baase!!

Jaarmiyaan Sochii Dargaggoota Oromoo biyyoolessaa ykn  Qeerroon Dargaggootni  Barattootni Oromoo labsii kana yeroo dhageenyutti Oromiyaan, Uummatni Oromoo, Aadaan,Afaanii fi eenyummaan Oromoo akkasumas qabeenyi Oromoo ,sirni Gadaa Oromoo, hawaasummaan,barnootaa fi dinagdee Oromoo harka sirna garboomsaa EPRDF/TPLF ‘n kan to’atamu ta’uu waan nutti  muldhateef gadi jabeessuun balaaleffanne.

Labsiin Kun akkuma bara 2014 Qeerroon, Barattootni Oromoo dhaabbilee barnoota olaanoo mormii master Plan Finfinnee,Magaalota naannawaa Finfinnee fi Magaalotaa gurguddoo Oromiyaa kanneen akka Amboo,Jimmaa, Mattuu, Neqemtee, Gimbii, Walisoo, Adaamaa, Shaashamannee,fi Harammayaa to’achuun bulchiinsa Magaalaa Finfinneetiin akka to’atamtuuf kan itti yaadamee as baheedha jechuun gaaffii iyyannoo keenyaa lakkoofsa 1ffaa hanga 9ffaatti jiru keessatti kallattii hundaan dhiyeeffannee sagalee guddaa fi wareegama qaalii itti kanfaluun kan dura dhaabbatnedha. Yoo xiqqaatee ilmaan Oromoo 280 olitti lakka’aman wareegamakanfalaniiru, ilmaan Oromoo kumootaan lakkaa’aman manneen hidhaa biyyatti garaagaraa keessatti jumlaan hidhamuun dararaa ulfaataa argaa kan jiranii fi barattootni Oromoo dhibbootaan lakka’aman barnoota isaanii irraa arii’atamaniru. Labsiin raggasifame kunlLabsii wareegama ilmaan Oromoo irra tarkaanfatee afaan qawweetti abdachuun Oromiyaa diiguu fi ilmaan Oromoo shororkeessuun jireenya dhorkatuu fi labsii seenaa keessatti yakka ol-aanaa ta’e baasuu fi raggaasisuun Caffee Oromiyaa Wayyaaneen dhaabde itti gaafachiisu dha. Uummanni Oromoo labsii raggaasifame kana tokkummaan dura dhaabbachuun aduunyaa jiru mara keessatti mormiin akka dura dhaabbachuun barbaachisaa dha. Gahee abbaa biyyummaa fi mirga tikfachuu qabnu mara kafaluun mirga keenyaa fi mirga biyyaa keenyaa kabachiifachuuf ibsa armaan gadii uummata Oromoo hundaaf dabarsuuf dirqamnee jirra!!.

1. Nuti Qeerroon dargaggootni Oromoo mootummaan Wayyaanee maqaa master Palan jedhuun duula uummata Oromoo irratti bane jiru kan Caffeen Oromiyaa raggasise, Balaaleffachuun kallattii hundaan FDG finiinsuun mirga keenya akka falmatnu dhaammatna. Akkuma Irreechaa Hora Arsadee fi malkaa Ateetee irratti tokkummaa isaa jabeeffate diina rifaasisaa ture; akkasumas wal arguun dhimmoota labsii duguuginsa sanyii fi diigumsaa Oromiyaa irratti labsamee raggasifame kana balaaleeffachuun walleelee warraaqsaa fi sagalee dhaadanoo mormii guddaa dhageesisuun, labsiicha balaaleffatan kun waadaa guddaa waadaa Oromummaa waliif seenuun labsii diinaa ni fashaleessina,bakka hundatti mirga Oromoo ni kafachiifna,ni falminas jechuun waadaa mirga namoomaa fi Oromoo tiksuuf qabdanii haaromfattan kabajuuf qophii haa taanu jechuun Qeerroon dhaamsa dabarsa.

2. Caffeen Mootummaa naannoo Oromiyaa Onkololessaa 1-3tti taa’een seenaa gurracha fokkataa hojjechuun Master Plan Finfinnee raggasisuu irra darbee Magaalota Oromiyaa hunda dabarsee gurguree jiru kun uummata Oromoo kan bakka hin buune fi uummata Oromoof kan hin dhaabbatne ta’uu kan muldhisuu yoo ta’uu yakkaa ulfaata Oromoo fi Oromiyaa irratti raggasisee kana hattamaan irra deebi’uun akka haquu gadi jabeessinee gaafatna. Yoo labsii Wayyaanee EPRDF/TPLF kan qopheesse hin haquu ta’ee Caffeen Oromiyaa ofiin jedhuu yakkamaa ol anaa ta’ee seeratti akka dhihaachuu qabu uummanni Oromoo bakka jiruu irratti hojjechuu qaba jenna.

3. Yakka ajjeechaa fi saaminsa,akkasuman dararaa haraa hundaan mootummaan EPRDF/TPLF uummata Oromoo irratti fudhachaa turee fi jiruu, akkasumas yakka fulduratti uummata Oromoo fi saboota cunqurfamoo irratti fudhatamuuf Caffeen kun itti gaafatama guddaa jala jiraachuu Qeerroon hubachiisa!!

4. Miseensotni Caffee Murtii qomoo Oromoo balleessii Uummata irratti dabarse kun kan isaan jiraatan uummata Oromoo sadarkaa aanaa jiru keessa ta’uu beekuun Uummatni Oromoo dargaggootni Oromoo, hojjettootni Oromoo, Barattootni Oromoo, qonnaan bultootni Oromoo, ogeessootni fayyaa Oromoo , Poolisootni Oromoo , humni raayyaa ittisa biyyaa Oromoo taatanii fi hojii dhabdootni Oromoo yakka miseensota Caffee Oromiyaa uummata Oromoo fi Oromiyaa irratti taasisaa jiran dura akka dhaabbattan.

5. Uummatni Oromoo hundi Oromiyaa diigamaa fi gurguramaa jirtu, Saba Oromoo jumlaan ajjeefamaa, hidhaamaa fi jiruuf barnootarraa arii’atamaa jiru, uummata keenyaa qe’ee irraa buqqa’aa balaa beelaan haleelamaa jiruu garaa maalitu nuuf ta’aa? Kanaaf haalduree tokko malee yeroon gamtaan kaane falmannuu amma Oromoo harka walqabadhuun ka’ii!!

6. Jaarmiyaaleen siyaasaa Oromoo fi beektootni Oromoo hundi Labsii uummata Oromoo fi Oromiyaa irratti labsame kana utuu arginuu teenyee wal irratti ilaaluun itti gaafatama guddaa jala waan isin galchuuf, Oromoon kan qabsaa’uuf, Uummata isaa waanjoo garbummaa keessa jiru bilisa baasuu fi Oromiyaa harka abbaa irree keessatti qawween, saamamaa eegamaa turtee kana walaboomsuuf yoo ta’u, Erga biyyi ciicciramtee diigamtee maaliif akka qabsaa’amuu fi eenyuuf akka qabsa’amu gaaffii keessa waan isin galchuuf yeroon harka walqabatnee labsii waloon Oromiyaa fi Oromoo irratti labsame raggasifame kana waloon kaanee dura dhaabbachuun falmannuu amma ta’uu hubachuun waamicha lammummaa gadi jabeessuun isiniif dabarsina!!

7. Poolisootni Oromoo, korri bittinneessaa Oromiyaa, Milishoonnii Oromiyaa fi ilmaan Oromoo Raayyaa ittisa biyyaatti keessatti argamtan labsii Master Plan Finfinnee fi Magaalaalee Oromiyaa to’achuuf labsame raggasifame kana dura akka dhaabbattan waamicha keenya isiiniif dabarsina. Mootummaan Wayyaanee EPRDF/TPLF Humnoota caqafaman kana irraa meeshaa hidhannoo waraanaa hiikkachiisuu waan danda’uuf bakka jirtaan hundatti dammaqiinsaan of eeggannoo gootanii duula saba Oromoo irratti baname akka balaaleffattanii mirga saba keessanii falmattan jechuun waamicha keenya isinii goona . Jechuun Qeerroon Bilisummaa Oromoo labsii Master Plan Finfinnee fi Magaaloota Oromiyaa to’achuu fi Uummata Oromoo jumlaan hidhuu,fi aajjesuuf qophaa’e kana kutannoo fi muratnoodhaan dura dhaabbachuun falmachuutti kan jirruu ta’uu ibsa qabxii torba dabarfachuun labsii uummata keenyaa fi Oromiyaa irratti raggasifamee gadii jabeessuun balaaleffanna!!

Injifannoon Uummata Oromoof!

Gadaan gadaa Bilisummaati!!

Onkoloolessaa 12/2015

Oromo TV: Boonaa Mohammed, Internationally Recognized Oromo Poet October 15, 2015

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UNPO: Oromo: Enforced Disappearance of Prominent Community Leader October 15, 2015

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???????????Hayyuu Aadaa fi Argaa-Dhageettii Oromoo Obbo Dabbasaa Guyyoo. photo1

Oromo: Enforced Disappearance of Prominent Community Leader

Dabassa Guyo Saffaro, an important member of the Oromo community, with expertise in Oromo culture and cosmology, has been missing since 27 September 2015. He has long been persecuted by the Ethiopian government, and fled to Kenya in the 1970s. He has been living under UNHCR protection in Nairobi since then. His disappearance marks a continuation of the Ethiopian government’s consistent attacks on the Oromo people; his family and friends are calling on international human rights organisations to help the search effort.

Below is an article published by OPride:

A prominent Oromo wisdom keeper, oral historian and spiritual leader, who spent more than 30 years teaching the Oromo culture and cosmology, has been missing since September 27, family and friends said.

Dabassa Guyo Saffaro was born and raised in Yabello, Ethiopia. He moved to Kenya in the early 1970s fleeing political persecution, according to his daughter Darmi. He has since lived in Nairobi at times under the protection of the UNHCR. Guyo was in the process of renewing his expired Kenyan ID and UNHCR travel documents when he vanished.

Darmi, 22, is calling on the UN refugee agency, the Kenyan media, government and lawmakers to help locate her father, whom many describe as a living encyclopedia of Oromo wisdom, cosmology and oral tradition. The family is also asking international human rights organizations, the Oromo diaspora and other indigenous community leaders to help in the search effort and in investigating the circumstances of his disappearance.

“My father is a good man,” Darmi told OPride by phone from Mlolongo, where until recently she lived with Guyo, her two children and two other siblings. “He doesn’t have any quarrels with people. He is the greatest dad in the world.”

About half a dozen of Guyo’s former students contacted by OPride attest to the oral historian’s generosity, gentle spirit and kindness. Asnake Erko is the first of Guyo’s graduates and his former assistant. “I met him in Kenya in early 2000,” Erko told OPride. “Dabasa is a very kind man who shares from what he gets from good Samaritans. He is a man whose knowledge has no limits.”

Erko and nine other Oromo refugees eventually convinced Guyo to start teaching a course on Gadaa and Oromo culture. The effort led to the establishment in 2000 of “Arga Dhageettii Gadaa Oromoo,” an Oromo cultural institute where Guyo continued to teach Oromo culture, spirituality and the Gadaa system until recently.

Guyo was picked up from his residence in Mlolongo, a township outside of Nairobi, on September 25 by his son-in-law, Shamil Ali, and another individual from Kenya’s Oromo community, according to Darmi. He was invited by the community to preside over and perform rituals at an Irreechaa celebration at Nairobi’s City Park on September 27, something he has done every year for decades.

The respected leader reportedly returned to Eastleigh that evening after performing the ritual to spend the night with Ali, Darmi’s ex-husband. Ali says the father of six changed into a regular wardrobe after they got home and stepped outside for what he assumed was a “routine” walk. Ali says he became gradually more concerned when the elder did not return after an hour and as the night began to fall. Guyo was last seen wearing white pants and green sandals.

Darmi thought it was odd — and even uncharacteristic — for Guyo to leave behind all of his belongings and identification cards even if he ventured out for a quick walk. “My father never leaves his bag behind,” said Darmi, adding that her father had lived in Kenya for nearly four decades and knew his way around Eastleigh very well. “I was told Dad left everything of his behind, but still he can’t just get lost like a kid.” Guyo speaks Swahili and Oromo.

Ali and Guyo’s acquaintances in the United States and Europe fear that he might have fallen into the wrong hands, noting that Eastleigh is no longer a friendly neighborhood for immigrants. That the missing elder looks like a Somali in his physical appearance almost doesn’t help in an environment charged with official ethnic profiling, according to Jim Berenholtz, who had known Guyo for more than two decades. In recent years, Kenyan security officials have rounded up immigrants — particularly Somalis — en masse amid a heightened crackdown on those suspected of having links or sympathies for the militant group, Al-Shabab.

Erko and some members of the Oromo diaspora have raised concerns that Ethiopian security forces might have kidnapped Guyo because of his political views. (The Ethiopian intelligence in Kenya has a long history of targeting and kidnapping Oromo nationals in the country.)

Guyo’s family is desperately seeking information about his whereabouts. Ali maintains that he had searched local police stations, jails, hospitals and mortuaries for the missing elder at no avail. Darmi, who is seeking a divorce from Ali, questions some of her ex-husband’s accounts of her father’s unexplained disappearance and she plans to file a separate missing person report this week.

Both say they can’t rule anything out at this point, including a possibility that Ethiopian spies might have kidnapped the spiritual leader. One theory is that Guyo gave an unfavorable speech at Ireechaa and there were spies at the event. Ali also recalls Guyo had in recent months complained about some “pressure” from the Ethiopian embassy in Kenya. Erko and at least two of Guyo’s former acquaintances in the U.S. recall he always had concerns about his safety and had told them unidentified individuals had been nagging him to return to Oromia and teach Gadaa — an offer they say Guyo had repeatedly refused. Those who knew him say Guyo was openly critical of the Ethiopian government and the atrocities it commits against the Oromo people and the systemic repression of their culture. Understandably, there are a lot of speculations about his whereabouts and what might have befallen him. But at this point the family says their best hope is that the elder is indeed in Kenyan or Ethiopian custody.

His former students, including Berenholtz and Erko, say Guyo was a truly gifted orator with a very deep knowledge of the universe and the Oromo Gadaa system. The highly respected seer and mystic was an informant to such prominent anthropologists as Gamachu Magarsa, Paul Baxter and many others who have studied the Gadaa system.

In recent years, Guyo has been working with several globally recognized researchers, anthropologists and other indigenous nations, such as the Mayans, American Indians , Kyrgyz, the Altaic and other indigenous groups to raise awareness about Oromo cosmology and indigenous belief system. Over the past decade, the Oromo wisdom has travelled to the U.S., Guatemala, Kyrgyzstan, Australia and several European countries to share his wisdom with Oromo expats and other indigenous people.

Erko and others say Guyo had a unique ability to distill complex concepts about astronomy, a sophisticated Oromo calendar and numerology system “and make you sit there (listening) the whole day without even thinking that you were there for a second.” The renowned historian can reference specific dates and historical events from memory in each and every part of Oromia, according to Erko. He also had an unmatched ability to not only interpret but also connect age-old Oromo prophecies with current events.

None of the people we spoke with could conclusively say he’s kidnapped but all point to the history of Ethiopian intelligentsia in targeting such prominent Oromo nationals even beyond its borders. In addition to his lecture at Irreechaa, which his friends say may have drawn the ire of the Ethiopian intelligence, Guyo has been traveling around the world to teach Gadaa and raise awareness about the systemic suppression of Oromo culture and heritage in Ethiopia. Guyo’s disappearance on the same day he spoke at Irreechaa appears to lend some credence to their suspicion.

Anyone with information about Guyo’s whereabouts is encouraged to contact his family or the Oromo community organization in Nairobi. You can also send an anonymous tip to OPride at oromsisblog@gmail.com.

 

Photo credit: Rod Waddington @Flickr

http://unpo.org/article.php?id=18635

We and Them (Oromo and the Colonizer) | Nuu fi Isaan (Oromoo fi Koloneeffataa) October 15, 2015

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Nuu fi Isaan (Oromoo fi Koloneeffataa)

Ibsaa Guutama irraa* | Onkoloolessa 2015

Atoo Sarbaa hin qabduu sarbaa millaa hin qabduu maaliin lafa dhiittaa yaa abbee?
Atoo gamtaa hin qabduu gamtaa dhiiraa hin qabduu maaliin nama miitaa ya aabbee?”*

Roorroo koloneefataa hammaa bahaa kan yaaliin seenaa, aadaa, afaanii fi dudhaa Oromoo balleessuuf godhame dabalatutu qabsoof ummata kakaase. Hardhas yoo tahe waldhaansoon mirgaaf godhamu itt fufaa,sirna Gadaa keessaa akeekota dhimma itt bahuun dandahaman guddifachuun irra ilaalamuu hin qabu. Ijoolleen Oromoo yero qabsoo bilisummaaf ka’an sana,kaayyoon saba saanii akkasumas firaa fi diinni eenyu akka tahan isaaniif taliila ture. Sun sagantaa malbulchaa dhaaba kallacha qabsoo Oromoo tahe, ABO irra kaa’ameera. Baras firaa fi diina gidduu timjii mullatutu ture. Angoon hoggansaas akeekamee ture. Bulee garuu want halle caalaa dimimmisaawaa fi laaqamaa dhufuutt ka’e. Amma firaa fi diinaa gargar baafachuun mamii dha; daangaan angoo fi barri hoggansaa, mirgaa fi dirqammi qondaalotaa fi miseensotaa sadarkaa hin beekamne gahaniiru. Eenyuun “Nuwi”, eenyuun “Isaan” jechuuf qabsaawoti qayabbannoo waloo dhabaa jirruu. Kanaaf dargagggoon hireen ummata kanaa dhimma keenya jedhan keessa deebi’anii mari’achuun yeroo saati. Dur Gadaan tokko yeroo murtaaweef hin dabarsu ture. Gadaa haaraan dhufu seera ofii tumata. Yoo haaraa hin baafnes kan darbe irra deebi’ee akka kan ofiitt tuma. Eenyuu seeraa ol hin turre. Sun akeekaa guddifatamuu qabu. Amma egaa,Gadaan seeraanis aadaanis kan dargaggoo waan taheef dirqammi joonjee qabate keessaa sabicha baasuu kan saaniitii. Kan kana gochuu dandahan qaama yaa’ichaa tahanii qabsoo sabaaf gumaachaa kan jiranii. Akki qabsoon Oromoo battala adda addaatt si’ana itt qabamaa jiru yaaddessaa dha. Kanaaf hundi garaa qulqulluun of qoree yaada furmaataa dhihessuu qaba. Gara kanatt masaka kennuuf hayyooti Oromoo hundi dirqamaa fi abbaawummaa qabu.

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Martoota wiirtuwaloo

Oromummaan “Nuwii” kan ofiin jedhan akka martoota wiirtuwalooti ilaalamuu dandahu. Martii xiqishuu tuqaa wiirtuutt haantu akka warraatt ilaalamuu dandeessi. Sana duuba balbala, qomoo, gosa, jedhee sabatt ol guddata. Sabi marti alaa guddicha hunda haammatu jechuu dha. Tokko tokkoon martootaa keessa tuqooti nuu fi isaan kan waliin jedhan jiraachuu dandahu. Hundu tuqaa miira, dudhaa, amantoota, ganda fi godinaa qabu. Addummaan sun dhaloota duuba waan guddifatanii. Kanaaf jijjiiramuus ni dandahu. Gamnii, jabina martoota waliigalaaf garagarumaatt dhimma bahuu ni dandaha; hamaa harkatt garuu burjaajii uumuu dandahu. Sadarkaa kamittuu, tuqaaleen martii tokko keessa jiran martii takka haa tahu, martoota wiirtuwaloo ol, amanamummaa barbaadnaan waan jallatetu jira jechuu dha; shaffisaan sirraawu qaba. Addummaan tokkummaa sabichaa caalaa jabaannaan balaa qaba.

Oromummaan waan dhalootaati, kan ofirraa dhiqanii baasan mitii; qaceen saa dhalootaa dhalootatt darba. Dhugaan kun utuu jiru Oromummaan ilaalcha waloo masakaa hundaaf tahee fulduratt gahaatt hin bane. Afanfajjii fi kolomsiisa holola diinaan faca’etu akka Riqa Arrojii yk Ilaalaa Baabiloon jedhamuu afaan wal waldhaalchisaa jira. Qabsaawota kan ofiin jedhan keessa kan of hin beekne fi ofitt hin amannetu jiru. Sabichi saba guddaa, qaroomota dhaloota Kiristos dura beekaman keessaa gahaa qabu. Aadaa demokrasiin kanneen hanga yoonaa beekaman keessaa yoo caale malee kamiinuu gadi miti. Lakkoofsa ummataa naannaa saa jiran keessaa guddicha. Qabeenya uumaan hafee hin qabu. Beekumsa ogummaa, nagaa jaallachuu fi jannummaan kan komatuun hin jiru. Waaqtokkee tahuun kan isa dursu hin jiru. Kan maqaa saan sosso’an garuu kana hunda hin calaqisanii. Sodaatamu irra tuffatamu; hogganuu irra hogganamuu; nagummaa irra hammeenya agarsiisuu fi ummata ofii qindeessanii surraan mullachuu irra wan asgali hin jedhamneen bakka buufachuu yaaluun kan isa salphisantu caala. Kanaaf dandeettiin ummata kanaa kan harka jiruu fi riphaan dhimma itt hin bahamin jira. Maal wayyaa? Salphina kana keessaa attamiti bahamaa? Kan seexaan saanii salphina akkasii hin fudhanne itt yaaduu qabu. Halaalatt harka utuu hin hiixatin dura qeyee ofii soneeffachuun filmaata biraa hin qabu.

Oromummaan martii gandummaa, amantee, gosummaa kkf haammata. Hunda madaalee gaggeesssuutu irraa eegama. Jarri faaya saatisii. Kanaaf hundi amanamummaan isaaf qaban mara dursa jechuu dha. Hariiroon “Isaan” kan jedhaman waliin uumamu amanamummaa kana kan faallessu tahuu hin qabu. Sana malee raayyaa irraa adda bahanii diina mararfachuutu dhufa. Koloneeffataan keenyaa, nuwiif diina. Nuuf diina jechuun kan abba tokkee haa tahu saboota fedha saanii malee too’annoo jala galchee yk galchisiisee qaama fi qabeenya saanii irratt akka fedhett ajaju, mirgaa fi eenyummaa saanii haalee gara laafina tokko malee humnaan of jala jiraachisu jechuu dha. Diinni keenya daangaa nutt darbe. Dhalooti, afaanni, biyyi, daayi, dantaa fi kaayyoon keenya adda addaa. Nuti wararamoota inni warartuu dha. Nuti cunqurfamoota inni cunqursaa dha. Nuti kodee dhaa inni halagaa dha.

Kanaaf nuwummaa keenya akka qilleensi hin gallett eeggannu malee miiddhaan nu biraa hin hafu kan jedhamu. Kun akka Oromoon of itt ilaalanii. Gurguddoo Habashaaf Oromiyaan si’anaa yeroo hin yaadatamnee kaasee biyya saanii ture. Oromoon warartuu naannaa kana jaarraa 16faa madda hin beekamne kan laga faa dabalatuuf kkf. dhufan. Oromoon aangoo waaltaa qabaatanii waan hin beekneef akka saba tokkoott ilaalamuu hin qaban. Mirgi saanii abba abbaa kabajamuufii caaluu homa argachuu hin qaban. Kun yaada raagoti saanii dabtarooti sammuutt jaarraa hedduuf gad huduman. Kanaf mirga Oromoon kiyya jedhu hin fudhataniif. Qarqabaa kana kan Oromoon isaanitt michooman fudhachuun gaaffii sabummaa kan silaa Oromo akka sabaa walabaatt aangessuu dandahan irraa dheessan. Kana ilaalaniitu ummatii, sochiin saanii fashaluu irraa hin baraaramu kan jedhan.

Hamma yoona kaasaa Oromummaaf waliin dudhama fi murannoo agarsiisuu irratt walbuusuun miidhamaa jirra. Hanga hardhaatt kan gidiraa waliin itt gallett “nuwi” dhiisanii “isaanitt” galuun horooman hin agarre. Kan walfakkaatu yoo waliin dhaabbate qofa miidhaga. Ummatooti addunyaa yoomuu caalaa wal irratt hirkachuutu nutt himama. Haa tahu malee hunduu dantaa biyya fi nama ofii durfannoo akka kennan waliin nutt hin himamu. Hunduu humnaa fi bu’aa caalaa ummata ofiif argamsiisuuf, dadhabaa macalaqsanii bira darbu malee “anaa haanyaatu” jedhanii olkaasanii hin tirsanii. Caalmaa kana argachuuf haa tahu hurrisa jalaa bahuuf kan anjaa qabu, kan tokkummaa fi qophii cimaa qabu. Akka itt of ijaarruu fi mala ittiin qabsoofnu nammi nutt hin himuu; sun diroo keenyaa. Oromoon dorgommee addunyaa keessa seenuuf dura of bilisomsuu qabu jennee kaanee. Nuwii fi isaan gargar baafachuu kan uggetu sanaaf qophaawuu dandaha.

Ummata ofii damqsanii iddoo saanii dhugaa akka qabatan gochuu irra halagaatt riqatanii of fooyyesuu kan filatan hedduu dha. Hamma yoonaa dhugaa lafa jiru sirriitt rogaan mullisuuf sabboonoti hedduun yaalaniiruu. Isaanuu ukkamsaa sadoo meeqa keessaan hasaasan malee hamma irraa eegamu mandi’uu hin dandeenye. Kan hafan sagalee ol kaasanii iyyicha dabarsuu dhiisanii ofitt guungumu. Oromoon hedduun biyya saanii, ulfina saanii fi eenyummaa saanii dhabanii utuu jiranii maal nuun jedhuutu rakkisaanii. Kan homaa hin qabne wanti jedhamuun akka hin jirre hin hubatanii. Aarii ukkamfatanii bokokanii taa’uu. Sana futtaafatan malee yartuun itt taphataa haftii.

Kanaaf, falli saanii bakka itt kufanii ka’anii, diina digaluu taate ofirraa urgufuu dha. Hundi salphinaa fi roorroo irra gahaa jiruuf waliin aaduu fi iyyuun hunda hirriba dhowwan malee, miidhama saaniif eenyuu xiyyeeffannoo kennuufii hin dandahu. Tuffii fi salphinni kan finiinsu, kan sanaan middhaan itt dhagahamu qofa. “Baraa fi furguggee guugguufanii jala bahu” jedhanii kan gombifaman jiru. Garuu achittis jalaa hin baanee, gubbaa dhaa gad itt erganii. Baras, furguggees si’aawun itt deeman ofirraa qola’uu. Du’a hin olleef ofirratt alba’uun qaanii waliin jiraachuu taha. Qaaniin sabicha diinaaf ulfina. Yoo yeroon dammaqanii duran hin dhaabbanne isaan babbaqasuu, facaasuu, deegsuu fi gadgaloo gochuun qaanesuun itt fufa.

Hedduun beekota qabnuu, hololli Habashaa ittiin surrii dhiqamaa guddatan barumsa dhaabota beekumssaa olhaanoo irraa argatan caalaa kan gadi lixe fakkaata. Dabballooti ol haanoon dirqama qabsoo ummataa itt kenname baatanii jijjiirammi haalaa, dhiibbaan fedha adda addaa fi rakkinni abba abbaa gara dhabsiisaa jira. Sochii bilisummaa Oromoo rakkina sabicha qabate irraa eegalee. Maqaan Oromoo jedhamu sochichaan bakkatt deebi’e. Oromoon biyya Oromiyaa jedhamtu qabaachuun kan haalan jiraatanuu isaan fudhatama argate. Afaan ofiin barachuu fi ittiin hojjechuun isaan mirkaneeffame. Qubee ofii qabaachuun isaan eegalamee. Isaan bu’aa guguddaan galmeeffame. Bu’aa sochiin bilisummaa fide himamee hin dhumu.

Jiji kun jannoota lafeen saanii awwaala malee hafe Oromiyaa irra faca’ee jiruun galmeeffame. Haadholiin Oromiyaa ergasii janna dahuu dhaabanii laata? Kanneen qabeenya Oromiyaa gufuu tokko malee bolquu barbaadan olhaantummaa malbulchaa irratt argachuuf kara karaa bobba’anii sochicha haleelaa jiru. Isaaniif akkuma durii Oromoo raatessanii irra bahuuf sochiin bilisummaa Oromoo badu qaba. Kanaaf tumsa alaa manaa qindeeffataniiru.Sochiin bilisummaa bakka miiddhaan jiruu hogganamu malee injifannooleen hanga yoonaa galmeeffaman duubatt deebi’uu dandahu. Sochicha badii irraa oolchuun dirqama Oromoo hundaati.

Garuu yoo maal godhame sun dhugoomuu dandaha? Jalqaba seerroti dhabaa fedha abba tokkee fi murnaa qufsuuf gara dhabsiifamuu akka hin qabane mirkanaawuu qaba; garuu akka abbalamiifitt hojii irra ooluu qabu. Dhaabi hawwa abba tokkee yk garee quufsuuf fedha kutaa miseensota saa tokkoo qofa calaqisuu fedhu murna fedhaa yk waldaa dhuunfaa malee, dhaba malbulchaati ofiin jechuuf hin dandahu. Kanaaf akka dhaaba malbulchaatt fiixaan akka hin baane beekamaa dha. Diinni Oromiyaa harkatt galfate of harka tursuuf boqonnaa malee halkaniif guyyaa hojjeta. Gara Oromoon tattaaffii walfakkaataan hin mullatu. Yoo shakalli akkasii jijjiiramuu baate Oromoon yeroo hundaa gaaga’amaa tahanii hafu dandahu. Diina didhchiisanii hojii ittisaa irratt harkifachuun didhchiisuu dhiisuu caalaa hamaa tahuu dandaha. Adda bilisummaa maqaa qabu tahuuf, halkanii fi guyyaa giidoo kan diinaa caaluun jabaatanii hojjechuu gaafata. Halagaa akkeessuun demokraasii irraa qoolifachuu manna hundee ofiitt deebi’ani heeraa fi seeran buluu wayya ture. Hamma yoonaa erbaala irratt malee Oromoon jaarmota demokraasii shakalan hin horannee. Dhaabi saanii angafti hunda caala jedhamullee hangammeessa saba guddaa kanaf malu hin geenye.

ABOn yeroo adda addaa gargar cacaba dhufe. Dhihenyuma murni gargar caban araaraa buusanii hamma Korri Sabaa demokratummaan ijaramee fi iddoosa ta’e walgahe dhaabicha tokkeessutt gurmeessa tokko jalatt hojjechuuf waliigaluun waan gammachiisuu. Hogganooti “nuwii” fi “isaan” kan jedhu miseensota ABO gidduutt cichee akka hin hafne, dhaaba hundee tokkomsuuf durfannoo kennu jedhamee abdatama. Namooti ulfina qaban dhugaa fi ifaa tahuu, fedha of qulqulluu gochuu barbaaduun bakka hin buusanii. Waliigalteen tolfame hanga yaa’iin nagaa xumuramutt akka itt wal tahamett yoo gaggeeffame wanti injifannoon hin baaneef hin jiru. Sanaaf Gummiin Sabaa fi kan murtii hojii irra oolchan abbaawummaa fi itt gaafatama qabu. Hunduu qulqullina garaa, akka olhantummaan gaggeessee injifannoon hulluuqsisu abdata. Hogansii carraa argame kanatt dhimma bahee daba qajeelchuun seeraan bulmaatatt deebisuu hindandeenye ummata guddaa kana injifannooti geessuu akka hin dandeenye dursee beekamuu qaba.

Sun akka fedhe tahus barsiifati dullachi jijjiiramu malee hobbaatiin hawwame argamuun mamii qaba. Sanneenii addaan bahinsaa fi hankaakuuf kaasaa kan tahanii. Garuu kan qabnuu tirsuu malee ammaafi filmaata biraa kan qabnu hin hin fakkaatu. Yoo kan tirsinu nurkatt dadhabe garuu fala hin dhabnu. Maal wayyaa, Oromoon qaba kan jedhamus ABOma? Waan halle ilaalcha sirriitt galchuuf warraaqsa dhuga gaafata. Yeroo inni jabaatu eegee kan wuxxisan, yoo dadhabu ijaan argaa saa kan hin feene fi maqaa itt baasan jiru. Sabboonaa kan ofiin jedhuu ujuu Oromoo kana jibbuun of jibbuu dha; ofittoo fi doofaa malbulchaa tahuu dha. Oromummaa kan jaallatuuf xiiqii walgiduu utuu hin tahin kan baasu hojii dha. Hoggansi kamu dhiibbaa jireenya ofii fi kan hariiroo halagaan utuu hin dagamin sochii qabsoo bakka seett deebisuuf tolfamuuf gamtaa agarsiisuu qaba. Sochiin bilisummaa hanga diina harka bahanitt hin dhaabbatu. Hoggansi garuu yeroon kan dangahame waan theef imaammati saanii egerref kan dhimma baasu malee kan ofiffumaa hardhaa quufsu qofa tahuu hin qabu.

Gadaan kan dargaggooti. Jibba, laafinaa fi hammeenyi abba tokkee Gadaa darbee dhaalmaan darbuu hin qabu. Kana attamitt hambisuu dandeenya? Oromummaan jibbaan hin jaaramu. Goototi keenya jaalalaaf itt dhumanii. Ijoolleen keenyas isaan faana bu’u jennee abdanna. Dadhabaa qabnu jabeessanii jabaa keenya hirromsanii, daba keenya sirromsanii ilaa fi ilaameen nu gaggeessuu maalee, kan tirsaa dhufne badduu baasu hin jennuu. Oromiyaa kan Oromoo kan taasisu walabummaa dha. Kaayyoo walabummaatt yoo hin cichine, ummata maxxannee malee, bilisa fi abbaa biyyaa tahuun hin jiru. Oromoof jireenyi gammachuu fi bilisi abjuu tahee hafa.

Habashooti ummatooti kolonii Itophiyaa hundi of dhiisanii “nuwii” ta’aniiru jedhanii of amansiisaniiru. Sunis namoota yartuu moora ofii caalaa kan saaniif gamtaa agarsiisan laaluuni. Isaaniin kolonota cabsanii hardhas isaanuuman cabsaa jiru. Nuwi caalaa Itophiyaan hin jiru; nuti jirmaa malee dame fottoqu mitii; qabsoo nagaa malee lolli nu hin baasuu, kkf jedhaa mooraa diina shororkeesaa tahe beekaas utuu hin beeknis gabbisan jiru. Sanaaf fayyaalessi “ishooyee” dhiichisu hedduu dha. Dinni jabeessuuf “shuu!” jedhaa jirus akkasuma. Oromoon digaluu ofirraa urgufa malee jirma irraa fottoqu hin qabu. Oromoof waldhabdee eenyu waliinuu qaban nagaan fixachuun akeeka dudhaati. ABOnis haala kun itt dandahamu lafa kaa’eera. Walabummaan Oromoo garuu maaliifuu dhoofsisaaf dhihatee hin beeku. Kan hamaan itt dhufu ofirraa fachisuun mirga dhalootaati. Empayerri seenaa keessatt nagaan diigamee hin beeku. Kan duriif gowwoomniiru, “Gaallaa Gabarii Haaraan” lammattaa Oromoo hin gowwoomsituu.

Dargaggoon, Hagoosii fi Irgaxeen maaliif Tolasaa fi Birbirsott garaa jabaatu, maaliin caallanii biyyuma saanii irratt gooftaa itt tahan kan jedhu deddeebi’anii gaafachuu qabu. Deebiin saa halagaa waan tahaniif garaa itt jabaatu; qawwee waan qabaniif gooftaa irratt tahanii kan jedhu tahuu dandaha. Halagummaan seenaan dhufe; roorrisaa jalaa bahuuf falli qawwee harka buusuu qofa. Tolasaafaan yoo mirga ofii gaafatan diina nutti hammeessuuf jedhanii firooti rom’an jiru. Diina isaan fixuutt jiru sana caalaa mal akka hin gonetu sodaatame lataa? Tolasaafaan sodaan akka isaan hin baafne baranii qaata “Lama nun suufan” jedhanii ka’anii. Sanyi gadigalooti yoo ofiin hin jenne, Oromoon kamuu akkuma Tolasaafaa kutachuu qaba. Kanneen gooftaa irraa fagaatanii jiraachuu se’atanii hin beekneef, garaagarummaan ulfinaa fi salphinaa itt hin mullatu. Jannaa fi abeebi sanaan gargar bahu. Kan onnee qabu du’a hin sodaatu. Kan du’a hin sodanne gadgalummaa hin fudhatu. Kanaaf diinaaf hin sarmu.

Wayyaaneen mootummoota darban irraa adda fakkaachuuf sabooti Itophiyaa jala jiran mirga hiree muteeffannaa akka qaban heera saa keessatt galchee jira. Sun mirga ilmoo nama addunyaa maraan beekame, eenyuu sababa kamiifuu haaluu hin qabneett beekama. Garuu Madrak ni balaaleffate. Wayyaaneen hiree murteeffannaa haa fudhatu malee kolonummaa hin fudhanne ture. Kan angoo irraa finqilchaman hundi imaammata Wayyaaneen sabootaaf qabu hunda akka yaada gandummaa fi ummata Itophiyaa addaan ciruutt fudhatanii gadoodaa jiru. Ummata Itophiyaa yoo jedhan Amaaraa fi Tigraaway mataa qabu; jarri jabaannaan wacci koloniin wan guddaa miti jedhanii yaadu. Waa hin hubataniif malee, Wayyaaneen leelloo addaa Oromoo qabuuf utuu hin tahin akka itt Empayera tursuuf mala dhahuu saatii. OFKn Wayyaaneenuu ni soba malee hojiirra oolchuuf miti jennee, Ango 39 gaddhiifnee halagaa fromfachuuf Madrakitt galle jedhanii. Safuun kan carraa argataniin mirga ummata saaniin dhoofsisuutt cehaniitii.

Oromoof, empayerri diigamu malee furmaati hin jiru. Itophiyaan Empayera kan taate erga humnaan biyyoota walaba kibba shee koloneeffattee booda. Empayera kan isee tolche hariiroo kana. Empayerri haa diigamu jechuun hariiroo kun haa dhaabbatu jechuu dhaa. Itophiyaanis kolonoottis biyyoota walirraa walaba tahan ta’u jechuu dha. Waldhabdeen jiru karaa fedheen furmaata argachuu baannaan gidiran ummatoota wayyabaa itt fufa. Sun dhaloota egeriif akka tolu, hardha itt dhiiguu, itt cabuu, itt hidhamuu fi itt du’uu akka gafatu akeekkachiisa.

Kaasaan hundee mamii fi haala dimmimmisaawaa qabsaawota Oromoo gidduutt uume hariiroo Oromiyaa fi finnaa Itophiyaa gidduu jiru irratt qayyabannoo waloo dhabuu dha. Dadhabinni abba abbaa, ofittummaa, ofirrumaa fi kanneen biraa dabalata. Yoo sun qulqullaawe danqaraa karaa qabsoo irra buufame waliin kaasuun dandahama. Waan kana irratt gara hundaan keessaanlaalummaan jiraachuu qaba. Wal sobuu safuu gochuu dha. Ummati garaagarummaa Mormitu Amanamtuu tahanii mootummaa Habashaa waliin dhaabbatanii fi kan kanneen walabummaa Oromiyaaf bilisa tahanii qabsaawan gidduu jiru hubachuu barbaachisa. Isaan lamaan faradoo kaabaa fi kibbatt gulufan fe’achuu saanii utuu ilaallu “Bitaan yaaban mirgaan yaaban walgahi kooraa dhumaa” jechuun wan namaaf hin qayyabatamne. Jechichii akkuma jirutt kanneen gar tokkott farda tokkoo fe’atan qofaaf dhugaa tahuu dandaha.

Mormitooti Amanamtuun Oromoon aangoo baayyina saaniin walgitu argatanii Itopiyaa ta’anii jiraachuu dandahu jedhu. Yaadi akkasii caasaa fi hariiroo haaran kan amma jiru bakka bu’ utu uumama kan jedhu of keessaa qaba. Kun, kan hundi bu’uura saa itt buufatu yeroon cehumsaa jira jechuu dha. Kanatt amannaan utuu harka hin kennatiin dura dhoofsifsisuu hammam dhugoomuu akka dandahu mirkaneeffachuu ture. Garuu kan isaan yaadan waan gurra saboonotaatt ni tola jedhan malee waan ittt amanan miti. Yaadichi akka hin fudhatamnes beekuu. Jara aadaa aangoo nagaan walitt dabarsuu hin qabne hafee eenyuu wan itt dafqee, it naafatee, itt du’ee argate tola gad hin dhiisuu. Kanaaf sanaa yaaduun, isaanuma waliin akka mormituu amanamtuutt Oromiyaa saamuu irratt qooda fushachuun abbbalamee fakkaata. Sana utuu hin taane sabboonota dhugaan harka walqabatanii karaa dandahamu hundaan warartuu ofirraa buqqisanii hiree ofiitt abbaa tahuu yaaluu turanii. Imaammati saanii soda irratt waan hundaaweef harka kennachiisaa dha; kanaaf kaayyoo goototi du’aniif bakka hin bu’u.

“Nuwii” jechuun nuti Oromoon jechuu tahu ni hubana. Nuwii fi koloneeffataan keenya cunqurfamoota fi cunqursaa dha. Kanaaf hanga hariiroo kanaan jirrutt walii diina. Nama Oromoo haala duree tokko malee isanitt galee, Itophiyaa demokraatessuuf jedhu Oromoo raatessuu irraa akkamitt addatt ilaalaa? Wayyaanee irraawoo? Oromoon mormituu amanamtuu utuu hin tahin akkuma Wayyaanee DDUT (TPDM) keettoo harka lafa jalaan ni kaawwata taha. Jarri akkasii akeekas kan itt gabaasanis qabu; bakka dhaqan oo’ifatanii kan hafan hin tahanii.

Garee filachuun mirga abbaatii. Garuu mirgi sun kan dantaa Oromoo miidhu akka hin taane of keessaa bahanii ilaaluu gaafata. Oromoon utuu walabummaan jabeessee of hin ijaarinii fi, of hin bilisomsin Itophiyaa keessa seene gaafii saaf deebi soquu dhuguma dandaha? Koloneefffatan diinamoo fira ofirroo dha? Yoo diina tahe rukuttaa malee deemuuf hin taa’uu. Fira ofirroott kan fudhataniif qabsoon rukuttaa hin qabne yaalamuu ni dandaha. Kan qawwee hin hikkanne, mana hidhaa guyyuu cimfataa jiru, kan guyyuu ummata ofiitt roorrisu waliin dhaabbatanii waa’ee nagaa dubbachuun of sobuu hin tahuyii? Oromoon kan morman sirna koloniitii. Malbulcheessitooti keenya maaliif ABUT qofa irratt akka xiyyeeffanu nu tolchuu fedhu? Kan empayericha akka jirutt tursuu fedhu hundi diina ABUT gadii miti. ABUT qofa addaan baasanii ilaaluun murnoota Nafxanyaa ofirroo tahan walii tumsutt geessuu akka dandahu irra ilaalamuu hin qabu. Murni aangoo irra bahu hamilate kamuu Empayera sirna Nafxanyaa waan bakka bu’uuf kan waliin nakkaran taha. Diina akkasii waliin tole jedhanii hojjechuun nagummaa ni taha? Yoo dhuguma Oromummaatt ni amanna tahe utuu qawwee biyya ofiitt gara galchuutt hin ka’in debifnee of haa gaafannu.

Bu’uuri Oromummaa cimaan duubaan utuu hin jiraatiin caasaa empayeraa irraa dorgommeen aangoof godhamu fedhaa fi deggersa halagaan malee moo’uun hin dandahamu. Maqaa Oromoon mooraa diinaa keessatt sana malee moo’uu nan dandaha jechuun ofitt qoosuu dha. Halagaan sana fedhee deggeru yoo jiraate bu’aa keessaa kan harka guddaa barbaadu. Qabsoon Oromoo dadhabbii taatotaan yeroof rakkina keessa seenuun, kan murannoo hin qabne abdii kutachiisuu dandaha. Sun Oromoon ofirraa baqachuuf sababa tahuu hin qabu. Gaaffiin Oromoo kan deebii argatu yoo kanneen gaafatan waliin daawiitii Oromummaan ilaaluu yaalan qofa. Naannaa jirrutt martii martiin mari’achuu barbaachisa. Marii akkasiin yoo hobbaatiin argame, waan halle dhooftuu godina, ganda, gosa, amanteen furuu ni dhiifna taha. Dargaggoon haala jijjiiramuun xaxamu hin qaban. Manguddoon jibbaa fi ilaalcha dhiphoo ijoolleett dabarsuu yaalan yoo jiraatan abaaramoo dha.

Karaa fedheen waldhaantoo keenya itt oofaa sirna gadaa keessaa haala tokko tokko foyyessinee guddifachuu yaaluu dha. Fakkeenyaaf sirnaa gadaa keessatt guddina daa’imaaf xiyyeeffanoo guddaatu kennama ture. Ijoolleen waggaa dhalootaatt hiramanii hawasa keessatt qooda bahatan qabu. Barnoota, hojii, shakala qamaa adda addaatu akka waggaa dhalootaa yk hiriyaatt kennama. Bakka hedduutt hiriyaan kun dabballee, foollee (gaammee guddaa fixiqqaa) qondaalaa fi Raabaa Doorii jedhamu. Ijoollee aadaa fi namusa barsiisuuf ammas sun waan hin taaneef hin jiru. Wayyaaneen Oromiyaa, ganda, garee, gooxii, shaniif tokko, caasaa jedhutt hireera. Sanaa olis aanaa, godinaa kan jedhaman jiru. Ijaarammi hiriyaa kanneen keessatt tahuu dandaha.

Barnooti unkeffamaan mootummaa jala jira. Aadaa ofii guddifachuun mirga Heeraan beekame wan taheef barnoota hin unkeffamne akka dudhaatt kennuun mirga. Kanaaf guddina aadaa fi eenyummaa ofii kara sana misoomfachuun ni dandahama. Taphi, sirbi fi hojiin hiriyaa walitt fidu jajjabeefamuun bu’aa qaba. Egereen Oromoo daa’imman saaniitii. Yoo danda’ame kan diriire keessatt sirna hiriyaa ijaaruu dha. Bakka hin dandahamnett qixaa caasaa jiruun ijarrachuu dha. Seeraan ifatt guddini hawaasoma sabicha dhorgamnaan akkuma kan malbulchaa fudhatanii lafa jalaan lixuu dha. Kanneen Oromiyaa keessatt ganda fi jalee saa gaggeessan namootuma Oromiyaati. Wanti yaalamu isaanis kan hammachuu dandahu waan taheef gamtaa dhowwannaan safuu itt tahaa.

“Isaan” mirga ummatoota koloneeffatanii beekanii,seera saanii irra godhaniiruu. Mirgi seeraan jiru yoo hin guutamin abbaatu falmataa. Sana fiixaan baafachuun “Nuwi” ilaala jechuu dhaa. Mootummaa Cehumsaa kan seename nagaan fiixaan baafannaan amanameetu. Nu dagani. Haalamnee ari’amnee. Ergasii saqaan nu giddu jiru baldhataa malee dhiphataa hin jiru. Qabsoo nagaa wanti jedhamu akka hin baafne utuma waliin jirruu itt hidhamnee, itt duunee agarree. Mootummaan abbaa hirree tahe, kan seeraan bulmaata hin beekne biratt qasoon nagaa of ajjeesuu gaditt hin laalamu. Namooti utuma arganii sana lallaban jiru. Dhuumisii ummataa morma nagaa “Master Plan” Finfinneetiin gahe sammuu saanii hin hanqooqnee.

Cinaan waa jechuuf, Finfinneen wiirtuu Oromiyaa ummati hedduun qotatee, horii horsiifatee, lon hora obaafachuuf kan kallatii hallee itt yaa’an hundaa keessumsiisee, wal horee basha’ee irra jiraatu turte. Erga qabamtee babbalachuu hin dhaabne. Moototi ergasii dhufan hundi waa itt dabalaama dhufanii. Seeraa qofaan utuu hin tahin fedhaa gabaanis baballatteettii. Yero qabamte nammi irra jiru hundi buqqa’ee mooraa raayyaa koloneeffataatt hiramtee. Booda seeraan magaalaa muummitt finnaa Empayeraa, Oromoon homaa keessaa hin qabne taatee. Hamma Dargiitt magaalaa Amaaraa turte. Innis wuxinee “Master Plan” dhiisee darbe. Finfinneen hardhas yeroof Afaan Amaaraa haa dubbattu malee lafa naannaa seetii Oromoo irraa buqqisaa jiran raayyaa Tigrawaayyi hiramaa jiraachuutu dhagahama. Afaanni yoom akka jijjiiramu hin baramne.

“Master Plan” kan jedhamu seeraan mirkaneessuu malee Finfinneen qaata magaalota naannaa jiran liqimsitee. Haalli kun madaa o’aan jiraachuu fi bara Oromummaan nammi deebisee harka wal qabachuutt ka’e dhufuu saaf malee qabsoo biyya ofii irratt abbaa tahuuf godhamaa jiruu addatti kan ilaalamu miti. Yeroo kana sun tahuun tuffii diinni ummatichaaf qabu ifaatt baase. Duran keessan miti jedhanii keess nu ariinaan nama meeqa itt wareegne. Hin turre nu sossobachuuf deebitan jedhan. Garuu maqaaf malee achi keessaa homaa akka qabannu hin goone. Ammammoo Master Plan jedhanii nutt dhufanii. Kanaaf tuttuqaan Finfinneef nu kakaasaa jiru akeeka keenya isa guddaa akka nuwi hin irraanfachiifne eeggachuu dha. Nuuf Finfinneen qama Oromiyaati; hardha iseef iyyinullee qabsoo walabummaa see kan Oromiyaan addatt hin laalluu. Isaaniif waanti amma godhaa jiran bulchootaf madda duroomaa kanaan dura hin tuqamne argamsissuu fi mirkaneessaa wiirtuun Oromiyaa Amaara harka Tigrawaayitt darbuuti. Shaggar qofa utuu hin tahin magaalota Oromiyaa hunda malaan Oromiyaa keessatt laaqii Habashaa tahanii akka hafan mala dhahaa jiru. Oromoon maal godhaa jiraa?

Akkuma bara Cehumsaa kan fira fakkaatanii Mormituu Amanamtuu dhiddhiiban Wayyaaneef yeroo bituuf malee isaan hirromsuuf akka hin taane muuxannoo gahaatu jira. Hundi, haala malbuchaa hardha addunyaa keessa jiruun, dantaa saaniif walabummaa sabootaa utuu hin tahin, Empayera humna yaroon moo’amu filatuu. Haala kana kan jijjiiruu dandahu qabsoo cunqurfamoota qofaa. Kana irratt qabsoon Oromoo qooda guddaa taphachuu dandaha. Sochii bilisummaatii jiru sirna empayeraa jalatt maqaa Oromoon eenyuu goloota sabhedduu waliin dorgomee xiyyeeffannoo hin argatu. Yeroo hagam haa fudhatuu malee, kan kaayyoo saaf dudhama fi kutannoo qabu bakka akeekate irraa hin hankaakuu. Hanga Oromiyaan walaboomtutt “Nuwii fi Isaan” gidduu firummaan hin jiru.

Ulfinaa fi surraan gootota kufaniif; walabummaa, walqixxummaa fi bilisummaan kan hafaniif; nagaa fi araarri Ayyaana abboolii fi ayyoliif haa tahu.

* Ibsaa Guutama: Gubirmans.com

https://www.oromiamedia.org/2015/09/omn-qophii-keessummaa-fulbaana-9-2015/

https://www.oromiamedia.org/2015/09/omn-gaaffiif-deebii-obbo-ibsaa-guutamaa-waliin-taasifne-kutaa-2ffaa-fulbaana-16-2015/

We and Them (Oromo and the Colonizer)

By Ibsaa Guutama* | October 2015

“You have no calf muscle; how can you kick the ground boy?
You have no cooperation; how can you hurt others boy?” *

Unbearable colonial abuse that included attempt to erase history, culture, language and tradition of the Oromo made people to rise in struggle. That is why while continuing the struggle for birth right, to adopt relevant principles from the Gadaa system should not be overlooked. When the Oromo youth rose for the national liberation struggle, their people’s kaayyoo and who enemies and friends are, were clear to them. That has been put down in the political program of their vanguard organization, the OLF. Then, there was visible cairn between enemy and friends. Leadership prerogatives were also set. With time, everything started to get murkier and jumbled up. Now, there is hesitation to distinguish between friends and enemies; leadership term and power limit, functionaries and members rights and duties became beyond definition. We are losing common understanding to whom to say “We” and “They”. Therefore, it is incumbent on the youth that feels concerned about affairs of their people to start debating seriously. In olden days, a Gadaa never outstays its term. Each incoming Gadaa proclaims new laws or proclaim the existing ones as its own. No one was above the law. That is a principle to be emulated. Now, that the Gadaa legally and culturally belong to the youth, the duty to pull the nation out of the confusion rests with them. Those who can do this are those who are part of the process and are contributing to people’s struggle. How the Oromo struggle is being handled by different quarters these days is worrisome. Hence, everyone has to self-examine in good faith and come up with suggestions on how to find a solution. All Oromo leading personalities have duty and responsibility to help in leading towards that end.

ConcentricCircle2015
Concentric circles

Those who considered themselves as “We” in Oromummaa can be seen as concentric circles. The small circle near to the center can be considered as the family. After that, it develops to “balbala”, clan, tribe and nation. It means, the nation is the outer circle that embraces all. In each circle, there could be points that refer to each other as “we” and “they”. In all circles, there could be different points of character, faiths, counties and regions. Those differences are adopted after birth and can also be changed. For the wise, the differences can benefit in overall strengthening of the circles, but in the hands of the evil, they could bring catastrophe. At any level, if points in a circle demand higher loyalty than the circle or the concentric circles, it means something is wrong; it has to be fixed fast. If difference outweighs unity of the nation, it will have a disastrous consequence.

One is born with Oromummaa and it is not something one can wash away; its gene passes from generation to generation. Even with this truth Oromummaa is not surging forward to be the guiding outlook for all. Confusion and temptations spread by enemy propaganda is creating new version of legendary “Ladder of Arroojii” or The Tower of Babel where failed to the same language. Among activists there are those who are not self-conscious and also lack self-confidence. The people are great people that had share in pre-Christian civilizations. They had democratic culture if not the greatest, not inferior to any known so far. They are the biggest in numbers among those in the region. They have significant natural resources. No one will blame them for knowledge, skill, love of peace and bravery. No one preceded them in monotheism. But those that move in their name do not reflect all those qualities. Rather they humiliate Oromummaa by being despised rather than feared; be led rather than leading; show meanness rather than humility; rather than appearing graceful by coordinating own people, to replace it, they prefer gathering around them trifles that reperesent no one. For these reason visible and potential capabilities of this people is not utilized. What is to be done? How can it be possible to pull out from this humiliation? Those whose conscience cannot bear such humiliation have to think over. There is no alternative to putting ones house in order before stretching hands yonder.

Oromummaa embraces the circles of regionalism, faith, tribalism etc. For this reason it means loyalty to it has priority over all others for Oromo individuals. Any relation with all those referred to as, “They” should not contradict such loyalty. Otherwise it could result in separating from the hoard and favoring the enemy. Our colonizer is our enemy. For us enemy means one that puts individuals or nations under control or helps to put under control without their consent and orders on their body and resources at will and also denies their human and national rights and identity by forcing them to live under one with cruelty. Our enemy defiled our boundary. We are different in origin, language; country, vision, interest and objective. We are the invaded and they the invaders. We are the oppressed and they are the oppressors. We are kin they are aliens.

That is why it is said, if our being “We” is not guarded airtight we can never avoid abuse. This is the way Oromo view themselves. For the Habasha elites, present day Oromiyaa is their own territory from time immemorial; Oromo are invaders that came to this area in 16th century from uncertain origin that include rivers etc. Oromo had never had central authority so should not be considered as one nation. The do not deserve more than respect for their individual rights. These are ideas their ideologue daftaraa (clerics) inculcated in them for centuries and reinforced by chauvinist Nafxanyaa cadres of the present day. As a result they do not recognize the rights Oromo claim. This package is what Oromo in cahoots with them have accepted and abandoned the national question whose response could empower Oromo as an independent nation. That is why people say their move is doomed to failure.

So far we are continuing being persecuted for failing to show commitment and determination for cause of Oromummaa in unison. We had never seen when those that abandoned us in misery and run to those we call “They” flourished. It is only when the similar are put together that they become adorable. We are told that peoples of the world have become interdependent more than ever. However we are not told that every one of them gives priority to their own people’s interest. To amass more power and profit all advance by crushing the weak and never say “Oh my!” and help them up to walk them. Be it to get upper hand or to scape being stampeded those that have advantage are those that have strong unity and are well prepared. Now no one has to tell us how we organize ourselves and methods we use for our struggle that is our own part. We started our struggle because we believed that Oromo should first be liberated before entering competition with the world. It is only one that dares to distinguish between “We” and “They” that can get ready for it.

Instead of raising their own people’s level of consciousness so that they get their proper place there are many that chose to align with the enemy and improve own profile. So far many nationalists have tried in earnest to reveal the existing truth. Even them they tried to whisper through conspiratorial gagging and could not thunder as they were expected. The rest instead of magnifying and passing this frail voice preferred to murmur to themselves. Many Oromo worry about public opinion despite losing their country, honor and their identity. They do not realize that the public has no opinion for one who has nothing. That does not mean they are not angry, rather they are living with suppressed rage. Unless they release that, they will continue being played upon by a minority.

Therefore their solution is to rise from where they have fallen and shake off the parasitic enemy. Unless all roar and shout together for the abuse they are suffering from and deny others quite sleep no one will pay attention to their suffering. Only those that feel the pain of contempt and humiliation are outraged. There are those that ducked saying “You bend and make time and missiles to pass over you.” But missiles were sent down from above. It is only by actively standing against missiles that one can fend it off. To shit on oneself for inescapable death is to live with shame. The nation’s shame is honor for the enemy. It will continue shaming Oromo by dismantling, dispersing, impoverishing and dehumanizing them unless they awake in time and counter it. .

Habasha propaganda of brainwashing they grew with seems to have gone deep into the minds of most Oromo intellectuals than all they got from higher institutions of knowledge. Higher cadres that are entrusted with responsibility for the struggle were disoriented by changing conditions, pressure from different interest groups, personal problems and others. Oromo liberation movement emanated from the problem the nation was in. To learn and work in afaan Oromo was achieved by the movement. To have own letters (Qubee) was started by it. It is by the movement that many benefits were registered. All benefits achieved by Oromo liberation movement cannot be exhaustively told. These were registered by the braves whose bones are scattered all over Oromiyaa and never seen a grave. Did Oromo mothers stop giving birth to heroes after them? Those that want to exploit Oromiyaa’s resources without impediment are relentlessly attacking the movement from different direction to get political dominance. For them to stupefy Oromo and mount it just as before, the liberation movement must be destroyed. For this they are coordinating alliance from in and out. Unless liberation movement is led from where the problems are victories so far registered could be reversed. To save the movement from perishing is the duty of all Oromo.

But how can that be realized? First and formost it must be observed that organizational laws are not distorted to fit individual or group interest but implemented as they were intended for. Organization that tries to reflect interest of segment of its membership to satisy an individual or clique desire is an interst group or private association and cannot claim to be a political organization. Therefore its failure as a political organization is predetermined. Enemy that controls Oromiyaa is working day and night without rest to retain it longer. On Oromo side we do not see similar effort being made. If this practice remains unchanged the Oromo would always remain victims. The risk of challenging an enemy and dragging foot on defense could be more damaging than not challenging. It requires working hard day and night in greater force than the enemy to be worthy of the name liberation front. That could be achieved only if activist go to their roots and live according to own constitution and laws rather than imitating aliens and shun democracy. So far, except on paper Oromo did not produce practicing democratic organizations. Even its oldest and so far the best of all their organizations is not yet up to the standard this great nation deserves.

OLF, the vanguard organization had come down breaking apart at different times. It was a happy event when recently factions that broke up decided to work under one management until a General Assembly democratically constituted and genuinely reprsentative sits to unify them. It is hoped that leaders will give priority to unify the grass root so that “we and they” that could emanate from narrow mindedness will not persist among OLF members. Honarable people will not replace truth and openness with self defense. If the peace process goes as agreed, there is no reason that it could not come out successful. For that the National Council and those with executive functions have the responsibility and accountability. All hope that good faith shall prevail to take them through to victory. It must be known that leadership that cannot take this opportunity and correct irregularities to bring back the rule of law cannot lead this great people to victory.

That be as it may, the desired result may not be achieved unless old habits change. Those are what led to divisions and failures. But we have no immediate alternative than trudging with what we have. But if what we trudge cannot caryy on we will will not lack a solution. What should be done? It needs no less than a revolution to put things back in their right perspective. There are some that wiggle their tails when it is strong and hate even to see it with their eyes and call names when it is powerless. For any one that calls oneself a nationalist to hate OLF is to hate oneself. From one that loves Oromummaa what is required is work not grudge? Any leadership must cooperate to get the struggle back to its place, without being distracted by alien relations and personal predicaments. Liberation movement is not going to stop until freedom. But because leadership is limited in time, their policy should not be to satisfy their present ego alone but one that would be useful for the future as well.

This Gadaa belongs to the youth. Hate, weakness and meanness of some individuals of the past Gadaa should not be passed as heritage to the succeeding ones. How can we make stop to this? Oromummaa cannot be built on hatred. Our heroes perished for love. We hope our children will follow their example. They will rather strengthen the weak among us, empower our strong, straighten our crooked and lead us with “ilaa fi ilaamee” (orderly discussion) than finishing off what we have come dragging. It is independence that assures Oromiyaa belongs to the Oromo. Unless one holds fast to kaayyoo of independence it is not possible to be people with freedom and master of own country, except a “Maxxannee” or dependent people.

The Habashaa had convinced themselves that all colonial peoples have abandoned their identity and became them. That emanates from the few people that showed more cooperation to them than to their own people. They broke the colonies using them and are still continuing to use such collaborators to break them. There are those that knowingly or unknowingly nourish the terrorist enemy camp saying, there is no more Ethiopian than We; we are the stem not a branch to be pulled off; armed struggle is of no benefit to us but peaceful struggle etc. There are lots of naïve that say bravo to this. Enemy that say go for it are also as many. Oromo have only parasites to shake of and have no stem to get pulled off from. For Oromo it is a traditional policy to peacefully resolve conflicts they have with anyone. But their independence is nonnegotiable for whatever. To fend off anyone that comes with evil intentions is a birth right. In history empires have never been dismantled peacefully. The Oromo say we had been fooled by the so called “Gaallaa Gabar” (Buffer zone Gallaa) of olden days and shall never be fooled again by their new version.

The youth have to repeatedly ask themselves the question, why are Hagos and Irgaxe harsh on Tolasaa and Birbirso, in what ways are Hagoses better than them that they became their masters in their own country? The answer may be they are harsh because they are aliens; and they are better because they have the guns. Being alien comes with history; to be free from oppressors the solution is to disarm them. There are kin that tremble when the Tolasaas ask for their rights saying they will provoke the enemy to get harsher on them. What more can an enemy that is already erasing them more to frighten them than it already did? The Tolasaas had already realized that fear cannot be the solution and declared “they will never sniff us again”. If they are not accepting that they are of inferior race, any Oromo person ought to have determination like the Tolasaas. Those that have never imagined living away from their masters cannot visualize the difference between honor and humiliation. The brave and cowards are distinguished by that. The courageous are not afraid of death. One that is not afraid of death does not accept dehumanization. For that reason one does not obey the enemy.

To seem different from past regimes Wayyaanee has inserted articles in its constitution recognizing the right of nations under the Ethiopian state to national self-determination. That is a human right recognized by the world not to be denied for any reason by any one. But Madrak condemned it. The Wayyaanee accepted nations’ right to national self-determination though it did not recognize their colonial status. The group that was overthrown is still lamenting about policies Wayyaanee have for nationalities as regionalism and intention to divide the people of Ethiopia. When they say the people of Ethiopia they have in mind Amaaraa and Tigrawayi; if these are strengthened they believe the cacophony of the colonies is not a big deal. They did not understand that Wayyaanee had recognized those right not because it favors the Oromo but that was the only way to keep the empire going for the time under the circumstances. The OFC also said they believed Wayyaanee is only lying and would not put it into practice, so we agreed to scrap article 39 to join Madrak and befriend aliens. Woe to those that with any chance compromise their nation’s interest.

For the Oromo there is no solution unless the empire is dismantled. Ethiopia became empire after she colonized independent peoples to the south of her kingdom by force. It was that realtion that made her empire. Let the empire be dismantled means let that relation cease to exist. It means Ethiopia and her colonies become independent of each other. Ethiopia cannot continue as empire if Oromiyaa become independent. Independence of Oromiyaa can come through peaceful negotiation or armed struggle. If the conflict is not resolved soon in any way the suffering of majority people will continue. It requires bleeding, getting maimed, get imprisoned and dying for it today, for future generation to lead a better life tomorrow.

The lack of common understanding on the relation between Oromiyaa and the Ethiopian state is the root cause of suspicious and murky relations between Oromo activists. Individual weakness, selfishness, arrogance and others are secondary. It is only possible to get rid of the road block if that gets clear. On this issue transparency is required from all sides. Deceits must be made “safuu”. The people must clearly know the difference between joining colonial government with Oromo name as loyal opposition and struggling independently for independence of Oromiyaa. If two horses were saddled facing south and north, to say “If you mount on the left or right side destination is the saddle” is absurd. The saying may literally be true only for one horse.

Loyal Oppositions say the Oromo can live as Ethiopians by being given political power commensurate with their numbers. This assumes the creation of new structure and relations to replace the present one. That demands a transitional period where all organize their own base. If one believes in this the possibility must have been negotiated before surrendering. But what they wanted is something that appeals to nationalist ears, not what they believe in. They know that the idea will not be accepted by the colonizer. Let alone folks that have no culture of peacefully transferring power, no body willingly gives up what one had sweated for, maimed for and died for. Hence even thinking about it seems having the intention to join them in blundering Oromiyaa as Ethiopian loyal opposition not going beyond that. Otherwise they should have joined true nationalist to dislodge the invader by all available means and become masters of their own destiny. Their policy is based on fear and so capitulatory; for this reason it cannot substitute the ideal heroes are dying for.

“We” means, we the Oromo. We and our colonizers are the oppressed and the oppressor. For this reason until such relation is changed they are our enemies. How can we see an Oromo person that joined them with excuse of democratizing Ethiopia differently from one stupefying Oromiyaa? What about from Wayyaanee? Oromo, like Wayyaanee may assign underground agents like TPDM not loyal opposition. Such types will have objectives and where to report; they will not be those that remain wherever they find comfort.

To choose sides is ones right. But that needs to go out of oneself and see if that choice does not affect Oromoo interest. Can the Oromo really look for answers to their question in Ethiopia before getting independently well organized and liberating themselves? Is the colonizer an enemy or an arrogant friend? If it is an enemy it cannot go away without violent means. For those that take it as an arrogant friend non-violent struggle may be tried. Is it not deceiving oneself to stand with a system that did not disarm itself, strengthens its prisons daily and one that continuously abuse its own people and talk about peaceful struggle? The Oromo are against the colonial system. Why do our politicians want us to target only the TPLF? Any one aspiring to control the empire maintaining as it is, is no less an enemy than the TPLF. Let it not be overlooked that singling out the TPLF could lead to allying with chauvinist Nafxanyaa groups. Any group that takes power represents the empire Nafxanyaa system to deal with. Can it be considered struggle at all let alone peaceful struggle to willingly work with such an enemy? Let us ask ourselves again, before we start turning guns against own people.

It is naivety for one that has no strong Oromummaa rear to expect winning competition for power within empire’s structure without the will and support of aliens. To believe that you could win in enemy camp without that support, with Oromo name, is to make fool out of oneself. Even if there is an alien that is willing to support, it is one that expects bigger return from the benefit. That Oromo struggle is in difficulties because of weakness of actors can put those lacking determination into despair. That should not be an excuse for Oromo to run away from their own self. Oromo question could get answer only when those that asked try to see it in light of Oromummaa. Let it be debated in circles wherever Oromo are. There is no reason for such discussions not to lead to fruitful results. If so they may stop using region, tribe, and faith as a measurement to interpret the world. The youth should not get entangled in passing phenomenon. If there are elderly that try to transmit hate and narrow outlook affecting the young they will be only the cursed ones.

Advancing our struggle in whatever way, it is good to try and adopt certain aspects from the Gadaa system. For example, in the Gad system much attention was given to raising children. In society children are divided into age groups and given roles. Education, work and different physical exercises were given according to “hiriyaa” or peer group. These peer groups are referred to in many places as dabballee, foollee (gaammee guddaa fi xiqqaa) qondaalaa and Raabaa Doorii. There is no reason why raising children teaching culture and discipline should not be practiced in that way now. The Wayyaanee had divided Oromiyaa in structures called ganda, garee, gooxii and “one for five”. Above that there are also zones and districts. Formal education is under the government. Since it is a constitutional right to develop ones culture; to give informal education in a traditional way is a right. For this reason it is possible to advance the development of one’s culture and identity in that way. The future of Oromo nation is its children. If possible the hiriyaa system can be organized in already existing structure. Wherever it is not possible a parallel structure to the existing could be built. If societal development is officially forbidden one has to take it underground just like the political one. Those that head structures are citizens of Oromiyaa; safuu can be invoked on them for they are also embraced.

“They” who recognized the rights of the colonized peoples have put them in their constitution. It is up to those (We) that claim those rights to get them enforced. The OLF participated in the Transitional arrangement believing it will be fulfilled peacefully. “We” were cheated. We were denied and expelled. Since then the gap between us and “they” is keeping on widening not narrowing. We had worked with them dying and being imprisoned; by doing so we proved that so called peaceful struggle doesn’t work. To talk about peaceful struggle with dictatorial governments or those that do not abide by the rule of law amount to committing suicide. There are people who even if they have seen what happened still advocate for it. The genocide committed during peaceful protest against so called Finfinnee Master Plan did not scratch their minds.

Just to note as a passing remark, Finfinnee was the center of Oromiyaa where people lived in happiness tilling land and raising domestic animals as well as entertaining cattle brought to her hora (salt water) from all parts of central Oromiyaa and producing offspring. She has never stopped expanding since occupation. Rulers that came since went on adding portions to her. Not only by law has she also increased but with market influence as well. When she was occupied native Oromo were evicted and she was divided into military camps. Later she was incorporated as the citadel of colonial government in which Oromo is left with nothing in her. She was Amaara town until the demise of Darg. Though she is still speaking Amharic it is told that the surrounding area from which Oromo are again evicted are distributed among Tigrawayi hoard. It is not known when the language will be switched to Tigrigna. But how long should Finfinnee remain alien to Oromiyaa?

The purpose of so called Master Plan is only to legalize Finfinnee’s fait accompli swallowing of the surrounding towns. Except for occurring at a time when the wounds are new and people have started to join hands conscious of their Oromummaa, it cannot be separately viewed from the struggle to become masters of own country. The so called Master Plan only exposed the contempt the enemy has for the people. Earlier they chased us out saying it is not yours and we sacrificed so much people and resources as a result. It did not take them long to tell as to get back just to wheedle us. But except for the name we were not given any thing in it. Now they came with what they say Master Plan. Be it as it may, provocation that is agitating us for Finfinnee should not make us forget our higher goal. For us Finfinnee is part of Oromiyaa; though we are lamenting for her today we do not see the struggle we make for her differently from that we make for our Oromiyaa. For them what they are doing now is exploiting the resource so far untouched and assuring the transfer of hub of Oromiyaa from Amaaraa to Tigraawway with expanded radius. Not only Shaggar but they are also plotting to make all towns in Oromiyaa remain Habashaa islands in Oromiyaa. What are Oromo doing?

There is enough experience that, there are those trying to cajole the Opposition pretending to be friends simply to buy time for the Wayyaanee, not to empower them, just like the transitional period. From the political conditions in the world all preferred an empire lead by minority for their own national interest not for independence of the oppressed majority. This situation can be changed only with struggle of the oppressed. In this Oromo struggle could play a major role. As long as there is Oromoo liberation movement no party competing in Oromo name against multinational parties under empire system will get attention.However long it might take with determination and commitment they will not fall short of their desired goal. There will be no friendship between “We and They” until Oromiyaa is liberated.

Ulfinaa fi surraan gootota kufaniif; walabummaa, walqixxummaa fi bilisummaan kan hafaniif; nagaa fi araarri Ayyaana abboolii fi ayyoliif haa tahu.

* Ibsaa Guutama: Gubirmans.com

Urgent Appeal: Disappearance of Mr. Dabassa Guyo Saffaro in Kenya – An Oromo Cultural and Religious Scholar October 13, 2015

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???????????Gumii Waaqeffannaa

To Whom It May Concern

Date: October 13, 2015

Urgent Appeal

Disappearance of Mr. Dabassa Guyo Saffaro in Kenya – An Oromo Cultural and Religious Scholar

Abba-Liban-Dabasa-Guyyo2015.jpg

It is with great sadness that we learned the disappearance of Dabassa Guyo Saffaro – a prominent Oromo cultural and religious leader residing in Nairobi, Kenya. Mr. Dabassa, a highly respected Oromo historian, thinker and cultural guru, was kidnapped on 27 September 2015 after the celebration of the annual Oromo Thanksgiving day – Irreecha. He is an accomplished traditional expert who has dedicated himself for the revival of indigenous knowledge system in the Horn of Africa. In particular, his profound knowledge of the Gadaa system – an indigenous democratic system of governance – has placed him among the few irreplaceable Oromo experts in the Horn of Africa. His extensive knowledge and exposition of the Gadaa system – currently practiced among the Oromos, has contributed not only to the revival of the system but also to its wider diffusion among international scholars such that it is currently being reviewed for recognition by UNESCO as one of the world heritages. Thanks to his dedication and exposition that the Gadaa system has obtained the attention it deserves as a purely indigenous African wisdom of governance. The system has greatly contributed to the socio-political peace and harmony among communities in the Horn of Africa, but sadly so it appears that it has not offered Dabassa Guyo the peace he has preached all his life.

On the same footing, for his mastery of the wisdom of Waaqeffanna – a monotheist system of belief among the Oromos – and its practices, Dabassa Guyo was considered the Delai Lama of the Horn of Africa. He has an amazing memory of the indigenous knowledge of the Boran in particular, and is indeed considered a walking encyclopedia of history, culture and belief and Oromo system of knowledge and philosophy in general.

He has traveled to different corners of the world to lecture about the importance of maintaining traditional wisdom for the good of future generations and has created a network of similar traditions, and is well regarded by all.

Although finger-pointing at this stage could be misleading, it is not difficult to point out that he had rough time with the government of Ethiopia – which was responsible for his eviction from the country some 35 year ago. Although he has never been a member of any political organization, his giant stature among Oromo scholars has always been seen with a great suspicion by the Government of Ethiopia, which shivers at any aspect of Oromo nationalism. In truth, Dabassa Guyo is just a free thinker and father of Argaa Dhageeti – a traditional oral knowledge system that embodies culture, tradition, history and belief among the Oromo in the Horn of Africa.

Mr. Dabassa Guyo was kidnapped by, no doubt, evil forces while he was doing what he likes doing in life – preaching peace. On 27 September, he took part in the celebration of the Irreecha annual Oromo Thanksgiving day – where he delivered his annual Thanksgiving blessings to his fellow Oromo country men and women. On this day, he was kidnapped while on his way from the ceremony. Efforts to locate him have so far not proved successful. We are, therefore, appealing to the international community, the Kenyan government, the Kenya Police force, and the Oromo community in Nairobi to help us locate Mr Dabassa Guyo.

We appeal to you for he is also a father, a grandfather and a head of a family apart from his traditional wisdom. He is a peace lover and preacher of harmony among communities all his life. He does not deserve in any way any ill-treatment. We appeal to you to help us find his whereabouts.

Regards,

Gumii Waqeffannaa Oromoo

WAAQEFFANNAA OROMOO | WAQEFFANNA OROMO RELIGION

Address: Lokketodalen 33, 5136 Mjølkeråen | Organisation No. 993 543 225
Tlf: +47 99151829 – Bergen, Norway | waqeffanna@gmail.com | Waaqeffannaa.org

 

Urgent Appeal – Disappearance of Mr. Dabasa Guyo Saffaro

http://rivoice.net/petitions/urgent-appeal-disappearance-of-mr-dabasa-guyo-saffaro.html

Oromia: Caasaa Diinaa Qabeenya Oromoo Saamuu fi Saamsisuuf Diriirfame! October 13, 2015

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???????????Ethiopian-land-giveaway

Caasaa Diinaa Qabeenya Oromoo Saamuu fi Saamsisuuf Diriirfame!

sbo(SBO) — Maadheen garee saamtotaa diinni icitiidhaan Sululta keessatti ijaaree qotee bultoota Oromoo lafa irraa buqqisee dachee isaanii gurgurachuuf akeekkate  haala-mijeessitoota namoota akka habashicha waggoota 7 oliif kantiibaa magaalaa Sulultaa ture Siyyum Hayluu jedhamuu fi abbaa Riizoortii Hundee kan tahe Abarraa Hundee kan jedhamuun akka gaggeeffamu bira gahame.

Dacheen Oromiyaa, qabeenyi Oromoon uumamaan badhaafamee fi qotee-bocee horate bara sirni gabrummaa Oromoo irratti diriirfame irraa kaasee saamamaa fi mancaafamaa jiraachuun dhugaa seenaan ragaa bahuu dha. Oromoo bittaa kolonii jalatti ittisuudhaaf jecha tahe jedhanii qabeenya isaa mancaasuu fi saamuun harka qullaatti hambisuu fi hegeree jireenya ilmaan isaatis dukkaneessuun akeeka bittoota Habashaa humnaan Oromoo gabroomfatanii ti.

Dalagaan cubbamaa fi abaaramaan kun ammoo bara bittaa murna bicuu ilmaan Tigraay bifa caalaattuu hammaatee fi ija baaseen gaggeeffamaa jira. Keessumaa ammoo saamichi qabeenya uumamaa kan akka albuudaa fi bosona Oromiyaa keessa jiru irratti gaggeeffamaa jiru, addatti ammoo ergamtoota garaaf bulan of dura buusuun qabiyyee lafa Oromoo irratti saamichi mootummaa wayyaaneetiin gaggeeffamaa jiru yakka ol’aanaa seenaanis seeraanis gaafachiisuu dha.

Har’aan tana godinaalee Oromiyaa adda addaa keessatti addatti ammoo handhuura Oromiyaa magaalaa Finfinnee fi magaalota naannawa sanatti argaman keessatti qonnaan bultoota Oromoo humnaan lafa bu’uura jireenya isaanii tahe irraa buqqisuun qondaalota OPDOf, wayyaanotaaf, ajajoota waraana wayyaaneef akkasumas warreen maqaa invastarummaatiin sirnichaaf hojjetaniif kennamaa fi gurguramaa jira. Gartuun faashistii wayyaaneen ergamtoota isaa Oromiyaa irra kaawwate keessaa warreen gaaffii mirgaa ummanni Oromoo kaasu ukkaamsuu fi ilmaan Oromoo haqa sabaa fi biyya isaaniif dhaabbatan ajjeesuu fi ajjeesisuu, dararuu fi dararsiisuu keessatti shoora ol’aanaa taphatan caasaa saamicha lafa Oromootiif diriirse keessa galchuudhaan akka isaan ummata irratti yakka dachaa raawwatan taasisaa jira.

Ragaaleen jidduu kana arganne akka ifa taasisanitti ammoo, qondaalonni OPDO amanamoo sirna TPLF tahuu isaaniitiin maadhee saamichaa keessatti ijaaraman kunneen wal shakkii fi shororkaa jidduu isaaniitti uumameen wal unkuraa jiru. Warreen gartuu koloneeffattuutiin dantaa yerootiin sammuun isaanii hadoodee caasaa farrummaa diinni diriirse jalatti ijaaraman kunneen jeequmsa akkaan hamaa keessa seenuudhaan ergamtoota magaalota adda addaa irra maqaa Kantiibummaatiin kaahan aangoo irraa kaasuudhaan amanamummaa TPLFf qaban mul’isuuf tattaafataa jiru.

hunderlHaaluma kanaan wal jeequmsaa fi shakkii lukkeelee diinaa jiddutti uumame irraa kan kahe Kantiibotni magaalota Sabbataa, Sulultaa, Hoolotaa, Laga-xaafoo Laga-daadhii, Bishooftuu, Adaamaa, Amboo fi kanneen biroo gaafatama isaanii irraa kaafamanii jiru. Aangoo diinaan itti kenname irraa kaafamuun kantiibota kanneenii dhimmuma saamicha qabeenya Oromoo kanaan kan walqabate tahuu kan eeran maddeen keenya, gariin isaanii ammoo qondaalota amanamoo TPLF tahan waliin dantaan waan walitti hidhata qabaniif erga kaafamanii booda bakkatti deebifamuu ibsaniiru. Kanaafis ergamtichi kantiibaa magaalaa Buraayyuu kan tahe Dhaabaa Jinfeessaa jedhamu erga Kantiibummaa irraa kaasanii booda amanamaan Wayyaanee Dhaabaa Dabalee jedhamu tarkaanficha waan dideef bakkuma isaatti deebifamuu akka ragaatti tuqan.

hunderl2Ergamtoonni wayyaanee maadhee saamtotaa jalatti ijaaramanii dantaa murna TPLF/EPRDF tiksuudhaaf qabeenya Oromootti fuulleffatan kunneen Networkiidhaan wal ijaaranii lafa Godina Addaa Naannawa Finfinnee weeraraa akka jiran ragaaleen SBO dhaqqaban saaxilaniiru. Weerarri kunis bifa qindaahee fi ijaarameen gaggeeffamaa akka jiru kan eeran maddeen, maadheen kunis ajajoota waraanaa TPPLF fi OPDOta keessaa qondaalota amanamoo sirnichaa tahan, maqaa abbootii qabeenyaatiin warreen wayyaanee waliin harka wal keessa naqachuudhaan saamicha adeemsisaa jiranii fi hogganoota Komishina Farra-malaammaltummaa Federaalaa fi Oromiyaa baanamuu akka of keessaa qabu saaxilanii jiru.

Haaluma kanaan ragaaleen odeeffannoo fi hordoffii yeroo dheeraa booda argaman akka ifa taasisanitti maadheen garee saamtotaa diinni icitiidhaan Sululta keessatti ijaaree qotee bultoota Oromoo lafa irraa buqqisee dachee isaanii gurgurachuuf akeekkate kun haala-mijeessitoota namoota akka habashicha waggoota 7 oliif kantiibaa magaalaa Sulultaa ture Siyyum Hayluu jedhamuu fi abbaa Riizoortii Hundee kan tahe Abarraa Hundee kan jedhamuun akka gaggeeffamu ibsameera. Gareen diinaan ijaarame kun ajaja TPLF olirraa laatuun karoora saamichaa hojii irra akka oolchu kan ibsame si’a tahu, yeroo hundaa wal gahii isaatis kan gaggeessu magaalaa Sulultaa naannoo Wasarbii jedhamutti kan argamu ‘Hundee Resort’ keessatti tahuunis saaxilameera.

Miseensota garee saamichaaf wayyaaneen ijaare kana keessaa muraasni Ajajoota olaanoo waraana wayyaanee Jeneraal Abrahaa Hagos, Jeneraal Salamoon, Jeneraal Zarhuu, Kantiibaa magaalaa Sulultaa kan ture Siyyum Hayluu, abbaa qabeenyaa Hundee Riizoort Abarraa Hundee akkasumas ergamticha hogganaa Komishina Farra-malaammaltummaa Oromiyaa ti jedhamuu Taakkalaa kan jedhamu, gaafatamaa kutaa qorannoo komishinichaa Xilaahun jedhamus miseensotuma maadhee wayyaaneen saamichaaf diriirse kanaa ti.

dhaabaaHaaluma walfakkaatuun caasaan saamichaa kun magaalota biroo keessattis kan diriirfame yoo tahu, caasaan saamtotaa Buraayyuu jiru ammoo amanamaa sirna TPLF kan tahe Dhaabaa Dabaleetiin kallattiin hogganamuudhaan haala-mijeessitummaa kantiibaa magaalaa Buraayyuu Dhaabaa Jinfeessaatiin raawwatamaa jiraachuu dha ragaaleen arganne kan saaxilan.

Ergamtoonni wayyaanee lameen sirnichi dantaadhaan walitti hidhee sammuu isaanii hadoochee akka fedha isaa ergataa jiru, Dhaabaa Jinfeessaa fi Dhaabaa Dabalee wayta barattoonnii fi ummanni Oromoo bal’aan FDG gaggeessuudhaan gaaffii mirgaa gaafataa turan dura dhaabbachuudhaan amanamummaa wayyaanee/TPLFf qaban mul’isuudhaaf jecha warreen yakka guddaa raawwatanii dha. Keessattuu naannolee akka Jalduu, Gindabaratii fi Ambootti dhiiga ilmaan Oromoo danuu dhangalaasisuu fi miidhaa suukaneessaa geessisuu isaaniitiin TPLF biraa amanamummaa argatuudhaani kan caasaa saamichaa fi gurgurtaa lafa Oromoo keessatti hammatamanii yakka raawwataa kan jiran.

Ergamtoonni caasaa diinaa jalatti ijaaraman kunneen mata-mataattis garee hannaa ijaarrachuudhaan sossohanii Oromoo qe’ee fi qabeenya irraa buqqisanii deegsaa fi gidiraaf afeeraa ofii isaaniitii qabeenyaa irratti qabeenya kuufataa fi fandalalaa jiru.

Ergamtichi Dhaabaa Jinfeessaa jedhamu  murna saamicha isaaf isa gargaaru  naannoo isaatti ijaarratee sossohuudhaan Buraayyuu naannawa ‘Ashawaa Meedaa’ jedhamee waamamutti gamoo abbaa darbii 4 (G+4) akkasumas Finfinnee naannawa Booleetti ammoo gamoo abbaa darbii 6 (G+6) maqaa haadha warraa isaatiin ijaarratee caasaa saamichaa babal’ifataa akka jiru ragaan arganne ni saaxila.

Walumaagalatti egaa mootummaan wayyaanee caasaa saamichaa karaa ergamtoota dantaan xaxeetiin ijarrateen saamichi qabeenya Oromoo irratti raawwataa jiru kan magaalota lameenitti qofa murtaahe odoo hin taane, akkuma kanaan guutuu Oromiyaa keessatti diriirfamaa kan jiruu dha. Shirri Finfinnee fi naannawa Finfinnee irratti, akkasumas magaalota gugurdoo Oromiyaa bakkoota gara garaa jiran irratti, akkasumas qonnaan bulaa Oromoo lafa isaa irraa buqqisuu irratti xaxamaa turee fi jiru warra akkasii of dura buusuu fi caasessuun akka tahe hubatamuu qaba.

Dhalli Oromoo kana sirriitti qalbifatee hubatuudhaan diina garaaf bultoota qabatee qayee Oromoo onsuu fi hegeree Oromoo fi Oromiyaa dhabamsiisudhaan lafa jalaa fi ifattis hojjechaa jiru akkuma kaleessaa har’as murannoodhaan keessaa fi alaan irree tokkoon dura dhaabbachuun didachuun akkaan barbaachisaa dha. Shira diinaa fi ergamtoota diinaa kana hubatanii hongeessuuf hojjechuun hunduma nama Oromoof yaaduu ilaallata.

Duula qabeenya Oromoo fi eenyummaa Oromummaa irratti xiyyeeffatee fuula hedduun gaggeeffamaa jiru dura dhaabbachuudhaan fashalsuun akkasumas akeeka ilmaan Oromoo kaleessaa hanga har’aatti wareegama baasaafii jiran galiin gahuuf sossohuun dirqama lammummaa dhala Oromoo hundaa ti.

Oromia/Human Rights: Ethiopian Government Paramilitary Commits Torture and Rape in Oromia October 13, 2015

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???????????Human rights League of the Horn of Africa

Ethiopian Government Paramilitary Commits Torture and Rape in Oromia

The following is a statement from the Human Rights League of the Horn of Africa (HRLHA).

 

HRLHA Urgent Action October 12, 2015

Harassments and intimidations through arbitrary arrests, beatings, torture and rapes were committed in Ada’a Berga district Western Showa Zone of Oromia Regional State against young Oromo nationals on September 24 and 25, 2015. More than 30 young Oromos were picked up from their homes at night by an Oromia paramilitary force. According to HRLHA informants in Ada’a Berga, the major targets of this most recent District Administration officials-sponsored violence were mostly young Oromos working in the Dangote Cement Factory and university students who were there to visit their families in the summer break. HRLHA informants from the area confirmed that this particular operation against young Oromo nationals in Ada’a Barga was led by the local government official obbo Tolera Anbasse. In this incident more than 30 young Oromos (16-25 ages) were arrested; more than 20 were severely beaten by the Oromia Paramilitary and confined in the Ada’a Barga district Police station for three days in violation of the Constitution of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, Article 19 (3) “Persons arrested have the right to be brought before a court within 48 hours of their arrest. Such time shall not include the time reasonably required for the journey from the place of arrest to the court. On appearing before a court, they have the right to be given prompt and specific explanation of the reasons for their arrest due to the alleged crime committed”. Although it has been difficult to identify everyone by their names, HRLHA informants have confirmed that the following were among the arrestees:

1) Rabbirraa Gaarradoo
2) Fiqaaduu Amaaraa
3) Tasfaayee Dalasaa
4) Biraanuu siyyumee
5) Tolasaa Guutamaa
6) Muluu Balaachoo
7) Alamuu G/mariyam
8) Abbush Masfiin
9) Daniel Taarraqany
10) Fiqaaduu Tolasaa
11) Biraanuu Dabalaa
12) Katanga Baayyuu
13) Fayyisaa Raggaanee
14) Kaasahun Baqqalaa
15) Alamuu Ajjabii
16) Nuwaay Tasfaayee
17) Lataa Taaddasaa

All arrestees were accused of what the police referred to as “instigating the public against the government.”

When the arrestees were brought to court, one man explained to the court that he had been beaten severely in front of his family members and his wife and his sister age 16 were raped by one of the paramilitary members.

The arrestees showed their scarred backs to the court to indicate the torture inflicted on them by the Paramilitary. Even though the court released all the arrestees on bail the police refused the court order and took them to jail.

The Human Rights League of the Horn of Africa (HRLHA) expresses its deep concern over the safety and well-being of these arrested Oromo nationals and urge the Oromia Regional State Government to make sure that the bail conditions granted by the court are respected and release the arrestees unconditionally. HRLHA also urges the Oromia Regional State and the Ethiopian government to bring the torturers and rapists Ethiopian government paramilitary members to justice.

https://www.oromiamedia.org/2015/10/omn-oduu-onk-13-2015/

https://oromianeconomist.wordpress.com/2015/10/13/widespread-brutalities-of-the-ethiopian-government-against-the-oromo-people-in-different-parts-of-the-state-of-oromia/

Oromia Broadcasting Service/OBS TV: Harka Fuune, Wellistuu Kadijjaa Hajjii October 13, 2015

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???????????Oromo artist Kadijjaa Hajii, aadaa bareedaa qabnaa hin jiruu kan keenya kan gituuOromo artist Kadijjaa Hajii, aadaa bareedaa qabnaa hin jiruu kan keenya kan gituu1Oromo artist Kadijjaa Hajii, aadaa bareedaa qabnaa hin jiruu kan keenya kan gituu2

Oromo artist Kadijjaa Hajii

Hayyuun Aadaa fi Argaa-Dhageettii Oromoo Obbo Dabbasaa Guyyoo dhabaman October 11, 2015

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???????????Hayyuu Aadaa fi Argaa-Dhageettii Oromoo Obbo Dabbasaa Guyyoo. photo1

Hayyuu Aadaa fi Argaa-Dhageettii Oromoo Obbo Dabbasaa Guyyoo

Dhaamsa hatattamaa ilmaan Oromoo hundaaf Nairobii irraa

Obboo Dabbasaa Guyyoo ykn obboo Abbaa Liban Dabbasaa Guyyoo ji’a dabre guyyaa 27.9.15 ayyaana irreechaa Nairobi ti kabajame oole irraatti argamuun eebbisanii sirna ayyanicha akka rawatameen gara manaa galee booda akkuma gadi baheen osoo manatti hin deebi’in haga har’aa achi buutee isaa nama himu hin garre bakkootaa jiran hunda laallamee polisaa fi chief tis gabaafamee waatakko hin garre.

Kaanaaf diinaan ukkanfamuu malaa waan tahamuu qabu irratti dirmadhaa.

(Sagalee Bilisummaa Oromoo – Onkoloolessa 10, 2015)

OMN: Oduu Onk. 9, 2015 – Argaa fi dhageettii seenaa Oromoo yeroo dheeraaf barsiisaa kan turan, Obbo Dabbasaa Guyyoo, dhiheenna kana, Keeniyaa magaalaa Naayiroobii keessaa, dhabamuun himame.

Obbo Dabbasaa Guyyoo ayyaana Irreechaa gaafa Fulbaana 27 bara 2015 magaalaa Naayiroobii keessatti kabajamee ture irratti argamuun, gorsa adda addaa baqqattoota Oromoof kennaa kan turan yoo ta’u, erga sirni ayyaanichaa xumuramee booda haga ammaatti gara mana isaanitti kan hin deebine ta’uun himamee jira.

Fira Obbo Dabbasaa Guyyoo kan ta’an, Obbo Shaamil Alii akka nuuf himanitti, ayyaana Irreechaa kabajamee ture irraa qooda fudhataa kan turan ta’uu nutti himuun, ayyana sana booda haga ammaatti bakki isaan jiran kan hin beekne ta’uu dubbatan.

Dhabamiinsa Obbo Dabbasaa ilaalchisee, waldaa Hawaasa baqqattoota Oromoo Keeniyaa fi, waajjiraalee buufata poolisii biyyattii heddutti iyyachuu isaanillee Obbo Shaamili ibsanii jiru.

 READ THE FULL STORY (OromiaMedia.org)

https://www.oromiamedia.org/2015/10/hayyuun-aadaa-fi-argaa-dhageettii-oromoo-obbo-dabbasaa-dhabaman/

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RELATED: Abbaa Liban Dabbasaa Guyyoo on the Oromo Gadaa Civilization:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2gaLlm7r7bw

Oromia: OBS: Qophii Faana Gaazexxeessaa Horroo Guduruu: Seena Odaa Bulluq October 11, 2015

Posted by OromianEconomist in Uncategorized.
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http://Qophii Faana Gaazexxeessaa Horroo Guduruu.

 

‘How Much Is Our Environment Worth? October 9, 2015

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???????????Yayu Oromia

Yaayyuu forest

Yaayyuu forest

Economic benefits of ecosystems extend far beyond exploiting them for resources

The true value of the planet’s ecosystems is frequently misrepresented, if not invisible, in markets and economic decision-making. But the real economies that underpin our societies are themselves fundamentally rooted in the natural world. In a forest, the value of timber can be significant and obvious on the open market. But the capacity of the forest to prevent soil erosion in surrounding agricultural land is not so easily or readily accounted for. A mangrove swamp is an important and valuable barricade against storms. But its capacity to sequester carbon and help prevent climate change goes unappreciated in economic terms. Grasslands can be an economic foundation of communities, both for their arable land and as a draw for wildlife-based tourism. But what of their function as a water catchment, offering strategic ability to manage this resource? Without awareness of the true value of these ecosystem services, and how GDP depends on the health of ecosystems, we are bound to continue to exploit them in an unsustainable way.’

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Source: How Much Is Our Environment Worth?