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Oromia: #OromoProtests: Gabaasa Fincila Xumura Garbummaa (FXG) Oromiyaa 2016 (April) April 30, 2016

Posted by OromianEconomist in #OromoProtests, Oromia, Oromo.
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Odaa OromooOromo Protests defend Oromo National Interest

#OromoPRotests tweet and share#OromoProtests against the Ethiopian regime fascist tyranny. Join the peaceful movement for justice, democracy, development and freedom of Oromo and other oppressed people in EthiopiaOromo Students protest @ Mandii, Western Oromia 25th November 2015Oromo Students protest @ Ambo, Oromia 25th November 2015 picture1Gaaffiiwwan yeroo ammaa


 

Gincii, Amboo, Jalduu, Gudar, Giddaa Ayyaanaa, Mandii, Najjoo, Laaloo Assaabii, Jaarsoo, Gullisoo, Bojjii, Gujii, Dambi Doolloo, Gimbii, Naqamtee, Buraayyuu, sabbataa, Dirree Incinnii, Adaamaa, Harammayyaa, Mattuu, Baale (Robee), Madda Walabu, Walliisoo, Tulluu Boolloo, Sulultaa (Caancoo), Horroo Guduruu, Buuraayyuu, Dirree Dhawaa, Calanqoo, Ada’aa Bargaa, Baddannoo, Holootaa, Shaashee, Awaday (E. Harargee), Hara Qallo (Goro Dola, Gujii), Gaasaraa (Baalee), Bulee Hora, Jimmaa, Arjo, Heebantuu, Giddaa Ayyaanaa ,Kiiramuu, Ciroo, Dodolaa, Anfilloo (Mugii), Walqixxee, Diillaa, Bishooftuu, Finfinnee,  Yuniversiitii Finfinnee, Geedoo, Asallaa,  Shaambuu, Agaarfaa, Sibuu Siree, Kotobee, Wacaalee, Saalaalee, Machaaraa, Ammayyaa, Tokkee  Kuttaayee, Innaangoo, Baabbichaa, Laaloo Qilee, Hiddii Lolaa, .Mugii, Arsi Nagallee, Baabbichaa, Shukutee, Baakkoo, Shukutee,  Baakkoo, Jalduu, Gindoo, Buun’dho Beddellee, Grawwaa,Gaara Mul’ataa, Qarsaa, Qobboo (Dardar, Eastern Oromia), Sinaanaa (Baalee), Jimmaa Arjoo, Bojjii, Kombolcha,  Aggaaroo,Tajji (Iluu), Qilxuu Kaarraa, Baabboo Gambel, Daawoo,Tulu Milki (Warra Jarso), Hirnaa, Xuulloo,  Masalaa, Galamso, Bordode, Mi’esso, Waheel, Diggaa, Arjoo Guddattuu, Guraawa, waamaa Adaree, Shabee Somboo, Limmuu Saqaa, Amuruu (Agamsa), Daroo Labuu (Gaadulloo), Yaabelloo, Aliboo (Jaartee Jardagoo), Saasigga, Magaalaa Dafinoo, Dhumugaa, Daroo Labuu (Buraysaa) Begii (Kobor), Mardida Halo Guba (Daroo Labuu), Qassoo, Bonayyaa Boshee, Baalee  (Dalloo Mannaa), Jimmaa Raaree (Magaalaa Gobaan), Nophaa (Iluu)……………



 

Gabaasa FDG Oromiyaa Sadaasa (November) 12, 13,  25,  26, 27, 28, 30, Muddee (December) 1, 2, 3, 4,5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13,14, 15, 16, 17/18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25,  26, 27,28, 29,30, 31….    2015

Amajii (January) 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13,14, 15, 16, 17,18,19, 20,21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29,30, 31……2016

Guraandhala (February) 1,  2, 3,4, 5, 6, 7, 8,9, 10,11,12,13, 14, 15, 16, 17,18,19, 20, 21,22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28,29………… 2016

 

Bitootessa (March) 1, 2, 3,4, 5,6,7,8,9, 10, 11,12, 13,14,15, 16,17, 18, 19,20,  21,  22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 2,28, 29, 30, 31 …………2016

Ebla (April), 1, 2, 3, 4, 5,6, 7,8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17,18, 19,20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30……… 2016

 


 

 #OromoProtests: International Community Alarmed as Ethiopia Crisis Worsens

#OromoProtests. International Community Alarmed as Ethiopia Crisis WorsensEthiopia's scores in freedom in the world 2016, freedom House World Report, January 2016.

Click here for #OromoProtests updates, 1st – 31st March, 2016

Click here for #OromoProtests updates, November 2015- February 29, 2016



Press Statement: The United States is deeply concerned by the Government of Ethiopia

https://oromianeconomist.wordpress.com/2016/04/30/press-statement-the-united-states-is-deeply-concerned-by-the-government-of-ethiopia/


Freedom for Bekele Gerba and all political prisoners in Ethiopian prisons

https://oromianeconomist.wordpress.com/2016/04/29/oromo-federalist-congress-international-support-freedom-for-bekele-gerba-and-all-political-prisoners-in-ethiopian-prisons/


U.S. Senators Amy Klobuchar and Al Franken condemned the lethal violence used by the government of Ethiopia against hundreds of Oromo protesters. #OromoProtests

https://oromianeconomist.wordpress.com/2016/04/29/u-s-senators-amy-klobuchar-and-al-franken-today-condemned-the-lethal-violence-used-by-the-government-of-ethiopia-against-hundreds-of-oromo-protesters-oromoprotests/

 

Ilhan Omar denounces crimes against humanity being committed in Ethiopia

http://www.ilhanomar.com/news/2016/4/25/ilhan-omar-denounces-crimes-against-humanity-being-committed-in-ethiopia

 

 

 U.S. Senators Condemn Ethiopia’s Crackdown on Civil Society

https://oromianeconomist.wordpress.com/2016/04/21/12-u-s-senators-condemn-ethiopias-crackdown-on-civil-society/

 

Human Rights league: The TPLF Hidden Agenda of Reducing the Oromo Population Must be Stopped

https://oromianeconomist.wordpress.com/2016/04/19/human-rights-league-the-tplf-hidden-agenda-of-reducing-the-oromo-population-must-be-stopped/


 

HRW: Foreign Policy In Focus: Deafening Silence from Ethiopia:The Ethiopian government is cracking down on journalists and NGOs. Where’s the outrage from the international community?

https://oromianeconomist.wordpress.com/2016/04/13/foreign-policy-in-focus-deafening-silence-from-ethiopiathe-ethiopian-government-is-cracking-down-on-journalists-and-ngos-wheres-the-outrage-from-the-international-community/


Human Rights in Ethiopia – An Update

Date: Tuesday, April 19, 2016 – 11:00am
Location: 2255 Rayburn House Office Building

Announcement

Please join the Tom Lantos Human Rights Commission for a briefing on the current human rights situation in Ethiopia.

https://humanrightscommission.house.gov/events/hearings/human-rights-ethiopia-update-0


Oromo protesters: ‘We are still on the streets because we want self-rule’

http://www.ibtimes.co.uk/oromo-protesters-we-are-still-streets-because-we-want-self-rule-1548661

No, we don’t have self-rule in Oromia state

http://www.ibtimes.co.uk/ethiopia-protesters-no-we-dont-have-self-rule-oromia-state-1551225


IPS: Ethiopia’s (Fascist TPLF) Smoldering Oromo. #OromoProtests

https://oromianeconomist.wordpress.com/2016/04/11/ips-ethiopias-fascist-tplf-smoldering-oromo-oromoprotests/


Das Berliner Missionswerk: Frieren Sie die Militärhilfe für Äthiopien ein, bis Äthiopien die Menschenrechte achtet!

 https://oromianeconomist.wordpress.com/2016/03/30/das-berliner-missionswerk-frieren-sie-die-militarhilfe-fur-athiopien-ein-bis-athiopien-die-menschenrechte-achtet-oromoprotests/


Why Have Oromo People Been Clashing With The Ethiopian Government For So Long?    http://www.afrizap.com/en/why-have-oromo-people-been-clashing-with-the-ethiopian-government-for-so-long


France 24: Focus: Anger among Ethiopia’s Oromo boils over.

France 24: Focus: Anger among Ethiopia’s Oromo boils over. #OromoProtests

 https://youtu.be/75_q7dbpTjs


Ethiopia – #OromoProtests and Ethiopian Repression: Overview

https://oromianeconomist.wordpress.com/2016/03/28/ethiopia-oromoprotests-and-ethiopian-repression-overview/


 

 Growing public dissatisfaction with ‘rent seeking’ and corruption in the ruling party and government culminated recently in the unprecedented Oromo protests.

https://www.issafrica.org/events/view-on-africa-protests-political-instability-and-purge-in-ethiopia


The Economist on #OromoProtests

Ethiopia’s Oromo people demand equal rights in protests

Largest ethnic group in Ethiopia continues to rally against the government despite crackdown.

By Charles Stratford, Al Jazeera

https://oromianeconomist.wordpress.com/2016/03/27/al-jazeera-africa-oromia-ethiopias-oromo-people-demand-equal-rights-in-protests-oromoprotests/


Al Jazeera: HUMAN RIGHTS: #OromoProtests continue amid harsh crackdown

 https://oromianeconomist.wordpress.com/2016/03/24/al-jazeera-human-rights-oromoprotests-continue-amid-harsh-crackdown/


 

FP: Dispatch: The Rotten Foundation of Ethiopia’s Economic Boom. #OromoProtests

 

FP: Dispatch: The Rotten Foundation of Ethiopia’s Economic Boom. #OromoProtests

Martial law in Oromia: The state is now under 8 military divisions controlled by Fascist TPLF warlords from Tigray.

Martial law in Oromia: The state is now under 8 military divisions controlled by Fascist TPLF warlords from Tigray.


Telesurtv: Ethiopia’s Oromo Protest ‘Development,’ Displacement and Death. #OromoProtests

https://oromianeconomist.wordpress.com/2016/04/06/telesurtv-ethiopias-oromo-protest-development-displacement-and-death-oromoprotests/

Egypt defends treatment of Oromo refugees

https://oromianeconomist.wordpress.com/2016/04/06/egypt-defends-treatment-of-oromo-refugees/

Oromia & Ethiopia: #OromoProtests: With whom are the European Union, the United States, and the African Union Officials meeting to discuss and end the exclusion and marginalization of the Oromo people in Ethiopia? April 8, 2016

https://oromianeconomist.wordpress.com/2016/04/08/oromia-ethiopia-oromoprotests-with-whom-are-the-european-union-the-united-states-and-the-african-union-officials-meeting-to-discuss-and-end-the-exclusion-and-marginalization-of-the-oromo-pe/


https://oromianeconomist.wordpress.com/2016/04/15/oromia-oromo-martyrs-memorial-day-ebla-15-bara-2016-qeerroon-yuniversitii-wallaggaa-guyyaa-gootota-oromoo-kabajachuun-ibsa-ejjennoo-baafatan-oromoprotests/

 

 

 

 

 

 

OMN: Oduu Ebla 20, 2016

 


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OromoProtests Continues in Najjoo,  Ebla (April) 21, 2016
Lixaa Oromiyaa goddina Wallaggaa, magaalaa NAJJOO


Eda galgala magaalaa Najjoo iddoo addaa gama Boolee jedhamuuti konkoolaataa Ibnebiireed fe’ee gara shaggar deemu irratti humna hin beekamneen tarkaanfiin irratti fudhatamee hojiin ala ta’uu fi barattootni gara 50 guyyaa hardhaa mana barnootaa keessaa guuramanii mana hidhaatti uguuramuu isaannii qeerroon naannoo magaalaa Najjoo gabaasaa oduu dabarsan irraa hubatameerra.
WarraaqsiXFG naannoo Najjoo osoo waliirraa hin dhaabane itti fufuu isaas kannuma waliin oduun kun adeesee jira. Sochiin gootowwan ilmaan Oromoo naannoo kanatti gaggeessannii fi gaggeessaas jiran kan gootumaa saba Oromoo dhiigaan mirkaneeffame ta’uu ragaa bahaati jiru.
Faashistootni TPLF saba goota kana qawween jilbifachiisuun bituun akka hin danda’amne wallaaluun yknis hubachuu dhabuun haala barbaachiisaa hin taane ummata Tigreeti affeeruuf yaaluun ishii garee itti gaafatamnii itti hin dhagahamne ishii godheetti jira jedhu qeerroon Najjoo.


#OromoProtests in Buunno’oo Bedellee, Iluu, Oromia, TPLF fascist forces attacked school student, 19 April 2016

#OromoProtests in Buunno'oo Bedellee, Iluu, Oromia, TPLF fascist forces attacked school student, 19 April 2016 p1

#OromoProtests in Buunno'oo Bedellee, Iluu, Oromia, TPLF fascist forces attacked school student, 19 April 2016

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2NY5QT-7Who

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zDOP_PFqFJM

https://youtu.be/85JW9eq7nhE

 

 

OMN: Oduu Ebla 18, 2016

 

Qeerroon Godina Harargee Magaalaa Awadaay Sirna Qindaayeen Kabajatan.

Ebla 15 Sabboontoowwaan ilmaan Oromoo Qeerroo Bilisummaa Oromoo Kan magaalaa Awwadaay jiratan guyyaa Ebla 15,2016 kabaja guyyaa Gootota Oromoo sababeefachuun tuutni Qeerroo Aawwadaay sabboontoota gaara mullataa baddannoofii bakka garagaraa irraa dhufan wajjiin qophii qopheefataniin gootowwan Oromoo kan wareegaman yaadachuun qabsoo diddaa gabrummaa itti fufuun gumaa jaallan keenyaa bilisummaan baasuuf irbuu harayoomfatan.

received_1709705492620985Ebla 18,2016, Yuunibarsiitii Wallaggaa irraa Barattoonni ja’a fincila xumura garbummaa tiin wal qabatee yeroo ari’aman barattooti saddeet immoo guyyaa borii tti beellamaan akka jiran beekameera

Barattoota engineering waggaa 1 ffaa laman beeka ani:

1.Baahiruu Kabbadaa Dabalaa.

2.Dinqaa Taammiruu Bulchaa fi kkf gara ijoollee 6 har’a ari’an. Boruttis ijoollee 8 gara kutaa displenetti waanan. sababa mid.exam wal qabatee rakkoo guddaatu uumamaa jira

 

 

 

Har’a Ebla 19,2016 FXG Yuniverstii Wallaggaa Jabaatee Itti Fufe

IMG_20160415_143910IMG_20160417_140317

 

 

 

 

Baqattoota Ilmaan Oromoo Biyya Egypt Cairo Irraa Dooniin Utuu Gara Biyya Italy Imalaa Galaanaa Mediterranean rra Imalaa Jiranii Dooniin Galaanaa Keessatti dhidhimtee Lubbuun Wareegamanii Ilaalchisee Qeerroon Bilisummaa Ibsa Gaddaa Baase.

Ebla 18/2016 Hooggansii Qeerroo Bilisummaa Oromoo Baqattoota Ilmaan Oromoo biyya Egypt Cairo irraa dooniin utuu gara biyya Italy imalaa galaana Mediterranean irra Imalaa Jiranii dooniin Galaanaa Keessatti dhidhimtee Ilmaan Oromoo qaaliin Lubbuun Wareegamanii Irbaata Qurxummii taan Yeroo Dhageenyutti Gadda Guddaatu Onnee keenya irraa nutti dhagaaame jirachuu ibsuun, Guddaa guddaa Itti dhagaame jiruu Ibse. Jiruuf Jireenya gabrummaatu kana nutti fidee jechuun gadda Itti dhagaaame Ibsee jira!!

Ilmaan Keenyaa dhaloonnii kichuu galaanaan nyaatamanii wareegamuun hirbaata Qurxummii taan kanaaf sababaa guddaan jiruuf jireenya gabrummaa mootummaa abbaa irree wayyaanee ilmaan Oromoo biyyaa irraa ariiatu tauun ifaadha, dhumaatii ilmaan Oromoo kallattii hundaan gaggeeffamaa jiruuf itti gaafatamaan mootummaa abbaa Irree Wayyaanee EPRDF/TPLF/OPDO tauu hoggansii Qeerroo bilisummaa Oromoo gadi jabeessuun hubachiisae!!

Ilmaan Oromoo Dargaggootii balaa kanaan Wareegamaan keessa kanneen maqaan isaaniifi Suuraan isaanii argamee keessa:

1. Dargaggoo Sabboonaa Muraad Abdii

2. Shamarree Lammii Shaafii

3. Dargaggoo Abdisaa Barshoo

4. Dargaggoo Toofiqoo Abdallaa

5. Shamarree Aliizaar Xaahir

6. Kan Maqaan isaanii adda hin bahiin Haadha Ilmoo fi abbaa Manaa Dabalatee ilmaan Oromoo Hedduun balaa kanaan galafatamaniif Gaddaa Guddaatu Onnee keenya irraa nutti dhagaaame, Maatii fi Firoottaan isaanii hundaaf jajjabina hawwinaaf jechuun Dhaamsa Gaddaa uummata Oromoo fi Maatii wareegamtootaaf Dabarsee jira!!

Dhumarraatti Uummata Oromoo waliigalaaf qeerroon Bilisummaa Oromoo diina biyyaa irraa nu ariiatu jalaa dheessuu hin qabnu uummata keenya waliin wal taanee falmannee falmachiisuun wareegama fedhee baasnee bilisummaa keenya gonfachuun dirqama ilmaan Oromoo hundaa tauu fi balaa n guddaa kun sababaa jiruuf jireenya gabrummaa irraa kan dhufee tauu hubachuun biyyaa keenyaarratti falmannee wareegamuun Warraaqsaa Marsaa 5ffaaf gaggeessaa jirru kanaan diina of irraa gaggeessuun bilisummaa keenya akka kabachiifannuuf waamicha keenya jabeessina!!

Injifannoon Uummata oromoof!

Gadaan Gadaa Bilisummaati!!

Maatiifi Firoottan wareegamtootaaf jajjabina hawwina!!

 

Ebla 17,2016 Godina Arsii Anaa Roobetii magaala Habetii keessatti baarulle Waraqsaatifi alaabaan adda bilisummaa Oromoo ( Oromoo ) akkanatti maxxanfame bulee!

roobererooob

Godina Wallaggaa lixaa aanaa Jaarsoo magaalaa Jaarsoo keessatti Guyyaan Gootota Oromoo Ebla 15 Qeerroo fi hojjettootaan kabajame.

Jaarsoo

Dargaggoonni Oromoo Kanaadaa Magaalaa Calgary Jiraatan Guyyaa Gootota Oromo Ebla 15 fi Hundeeffata Qeerroo Bilisummaa Waggaa 6ffaa Sirna Miidhagaan Kabajatan.

12596016_1050793791626201_1996933695_n12992160_1050793908292856_1445113847_n13014836_1050793788292868_1097708778_n13014936_1050793801626200_1370849056_n13020500_1050793828292864_419783636_n13022234_1050793874959526_2037139205_n13014922_1329838513709295_313159796_n13016594_1329838650375948_1300593479_o13020573_1329838500375963_500434055_n13054609_1329838550375958_946575162_ohttps://videopress.com/v/Z3jxhL8F?hd=0&autoPlay=0&permalink=0&loop=0

Baha Wallaggaa Magaalaa Qassootti Fincilli Xumura Garbummaa Fininee jira

Ebla 17,2016
Mirga abbaa biyyummaa deebifachuf Daran sochiin uummati taasisaa jiru bakkeewwan hedduutti finiinfamaa jiraachuu odeessi Qeerroo tibbanaa nii ifoomsa Haaluma kanaan Magaalaa Qassoo keessatti jala bultii yaadannoo Gootota wareegamanii gummacha gootonni keenya Shinigaatti kaffalan yaadachuuf jala bultiirraa kaasee magaalattii keessatti mandheen Qanaa’aa Janaa bifa gaariin yaadate ooleera.guyya kana dursuun sochiin magaalattii keessatti barattootaan eebila 13,2016 irraa egalee dhohe hanga haraatti itti fufee jira.Guyyaa sanas dhaadannoof Kakuu
gurguddaan barattoonni mana Barumsaa Qassoo sadarkaa 2ffaa fi 2ffaa akkasuma hawwasni magaalattiif naannooshee kan eegalan yoo ta’u
sirboonni warraaqsas gaafas guutummaa magaalattii hanga sochoosuuf ka’utti Gobii Lamaan wallifamaa turuu qeerroon achii dubbata,barattoonnis hanga har’atti mana barumsaa addaan kutanii akka jiran dubbatamaa jira.Kunis murna bichuu waayyaaneef ergamtushee OPDO sodaaf rifaatuu guddaa keessa galchun hidhaatti fulleefachaa jiraachuu Qeerroon achii gabasaa isaan ifoomsa.Barataan Nagaasaa Beekumaa Qabamee bakki geeffames wal’alamee jiraachuu,Barataa kana erga sochiin magaalaa sanaa eegalee adamoo guddaa keessa turuusaa akkasumas yeroo gara yerootti dararamaa erga turee qabamee amma argansaa dhabamee jirachuun ittuu sochiin magaalattii Uummataan makatee daran akka hin dhabbanne taasisaa jiraachuu dhaga’amaa jira

 

Goototni Qeerroon Bilisummaa Oromoo fi Daragaggootni Barattootni Oromoo fi qabsa’otni Oromoo Ebla 15 Guyyaa Gootota Oromoo Oromiyaa Gidduu Galaa Fi Handhuuraa Oromiyaa Maagaalaa Finfinnee Keessatti Bifa Ha’aa Ta’een Ebla 15/2016 Kabajamtan!!

12999533_662436543894578_383520273_o13022174_662436183894614_103095983_n13022327_662436180561281_2140939978_n13045551_662436173894615_157574544_n13046238_662436210561278_327658916_nGoototni Hoggattootni Qabsoo Bilisummaa Oromoo Warraaqsaa (FDG-FXG) Qeerroon daraggootni Oromoo , sabboontootni goototni Oromoo fi goototni Barattootni Oromoo sadarkaa adda addaa irratti walitti dhufuun Ebla 15 Guyyaa Gootota Oromoo(GGO) dungoo halluu Diimaa Magariisaa Diimaa qabu halluu alaabaa ABO qabsiifachuun seenaa gootota Oromoo Kaleessaa fi Har’aa waliif ibsuun Kaayyoon Goototni Oromoo irratti wareegamaanii fi wareegamaa jiran tokkicha ta’uu fi kayyoo haqaa kan dhugaa bilisummaa saba Oromoo hunda hammatee ta’uu ifa waliif gochuun kayyoo Goototni Oromoo Irratti wareegamaa qalii kanfalaa jiraniifi nuti dhalootni har’aas xummura itti gochuuf wareegama qaalii kan itti kanfalaa jirruu fi Uummatni keenyaa Uummatni Oromoo Oromiyaa cufa keessatti Warraaqsaa FXG keessatti qooda olaanaa kanfalaa jiraachuu waliif ibsuun FXG marsaa 5ffaa Guyyaa Gootota Oromoo Sababeeffachuun qabsiifamee finiinfamaa jiruu daran jabeessuun abbaa irreetti xummura gochuuf Irbuu Qabsoo Bilisummaa Oromoo haaromsachuun bifa Adda ta’een Kabajamee jira!! Goototni Qeerroon Bilisummaa Oromoo fi Daragaggootni Barattootni Oromoo

 

 

 

 

 

OMN: Oduu Ebla 15, 2016

 

 

 

#OromoProtests in Ambo, 15 April 2016

Mormiin Barattoota Universitii Ambo keessati Ebla 15 bara 2016  itti fufe jira

 

#OromoProtests in Ambo, 15 April 2016

 

#OromoProtests @Nekemte Calalaqi Elementary School, Oromia, 15 April 2016

#OromoProtests @Nekemte Calalaqi Elementary School, Oromia, 15 April 2016

#OromoProtests @Najjoo, West Wallaggaa, oromia, 15 April 2016

#OromoProtests @Najjoo, West Wallaggaa, oromia, 15 April 2016

 

 


 

 

Godina Wallaggaa lixaa magaalaa Mandii keessatti OPDOn ayyaana TPLFn hundeeffamuu kabajuuf dirqaaman uummata magaalaa Mandii kan ajajje yeroo ta’u, uummati guutumaatti waltajji Wayyaanee irraa hafe Haata’u malee, kaabinooti muraasi mana barumsaa sadarkaa tokkoffaa Mandii keessatti wal tajji taa’uuf yeroo jedhan daa’imman itti yaa’uun dhakaadhaan achii arii’aniiru

Kaabinotis uummata beekaatu daa’imman dhagaadhaan nu reebsisa jechuun oori’anii yeroo gaafatanitti uummati dhaloota qofa miti barumatu isin jibbe jechuun afaan akka qabsiisaniifi ergamtooti diinaa kun magaalicha keessatti waaroo salphinaa akka uffatan odeessi achii nuqaqqabe ifa taasiseera

https://youtu.be/tJE-6aM1nNA

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

OMN: Oduu Ebla 8, 2016

OMN: Oduu Ebla 8, 2016

 

OMN: Amharic News April 9, 2016

https://www.oromiamedia.org/2016/04/09/omn-amharic-news-april-9-2016/

 

Saamicha Lafa Oromoo Ilaalchisee Xiinxala Dr. Gizaachoo Teessoo (Ebla 8, 2016)

 

OMN: Oduu Ebla 7, 2016

https://www.oromiamedia.org/2016/04/07/omn-oduu-ebla-7-2016/

https://youtu.be/uwHhhlkGwBg

#OromoProtests in Limmuu Saqaa, Jimmaa, Oromia, 7 April 2016
#OromoProtests in Limmuu Saqaa, Jimmaa, Oromia, 7 April 2016#OromoProtests in Limmuu Saqaa, Jimmaa, Oromia, 7 April 2016 p1#OromoProtests in Limmuu Saqaa, Jimmaa, Oromia, 7 April 2016 p2
#OromoProtests, 8 April 2016
The administrative harassment of Oromo university students continues. Here is a notice in Amharic  to a number of Jimma University Oromo students. Intimidating students into submission by threatening to dismiss them on political grounds is an old tactic used by authorities.

And yet THE RESISTANCE CONTINUES. Source: Tsegaye Ararsa, on social media

The administrative harassment of Oromo university students continues

Oromiyaa Godinaalee Adda Addaa fi Manneen Barnootaa Keessatti FXG Jabaatee Itti Fufee Jira. 

FXGOromiyaa Ilubbaabooritti Eebla 6, 2016 eegalee barattoonni sad.2ffaa fi qophaa’inaa algee Mattuu, Beddellee’ barnoota hin barannu, hanga warri hidhaman hiikamnaitti qormaata biyyoolessaa hin qoramnu jechuun FXG kaasan addaan osoo hin kutin itti fufanii jiru.

Godina Shaggar Bahaa Bishooftuuttis barattoonni sad.2ffaa fi sad.1ffaa liiban Cuqqaalaa FXG uumanni kaaseen humni waraana Itiyoophiyaa tarkaanfii uummata irratti fudhatuuf yaalus uummanni ofirraa deebisee jira.

Naannoo Finfinnee dukamitti Eebla 5,2016 barattoonni qophaa’ina dhiiqa ergisuuf heyyamasaanii kennanii hojjettoonni fayyaa yeroo gara mooraa mana barumsaa seenan dhiigi keenya osoo iddoo hundaatti dhangala’uu akkamiin dhiiga ergisaa jedhamna jechuun FXG kaasanii tarkaanfii lukkuulee Wayyaanee irrattis fudhatamee jira.
Harargee bahaa aanaa Faadisitti Ebla 3 ,2016 eegalee jiraattonni bulchaan aanichaa nuuf haa bu’u jechuun finciili uummatan itti fufaa waan jiraniif qaamni ilaallatu yoo uummata hin haasofsiifne rakkoo gudaan kan uumamuudha jechuun ergamtootni fi kaabinoonni aanaa hedduun
raafama guddaa keessa seenanii jiru.

Itti fufudhaan Yuunivarsiitii Haramaayaatti barataan osoo mooraa hin seeniin poolisii tahee hojjetaa ture 1 yeroo ammaa odeeffannoo barattoota oromoo mootummaa Wayyaaneef dabarsee kennaa waan jiruuf suuraa fi seenaa gabaasa waliin weebsaayitii’oromo one love’ jedhurratti gadhiisuun tarkaanfiin irratti fudhatamuu qaba kan jedhu dabarsuun poolisoonni mooricha guutummaatti mooraa sodaa kanaan gadhiisani akka jiran Qeerroon gabaase. Qeerroonis mooricha dhunfate toohatee jira wayita kana barumsi hin jiru FXG malee jedhu.

Yuunivarsiitii walqixxeetti barattoonni Oromoo dhaaba ABO deeggaran ; kanaan dura garee disipiliiniin fi koomaandi poostii moorichaan gorfamaniiru jechuun barattoonni 9 guutumman guutuuttu ariayamanii,17 immoo adabbii waggaa 2 akkasumas 9 immoo akeekkachiisi dhumaa akka itti kenname eebla 5,2016 ibsame. Haaluma kanaan mooraa kanatti fxg ka’ee finiinaa jiraachuun gabaafame.


Ebla 7,2016, Naannolee Qobboo fi Waldayaa akkasumas Gambeelaas dabalatee sochiin fincilaa jabaatee akka jirutu Qeeyroon gabaasee jira. Dabalataan toora Qobboo fi waldiyaatti transiformariin ibsaa gubatee bade ji’a tokko ol kan lakkaawe uummanni ifa dhabee rakkina kanan naannoo kanatti fincilli uumataan ka’eejira.

Kana malees  Ebla 7,2016 ,Naannoo Kibbaa godina Saganti magaala Konsootti Fincilli ka’ee finiinuu gabaasuun keenya ni yaadatama. Manneen barnootaas cufamanii hamma ammaatti. Humneen nageenyaa wayyaanee naannicha buufatee jiru baajatni mootummaa waan hanqataa dhufeef naannicha irraa waraanni buufatee jiru fagaatee hojii eegumsaa dhaabaa akka jiru odeessi Qeerroo naannichaa ibsa.


Ebla 7,2016 Yuuniversitii Bahar Daar mooraa Yibaabitti torban tokko dura barattootni rakkoolee bishaan dhugaatii fi qulqullina nyaataan wal
qabateef gaaffii dhiyeessuun nyaata lagatanii turan. Barattootni hanga har’aatti diddaa nyaata lagachuun fincilatti fufanii akka jiranis Qeeyroon gabaasee jira. Wayyaaneen barattoota Oromoo irratti shira xaxuu akkuma beekamu moorawwan Yuuniversiti naannoo Amaarattis miidhaa barattoota irratti gaggeessuuf karaa naataa fi bishaan qulquulluu dhabsiisuun daran jabaatee jira,Mooraa Yuuniversitii Dabra Taabor
keessatti dararamuun ni jira.


Qeerroon biyaa ambaa Bosaaso jiran mormii sanii dhageessisan. #OromoProtests 7 April 2016
#OromoProtests in Bosaso, 7 April 2016 
#OromoProtests, 7 April 2016 in Hirna, West Hararge,  3 people including Beyan Abas were shot and wounded. The people protested and disrupted celebration of OPDO’s 26th founding anniversary. Similar protest have been taking place all across the province in towns and rural areas of Xullo, Dobba, Daro Labu, Miesso and Burqa Tinitu districts.


 

Mormii Ebla 7 bara 2016 aanaa xuulloo magaalaa Hirnaatti godhamerrati namooni hedduun miidhamani akka jiranii fi kanis hidhamani akka jiran beekamee jira. Warra rasaasaan rukutame keessaa tokko Bayaan Abbaa kan jedhamu yoo ta’u yeroo ammaa kana hospitaal Ciroo keessatti waldhaanamaa jira. Mormiin kun ayyaana OPDO kan 26 hin feenu jechuun kan ka’e yoo ta’u aanaalee godinachaa hedduu keessatti godhamaa jira. Jiraattonni anaanalee Xuulloo, Mi’eessoo, Daaro Labuu, Doobbaafi Burqaa Tindhitu keessatti mormiin akka jiru gabaasni nu gahe ni garsiisa.


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TQBLIU4gAjY

https://www.oromiamedia.org/2016/04/06/omn-oduu-bit-6-2016/

https://www.oromiamedia.org/2016/04/07/omn-qophii-adaa-marii-dingadee-itoophiyaa-ogeessoota-dingadee-waliin-taasifee-ebla-62016/

 

Godina Wallaggaa Magaalaa Najjoo fi Naannoo Isheetti FXG Itti Fufee Oole.

Ebla 6,2016 Godina Wallaggaa Magaalaa Najjoo fi naannoo  keessatti barattoota Sadarkaa 2ffaa Aggaar Alaltuutiin daran jabaatee itti fufee jiraachuu Qeerroon gabaase.

Fincilli kunis kan jalqabe baratootuma mooraa sanaan Sa’a 4;00 Irratti Fincila Diddaa Garbummaa Qabsiisaniin humni kora bittinneessaa fi Federaalli Mooraatti weeraruun barattoota hedduu reebanii miidhaa guddaa irraan ga’aniiru! sa’a afur irraa eegalani reebichaa fi dararaa guddaa baratoota kana irratti raawwataniiru.

Maatiin Barattootaa Ilmaan Isaani Hoggaa barbaaduuf deemanitti humni federaalaas Uummata ijoolleessaaf dirmachuuf ba,e kana reebuun manatti deebisaniru.Uummannis diddaa isaa jabeessuun naannooma mana barnootaa sana turaniiru. Humni federaalaas yemuu barattoota kana hidhaatti dabarsuuf yammuu yaalanitti Uummannis degersa baratoota kanaaf godhaniin oso mana adabaa hin geeffamin hafaniru! reebicha irra
ga,eenis baratoonni heedduun miidhamuu Qeerroon gabaase.

FXG Itti Fufuun Gootonni Barattooti Oromoo Manni Barumsaa Qophaa’inaa Asalla Diddaa Gaggeessan.

FXGGuyyaa Ebla 6,2016 Har’aa Manni Barumsaa Qophaa’inaa Asalla Hiriira Mormii sirna mootummaa Wayyaanee gaggeessaniin dhaadatnoolee warraaqsaa hedduu dhageessisun mootummaa fi waraana mootummaa Wayyaanee balaaleffachaa oolanii jiru, alaabaa  gabrummaa ( Ithioophiyaa) mooricha keessatti fannifames gadi buusanii ciruun,barnooti bilisummaa booda waan ta’eef uummata keenya keessa bobbaanee nagaa fi bilisummaa barbaacha qabsoo fincila xumura gabrummaa itti fufna jechuun mana barnootaa cufanii maatiiti galuu Qeerroon gabaase.

 

because-i-am-oromoEbla 6,2016/ Godina Wallaggaa Bahaa Aanaa Nuunnuu Qumbaa magaalaa Adaree irraa qabamanii ji’oota lamaa oliif mana hidhaa Wayyaanee keessatti kan daraaramaa jiran hawaasa bal’aa yeroo ta’u Wayyaaneen namoota kudha sadii qofa gadi lakkisuun kaan isaanii bakka garaagaraatti hidhaaf fuutee deemuuf akka sanganteeffatte beekameera
Isaan hiikaman keessa muraasi

1. Yohaannis Abbabaa
2. Yohaannis Miidhaksaa
3. Asaffaa Miidhaksaa
4. Tafarii Tashoomaa
5. Naadoo Warqinaa
6. Bayyanaa Taaddasaa kanneen jedhaman qofa ta’uun beekameera


No Taxation without representation

Ummanni Oromoo Godina Lixa Shaggar Kaffaltii Gibiraa Mootummaa Wayyaaneef Kennuu Didaa Jira.

Ebla 5,2016 Godina Lixa shaggar Amboo fi aanota Godinicha cufa keessatti Warraaqsaa FXG gaaffii mirga abbaa biyyummaa fi yakka duguuggaa sanyii Mootummaan wayyaanee fudhateen wal qabatee uummatni eejjennoo Isaa jabeessuun kanfaltii gibraa fi buusiiwwan adda adda dhorkatee waan jiruuf mootummaan Wayyaanee Waraanaa fi poolisoota ergamtuu isheetti dhimmaa Bahuun waraanaan dirqamsiiftee Gibra kanfalchiisuuf kan jirtu ta’uun Saaxilame jira. Uummaatni Oromoo goota dhugaadha, yoo wayyaaneen humna waraanaa fayyadamtee dirqamaan gibraas ta’ee buusii kamuu kan nu kanfalchiiftu ta’ee waan qabnuun dura dhaabbannee dumnee mirga keenyaaf falmanna malee abbaan irree dirqamaan nu hin bittu, jechuun uummatni ejjennoo isaa ibsate jira. Yeroo ammaa Kanaa Aanota Godina Lixa Shaggar Amboo: Aanaa Amboo, Jalduu, Midaa Qanyii, Giincii, Calliyaa Geedoo, Iluu Galaan, Daannoo, Baakkoo Tibbee, Xuqur Incinnii, tokkee Kuttaayee, Gudar, Dandii, Adaa’aa Bargaa, Mugar, Meettaa Roobii, Gindaabarat Kaachisii fi Abuunaa fi Magaalota Godinichaa cufa dabalatee uummatni Waraanaa guddaan eegamaa jira, Bulchitootni Gandoota Baddiyyaa haala wal fakkaatuun uummata sodaannee waan jirruuf kanfaltii gibiraa fi buusii kamuu hin gaafatnu ni sodannee jechuun yaada isaanii ibsatani jiru Mootummaan wayyaanee kanuma irra rifatuu Caaluu keessa galuun waraanatti fayyadamee kanfaltii gibra dirqamaan kanfalchiisuuf yaalii gochaa jira!!

https://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=youtu.be&v=YbsPfRPD1ns&app=desktop


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jadA7_Of6mc

OMN: Oduu Ebla 4,2016

 

 

 

#OromoProtests, Limmuu Saqaa, 4 April 2016

#OromoProtests, Limmuu Saqaa, 5 April 2016

 

 

Ebla 3,2016 Godina Hararge LixaAnaa Odaa bultum Magala Baddessatti Guyya har.a Yeeyyiilee Waarraaqsaa (Daa’imman) Magaalaa baddessa yeroo mormii isaanii dhageessisuun uummata Oromoof waardiyyaa dhaabbachuu isaanii muldhisan.

 

Barsiisota,Daldaltootaa fi Jiraattota Oromoo Godina Wallaggaa Aanaa Giddaa Ayyaanaa Keessaa Hoomaa Loltoota Wayyaanee Naannicha Weerareen Dararamaa Jiraachuu Qeerroon Gabaase.

Ebla 3,2016 Fincila xumura gabrummaa aanaa Giddaa Ayyaanaatti belbelaa tureef sababi guddaan isini jechuun barsiisota, hojjetoota mootummaa, daldaltootaa fi barattoota rasaasaan qeeraa turan itti xinnaannaan ammammoo kanneen irraa hafatan gara dabarsuutti jiru.
Torban darbe dura kanneen armaan gadii kana of keessaa dhabneerra jedhu.
1. Mitikkuu Kabbadaa—– barsiisaa seenaa (history) , sabboonaa ummata biratti akka warqeetti ilaalamu
2. Tafarraa Margaa—-daldalaa fi uffata kan hodhu
3. Gammachuu Wiirtuu—-barsiisaa civics
4. Mootii Qana’aa—-barsiisaa Geography kan filannoo bara 2010 tti paartii madrek bakka bu’ee filamee mo’atee boodarra shira wayyaaneen jalaa haqame
5. Margaa Jogoraa—–daldalaa fi sabboonummaa fi gootummaan naannoo Giddaatti kan beekamuu fi kanneen biroo barattoota dabalatee erga dhi’oo asii of keessaa dhabneerra jedhu ummati Giddaa Ayyaanaa.
Kanneen keessaa Tafarraa Margaa Maa’ekelaawwii akka jiru kan barame yoo tahu kanneen biroo eessa akka geeffaman hin baramne jedhu. Dhumarrattis Qabsoo jalqabne otuu adda hin kutiin haa finiinsinuun dhaamsa Qeerroo Giddaa Ayyaanaati

Gurmuun Tumsa Qeerroo Bilisummaa Oromoo Biya Australia Kutaa Perth Keessatti Argamu Dargaggoota Ogadeen Perth Waliin Dhimmoota Mirga Sabaa Irratti Mari’ate:

Perth2Gurmuun Tumsa Qeerroo Oromoo Perth fi dargaggootni Ogaden Perth haala itti qabsoo biyya keessaa itti gargaaruu danda’an Ebila 2,2016 walitti dhufuun marii gaggeeffatan. Akka odeessi biyya Australia lixaa, magaalaa Perth irraa nu gahetti Uummatni Oromoo fi Uummatni Ogaden hiree walfakkaatu qabaachuu irraa qabsoo bilisummaa gaggeessaa jiraachuu, kana irraa ka’uun jaarmayoonni kallacha qabsoo isaanii (Adda Bilisummaa Oromoo fi Adda Bilisummaa Biyyoleessa Ogaadeen) kanneen hireen isaanii wal fakkaatu (Benshangul, Gaambellaa fi Sidaamaa) waliin Tumsa Ummattootaa kan dimokiraasii fi bilisummaa utubuun ka’uumsa walitti dhufeenya isaanii akka ta’e hubatameera.Perth

Marii yeroo jjalqabaaf gaggeeffatan kana irratti akkaataa hawaasa isaanii lamaan caallatti walitti gurmeessuun danda’amu, haala fuula dura waliin itti hoijjachuu danda’an, hawaasa fi dargaggoota gar lachuun keessatti waan Uummatota lamaan wal fakkeessu odeessa uummataan gahuu danda’aamu irratti marii bal’aa gaggeeffachuu isaanii gabaafameera.

Hunda caala muuxannoo qabsoo fi jaarmayaa waliif qooduun qabsoo bilisummaa fi dimokiraasii biyya keessatti gaggeeffamaa jiru attamiin gargaaruu akka danda’anii fi tumsa taasisan attamiin waliin qindeeffachuun akka danda’amu irratti xiyyeeffatanii akka hojjatan waliif galaniiru.

Perth 3

 

Ebla 2,2016 Mooraa Yuunibarsiitii Jimmaa Kitoo Furdisaa keessatti barruuleen warraaqsaa fi alaabaan Oromoo maxxanfamaa jira.

IMG_20160402_073018IMG_20160402_074108IMG_20160402_074425

FXG Yuniverstii Wallaggaa Itti Fufuun Humna Waraana Wayyaanee Guutummaa Mooraa Yuniverstii Weeraree Jira.

IMG_20160402_132433IMG_20160402_132835Ebla 2,2016 Yuunversiitii Wallaggaa keessatti diddaan baratootaa daran jabaachuurraan kan ka’e humni kora bittinneessaa guutummaa mooraa kanaa dhuunfatee jira.Baratoonnis diddaa barnootaaf qaban itti fufuuf yeroo yaalanitti mootummaan gabroonfataan Wayyaannee baratoota kana irratti seera haaraa baasuun keessumaa mooraa kana keessatti akkaataa ittiin qabxii barataa gadi bu’ee barataan mooraa kanaa hari,amuuf sagantaa haaraa baasanii baratoota doorsisaa jiraachuutu beekamee jira.

Mooraa kana keessatti diddaan kun baratoota galgalaanis waan jabaateef baratoota kanaaf sagantaan haaraan ba’eefii guyyaa keessaa barnoota isaanii dirqiidhaan akka hordofaniif fedhii isaanii malee humnaanis akka sagantaa ittiin qorumsa haaraa ba’e kennamu hordofanii fudhataniif doorsisamaa jiraachuu maddeen keenya achirraa arganne ifa godhu.


Ebla (April) 2,2016:  Godina Wallaggaa Bahaa Aanaa Waamaa Hagaloo irraa namooti ja’a hojiirra arii’amuuf qaamoti tikaa Wayyaanee akka qophii xumuran icciitiin ba’uusaa toora miidiyaa hawaasaatti faca’uunsaa ni yaadatama!
Haaluma kanaan tarkaanfiin mootummaa Garboomfattuu kana maal akka ta’u eegaa turre icciitichi harkaa ba’uun isaanuma qaamota Wayyaanee akka wal dhabsiises beekameera
Namoota sirnichi irratti xiyyeefatuun xalayaan arii’amuu isaan qaqqabuuf turesakka adabaatti/demotion/ bakka jiranirraa gadi bu’anitti jijjiiramuu odeessi nu ga’e akkanaan ifoomseera
1 Lammeessaa Daggafaa Waajjira Jallisii irraa gara Waldaa Hojii Gamtaatti
2 Mootii Oliiqaa Waajjira Abbaa Taayitaa Daandii Irraa Gara Waldaa Hojii Gamtaatti
3 Asnaaqee Gabree Waajjira Geejjibaa irraa gara Waajjira fayyaatti
4 Milkeessaa Baqqalaa Waajjira Jallisii irraa gara Waldaa Hojii Gamtaatti
5 Wandee Turaa Abbaa Taayitaa Jallisii irraa gara Herregaa Mana Barumsaa Qophaa’inaa Moxeetti
Ergamaniiru.
Isaan kun marti bakka miindaa argachaa turanirraa bakka gad aanaatti ramadamaniiti.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=00uOH-YkbSA

https://www.oromiamedia.org/2016/04/02/omn-amharic-program-april-4-2016-%E1%89%A0%E1%8A%A6%E1%88%AE%E1%88%9E-%E1%8B%A8%E1%88%85%E1%88%8A%E1%8A%93-%E1%89%B3%E1%88%B3%E1%88%AA%E1%8B%8E%E1%89%BD-%E1%8A%A5%E1%8A%93-%E1%89%A0%E1%8A%A5/

OMN: Oduu Ebla 1, 2016

OMN: Oduu Ebla 1, 2016

 

 

 

Har’a Ebla 01,2016 Magaalaa Bushooftuu keessatti FXGn haalaan finiinaa akka jiru maddeen gabaasan. FXG kun har’aan guyyaa lammataa qabatuu isaa ti. Bakka basaasotni wayyaanee qubatanii jiranittis eda tarkaanfiin fudhatamuun dubbatamaa jira.

#OromoProtests in Bishoftu, 1st April 2016

#OromoProtests in BIshoftu, 1st April 2016 p1#OromoProtests in BIshoftu, 1st April 2016 p2

#OromoProtests in BIshoftu, 1st April 2016

 

 

 

 

 

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OROMIA: OLF IN THE SWEDISH PARLIAMENT AND OROMO YOUTH IN GLOBAL INTERCULTURAL SHOW April 30, 2016

Posted by OromianEconomist in Oromia.
Tags: , , , , ,
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Odaa OromooOLF logo

OLF IN THE SWEDISH PARLIAMENT AND OROMO YOUTH IN GLOBAL INTERCULTURAL SHOW

ABO“Banned and forced out of Transitional Government”: Struggle for National Rights and Democracy, in the Era of a “New World Order” – the Case of OLF by Dr. Shigut Geleta full speech.

Dear Mr. Chairman,

Esteemed members of the Swedish Parliament,

Dear Honourable guest speakers,

Ladies and Gentlemen,

First of all, I would like to thank and convey my deepest gratitude to the organizing committee for inviting me to present a paper on this seminar on behalf of the Oromo Liberation Front, OLF. It is a great privilege and honour for me and my organization to be here today representing the Oromo people.ABo1

Ladies and Gentlemen,

The topic on which I am going to speak is “Banned and forced out of Transitional Government: Struggle for National Rights and Democracy – the Case of OLF”.  My presentation is organized in five main parts:-

  1. I will give some background on the Oromo people and Ethiopia.
  2. I will elucidate the birth and grand objectives of the OLF and its formidable role in the past, today, and the future politics of Ethiopia.
  3. I will try to indicate how the vision of “New world order” challenged by Global War on Terror (GWOT).
  4. I will skim over the current situation in Oromia/Ethiopia, and finally,
  5. I offer my organization’s view on the way forward.

Ladies and Gentlemen,

banned-and-forced-out-of-transitional-government-the-olf-case

Press Statement: The United States is deeply concerned by the Government of Ethiopia April 30, 2016

Posted by OromianEconomist in #OromoProtests, Africa, Oromia.
Tags: , , , , , , , ,
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Press Statement

John Kirby
Assistant Secretary and Department Spokesperson, Bureau of Public Affairs
Washington, DC
April 29, 2016

The United States is deeply concerned by the Government of Ethiopia’s recent decision to file terrorism charges against Oromo Federalist Congress (OFC) First Vice-Chairman Bekele Gerba and others in the Oromia region who were arrested in late 2015.

We again urge the Ethiopian government to discontinue its reliance on the Anti-Terrorism Proclamation law to prosecute journalists, political party members, and activists, as this practice silences independent voices that enhance, rather than hinder, Ethiopia’s democratic development.

We commend Ethiopian officials for pledging to address legitimate grievances from their citizens and acknowledging that security forces were responsible for some of the violence that took place during the protests in Oromia; however, the government continues to detain an unknown number of people for allegedly taking part in these protests and has not yet held accountable any security forces responsible for alleged abuses. This undermines the trust and confidence needed to produce lasting solutions.

We urge the Ethiopian government to respect due process of those detained by investigating allegations of mistreatment, by publicly presenting the evidence it possesses against them, and by distinguishing between political opposition to the government and the use or incitement of violence. We reaffirm our call on the government to protect the constitutionally enshrined rights of its citizens, including the right to participate in political parties, and we urge the Government to promptly release those imprisoned for exercising these rights.


http://www.state.gov/r/pa/prs/ps/2016/04/256745.htm

UMD News: From Duluth to Oromia: Helping Those in Need April 29, 2016

Posted by OromianEconomist in Development & Change, Oromia, Oromo, Oromummaa, Uncategorized.
Tags: , , , , , , ,
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Odaa Oromoo

Amane explains how water will be distributed

Aspiring to Assist
Amane Wako, a UMD junior double majoring in accounting and international studies, is one of those students who has the desire to help others.

Lessons in Duluth
Amane has volunteered at the Damiano Center, a social services organization in Duluth, for years. She tutors children in math and reading at their Kid’s Café and she helps out homeless and low income people by serving meals in their kitchen.

She was impressed by the organization’s philosophy, and she wants to start her own non-profit organization, so she can help those in need someday.

That day came sooner than she ever imagined. This past winter, Amane helped 47 households in the Oromia region of Ethiopia.

Amane is originally from Oromia. She moved to United States with her mother and attended Cooper High School in Minneapolis. However, most of her relatives are still in Oromia, and she visits them regularly.

In December 2015, Amane watched television news and saw a protest by Oromo farmers and residents who wanted the government to stop taking their land. Security forces killed at least 40 people, hundreds were wounded, and thousands were detained during the three weeks of uprisings in Oromia.

Amane was upset and worried about the Oromo people. “I wanted to do something to help families back in my home region.”

Immediately she looked for ways to help get food and water to the people in Oromia. Amane talked with her professors and asked for a few minutes of class time to give presentations. UMD students donated hundreds of dollars to the cause.

When Amane went back to Minneapolis on weekends, she gave a presentation at a church and talked to friends to raise even more money.

By the time she went back to Oromia during the winter break, she had gathered over $1000. Amane was joined by her friends in Oromia to make deliveries. In spite of the dangers, she and her friends bought food and water to those most in need. They listened to the stories of the families affected by the violence.

“People in my home region suffered. Many were hungry, thirsty and homeless,” she said. “I want to do more to help them, but as a student, the only thing I can do now is to study harder.”

Amane has a plan though. “In the future, I want to build a place to serve free food, just like the Damiano Center does in Duluth,” she says.

Women wait UMD students from Oromia
Amane listened to stories of people affected by violence. UMD students from Oromia

http://www.d.umn.edu/external-affairs/homepage/16/helping-oromia.html

 

Oromo Federalist Congress International Support: Freedom for Bekele Gerba and all political prisoners in Ethiopian prisons April 29, 2016

Posted by OromianEconomist in #OromoProtests.
Tags: , , , , ,
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Odaa OromooOromo Federalist  CongressFree Bekele Gerba and all political prisonners in Ethiopia

 

The following is a statement of the Oromo Federalist Congress International Support Group (OFC-ISG)


 

OFC-ISG Press Release No. 4 – April 27, 2016


“Ethiopian Prosecutors Charge Oromo Opposition Leaders under Anti-Terrorism Proclamation”


On April 22, 2016, Ethiopian federal prosecutors charged 22 individuals, including Mr. Bekele Gerba, First Secretary-General of the Oromo Federalist Congress (OFC), with violations of various articles of Ethiopia’s notorious Anti-Terrorism Proclamation (ATP). The charges include – but are not limited to – alleged communication with the banned Oromo Liberation Front (OLF), public incitement, encouraging violence, causing the deaths of innocent civilians as well as property destruction in cities, such as Ambo and Adama, during the recent protests in Oromia, Ethiopia. All prisoners were previously transferred from Makalawi to Qilinxu jail without any notice to their families or lawyers.

“When they arrived at Qilinxu prison, they were offered to take pills by prison administration – which all the 22 prisoners refused,” according to Bekele Gerba’s daughter Bontu in an interview she gave to Oromia Media Network (OMN) on April 23, 2016. “Then, the prison police took 4 of the prisoners – Bekele Gerba, Dejene Tafa, Addisu Bulala and Gurmessa Ayana – to a dark room and they are no more with the 18 others,” she added. “We, family members, were no more able to visit them this weekend,” said Aynalem Debelo, the wife of the Deputy Secretary of OFC, Dejene Tafa. “When we request their whereabouts and demand to visit them, the police has no answer. They told us to communicate with the prison administrators who are not willing to talk to us,” they told OMN.

Even when they were in Makelawi, prison conditions were harsh and dangerous. Bekele explained this in his own words in the court the following way:

“መታሰር ምንም ማለት አይደለም። አስሮ ሰብዓዊ መብትን መጣስ ግን የትም ሃገር የሌለ ነው። እንደ ኢትዬጵያ መንግስት ጨካኝ የለም። 4 በ 5 በሆነች ቤት የምንኖረው 23 እስረኞች ሆነን ነው። እዛችው ቤት ውስጥ ለሽንት የምንጠቀምበት ባልዲ እና የሁላችንም ልብስ ይቀመጣል። ይህን ተቃውመን የረሃብ አድማ ብናደርግ ‘ከፈለጋችሁ መሞት ትችላላችሁ’ ነው የተባልነው። እኛም ለመሞት ዝግጁ ነን።” – በቀለ ገርባ, 18/03/16

“Imprisonment is not a big deal. Violating prisoners’ human rights is rare in the world. No one is cruel like the Ethiopian government. We share a room of 4-meters by 5-meters with 23 prisoners. We put our clothes and a bucket for emergency in the same room. When we protested this by hunger strike, they told us, ‘You can die if you want to.’ We too are ready to die”.
– Bekele Gerba, Deputy Chairperson of Oromo Federalist Congress (OFC), March 18, 2016, at his third remand hearing.

Mr. Gerba appealed to the court about the inhumane and degrading conditions in the prison cell, but to no avail. During his fourth appearance in court on April 15, 2016, he showed his lawyer the rashes on his body resulting from insect bites, mainly bedbugs and fleas. Such detention conditions violate Article 18(1) of the Ethiopian Constitution, which reads: “Everyone has the right to protection against cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.”

Mr. Gerba and others committed no crime, neither were they informed about all the charges against them. Above all, Mr. Gerba believes that only a peaceful and nonviolent struggle can guarantee real change and build a truly democratic society in Ethiopia. Mr. Gerba rejects violence and has stated as much in several interviews. He believes in Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King’s philosophy of nonviolent political resistance and has translated one of Dr. King’s books into Oromo so as to better spread this message. The EPRDF government’s accusations of terrorism against these Oromo political leaders are baseless. Rather, these charges are being used to suppress the basic human rights of Oromos and other Ethiopian peoples who are struggling to bring democracy, freedom and justice to Ethiopia. Such acts by Ethiopian government violate Articles 29, 30, and 31 of the Ethiopian Constitution, which guarantees the “Right of Thought, Opinion and Expression; The Right of Assembly, Demonstration and Petition and Freedom of Association.”

The Oromo Federalist Congress International Support Group (OFC-ISG) is saddened by the magnitude of charges brought against Mr. Gerba and other political prisoners. We would like our supporters, friends and the world to know that these charges are false allegations. As stated by the Chairperson of the OFC-ISG, in an interview with Oromo-TV, “What worries OFC-ISG most is the fate of that country. If such acts of absolute repression crush every peaceful movement and produce radicals, it is advantageous neither to Ethiopia nor to the West. Therefore, we ask the international community to stand by our side and put pressure on the Ethiopian government to unconditionally free all Oromo political prisoners since the government has already taken accountability for the poor governance that ignited the Oromo protests in Oromia.”

The Oromo Federalist Congress International Support Group (OFC-ISG) is a non-profit organization established in 2010 with the mission to bring an end to the brutal oppression, injustice and inequality with a view to advancing human rights, rule of law, good governance, protection of the environment and sustainable development in Ethiopia by supporting the struggle of the Oromo Federalist Congress (OFC) through advocacy, education and financial contributions.

Oromo Federalist Congress International Support Group
Minneapolis MN

U.S. Senators Amy Klobuchar and Al Franken condemned the lethal violence used by the government of Ethiopia against hundreds of Oromo protesters. #OromoProtests April 29, 2016

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Odaa Oromoo#OromoProtests iconic picture

Klobuchar, Franken Condemn Ethiopia’s Lethal Violence Against Protesters

For Immediate Release:
Klobuchar, Franken Condemn Ethiopia’s Lethal Violence Against Protesters

Contact:
Colin Milligan (Klobuchar), 202-228-6317
Michael Dale-Stein (Franken), 202-224-2916

The bipartisan resolution calls for the Secretary of State to conduct a review of U.S. security assistance to Ethiopia in light of allegations that Ethiopian security forces have killed civilians;it also calls upon the government of Ethiopia to halt violent crackdowns, conduct a credible investigation into the killing of protesters, and hold perpetrators of such violence accountable

WASHINGTON, DC – U.S. Senators Amy Klobuchar and Al Franken today condemned the lethal violence used by the government of Ethiopia against hundreds of Oromo protesters. The bipartisan Senate resolution calls for the Secretary of State to conduct a review of U.S. security assistance to Ethiopia in light of allegations that Ethiopian security forces have killed civilians. It also calls upon the government of Ethiopia to halt violent crackdowns, conduct a credible investigation into the killing of protesters, and hold perpetrators of such violence accountable.

“I am deeply concerned by continuing reports of violence and restrictions on civil liberties perpetrated by Ethiopian security forces in the Oromia region of Ethiopia,”said Klobuchar. “Minnesota is proud to be home to the largest Oromo community in the United States. My thoughts are with the families of those who have been victims of violence in Ethiopia. I call on Prime Minister Desalgen to restore confidence in the government by putting an end to the violence and intimidation from Ethiopian security forces against peaceful protestors.”

“Around 40,000 Oromo people live in Minnesota, and I’m proud that our state is home to so many vibrant immigrant families,” said Franken. “I stand with our local Oromo community against the terrible violence that’s affected their loved ones who are still in Ethiopia. For years, the Ethiopian government has been accused of serious human rights violations—unprovoked arrests, torture, and oppression—and in recent months, reports indicate that at least 200 people have been killed by Ethiopian security forces. Our bipartisan resolution will help bring much-needed awareness to a terrible tragedy that can no longer go overlooked.”

The protests in Ethiopia, which began last November, were prompted by concerns about lack of grassroots consultation with affected communities in advance of the Ethiopian government’s plan to expand the capital, Addis Ababa.  At least 200 people are believed to have died at the hands of security forces during the course of the protests, and hundreds more have been jailed, including journalists reporting on the demonstrations. In February, Klobuchar and Franken sent a letter to Secretary Kerry urging the administration take action to address escalating violence against civilians in the Oromia region of Ethiopia. Minnesota is home to the largest Oromo population in the United States.

The United States works closely with Ethiopia on Administration initiatives including Feed the Future and the African Peacekeeping Rapid Response Partnership.

 

AS: COMMENTARY – WHAT WAS TROUBLING KONSO? How Konso people’s demand for constitutional self-determination was met with state violence April 28, 2016

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COMMENTARY – WHAT WAS TROUBLING KONSO?

How Konso people’s demand for constitutional self-determination was met with state violence   

 Abate Seyoum, from Konso, Addis Standard, 25 April, 2016

Konso people, the demand for self determination

Undoubtedly, Ethiopia is going through nervous times. The much publicized massive anti-government protests by the Oromo, the country’s largest ethnic group, since the last five months reveal the depth and length of the government’s intolerance for dissenting voices.

But unconcerned by a potentially similar response of killing and jailing by the government, the Konso community in Ethiopia’s Southern Nations, Nationalities, and People’s Region (SNNPR), located south of the famous Lake Chamo,  have been protesting against the regional administration.

Although the protest has attracted little media attention, the Konso people have staged peaceful protests for ten consecutive months before cal has returned as of end of last month. During the period of protest tension has escalated and deescalated time and again. Several members of the Konso community faced mass arrests, releases, and re-arrests. On Sat. March 5th confrontation between the community and a federal police force resulted in the later firing live bullets against unarmed people, injuring one. Security forces have also detained the chief traditional leader Kalla Gezahegn (who is now released after so much pressure). In jail, Kalla joined several other detainees who were accused of being motivated by outlawed armed groups including the banned Oromo Liberation Front (OLF) and the Patriotic Ginbot 7.

Why were the Konso protesting?

The fundamental cause of the conflict between the regional administration and the Konso Community lies in the making of the newly established Segen Area Peoples Zone in March 2011.  In a bid to provide an administrative solution to the recurring quest for self administration and autonomy by the Alle ethnic minority, the regional government granted District (Woreda) status to Alle Community, unifying several districts (Kebeles),which, until then were administered by the Derashe and Konso Special Districts.

It soon appeared that the newly created Alle District needed a linking administrative tier below the regional government to be attached to. (The reason being as a mere district it cannot have direct link with the regional administration). The easiest way out for the then regional authorities was to create a new zone in the region by combining Konso, Derashe, Amaro, and Burji Special Woredas to the newly created Alle Woreda.  In haste and without any sort of public consultation, as the Konso People claim, the regional administration created a zone called Segen Area Peoples Zone, with its capital at Gumayde town. The regional government sought to solve the single problem of Alle Community by creating four more problems for other communities.

The creation of the new zone means the demotion of Konso, Derashe, Burji, and Amaro from Special District status to District status, which has budgetary, economic and political implications, Konso being at the worst end point. The combining of these special districts also means the revoking of their constitutional administrative autonomy which they have exercised for the last 20 years.

But for Konso, the problem is not just economic one; it has a political under layer. The base of the zone administration is in the Gumayde town of Konso, which means moreKebelesneed to be taken from Konso District to make up yet another administrative tier with the name of Gumayde Town Administration under the zone. The Konso people are vehemently opposed to this move as it arguably impedes their constitutional right to self-administration, and their right to advance their culture, language and national identity, enshrined in the constitution. Thus, from the very beginning the Konso have been exercising a subdued form of protest claiming that it has led to political, administrative, and economic injustices.

Triggers of the latest protest

The new protest broke out when the newly created Segen Area Peoples Zone Administration took the hitherto shelved Segen Town Administration establishment plan and started to implement it in June 2015, taking land from the five Kebeleadministrations from Konso Woreda without public consultation.  Angered by yet another move of impunity by the regional and zonal administrations, the Konso people have decided to use their constitutional right to self determination and self administration: they have requested to separate from the Segen Area Peoples Zone, and establish their own new zone.

First, led by traditional clan leaders the Konso people have held several mass rallies between July and October 2015 calling on the regional government to halt the implementation and hold public consultations. Having been angered by the administration’s indifference and refusal to organize public consultations, the elders and prominent community leaders called yet another big rally. On Friday October 9th 2015 more than 50,000 people staged a silent walk through the town.

Second, the elders, following traditional rites, rebuked zonal administration members of Konso origin, declaring their total disrespect for the elders, the community, the culture and even to the constitutional values.  They declared to the mass that the zonal government structure and their district collaborators were irrelevant to the community. Since that day a strong peaceful social disobedience is being applied by the community to keep the rogue leaders at bay. The community also called on the district council not to approve the budget for the current Ethiopian Fiscal year, as it is unfairly distributed by the zonal administration.

Third, the mass rally elected a 12 member committee to prepare, submit and follow up a written request to relevant government organs declaring the Konso decision to separate from the Segen Area Peoples Zone and requesting the regional government to grant Konso a zonal status of its own.  Elders and representatives then submitted the communities’ request to regional and federal government organs. The sovereign councils in 38 of the 43Kebele administrations in the district approved the Konso community’s decision to separate from the Segen zone. This was followed by the approval and endorsement of the community’s decision by the principal district government legislative organ, the sovereign district council. The council fully approved the decision to separate from Segen Area Peoples Zone, which is the ultimate precondition for self determination as stated in the regional constitution.

In came excessive force and subversive tactics 

The regional government which hitherto underestimated the depth and breadth of the Konso Protest realized that things were getting out of its hands in the district. In anticipation of yet another large rally, and in a bid to subvert it, the regional government has deployed the regional Special Forces and hastened to make arrests. So far the district police commander, three members of the peoples committee, and the district deputy chief administrator along with a dozen others are placed under police custody.

In reaction to the disproportional state violence, a general strike was staged by schools and government offices. Although several provocations were conducted by the security forces (in one incident at Fasha on Sunday Nov. 15th 2015, for example, the Special Forces randomly fired 200 rounds of tear gas into people’s houses and the market place). However their violence did not beget violence as the community kept its discipline and order.

Following talks between the SNNPR Chief Regional Administrator and the elders from the community, those who were arrested were released and the Special Forces were withdrawn.  Offices and schools were also re-opened.

But the regional government continued intimidating the Konso community with a frequent visit and use of heavy words by its officials including Kifle G/Mariam, head of the regional health bureau; Lemma Gezume, Speaker of the Council of Nationalities of the regional government and Fiseha Garedew, Commissioner General of the regional Special Forces as well as zonal government administrators.

Unfortunately, as of late, the regional government has resorted to more violent tactics by deploying more troops from the regional Special Forces. So far more than 1200 members of the regional Special Forces have been deployed to the district and to stations close to large traditional community settlement compounds, establishing check points at every village entrances, subjecting innocent citizens to daily searches. They have also disarmed the district police and confiscated motorbikes and other property belonging to community members.

On February 28 this year under the pretext of conducting the regular political evaluation, the regional authorities have taken all Konso district cabinet members to Arbaminch city and arrested five of them including Solomon Galita, the district’s chief administrator.

Currently, there remains a high presence of Special Forces in the area creating an atmosphere of fear and tension. Afraid of repercussion including arbitrary beatings and arrests, schools and government offices remain closed and roads are deserted.

Ways out of the impasse?

The Konso people appear to possess a very strong commitment to the Constitutional order. They, in fact, have reaffirmed their commitment in a written statement. However, subversive tactics of the regional and zonal administration which resort to criminalizing genuine demands rather than addressing them properly are highly unlikely to yield positive results.  Nor will the use of military means produce a lasting solution. But several members of the Konso community say there are a few things the regional government can do to diffuse the tension and find a lasting solution to the problem.

First and foremost, all those incarcerated without charges and without due process must be released immediately or should be given immediate access to justice. The government should re-arm the district police and should immediately reduce the number or withdraw the Special Forces on the ground. It requires genuine effort on the government’s side to regain public trust.

Second, the regional government must realize that it cannot always continue to be both the referee and the player in the game. It must make itself ready to listen to and understand the community’s genuine constitutional demands. Subversive tactics will only end up widening the rift between the government and the public.

Third, any mediation effort by the zonal administrators, who have lost their traditional statuses in the eyes of the wider community, cannot result in a productive outcome. The Konso are very conservative in that regard; the elders demand respect for their culture.

Fourth, the government should stop recycling and reappointing officials who were once or twice purged by the party for various reasons including corruption and incompetence.

The Konso protests have drawn the SNNPR authorities to a new realm of conflict, a realm of peaceful disobedience which they are not well acquainted with. It has taken more time, resources, and energy, from them. And yet there is no foreseeable end to it. Unless they learn from their failed tactics so far, they will not have the resource, energy and time to deal with such non violent protests if they erupt simultaneously in just two or three of the districts in the region.

Konso Democracy#, peaceful demonstration in October 2015

__________________________________//_________________________

ED’s Note: the author is a resident of Konso and member of the community. This commentary was first published on March edition of the magazine.

Since then, according to the author, the following developments have occurred in the area:
 “As is rightly recommended in the [article], the government has finally submitted to a peaceful negotiated solution to the problem. The federal government intervened by releasing the chief traditional leader on 21/03/2016 from Arbaminch Prison to hold meeting with community.
“Subsequently, they held a weeklong series of meetings with the community led by SNNP Chief Administrator, Dese Dalke, Federal Police Commissioner, and Defense Ministry representative. They agreed on 12 point issues to be resolved. Nine are agreed upon. Three points, the main political demands of the people remain unresolved. But normalization steps have already started. The community and the regional government are now negotiating on action plans to resolve the issues agreed up on. All the 200 prisoners are released and only four people remain jailed.”

http://addisstandard.com/commentary-what-was-troubling-konso/

AS: OROMIA: FOUR MISSING OROMO FEDERALIST CONGRESS MEMBERS, CO-DEFENDANTS APPEAR IN COURT THIS MORNING. #OromoProtests April 26, 2016

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Odaa OromooAddis StandardBekele Gerba translated Martin Luther King’s book  ‘I HAVE A DREAM’  into Oromo language while he was in prison.Free Bekele Gerba#OromoProtests in Bosaso, 7 April 2016

#OromoProtests against the Ethiopian regime fascist tyranny. Join the peaceful movement for justice, democracy, development and freedom of Oromo and other oppressed people in Ethiopia


FOUR MISSING OROMO FEDERALIST CONGRESS MEMBERS, CO-DEFENDANTS APPEAR IN COURT THIS MORNING


Twenty two defendants, including four missing senior members of the opposition Oromo Federalist Congress (OFC) have appeared at the Federal High Court 19th Criminal Bench this morning. The court adjourned the next hearing, which will be a defense hearing, until May 10th.

 

Federal prosecutors have charged 22 members of the OFC on Friday April 22nd with several articles of Ethiopia’s infamous Anti-Terrorism Proclamation (ATP). On the same day the court ordered the police to transfer all the 22 detainees from the notorious Ma’ekelawi, where they have been kept incommunicado for most of the last four months, to Qilinto, a prison cell south of the city’s outskirt under the administration of the Addis Abeba Prison Authority.

 

Following their transfer on Friday, however, news emerged that four of the 22: Bekele Gerba , first secretary general of the opposition Oromo Federalist Congress (OFC), OFC members Adisu Bulala, Gurmesa Ayano and Dejene Tafa, have disappeared after refusing to take “unknown pills” administered to them by prison authorities upon their arrival in Qilinto.

 

This morning, Bekele Gerba told the court that the four of them were “kept in an isolated, dark room for the last four days for refusing to take pills which we didn’t know about.”  Bekele also told the court they have been denied access to their family members and legal counsel. He then requested the court to arrange for public hearing as per their constitutional rights so that “journalists and family members can attend court hearings.” Dejene Tafa on his part said that he now fears for his safety and the safety of the 21 co-defendants.

 

All the 22 were arrested in connection with the recent #OromoProtestes that gripped the nation for the last five months. Unconfirmed reports put the number of people killed during the five month protests to more than 400, a figure the government disputes.

This morning a further 16 individuals, all from the Oromia regional state, and were detained at Ma’ekelawi were also brought to the same court. The court adjourned the hearing until this afternoon. It is expected that like the 22, the 16, under the file name of Tesema Regasa, will be charged with the ATP. According to lawyer Wondimu Ebbissa, who is representing the 22 defendants, so far 83 defendants, including Bekele Gerba et al, are held in Qilinto and a further 97 are believed to be either at Ma’ekelawi or the Addis Abeba police prison facility near Ma’ekelawi.

 

Among the charges the prosecutors have brought on defendants include statements that the defendants have participated in the recent #OromoProtests against the implementation of the Addis Abeba Master Plan, the immediate cause for the widespread protests within the Oromia regional states, the largest of the nine regional states that constitute Ethiopia.

However, a month after protests have erupted, in a rare gesture of concession to public demand, both the federal government and the Oromia regional state have said they withdrew the plan, something the federal prosecutors seem to negate with some part of their charges that indicted defendants for participating in the protest.

Ilhan Omar denounces crimes against humanity being committed in Ethiopia. #OromoProtests April 26, 2016

Posted by OromianEconomist in #OromoProtests, Africa, Oromia, Oromo.
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Odaa Oromoo#OromoProtests against the Ethiopian regime fascist tyranny. Join the peaceful movement for justice, democracy, development and freedom of Oromo and other oppressed people in Ethiopia

Ilhan Omar denounces crimes against humanity being committed in Ethiopia

Ilhan logo

State Representative 60-B

FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE

Contact: Jean Heyer
(612) 701-3874 / heyerjeanmarie@gmail.com
Web: www.ilhanomar.com

April 25, 2016 – Ilhan Omar strongly condemns the brutal crackdown on innocent unarmed peaceful protestors during the previous and current Oromo Protests.

“I stand with the Oromo struggle for freedom, justice and democracy in Ethiopia,” said Omar. “I urge the United States Government to stand by peaceful protestors and sanction Ethiopia, in the event it continues the current state-led violence in Oromia.

“The current protests in Oromia are not new. In April 2014, students from the Oromia region began protesting against the new Addis Ababa Integrated Master Plan, which incorporates smaller towns surrounding Addis Ababa, displacing millions without compensation and endangering the economic livelihood of ethnic Oromo people in Oromia. This plan will ensure that millions of people in Oromia will be disposed of their land, their survival both in economic and cultural terms will be threatened. The Master Plan intends to expose Oromia’s natural habitat to risk, threaten economic livelihood and violate the Ethiopian constitution. As a result of the 2014 peaceful protests, over 140 people, mainly students, were mercilessly killed by Ethiopian security personnel. No independent investigation was conducted and civilians in Oromia were left burying their dead without any guarantee of justice.

“In November 2015, protests erupted again in the Oromia region. As a result, over 400 people have been killed in the past five months, thousands taken to detention camps, opposition leaders arrested and Martial Law was declared as a tactic to silence dissent. Ethiopia is an important strategic ally to the United States, but we must be wary of supporting governments that conduct in various human rights violations and condemn actions that equate to crimes against humanity.

“I call on public officials, the United States government and the international community to condemn the atrocities being committed against innocent unarmed civilians in Oromia, Ethiopia.”


http://www.ilhanomar.com/news/2016/4/25/ilhan-omar-denounces-crimes-against-humanity-being-committed-in-ethiopia

Really radical economics April 24, 2016

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Odaa OromooTrickle down economics

 

 

At its root the economy is a living, complex organism. Rather than envisioning economic transformation as akin to overturning an unresponsive juggernaut, it may be more productive to see it in terms of tending to a fragile body. Avoiding drawing “us” versus “them” battle lines, and acting on the transformational potential that exists within the economy as it is right now, opens up new arenas for constructive action.  Now that would be radical.

 

Transformation doesn’t require an alternative “social economy,” because the economy we have is already social. We just need to recognize and act on that fact.

Source: Really radical economics

Oromo TV: Washington DC on Tom Lantos Human Commission Briefing … Focus on Oromia. #OromoProtests April 23, 2016

Posted by OromianEconomist in #OromoProtests, Africa, Oromia, Oromo.
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Odaa OromooThe Tom Lantos Human Rights Commission for a briefing on the current human rights situation in Ethiopia. p2U.S. Senators Marco Rubio (R-FL) and Ben Cardin (D-MD) today introduced a resolution with 11 other senators condemning the lethal violence used by the government of Ethiopia against  civil society#OromoProtests iconic picture

 

 

 

12 U.S. Senators Condemn Ethiopia’s Crackdown on Civil Society

https://oromianeconomist.wordpress.com/2016/04/21/12-u-s-senators-condemn-ethiopias-crackdown-on-civil-society/

Foreign Affairs: Gongresswoman McCollum Stands Up For Human Rights In Remarks to Minnesota’s Oromo Community. #OromoProtests

https://oromianeconomist.wordpress.com/2016/04/19/foreign-affairs-gongresswoman-mccollum-stands-up-for-human-rights-in-remarks-to-minnesotas-oromo-community-oromoprotests/

 

U.S. Senators Speak Loud and Clear: Human Rights Violations in Ethiopia Must Stop!

U.S. Senators Speak Loud and Clear: Human Rights Violations in Ethiopia Must Stop!

 

 

 

 

 

OMN: Hiriira Hawaasa Oromoo Ameerikaa Kaabaa DC. Kutaa 1ffaa Ebla 21, 2016

 

Join the Tom Lantos Human Rights Commission for a briefing on the current human rights situation in Ethiopia

https://oromianeconomist.wordpress.com/2016/04/13/join-the-tom-lantos-human-rights-commission-for-a-briefing-on-the-current-human-rights-situation-in-ethiopia/

The new turning point in Oromo social and political trends:#OromoProtests: The Greatest United Action by Oromos Since the 16th-Century April 23, 2016

Posted by OromianEconomist in #OromoProtests, Africa.
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Odaa OromooSay no to the master killer. Addis Ababa master plan is genocidal plan against Oromo peopleNo To Fascist TPLF Ethiopia's genocidal militarism and mass killings in Oromia, Ethiopia#OromoProtests iconic picture


In his recent article, the veteran Oromo political leader Ob. Ibsaa Guutama wrote, the “Oromo rage, that was suppressed for ages, started to erupt with thunderous sound from November 2015. Never in the history of Oromo since 16th century had such great number rose together to determine its own destiny. Such a civilian tide has never been seen rising at the same time empty-handed in the history of the region to challenge an enemy – armed to the teeth with modern weapons …”

Here are the videos of the Oromo Protests: the Greatest United Action by Oromos since the 16-Century – the Oromo people protesting against the Ethiopian Federal government’s Master Plan with unflinching determination. This 5-part video series covers the period of the Oromo Protests from November 29, 2015 to January 4, 2016.

Oromo Protests: The Greatest United Action by Oromos Since the 16th-Century | Videos

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Oromo Protests: The Greatest United Action by Oromos Since the 16th-Century | Videos

AFAR PEOPLE IN ETHIOPIA FACING UNPRECEDENTED CATASTROPHIC SITUATION April 22, 2016

Posted by OromianEconomist in Afar, Ethiopia's Colonizing Structure and the Development Problems of People of Oromia, Afar, Ogaden, Sidama, Southern Ethiopia and the Omo Valley.
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Odaa OromooAfar woman

AFAR, ARDUF

 


AFARS FACING UNPRECEDENTED CATASTROPHIC SITUATION


PRESS RELEASE


Currently, the Afar people in Ethiopia are facing disastrous, appalling and unprecedented dreadful famine catastrophe. The famine was not only caused by lack of rain, drought, climate change and effect of El Niño weather conditions as they claim but, it was a result of TPLF/EPRDF corruption, failure of strategies and policies, bad governance, human rights violations, unlawful land grabbing, forcible removal and eviction of Afar People from their traditional grazing land. They were driven away from the banks of Awash River which has been the lifeline of the Afar population that depend on it for survival since time immemorial to make place for the sugar plantations and large-scale agricultural projects owned by TPLF and foreign multinational corporations, companies and investors.

First, the Afar people saying that since 2012, they have been calling on the Federal and Regional Governments to find solution for the water shortages, environmental degradation, destruction of pastors and grazing resources, drying up of the Awash River problems that caused by damming of the Awash River by the regime, nevertheless their appeal and call fell on deaf ear.

Second it is a well-documented fact is that both the Ex-President and the current President of the Afar region, Ex- and current Federal Communication Affairs Office Minister have deliberately and blindly denied the existence of the famine in Ethiopia during 2013-2015.

Third, it is irrefutable fact is that TPLF/ ANDP or “ADE as it is known locally” purposely failed to recognise, acknowledge and to declare the famine on time. They even refused to call publically on the international Community for emergency humanitarian assistance to help the affected peoples in the country.

Additional fact is that, instead of helping the affected peoples by the famine, Federal Government Communication Affairs Office Minister Redwan Hussein blamed and accused the Afar pastoralists for the death of their livestock in order to cover his Government’s forcible removal of Afar pastoralists from their traditional grazing land on the Awash River banks to make away for TPLF, Foreign Multinational Corporations’ and Investors owned large scale Projects. The famine created by TPLF/EPRDF has already caused too many catastrophic problems for the Afar, such as food insecurity, water crisis, widespread malnutrition, health problem and unprecedented death of their livestock. As a result, the Afar have severely suffered.
In addition to the unprecedented famine that was worsened by the policies of the regime the TPLF has developed the following plans to systematically exterminate the Afar in Ethiopia:-

  • Unlawful land grabbing and enforced eviction from their land
  • Removing them from the Awash River banks forcibly
  • Transferring parts of Afar land to the Somali tribe called Issa to create endless conflict between them in coordination with Issa dominated regime of Djibouti for its interests.
  • Instigating conflicts between the Afar and their neighbouring peoples
  • Removing Afar from all mineralised areas of Afar land
  • Appointing uneducated, unskilled, inexperienced and corrupted individuals as Afar region officials to serve the interest of TPLF.
  • Creating tribalism, mistrust and division between the ruling mafia and the Afar society;
  • Controlling Afar region economic, political, social and cultural affairs by appointed Tigray Security Advisors or Counsellor, locally known as Ammakari

Any person who disagrees or rejects ANDP (QADE) TPLF (WAYANE) order is called anti peace element and sympathizer with ARDUF then; he/she is arrested and imprisoned arbitrarily. Today, the Afar region does not have a legitimate political authority accountable to the Afar. It is ruled by TPLF former fighters who are member of the Tigray People Liberation Front (TPLF). Their main duty, obligation and responsibility is only to serve their master not the Afar people, as they appointed by TPLF not by the Afar people, they are only accountable and answerable to the TPLF.
As a result of TPLF racially motivated discriminatory politics and policies the Peoples of Ethiopia in all regions are all facing increasing political oppression, economic marginalisation, and social exclusion, gross violation of human rights, horrible famine and internal displacement. The regime continues to unlawfully kill, systematically repress and arbitrarily arrest people in the regions of Oromia, Ogaden, Sidama, Amhara and Gambella in general and in the districts of Konso, Qimant, Humera, Tsegede and Wolkait in particular who fight for their basic human rights.

ARDUF condemns in the strongest possible terms the horrifying famine crimes of killings, displacement and forcible removal from their ancestral land committed by TPLF regime on the Afar people in particular; and against other peoples in Ethiopia in general.

ARDUF calls on all Ethiopian opposition forces, civil societies, human rights defenders and journalists to reject and denounce the politics of divide and rule by an iron fist and oppression of TPLF/EPRDF and support a democratic armed struggle to eliminate the fascist regime and to establish a genuine Democratic Federalism based on the rule of law in Ethiopia.

Long live the Victory of ARDUF & Ethiopian Peoples

Military Command Centre (MCC)
Information Desk of ARDUF
Afar Revolutionary Democratic Unity Front (ARDUF)


 

AS: FROM SURVIVANCE ALL THE WAY TO RECONSTRUCTION: THE OROMO PURSUIT OF EQUALIBERTY. #OromoProtests April 21, 2016

Posted by OromianEconomist in Africa, Ethiopia's Colonizing Structure and the Development Problems of People of Oromia, Afar, Ogaden, Sidama, Southern Ethiopia and the Omo Valley, Oromia, Oromo.
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Odaa OromooAddis Standard#OromoProtests iconic picture


FROM SURVIVANCE ALL THE WAY TO RECONSTRUCTION: THE OROMO PURSUIT OF EQUALIBERTY

http://addisstandard.com/from-survivance-all-the-way-to-reconstruction-the-oromo-pursuit-of-equaliberty/#_ftn2

12 U.S. Senators Condemn Ethiopia’s Crackdown on Civil Society April 21, 2016

Posted by OromianEconomist in #OromoProtests, Africa, Oromia, Oromiyaa, Oromo.
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Odaa Oromoo#OromoProtests iconic pictureThe Tom Lantos Human Rights Commission for a briefing on the current human rights situation in Ethiopia. p2U.S. Senators Marco Rubio (R-FL) and Ben Cardin (D-MD) today introduced a resolution with 11 other senators condemning the lethal violence used by the government of Ethiopia against  civil society

 

 

U.S. Senator Ben Cardin (D-Md.), Ranking Member of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, introduced a resolution with 11 other Senators today condemning the lethal violence used by the government of Ethiopia against protestors, journalists, and others in civil society for exercising their rights under Ethiopia’s constitution.

The resolution calls for the Secretary of State to conduct a review of U.S. security assistance to Ethiopia in light of allegations that Ethiopian security forces have killed civilians. It also calls upon the government of Ethiopia to halt violent crackdowns, conduct a credible investigation into the killing of protesters, and hold perpetrators of such violence accountable.

“I am shocked by the brutal actions of the Ethiopian security forces, and offer condolences to the families of those who have been killed. The Ethiopian constitution affords its citizens the right to peaceful assembly and such actions by Ethiopian government forces are unacceptable,” Senator Cardin said. “The government’s heavy-handed tactics against journalists and use of the 2009 Anti-Terrorism and Charities and Societies Proclamations to stifle free speech and legitimate political dissent demonstrate a troubling lack of respect for democratic freedoms and human rights.”

“Peaceful protestors and activists have been arrested, tortured and killed in Ethiopia for simply exercising their basic rights,” Senator Rubio said. “I condemn these abuses and the Ethiopian government’s stunning disregard for the fundamental rights of the Ethiopian people. I urge the Obama Administration to prioritize respect for human rights and political reforms in the U.S. relationship with Ethiopia.”

Joining Cardin and Rubio as cosponsors of the resolution are Senators Maria Cantwell (D-Wash.), Christopher Coons (D-Del.), Dick Durbin (D-Ill.), Al Franken (D-Minn.), Amy Klobuchar (D-Minn.), Patrick Leahy (D-Vt.), Edward J. Markey (D-Mass.), Bob Menendez (D-N.J.), Patty Murray (D-Wash.), and Sherrod Brown (D-Ohio).

The United States works closely with Ethiopia on signature Administration initiatives including Feed the Future and the African Peacekeeping Rapid Response Partnership. It also provides funding for Ethiopia’s participation in the African Union Mission in Somalia.

“Given the challenges posed by the devastating drought and border insecurity, it is more important than ever that the government take actions to unify rather than alienate its people. It is critical that the government of Ethiopia respect fundamental human rights if it is to meet those challenges,” Cardin added.

The resolution

http://www.foreign.senate.gov/press/ranking/release/cardin-rubio-colleagues-condemn-ethiopias-crackdown-on-civil-society-

 

Okay Africa: Why Are Oromo Refugees Getting Sent Back to Ethiopia? April 21, 2016

Posted by OromianEconomist in Oromo Refugees in Kenya.
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debela-nairobi-1
Tariku Debela, in jeans, walks carefully through the streets of Eastleigh, Nairobi. Photo by Ebba Abbamurti.

On a warm evening last month, Tariku Debela was walking home from dinner in the immigrant enclave of Eastleigh, Nairobi, when he was jumped by four men who took his phone and more than $200 in cash. Getting mugged is bad enough, but what happened next is seared in Debela’s memory.

Debela is an Oromo political leader residing in Kenya as a refugee. The men who robbed Debela delivered a message in Amharic—a verbal threat from across the border—”side with the Ethiopian government or only death awaits you.”

When Debela decided to flee Ethiopia, after years of brutal political persecution, including torture and imprisonment, he expected to be protected as a refugee in Kenya. Indeed, under international law he is. But, Debela and thousands of other Ethiopian refugees who enter neighboring countries have found themselves still within reach of the Ethiopian state, resulting in mistreatment from local governments and neglect from the international organizations ostensibly meant to protect them.

Amnesty International confirmed from sources on the ground that in early January 2016, Kenyan security forces deported 25 Ethiopian refugees from Kenya. This is disputed by Stanley Mwango, spokesperson for the Kenyan government’s Department of Refugee Affairs, who denies the deportations, telling Okayafrica that “Kenya is not sending away anyone who is legally seeking asylum.”

But Amnesty’s account corresponds to reports from Oromo community leaders in Nairobi that Ethiopian refugees are routinely subject to surveillance, harassment, violence and deportation from Kenyan police and border authorities, who they say work in close collaboration with the Ethiopian government.

kenya-ethiopia-border
The border crossing between Kenya and Ethiopia’s Oromiya region. Creative Commons photo courtesy of Andrew Heavens.

The outgoing Oromo community leader in Nairobi, Shaga Arado, 38, says most of the Oromos forcibly returned to Ethiopia are detained in military barracks near the border where they are interrogated and in some cases tortured. There are also incidents of Oromo refugees in Kenya disappearing—such as the case of Dabassa Guyo Saffaro, a well known Oromo oral historical and cultural leader who vanished off Nairobi’s streets in late September 2015. He has not been heard from since.

Although Ethiopians have consistently sought asylum for years on the basis of political persecution—UNHCR estimates there were 160,427 Ethiopian refugees in 2015—human rights organizations say they expect the number to grow in light of the ongoing Ethiopian government violence against Oromo protesters.

Peaceful protests began in November 2015 after the Ethiopian government announced plans to expand the municipality of Addis Ababa into the bordering Oromia region. The government has since abandoned the plan, but Human Rights Watch reports that over the past five months, Ethiopian security forces are suspected of killing over 200 protesters and detaining thousands without cause. Oromos, the largest ethnic group in Ethiopia, have consistently faced persecution and discrimination from the rulingEthiopian People’s Revolutionary Democratic Front(EPRDF) party, which has been in power since 1991. The Ethiopian government did not respond to a request for comment.

debela-pointing-oromo-federalist
Debela nostalgically shows off a photo of him with the OFC party leader—Merera Gudina at a past function.

Debela, 33, is a member of the Oromo Federalist Congress, a political party that is constantly monitored and harassed by the Ethiopian government. In 2005, following Ethiopia’s disputed national elections, Debela was arrested and accused of inciting violence against the government. He spent nine months in prison. Debela was later released on conditions that he should support the government, withdraw his support for the opposition party and refrain from any political activities. But for Debela, abandoning his political activism wasn’t a choice.

“It was hard for me to wrench my mind away from the reality,” he says. “Seeing the Oromos being dispossessed and systematically impoverished while their land is stolen and dished out to politically correct individuals from the ruling class was what made me speak my mind.”

Debela continued his political organizing, and in February 2009 he was arrested and taken to Maikelawi prison. Debela’s second prison sentence was much worse than the first. In Maikelawi, Debela says he was regularly beaten and tortured. After some of the beatings, often with electrical wires, the prison guards poured ice-cold water over his bleeding body. The pain reverberated in his bones; he slept naked on his cell floor in the water. At times he was interrogated at gunpoint, blindfolded and threatened with execution. Other times bottles were tied on his penis and testicles. Debela lost track of his location, and of time.

Debela-compositeLeft: Debela showing some of the scars he acquired in Ethiopian detention. Right: Some of the documents and photos he carried with him. Photo Ebba Abbamurti

Human Rights Watch has documented political prisoners being taken to Maikelawi and tortured to try and coerce confessions. Since the recent Oromo protests, the Human Rights League of the Horn of Africa issued a brief that Oromo activists arrested and imprisoned in Addis Ababa’s Kalitti Jail have also experienced torture that lasted over ten hours and resulted in life-threatening injuries.

Debela was released in July 2009; he would later be again arrested and imprisoned three times. In October 2015, Debela decided he could no longer stay in Ethiopia and expect to survive—he was receiving death threats. In November 2015, Debela traveled from Mandi, Oromia to Addis and then onward to the border towns of Moyale and Hiddi Lola. He then crossed into Kenya and passed through Marsabit and Isiolo before reaching Nairobi.

Arado says other refugees who crossed into Kenya since the beginning of 2016 report paying smugglers to help them evade border guards and make it to Nairobi safely. But their safety is not guaranteed—at least two Ethiopian women refugees who recently arrived in Nairobi via smugglers said they were raped on the journey.

Debela is now registered with the UN Refugee Agency; he was given an appointment for a refugee status determination interview in November 2017. Although Debela has yet to make his case for asylum in Kenya, there are indications that many Ethiopians do not receive fair asylum hearings in other countries, making it more difficult for them to receive legal protection and putting them at risk. The United Oromo Refugees Association in Egypt staged a sit-in this month in front of UNHCR’s office in Cairo to protest the low rate of asylum granted to Oromo refugees.

UNHCR, which normally produces guidance for decision-makers who are assessing asylum claims, has not issued guidance for Ethiopian asylum-seekers. As a result, countries may rely more heavily on information from their own sources, which experts say are often flawed. UNHCR’s Kenya office did not respond to a request to comment.

“The biggest problem is that countries do not follow an asylum policy for Ethiopia based on reality,” said Victor Nyamore, Amnesty International’s Refugee Officer in Nairobi. “They prefer to believe the success stories of the Ethiopian government about development and human rights in the country.”

In 2015, Ethiopia received $3 billion in development and aid funding, the majority from the U.S. and Europe, despite that some of its development programs have been documented violating the human rights of local communities. Despite these abuses, donors have not changed their levels of funding. Ethiopia remains a key Western ally in the region on counter-terrorism efforts, including against Al-Shaabab.

refugees-in-ethiopiaTransitional housing for Somali refugees in Dolo Ado, Ethiopia. Creative Commons Photo courtesy of UNICEF Ethiopia.

Ethiopia is also one of the largest refugee hosting nations in the world for over 700,000 Eritrean, Somali and South Sudanese refugees—which may explain why some governments and international organizations are hesitant to speak out on behalf of the plight of Ethiopian refugees for fear of jeopardizing their existing programming in Ethiopia.

For now, Debela must find a way to survive the waiting period until his case is reviewed. He says he cannot receive any social services for refugees, and he is afraid to call or visit friends in case it compromises their safety. In the meantime, Debela lives alone like a fugitive, skirting shadows on the street and watching for the Ethiopian security forces he believes are still watching him.


 

http://www.okayafrica.com/news/oromo-refugees-getting-sent-back-ethiopia/

Foreign Affairs: Gongresswoman McCollum Stands Up For Human Rights In Remarks to Minnesota’s Oromo Community. #OromoProtests April 19, 2016

Posted by OromianEconomist in #OromoProtests, Oromia, Oromo.
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Odaa Oromoo#OromoProtests against the Ethiopian regime fascist tyranny. Join the peaceful movement for justice, democracy, development and freedom of Oromo and other oppressed people in EthiopiaNo To Fascist TPLF Ethiopia's genocidal militarism and mass killings in Oromia, Ethiopia


McCollum Stands Up For Human Rights In Remarks to Minnesota’s Oromo Community

Apr 19, 2016 Issues: Foreign Affairs

Congresswoman McCollum addresses the Minnesota Oromo community.
McCollum Stands Up For Human Rights In Remarks to Minnesota Oromo Community

WASHINGTON — This morning, Congresswoman Betty McCollum addressed a large delegation of the Minnesota Oromo community visiting Washington today to attend a briefing held by the United States House of Representative’s Tom Lantos Human Rights Commission. In her address, Congresswoman McCollum reiterated her concern about human rights abuses against the Oromo people in Ethiopia.

Congresswoman McCollum delivered the following remarks:

Greetings and welcome to Washington! Thank you for being here today in the U.S. House to add your voices to the cause of human rights in Ethiopia.

The Lantos Human Rights Commission briefing today is an important step to informing and educating Congress about the unacceptable treatment of Oromos in Ethiopia. The current situation in Ethiopia must not be allowed to continue. The Oromo people are suffering and I share your concern. Peaceful protesters are being imprisoned, they are being tortured, they are being killed.

The Ethiopian Government must be held accountable and it will take pressure from Congress and the Obama Administration to end the repression of the people of Oromia. Later this week I will be meeting with Ethiopia’s ambassador to the U.S. and the message that I will deliver is – stop the detentions, stop the repression, stop the killing – and respect human rights!

Ethiopia benefits greatly from its relationship with the United States. The American people provide hundreds of millions of dollars of food aid, health care funding, and agriculture assistance to Ethiopia. We must demand in return that human rights be respected. We must demand human rights for the Oromo people!

Friends, I am proud to represent so many Oromo Americans who live my district in Minnesota. Thank you for sharing your strong voices! Thank you for fighting for human rights!

http://mccollum.house.gov/press-release/mccollum-addresses-minnesota-oromo-community-visiting-washington

Human Rights league: The TPLF Hidden Agenda of Reducing the Oromo Population Must be Stopped April 19, 2016

Posted by OromianEconomist in #OromoProtests, Africa, Human Rights, Oromia, Oromo.
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Odaa Oromoo#OromoProtests against the Ethiopian regime fascist tyranny. Join the peaceful movement for justice, democracy, development and freedom of Oromo and other oppressed people in Ethiopia

 

No To Fascist TPLF Ethiopia's genocidal militarism and mass killings in Oromia, Ethiopia

Ethiopia: The TPLF Hidden Agenda of Reducing the Oromo Population Must be Stopped


Human rights League of the Horn of Africa

HRLHA Appeal  and Request for Immediate Action

Ethiopia: The TPLF Hidden Agenda of Reducing the Oromo Population Must be Stopped

HRLHA Appeal  and Request for Immediate Action

For Immediate Release

April 17, 2016

Terrorist and Criminal attacks targeting  Oromo youth, and children, and even pregnant women have continued unabated since the peaceful protest for justice and freedom began on 12th November 2015 In Oromia.The peaceful  and legitimate protests against the injustices in Oromia, in which Oromo people of all walks of life have participated, had a simple and clear demand at the beginning: ” Stop Addis Ababa”s Integration of the Master Plan, and  stop land grabbing in Oromia”.

Instead of responding justly to the protestors’ legitimate grievances and restoring their domestic and international  rights, the  Ethiopian government has chosen to deploy its special squad “Agiazi” and mercilessly crack down on the peaceful protesters. The ruthless Agiazi force used  excessive force, killed many promos, beat  and detained thousands to stop the protest, which spread to all corners of Oromia Regional State in  a few weeks. Oromia towns and villages were turned into war zones as the special Agiazi force continued its  random killings of  students, children, men and women. During the first two months of the peaceful protests, more than two hundred (200) Oromos were murdered[1],  including infants and pregnant women.
Oromo children, victims of fascist TPLF mass killings in Oromia, 2015 and 2016

In violation of the “Convention on the Rights of the Child”  and other international treaties [2]the current government of  Ethiopia ratified  on 14th May 1991,(see the other treaties ratified by the current of Ethiopian government from the link)[3] Oromo children, including non-schooled  children, have been killed by the Agiazi force.   Aliya,15  and her brother  Nagassa, 8 (photo on right side) were shot in the leg   on March 25, 2016[4] on the streets of Ambo town. Many minors/teenagers were killed and others wounded. by the Agiazi force in different parts of Oromia. Some are listed in the following table.

No Name Sex Age Place of Birth
1 Burte Badhadha Dabal F 15 Jaldu district, West showa, Oromia
2 Tsegaye Abebe Imana M 14 Jaldu District, West Showa, Oromia
3 Dereje Gadissa Taye M 12 Chalia,District, East showa, Oromia
4 Dejene Chala M 14 Gindeberet, West Showa, Oromia

These cruel and inhumane actions of the Agiazi force against Oromo did not stop the angry protesters from demanding their fundamental rights and freedoms.

Ethiopia's TPLF fascist military warlords

Ethiopia Military Generls

The Oromia Regional State president Muktar Kedir and the TPLF security intelligence officer generals removed the civil administration and declared  the unofficial martial law as of February 26, 2016. The Oromia Regional State has been subdivided into eight (8) military zones, each to be led by military generals

The merciless Agiazi force has been allowed officially to quell dissents in Oromia by force. On the day following the martial law declaration, the  Agiazi squad started  breaking  into private homes and savagely started to kill and beat children, men and women, including pregnant women. On February 27, 2016 a seven- months pregnant mother of  six, living  in the West Arsi zone in Oromia state in Ethiopia, was shot down in her home by security forces who had come to her home looking for her husband. Another six- months pregnant woman Shashitu Mekonen was  also killed and thrown into the bush in Horro Guduru Wallega, Oromia.
genocide against Oromo people

Schools and universities have served as  military camps and battle grounds. The merciless Agiazi force  broke into university dormitories, savagely  killed, raped, beat and detained students (Wallaga University)

The Agiazi murderers intensified their repressions in all corners of Oromia. Since the November 2015 peaceful protest began, over 400 Oromo nationals have been killed, over fifty thousand (50,000) arrested and placed in  different police stations, concentration camps, and military camps. Unknown numbers of students have been confined in the Xolay concentration camp where they are exposed to different diseases because of poor diets and sanitation. No medical attention has been given them and a number of prisoners  are dying each day, according to information leaked from Xolay concentration camp. This represents the systematic elimination of the Oromo young generation. The late prime Minister Meles Zenawi, the architect of the current TPLF Empire,  in 1992 vowed to destroy those he considered major threats to his rule, particularly the most populous nation in the country, the Oromo. He vowed to reduce Oromos to a minority and take over their natural resources.

Bedhadha Galchu, an Oromo, economics graduate murdered by Ethiopia's mass killing ffascist forces, April 2016

Bedhadha Galchu

The longest protest (in terms of weeks and months)  in the history of Ethiopia has been slowed down by the military crackdowns.  When protestors returned home from the street, they started facing another form of atrocity.  They were forced day and night to stay indoors, in a kind of house arrest.  At night, the Agiazi force would walk into individual homes and pick up youth and kill them, leaving their dead bodies in front of their doors.  On April 14, 2016, a university engineering department graduate from Gonder University  was cold bloodedly murdered in the Oromia Gujii zone in Oddo Shakisso where he used to live with his parents.

Since Oromia is now under martial law, information, coming out of the Regional State of Oromia is restricted. All social media are being monitored by the military administration.

A number of cell phone users were arrested and their phones taken. Gross human rights abuses, killings, arbitrary arrests, torture and other human rights atrocities are happening in Oromia every day and night.

However, the information about these atrocities is not getting out, because the military has monitored almost all information outlets.  The Ethiopian people hear only the well- crafted stories about Ethiopia being on the path to democracy. These stories come from the government mass media.

International and domestic human rights organizations have been reporting the atrocities, although their access to information in Ethiopia is very limited due to their researchers being banned from entering the country. But undercover investigative journalists still bring out the news of the genocide and ethnic cleansing committed in the name of development.

The current human rights atrocities in Oromia have been condemned by  some western governments and government agencies, notably the EU and the USA, and UN experts/researchers. But still no meaningful action has been taken to stop the atrocities in Oromia.

When  the regime has been pressured enough, they do make concessions and acknowledge the legitimacy of the protestors’ grievances. Indeed the Prime Minister, Hailemariam Dessalegn, has been known to apologize to the people. However, all this seems to be political posturing to deceive the world that is becoming increasingly aware of the atrocities. On the ground, there is no sign of the atrocities abating. There have been no gestures of conciliation. The regime’s force has actually stepped up its mass murders, mass incarcerations and mass rapes.

What is puzzling  is that after all these tragedies, the world donor countries and organizations are still silent. It seems surreal. How many people must die before the world responds? How many millions must be jailed and tortured, how many must be gang- raped before this deafening silence is broken?

Can’t the world community learns from what happened in the past, in Rwanda in 1994, in Bosnia, in 1998 and what is happening in Syria ever since 2011? The genocidal act of armed force should not continue and must be stoped by someone, somewhere.

HRLHA is deeply concerned that if International Communities fail in responding  to the merciless killings presently taking place in Oromia Regional State as soon as possible , this could lead to a genocide comparable to those in Rwanda (1994), in Yugoslavia (1998) and  in Darfur, Sudan (2003).

Therefore, the HRLHA respectfully demands that governments of the west, especially who allies with the Ethiopian government to break their silence about the TPLF hidden agenda of promoting  systematic genocide against the Oromo and other nations in Ethiopia and act swiftly as possible to halt the atrocity in Ethiopia.

Recommendations:

  1. The World community must condemn the imposition of Martial Law in Oromia
  2. The United Nations must intervene in Oromia to stop the unprecedented killings, torture and rape by the TPLF squad Agiazi force deployed under martial law
  3. The US government, EU member states and UN must take meaningful measures against the Ethiopian government to stop it committing systematic genocide in Oromia, Ogaden, Gambela, and other southern Ethiopia regional states
  4. Intervene to stop the killings in Oromia using the mandate of the three pillars of the responsibility to protect, as stipulated in the Outcome Document of the 2005 United Nations World Summit (A/RES/60/1, para. 138-140) and formulated in the Secretary – General’s 2009 Report (A/63/677) on implementing the responsibility to protect.
    1. The State carries the primary responsibility for protecting populations from genocide, war crimes, crimes against humanity and ethnic cleansing, and their incitement;
    2. The international community has a responsibility to encourage and assist States in fulfilling this responsibility;
    3. The international community has a responsibility to use appropriate diplomatic, humanitarian  and other means to protect populations from these crimes. If a State is manifestly failing  to protect its populations, the international community must be prepared to take collective action to protect populations, in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations.

Copied To:

  1. The US Department of State Secretary
    His Excellency Mr. John Kerry
    WASHINGTON, D.C. HEADQUARTERS
    (202) 895-3500
    OFMInfo@state.gov
    Office of Foreign Missions
    2201 C Street NW
    Room 2236
    Washington, D.C. 20520
    Customer Service Center
    3507 International Place NW
    Washington, D.C. 20522-3303
  2. UK Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs
    The Rt Hon Philip Hammond MP
    Parliamentary
    House of Commons, London, SW1A 0AA
    Tel: 020 7219 4055
    Fax: 020 7219 5851
    Email: hammondp@parliament.ukDepartmental
    Foreign and Commonwealth Office, King Charles
    Street ,
    London, SW1A 2AH
    Tel: 020 7008 1500
    Email: fcocorrespondence@fco.gov.uk
  3. Minister of Foreign Affairs (Canada)
    His Excellency Stéphane Dion
    Enquiries Service (BCI)
    Global Affairs Canada
    125 Sussex Drive
    Ottawa, ON, Canada
    K1A 0G2
    Email: Enquiry Service – Online form
  4. Minister for Foreign Affairs (Sweden)
    Her Excellency Margot Wallström
    Switchboard: +46 8 405 10 00
    Street address: Rosenbad 4
    Postal address: SE 103 33 Stockholm
  5. Minister of Foreign Affairs (Normway)
    His Excellency Børge Brende
    Ministry of Foreign Affairs
    E-mail: post@mfa.no
    Phone: + 47 23 95 00 00
    Address: 7. Juniplassen 1, N-0032 Oslo
  6. UN Secretary – General
    His Excellency Mr. Ban Ki – Moon
    Executive Office of the Secretary-General
    http://www.un.org/sg/
  7. The UN Human Rights Commissioner
    Mr. Zeid Ra’ad Al Hussein
    OHCHR address:
    Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR)
    Palais Wilson
    52 rue des Pâquis
    CH-1201 Geneva, Switzerland.
  8. Council of Europe
    Office of the Commissioner for Human Rights
    67075 Strasbourg Cedex
    FRANCE
    +33 (0)3 88 41 34 21
    +33 (0)3 90 21 50 53
  9. African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights
    31 Bijilo Annex Layout, Kombo North District
    Western Region P.O. Box 673 Banjul
    The Gambia
    Tel: (220) 441 05 05, 441 05 06
    Fax: (220) 441 05 04
    E-mail: au-banjul@africa-union.org

[1] HRLHA UA, MORE VICTIMS OF EXTRA-JUDICIAL KILLINGS, KIDNAPPINGS, ARRESTS AND DETENTIONS Dec 25, 2015, http://www.humanrightsleague.org/?p=15700
[2] UN, Ratification Status for Ethiopia, http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/TreatyBodyExternal/Treaty.aspx?CountryID=59&Lang=EN
[3]UN Ethiopia home page; http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/TreatyBodyExternal/Treaty.aspx?CountryID=59&Lang=EN
[4] Al jazeera Report, Feb 25, 2016. Oromo protests continue in Ethiopia amid harsh crackdown, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KQDfhk5VIdU

Injifannoo atleetota Oromoo: Oromo Athletes sweep men’s and women’s titles at Boston Marathon with the win for Lemi Berhanu Hayle and Atsede Baysa April 18, 2016

Posted by OromianEconomist in Athleteics, Athletic nation.
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OROMO ATHLETES DOUBLE AT BOSTON MARATHON WITH WINS FOR HAYLE AND BAYSA. 18 APRIL 2016

 

Oromo athletes Lemi Bernanu Hayle and Atsede Baysa won at the 2016 edition of the Boston Marathon, the 120th running of the IAAF Gold Label Road Race, crossing the line in 2:12:44 and 2:29:19 respectively on Monday (18).

It was the first time in the Boston Marathon race’s 120-year history that Oromo athletes representing Ethiopia  had swept both the titles.

 

OROMO ATHLETES DOUBLE AT BOSTON MARATHON WITH WINS FOR HAYLE AND BAYSA. 18 APRIL 2016. p2

Atsede Baysa rallied after falling more than 30 seconds off the pace, overcoming the deficit with a strong push through the final four miles to win the women’s Boston Marathon on Monday.

OROMO ATHLETES DOUBLE AT BOSTON MARATHON WITH WINS FOR HAYLE AND BAYSA. 18 APRIL 2016. p3

Lemi Berhanu Hayle won the men’s race after breaking away from defending champion Oromo athlete Lelisa Desisa. Hayle won in 2 hours, 12 minutes and 45 seconds.

The men’s race stumbled through halfway in 1:06:43, looking for someone willing to take command into a slight headwind and with temperatures rising to around 20 degrees Celsius.

After a few small breakaways came to nothing, defending champion Lelisa Desisa, hoping to add a third Boston win to his pair from 2013 and 2015, took charge as the course descended from Wellesley Hills to Newton Lower Falls.

Desisa moved to the front as the pack rolled down the hill and then maintained the pace as they crossed the Charles River and started up the opposite bank in the first of the Newton Hills; he slowed slightly but the rest of the pack slowed more, and abruptly a race which had looked more like a dreary committee meeting became notably more interesting.

Only Hayle stuck with Desisa’s big push, and from that point the race was primarily an Oromo duel for supremacy.

Initially Desisa let Hayle set the pace and hovered behind him waiting to move but he then came to the front and began actively trying to shake the younger runner.

Hayle, at 21 already a winner in Dubai in 2015 and runner-up there this January, also had previous wins in Warsaw and Zurich.

He was confident in his ability to win and his speed – with a best 2:04:33, he was third-fastest among the starters – but had never before a race as big as Boston.

Ultimately Hayle took over at the very end, side-by-side with Lelisa through 40km but then taking charge before the mile to go mark in Kenmore Square and opening a gap of 47 seconds back to the tiring Desisa, who held on for second in 2:13:32.

With the racing beginning a few miles after halfway, the second half was slightly faster than the first, 1:06:01 to 1:06:43 for the first half.

Yemane Tsegay won a close-fought duel with 2012 Boston winner Wesley Korir to make it a 1-2-3 finish for Ethiopia; he ran 2:14:02 to the Kenyan’s 2:14:05.

Baysa, 29 and a two-time Chicago Marathon winner came from 37 seconds at the 22-mile mark to overtake the two women in front of her.

She passed fellow Oromo athlete and sometime training partner Tirfi Tsegaye with two miles left, the latter finishing second in 2:30:03.

Kenya’s Joyce Chepkirui, who was disputing the lead with Tsegaye at 22 miles before Baysa started her long charge for glory, was third in 2:30:50 while fellow Kenyan, defending champion Caroline Rotich, dropped out barely five miles into the race.

The women’s race also started slowly, and it ultimately fell to Kenya’s Joyce Chepkirui to take charge of the pace, although as usual the lead changed frequently in the early miles while efending champion Caroline Rotich stepped off the course at 7km and ultimately dropped out.

Halfway was reached in a pedestrian 1:15:25 and the leaders were close enough that Latvia’s star Jelena Prokopcuka tangled with Oromo athlete Fatuma Sado and knocked the latter’s right shoe loose.

Sado stopped and retrieved the shoe, she and Prokopcuka then worked together to regain contact with the pack. Prokopcuka ultimately finished fourth with Sado 16th.

Much like the men, the women rolled down into Newton Lower Falls at a decent clip but slowed when they met the first hills.

Unlike the men, the pack which rode that roller coaster had thinned to four, featuring  Tirfi Tsegaye and the Kenyan trio of Chepkirui, Valentine Kipketer and Flomena Daniel; with Baysa well off the back.

After Tsegaye and Chepkirui shook the other pair off, it looked like the women’s race was coming down to a head-to-head duel as well, but Baysa had other ideas; she found a second life after cresting the Newton hills at mile 21.

With Tsegaye frequently twisting around to try and gauge the progress of her sometime training partner, Baysa closed a deficit which had grown to 37 seconds at 22 miles, when she moved into third place.

Tsegaye first tried to drop Chepkirui, but Baysa passed first the Kenyan and then her compatriot.

At 40km, Baysa started pulling clear, and she built a lead of 44 seconds, with Tsegaye second in 2:30:03.

Unlike Hayle, Baysa has a lengthy marathoning resume including victories in Chicago in 2010 and 2012, as well as wins in Saitama, Paris (twice), Xiamen, and Istanbul.

Like the men’s race, the women’s winner was faster in the second half. Baysa passed halfway in 1:15:32 and ran the hilly second half of the race in 1:13:47.

Both Kenya and Ethiopia have indicated that Boston results, along with next weekend’s race in London, will figure in selection for their Olympic team.

However, the defending Olympic champion Tiki Gelana was never a factor in the race, finishing 14th in 2:42:38 and Buzunesh Deba, a frequent contender both here and in New York and the only woman in the field to have run under 2:20:00 in Boston, was seventh in 2:33:56.

The 120th running of the Boston Marathon saw 27,491 starters set out on the classic course from the western suburb of Hopkinton to the finish line in Boston.

 

 

 

 

Read more at:-

http://www.usatoday.com/story/sports/olympics/2016/04/18/boston-marathon-womens-mens-winners/83184104/

Ethiopia: Unconditionally Release the Sidama Political Prisoners April 18, 2016

Posted by OromianEconomist in Africa, Ethiopia's Colonizing Structure and the Development Problems of People of Oromia, Afar, Ogaden, Sidama, Southern Ethiopia and the Omo Valley, Sidama.
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Odaa OromooSidama Nation Flag

 

Unconditionally Release the Sidama Political Prisoners

 

SNLF Press Release, April 2016

The following Sidama scholars and businessmen have been kidnapped by the security forces of the TPLF led government of Ethiopia and are currently languishing in the most notorious prison of the country known as ‘Maikelawi’ in the country’s capital Finfinnee (Addis Ababa):

1) Solomon Naayu (A Business Person)
2) Desalegn Meessa (A Professor at Wolayita Sodo Univeristy)
3) Girma Dishe (A Busienss Person)
4) Shura Kachara (A Business Person)
5 Debebe Daaka (A Business person)

In stark violation of their human rights, some of them have been in detention since November 2015 while others have been incarcerated since early 2016 without any trial. They have been tortured repeatedly to extract confession on crimes they never committed. The reasons given by the Ethiopian security forces for their detention and torture are extremely bizarre. They range from visiting the Oromia region repeatedly during the Oromo protests to receiving telephone calls from their relatives in Diaspora and having some anti-government ideas in their minds.

The TPLF/EPRDF led government of Ethiopia continues to grossly abusing the human rights of the Sidama people and other citizens with impunity for two decades and a half in contempt to its international commitments and the constitution of the country drawn by the regime itself. The aforementioned Sidama people had never committed any crime. Their only crime is being the members of the Sidama society.

The Sidama people and the Sidama National Liberation Front (SNLF) categorically condemns their unlawful detention and torture and demands their immediate and unconditional release.

The SNLF also calls on the international community, the United Nations, the African Union and all human rights organizations to put pressure on the TPLF led regime of Ethiopia to respect basic human and democratic rights of the citizens of the country. The SNLF also calls upon all subjugated nations’ and peoples’ opposition groups and peoples of Ethiopia to be unconditionally united to fight the regime collectively oppressing all with varying degrees.

May Justice and Liberty belong to all Mankind

The Sidama National Liberation Front (SNLF)

April 2016

OMN (OROMIA): Haala Waliigala Yeroo Ammaa Oromiyaa fi Itoophiyaa Irratti Xiinxala Obbo Jawaar Mahammad April 16, 2016

Posted by OromianEconomist in #OromoProtests, Oromia, Oromo.
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#Oromia: Oromo Martyrs Memorial Day: Ebla 15 Bara 2016 Qeerroon Yuniversitii Wallaggaa Guyyaa Gootota Oromoo Kabajachuun Ibsa Ejjennoo Baafatan. #OromoProtests April 15, 2016

Posted by OromianEconomist in Oromia, Oromo.
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Odaa Oromoo

15 April: Oromo Martyrs Memorial Day- Guyyaa goototaa Oromo


Har’a Ebla 15 Qeerroon Yuniversitii Wallaggaa Guyyaa Gootota Oromoo Kabajachuun Ibsa Ejjennoo Baafatan.

IMG_20160412_205623Har’a Ebla 15 Nuti Qeerroon Bilisummaa Wallagga Bahaa Guyyaa Gootota Oromoo Kabajannee Olleerra Jedhu Qeerroon.
1.Yaadannoo wareegamtoota goototni oromoo shinniigaatti kafalan.
2.Wareegama Qellem wallaggaa Gidaamiitti Summii diinni qopheesse nyaatanii lubbuun darban.
3.Wareegama uummata Oromoo keessatti immoo qeerroo fi qarreen baratoota oromoo bara 2014 ji’a eebilaa fi 2016 ji’a sadaasaa haga eebila 15tti kafalaa turaniidha.
4.Lammiilee Oromoo kuumaatammatti lakka’aman sababa oromummaa saanii qofaan yakkamanii, qilleensa Uumaan badhaasee isaanii kenne dhorkamanii halkanii guyyaa mooraa diinni qopheessite Maayikelaawwii,Qaallittii,Qilinxoo,Zuwaay,Shawwaa Roobit, fi manneelee dhoksaa namni kamuu hin beeknetti dararamaa jiran hidhamtoota oromoo hunda hammata.
Egaa kun hundi rakkoo garbummaan nutti fe’e waan ta’eef garbummaa hundeen buqqisuun filannoo isa angafaa fi jijjiiraa hin qabneedha.Garbummaa hundeen buqqisuuf immoo nuti qeerroon magaalaa Naqamtee fi naannoo ishee ABO jallatti hiriiree deggersa oromoo keessaa fi alaan utubamnee kaayyoo wareegamtoo gootota keenyaa galmaan ga,uuf dirqama lamummaa fudhannee jirra.IMG_20160412_205140 IMG_20160412_205213IMG_20160412_205300IMG_20160412_215629
Ayyaanni kun kan yaadatamee oole magaalaa naqamtee bakkoota heedduu yemmuu ta,u qeerroo leeqaa fi jiraattota Leeqaa Naqamtee ,Yuunversiitii wallaggaa,Laga hadiyyaa,haroo soorgaa,akkasumas hoteelota magaalattii tokko tokkoo fi iddoolee biroo heedduutti yaadatamee ooleera.Ayyaanni kun qarree fi qeerroo baratoota oromoo kibba waachaa,Qassoo,Biqiltuu Leeqaa,Biiftuu Naqamtee ,Koompireensiifii, kkf akkasumas hojjetoota mootummaa fi daldaltoota dhuunfaa hirmaachiseera.Nuti hirmaattonni yaadannoo kanaa guyyaa kun uummata oromoo biratti guyyaa gaddaa fi guyyaa itti oromoon waadaa isaa itti haaromsatu waan ta,eef nus yaadannoo wareegamtootaa daqiiqaa muraasaaf gaddaan yaadachuun eegalleerra.Miseensonni harra asitti argamne miseensota muraasa fi dura buutota mandhee Tasfa,uun Camadaa,mandhee nuunnuu Adaree, Mandhee weellisaa jireenyaa Ayyaanaa  fi Barataa simee Tafarra,Mandhee Biqilaa Baandoo,Mandhee Biqiltuu Leeqaa,Naqamtee Odaa Ootaa,Mandhee Eebbisaa Addunyaa,yoo ta,an haala kanaan akka kabajnu kan nu godhe dura bu,aa qeerroo wallagga bahaa filachuuf akka tolutti yaadameeti.Mandheeleen kun aanota wallagga bahaa jalatti kan ijaaraman yoo ta,u miseensonni lama lama mandhee saddeet irraa wallitti dhufuun dura bu,aa qeerroo waliigala fi itti aanaa qeerroo baha wallaggaa filateera.Moggaasni maqaa mannee keenyaa irri jireessi maqaa jaallan wareegamtootaadha.kunis yaadannoo isaaniif jedhamee yaadameeti.Kaan immoo maqaalee baha wallaggaa keessatti argamaniidha.Mandheeleen wallagga bahaa kana qofa miti. Haalaa fi yeroon waan nu daangessuuf warreen biroo aanuma jiraniif bakkuma jiraniitti kabajanii oolaniiru.Guyyaa yaadannoo kana yaadannoo sammuun gaddaan erga eegallee mariin miseensota gidduutti adeemsifamee booda walaloon karaa jaal shamarree sabboontuu lammii kan daqiiqaa afur hin caalle erga dubbifamee dhumarratti mandheen keenya ibsa ejjennoo kan qabxii kudha tokko  of keessaa qabu baafateera.

IBSA EJJENNOO QEERROO WALLAGGA BAHAA MAGAALAA NAQAMTEE

1,Hooggansa ABO Jalatti qeerroon miseensa mandhee keenyaa qabsoo oromoo hanga wareegama lubbuutti finiinsuuf murteeffanneerra.

2.Kufaatii Mootummaa faashistii wayyaanee ariifachiisuuf yeroo kamiyyuu caalaa humnaan,beekumsaa fi dinagdee keenyaan hojjechuuf murannee jirra.

3.Diina guyyaa saafaa mana keenya seenuun haadhaa fi ilmoo wal irratti ajjeesaa jiru of keessaa baasuuf halkaniif guyyaa hojjenna.

4.Lukkeelee diinaa uummata keenya dararaniif barnoota gahaa kennuun sirreessuu

5.Qabeenyaa wayyaanee oromoon kamuu akka hin fayyadamne irmii jennee irratti waliigalleerra.

6.Diina abidda baatee nutti fiigu yoomillee bishaan baannee itti hin fiignu; deebii quubsaa kennuuf qoophii keenya xumurree jirra.

7.Mootummaan gita bittaa Tigiree kun kuma ajjeesuus,kitila hidhee dararus qabsoon oromoo akka hin dhaabbanne gochuuf jecha garee kanaa “diinni osoo dhiiga keenya waraabee gogse lafeen keenya bakka jiruu warraaqa” kan jedhu dhaadannoo godhannee jirra.

8.Ilmaan oromoo garbummaa jibbuun lubbuu isaanii bakka bu,a hin qabne dabarsee warra kenneef fi mana hidhaatti gidirfamaa warreen jiraniif kaayyoon isaanii akka karaatti hin hafneef irbuu seenneera.

9.Yoomiyyuu faayidaa Oromoof malee faayidaa dhuunfaa keenyaaf hin bololiinu.

10.Qomoof malee qoonqqoof hin bitamnu.

11.Xurree jaallan dhiigaan tattaraaran galmaan ga,uuf dirqama oromummaa ni baana.

 

American Red Cross: Oromo: In My Own Words: Reconnecting with a Cousin April 15, 2016

Posted by OromianEconomist in Because I am Oromo, Oromia, Oromo.
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Odaa Oromoo

 

In My Own Words: Reconnecting with a Cousin

Restoring Family Links Blog, 13 April 2016

OROMO STUDENTS SOLIDARITY PROTEST IN WASHINGTON, D.C.

OROMO STUDENTS SOLIDARITY PROTEST IN WASHINGTON, D.C. COURTESY OF CREATIVE COMMONS @CTJ71081.

“My name is Desta Edosa. I am 33 years old, married and a father of two sons. I am originally from Ethiopia, specifically from Oromia.  I came to the United States in 2009 through a visa lottery, and I won. In February 2016, Caren Bedsworth from the American Red Cross called me and left me voice message saying I had a message from relative in Ethiopia. Listening to her voice message, I could not believe at first it was true as I did not know Red Cross gave such services. As Caren provided the office’s address, I looked on the internet and verified that the address mentioned was American Red Cross’s address. I called back Caren and asked who the person was. She delivered the letter to my home and I was so excited when I saw his handwritten letter. It had been about seven years since I last saw him.

“The name of my relative is Galataa Bazzaa. Galataa had just graduated from high school when he was captured by Ethiopian security forces and taken to a prison.  He was a very outstanding student who was always known among his classmates and teachers as a straight A’s guy in his academics. By the time he was taken to prison, he had just been admitted to Addis Ababa Medical School to pursue his higher education. Only students of high caliber are given an opportunity to study medical sciences in Ethiopia and Galataa was one of the top.

“To understand the case of Galataa and why he was taken to prison, it is very important to know a little about Oromo people in Ethiopia. Oromo are the largest ethnic majority in Ethiopia which comprises about one third of the total population. Even though Oromo are the majority in Ethiopia, they have been marginalized both economically and politically since the establishment of the country. There was even a time when Oromo language was banned from state media and people were forced to change their Oromo name.

“As a result, Oromo people have been protesting this injustice for almost a century. Even at this time, the Ethiopian government has killed more than 400 Oromo people including kids, pregnant woman and elders because people peacefully demonstrated against land grabs and removal of Oromo farmers from their land due to the expansion of the capital city Addis Ababa (for more information on the Oromo protests, please click here or here).

“Galataa’s story is not different from thousands of Oromo students who are unjustifiably languishing in Ethiopian prison. He was just active both in his academic and among his society and communities. That’s the only reason he has been thrown into jail and sentenced to eight years.  The Ethiopian government labels students who protest against it as anti-piece, anti-development and even terrorists if it wants to make the punishment sever. It is very common for Oromo students to be taken to prison in Ethiopia even for just speaking of their mind; that was what happened to Galataa.

“It had been about seven years since I heard from Galataa. I have been informed about his wellbeing by his sisters and brothers but never heard a word directly from him.  Even though technology brought the world together these days, it’s still hard to be connected with loved one in a prison cell. The American Red Cross has done such excellent job connecting me directly with a person I care about a lot. I appreciate their service and their team a lot for connecting family over the globe when there is no other possible way.  I hope they will keep doing such excellent job and help more Oromo families who lost track of their loved ones.”


 

http://restoringfamilylinksblog.com/blog/in-my-own-words-reconnecting-with-a-cousin

Viva Oromia: Oromo Student at St Could State University April 15, 2016

Posted by OromianEconomist in Oromia, Oromo, Oromo Culture, Oromo Diaspora, Oromummaa.
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Odaa Oromoo

Join the Tom Lantos Human Rights Commission for a briefing on the current human rights situation in Ethiopia April 13, 2016

Posted by OromianEconomist in #OromoProtests, Africa, Oromia, Oromo.
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Odaa OromooThe Tom Lantos Human Rights Commission for a briefing on the current human rights situation in Ethiopia. p2The Tom Lantos Human Rights Commission for a briefing on the current human rights situation in Ethiopia


Human Rights in Ethiopia – An Update

Date:
Tuesday, April 19, 2016 – 11:00am
Location:
2255 Rayburn House Office Building

Announcement

Please join the Tom Lantos Human Rights Commission for a briefing on the current human rights situation in Ethiopia.

Home to the Oromo, Ethiopia’s largest ethnic group, the region of Oromia was witness to mostly peaceful student protests in November of 2015 against the Ethiopian Government’s plan to take over territory to expand the nation’s capital. However, this spontaneous outcry has developed into the country’s longest and most widespread protest movement since the ruling party took power in 1991.  The government has since ceased border expansion plans, but the discontent has proven to transcend land rights and to extend beyond any one particular ethnic group.  The government’s authoritarian structure and tight controls on the media have led many to feel that they have no voice.  Peaceful opposition is frequently met with arrest and detention (using the country’s draconian anti-terrorist law) and police brutality too often results in death.   Human Rights Watch has received reports of over 200 people killed and several thousand arrested (including many whose whereabouts are unknown), since protests began. Although the documented turmoil threatens to disrupt Ethiopia’s fragile political stability, Ethiopia’s strategic state partners have been relatively quiet.

This briefing will examine Ethiopia’s current human rights situation in light of the recent events in Oromia.  Speakers will provide an overview of the human rights situation and challenges, including how Ethiopia’s anti-terrorism law is misused to stifle dissent, and will make recommendations as to what role the U.S. government can play in promoting stabilization by advancing and protecting human rights.

This briefing will be open to members of Congress, congressional staff, the interested public and the media. For any questions, please contact David Howell (for Rep. McGovern) at 202-225-3599 orDavid.Howell@mail.house.gov or Isaac Six (for Rep. Pitts) at 202-225-2411 orIsaac.Six@mail.house.gov.

Hosted by:

James P. McGovern, M.C.
Co-Chairman, TLHRC
Joseph R. Pitts, M.C.
Co-Chairman, TLHRC

Participants

Panelists

  • Anuradha Mittal , Founder and Executive Director of the Oakland Institute
  • Mohammed Ademo, Journalist formally with Al Jazeera America
  • Adotei Akwei, Managing Director, Amnesty International USA

 Moderator

  • Lauren Ploch Blanchard, African Affairs Specialist, Congressional Research Service

 Opening Remarks

  • Rep. Keith Ellison, Executive Committee Member, Tom Lantos Human Rights Commissio

Bios [PDF]

Oromia: Guyyaa Gootota Oromoo kan Bara 2016 Ilalachisee Ibsa Adda Bilisummaa Oromoo (ABO) April 13, 2016

Posted by OromianEconomist in Oromia, Oromo Art.
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Odaa OromooGootota OromoOromia Oromiaoromia


 Ebla (April) 15: Oromo Martyrs Memorial Day- Guyyaa goototaa Oromo


 

Guyyaa Gootota Oromoo kan Bara 2016 Ilalachisee Ibsa Adda Bilisummaa Oromoo (ABO)

OLF logo

Guyyaan Gootota (Wareegamtoota) Oromoo Ebla 15, 1980 irraa eegalee waggaa waggaan kabajamaa fi yaadatamaa yoona gahe. Gootota gaafa alagaan biyya Oromoo cabsuuf itti duule diina biyya ofii irraa ittisuuf jecha diddaa gabrummaa irratti wareegaman dabalatee qabsaawoti bilisummaa Oromoo bifa adda addaan hanga har’aatti wareegama baasan hunda guyyaa kana yaadatna. Kana waliin, guyyaan wareegamtoota Oromoo, guyyaa miseensoti Adda Bilisummaa Oromoo, deggertootaa fi uummati Oromoo bal’aan kaayyoo sab-boontoti Oromoo dabran wareegamaniif galmaan gahuuf waadaa seenan itti haaromsani dha.

Seenaa Oromoo keessatti Ebla 15, guyyoota kaan irraa wanni adda taasisu bara 1980 keessa guyyaa kana hoogganooti siyaasaa Adda Bilisummaa Oromoo akka qaroo ija Oromootti ilaalaman kiristaana Islaama utuu hin jedhin jumulaan wareegamanii tokkummaa saba Oromoo dhiiga isaaniin mirkaneessan ta’uu irraa ti. Sanaa asittis hoogganootaa fi miseensoti Adda Bilisummaa Oromoo, deggertootaa fi ummati Oromoo, qabsaawotni bilisummaa bifa adda addaan qabsoo keessatti qooda qaban walumaa gala sab-boontoti Oromoo xurree hoogganooti ABO gaafa duraa saaqan irra bu’anii mirga abbaa biyyummaa Oromoof osoo falmaa irra jiranii wareegaman kuma hedduutti lakka’amu. Har’as Waraanni Bilisummaa Oromoo, miseensotaa fi deggertooti qabsoo, addatti ammo qerroon (barataa fi dargaggooti Oromoo) walumaa gala uummati Oromoo bal’aan bilisummaa Oromoo mirkaneessuuf wareegama ulfaataa baasaa jiru.

Guyyaa Wareegamtoota Oromoo kan bara kanaa wanni adda taasisu haala Warraaqsi bilisummaa Oromoo sirna gabrummaatti xumura gochuuf golee Oromiyaa hunda keessatti akka ibidda saafaa boba’aa jiru keessatti ayyaaneffatamaa jiraachuu isaa ti. Uummati Oromoo bakka hundaa kan yeroo kamii caalaa shiraa fi daba diinaatti dammaqee daangaa hanga daangaatti harka wal qabatee diddaa isaa mootummaa Wayyaaneetti agarsiisaa jira. Yeroon kun yeroo qabsoon bilisummaa Oromoo sadarkaa ol aanaatti tarkaanfatee jiru dha. Yeroo uummati Oromoo ammaan booda cunqursaa, saamichaa fi hacuuccaa alagaa baachuu hin danda’u! na gahe! jedhee sirna roorriftuu alagaa of irraa dabruuf harka duwwaa diina meeshaa lolaa baranee hidhate dura dhaabbatee murannoon wareegama barbaachisu baasaa jirutti yaadatama. Oromoon bilisummaa yookaan du’a! jechuun laphee dhiibee du’atti adeemuudhaan seenaa haaraa galmeessuu irratti argama. . Oromoon akka sabaatti uummata hundaaf kabajaa qabu, goota, jagnaa fi uummata guddaa tokkummaa qabu ta’uu hawaasa addunyatti agarsiiseera, agarsiisaas jira. Tarkaanfii fi diddaa uummati Oromoo tokkummaan ka’ee agarsiisaa jiru kunis hawaasa addunyaa kan raajee fi diina rifaasise dha.

Kana malees qabsoon bilisummaa Oromoo karaa diplomaasii murna wayyaanee kopxeesuu fi deggersa qabsoo Oromoo horachuu irratti injifannoo galmeessaa jira. Sirni Wayyaanee uummata Oromoo siyaasaa fi dinagdee biyyattii keessaa alatti dhiibee akka moggeesse hawaasa addunyaaf ifa ta’eera. Kanaaf gaaffiin Oromoo gaaffii haqaa fi mirgaa ta’uun har’a eessatti iyyuu hubatnaa argataa jira. Akkasumas qabsoon Oromoo tumsa uummatoota ollaa horachuudhaan Tumsi Bilisummaa fi Dimokraasii Uummatootaa kan Addi Bilisummaa Oromoo qooda gahaa keessatti qabu mirkanaa’uun isaas injifannoo siyaasaa fi diplomaasii galmaa’an keessaa isa tokko. Gabaabaatti qabsoon bilisummaa Oromoo shaffisaan fuul-duratti tarkaanfaataa jira.

Gama kaaniin, har’a oggaa mooraan qabsoo Oromoo tasgabbaa’aa fi cimaa jiru kanatti mooraan diinaa unkuramaa fi hundeen raafamaa akka jiru ifatti mul’ata. Tarkaanfiin abdii kutannaa irraa fudhatu caalaatti hammaatee fi qabaan mirga namoomaa fi dimokraasiis dhiphifamee, lammiileen akka hin dubbannee fi hin sossooneef cancalamanii fi gaadi’amanii jiran. Hidhaa fi ajjeechaan daangaa dhabee biyyattiin biyya gaddaaa tatee jirti. Hallii keessa jirru haala GOOLII DIIMAA BARA DARGII waliin wal fakkata.

Mootummaan abbaa irree TPLF/EPRDF, qabsoo bilisummaa Oromoo finiiinaa jiruun baarragee tarkaanfii abdii kutannaa fudhachuu irratti argama. Daa’ima umurii waggaa 8 hanga maangudoo waggaa 70 dabalatee Oromoota 500 ol ji’a 4 keessatti ajjeese; Oromoota lakkoobsaan kuma hedduutti lakka’aman mana hidhaa /Xollayi, Hursoo, Dhedheessaa, Tigiray fi bakka adda tti guuree dararaa jira. Qe’ee fi biyya Oromoo gooluun tarkaanfii abdii kutannaa fudhachuu irratti argama. Daa’imaa fi dubartoota ulfa , jaarsaa fi jaartii utuu hin jedhin jumulaan uummata nagaa ajjeesee bakkeetti gatuu, hidhuu fi reebee naaffisuu, walumaa gala gocha faashistummaa seenaa biyyattii keessatti hiriyaa hin qabne Oromoo irratti raawwata. Gaaffii uummati Oromoo karaa nagaa dhiheesseef deebii inni kenne akka bineensaatti itti dhukaasee ajjeesuu qofa ta’e. Walumaa gala murni Wayyaanee ammaan booda uummata Oromoos ta’e biyyattii bulchuu akka hin dandeenye hunda biratti hubatamaa dhufeera. Caasaa mootummaa sirni Wayyaanee Oromiyaa keessatti diriirfate gadii hanga oliitti laamsha’eera. Oromiyaa suduudaan bulchiinsa waraanaa jala galchuudhaan uummata Oomoo seera waraanaatiin bulchuuf dhama’uun kufaatii siyaasaa guddaa keessa seenuu hubachiisa. Murni alagaa sab-bicuu keessaa dhufe uummata guddaa akka saba Oromoo dhiitee, reebee, caccabsee, ajjeesee fi hidhee bara baraan akkan barbaadetti bita jedhee yaadu kun murna shiftaa har’a ajjeesee saamuu malee kan fuula duraa hin yaadne dha. Uummati Oromoo tarkaanfii hammeenyaa alagaan irratti raawwataa jiruuf tasa hin jilbeenfatu. Gochaan faashistummaa sirna wayyaanees umurii bittaa sirnichaa gabaabsa malee hin dheeressu.

Addi Bilisummaa Ummata Tigraayi, TPLF, gaafa dhalate Tigraayiin bilisoomsuu fi dantaa Tigraay tiksuuf uumame hanga har’aatti maqaa fi bifa jijjiirratee fedhii murnaa fi ummatan dhaabbadheef jedhu guutuuf saamicha, cunqursaa fi hacuuccaa daangaa hin qabne uummatoota kaan irratti raawwata. Dimookraasii, sirna paartii-danuu, qabsoo karaa nagaafi kkf afaaniin lallabaa biyyattii ol aantummaa paartii tokkoo jalatti irreen bulchuu erga murteeffatee waggaa 25 caalee jira. Sirna gama tokkoon dimokraasii fi federaalummaa maqaaf heera ofii tume irra kaa’ee gama biraan ilaalcha dimokraasii warraaqaa fi maqaa mootummaa misoomaa jedhu of labsuun gubbaa irraa hanga gadiitti paartii TPLF/EPRDF qofti bulchiinsaa fi dinagdee empaayerattii akka to’atu taasise dha. Humnoota siyaasaa walaba karaa nagaa qabsoofna jedhan hunda humna waraanaa fi tikaatti gargaaramuun sochii isaanii ugguree biyyattii dhuunfaa ofii taasifate. Filmaata kijibaa geggeessuun qaanii tokko malee dhibbaa dhibba injifadhe jedhee labsate. Mootummaan Wayyaanee mootummaa dinagdee biyyattii waggaa waggaan lakkoobsa cimdiin guddisaan jira jedhee hawaasa addunyaa sobaa bahee dha. Imaaammata saamichaa hordofuun uummatoota qe’ee fi lafa isaanii irraa buqqisee beelaa fi iyuummaaf saaxile. Har’a ummati miliyoona 18 ta’u beela’ee waan nyaatu dhabee harka biyya alaa eeggataa jira; kaan lubbuun darbaa jira. Beelladi akka baala bonaa harca’aa jira. Walumaa gala rakkoo dinagdee fi hawaasummaa dhuma hin qabnetu uummatoota biyyattii keessaahuu uummata Oromoo qabatee jira . Mootummaan wayyaanee gargaarsa midhaan nyaataaf biyyoota alaa irraa argamu illee dantaa siyaasaa fi dhuunfaa ofiif oolfataa akka jiru ifatti mul’ata.

Addi Bilisummaa Oromoo mootummaan Wayyaanee karaa nagaa aangoo gadi dhiisa jedhee hin amanu. Uummati Oromoos mootmmaan abbaa irree mirga isaa beekee fi kabajeefii hojiitti hiikaa irraa hin eegu. Waan taheef murna ummatoota qawween ukkaamsee bitaa jiru of irraa darbuuf qabsoo bifa kamuu geggeesuun mirga, Murni Wayyaanee qawween aangootti dhufe humna uummataa fi qabsoo qofaan aangoo irraa bu’a. Kanaaf uummati Oromoo qonnaan bulaan, hojjetaan, Qeerroon (Daragaggoon) barataan, daldalaan walumaa gala murnooti hawaasa Oromoo hundi qabsoo bilisummaa Adda Bilisummaa Oromoo jalatti hoogganummaa jiru bifa qindaa’een daran cimsitanii akka itti fuftanii fi kufaatii sirna cunqursaa wayyaaneetti xumura goodhan waamicha dabarsa. Addi Bilisummaa Oromoo qabsoo hidhannoo, siyaasaa fi diplomaasii walitti qindeessee hoogganaa jiru daran cimsee kan itti fufuu fi sochii diddaa gabrummaa Oromoof hooggana barbaachisu akka kennus irra deebi’ee mirkaneessa. Addi Bilisummaa Oromoo sirna Wayyaanee hundeen buqqisee gatuuf kan yeroo kamii caalaa qabsoo hidhannoo akka finiinsu gadi jabeessee uummata Oromoof mirkaneessa.

Sochiin bilisummaa Oromoo sochii biyoolessaa saba Oromoo ti. Akeeka sabboontoti Oromoo kumaatamaan itti wareegaman galmaan gahuuf ittisaa fi qabsoo bilisummaa biyya ofii keessatti qooda fudhachuun mirgaa fi dirqama seenaa lammiiiwwan Oromoo hundaa ti.

Hanga ammaatti dhugaan dirrettii mul’ataa jiru Oromoon gargaarsa alagaan malee diina lolaa jira. Amantii , gosa, kutaa fi ilaalcha siyaasaan osoo wal hin qoodin wal maddii dhaabbatee sagalee isaa dhageessisaa fi jabina isaa diinatti agarsiisuu irratti argama. Kanaaf tokkummaan qabsoo finiinsuu saba Oromoo daran jabaatee akka itti fufu Addi Bilisummaa Oromoo irratti hojjeta. Addi Bilisummaa Oromoo dantaa biyyoolessaa Oromoo giddu galeessa taasifachuun mooraa qabsoo Oromoo gabbisuufis ni hojjeta. Murnoota siyaasaa Oromoo walaba tahan sirna wayyaanee morman, akka ilmaan biyya tokkootti mooraa Oromoo tasagabeessuuf waliin hojjechuu caarraaqqii isaa itti fufa.

Addi bilisummaa Oromoo waggootii dheeraaf wahillummaan dhaabota cunqurfamtootaa hedduu waliin hojjataa fi wal tumsaa bahe. Har’a Tumsa Ummatootaa Bilisummaa fi Demokrasii waliiin ijaaruun waliin hojjatuu kana sadarkaa ol aanatti ceesisee jira. Tumsa kana bal’isuu fi nagaa waaraa, bilisummaa fi demokrasii naannoo keenyatti argamsisuuf jabaatee hojjata.

Gama biraanis dhaaboti siyaasaa biro biyya keessaa fi alatti mirgoota dimokraasii, mirga hiree murteeffannaa fi kabajamuu mirgoota dhala namaaf qabsaa’an hundi qabsoo haqaa uummati Oromoo finiinsaa jiru cinaa akka dhabbatan Addi Bilisummaa Oromoo waamicha dabarsa. Kabajamuun mirga Oromoo kabajamuu mirga uummatoota kaaniif wabii tahuu hiree kanaan hubachiisuu barbaada. Kanaaf uummatooti ollaa Oromoo moggaa dhaabbatanii sochii Oromoo daawwachaa jiran sochii Oromootti makamanii kufaatii sirna Wayyaanee akka ariifachiisan dhaamsa isaa dabarsaaf.

Dhuma irratti mootummooti aanga’oon biyya lafaa gaaffiin saba Oromoo gaaffii haqaa ta’uu osoo beekanii sirna abbaa irree wayyaanee maallaqa, dipplomaasii fi waraanaan gargaaraa jiran imaammata isaanii keessa deebi’anii akka sakatta’an, mootummaa abbaa irree gargaaruun dantaa uummatoota cunqurfamoo kan miidhu tahuu hubatuun komii seenaa jalaa akka of baasan ABOn gadi jabeessee gaafata. Hidhaa fi ajjeechaa mootummaan wayyaanee uummata Oromoo irratti raawwatu akka balaaleffatanii fi gochaan farra namoomaa kun akka dhaabbatuuf dhiibbaa barbaachisu akka taasisan hubachiisa.

Maayii irratti uummati Oromoo mirga politikaa, dinagdee fi hawaasummaa humna qawween irraa sabarbame wareegama barbaachisu baasee of harka galfachuuf dandeettii kan qabu tahuu hawaasa addunyaa hubachiiisuu barbaada.

Wareegamtooti bilisummaa Oromoo bara baraan yaadatamu!

Injifannoo Ummata Oromoof!

Adda Bilisummaa Oromoo

Foreign Policy In Focus: Deafening Silence from Ethiopia:The Ethiopian government is cracking down on journalists and NGOs. Where’s the outrage from the international community? April 13, 2016

Posted by OromianEconomist in #OromoProtests, Africa.
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Odaa Oromoohrwlogo#OromoProtests at Awaro Campus, Ambo, Oromia, 11 and April 2016 p2#OromoProtests in Limmuu Saqaa, Jimmaa, Oromia, 7 April 2016 p1#OromoProtests against the Ethiopian regime fascist tyranny. Join the peaceful movement for justice, democracy, development and freedom of Oromo and other oppressed people in Ethiopia

Deafening Silence from Ethiopia


Since November, state security forces have killed hundreds of protesters and arrested thousands in Oromia, Ethiopia’s largest region. It’s the biggest political crisis to hit the country since the 2005 election but has barely registered internationally. And with the protests now in their fifth month, there is an almost complete information blackout.

A teacher arrested in December told me, “In Oromia the world doesn’t know what happens for months, years or ever. No one ever comes to speak to us, and we don’t know where to find those who will listen to our stories.”

Part of the problem is the government’s draconian restrictions on news reporting, human rights monitoring, and access to information imposed over the past decade. But restrictions have worsened in the last month. Some social media sites have been blocked, and in early March security officials detained two international journalists overnight while they were trying to report on the protests. As one foreign diplomat told me, “It’s like a black hole, we have no idea what is happening. We get very little credible information.”

With difficulty, Human Rights Watch interviewed nearly 100 protesters. They described security forces firing randomly into crowds, children as young as nine being arrested, and Oromo students being tortured in detention. But the Ethiopian media aren’t telling these stories. It’s not their fault. Ethiopian journalists have to choose between self-censorship, prison, or exile. Ethiopia is one of the leading jailers of journalists on the continent. In 2014 at least 30 journalists fled the country and six independent publications closed down. The government intimidates and harasses printers, distributors, and sources.

International journalists also face challenges. Some do not even try to go because of the personal risks for them, their translators, and their sources. And when they do go, many Ethiopians fear speaking out against government policies—there are plenty of cases of people being arrested after being interviewed.

Diaspora-run television stations have helped fill the gap, including the U.S.-based Oromia Media Network (OMN). Many students in Oromia told me that OMN was one way they were able to learn what was happening in other parts of the region during the protests. But since OMN began broadcasting in March 2014 it has been jammed 15 times for varying periods. Radio broadcasts are also jammed–as international broadcasters like Voice of America and Deutsche Welle have experienced intermittently for years.

In December OMN began transmitting on a satellite that is virtually impenetrable to jamming. But security forces then began destroying private satellite dishes on people’s homes. Eventually the government applied pressure on the satellite company to drop OMN, which has now been off the air for over two months.

Social media has partially helped fill the information gap. Photos of injured students and videos of protests have been posted to Facebook, particularly in the early days of the protests. But in some locations the authorities have targeted people who filmed the protests on their phones. At various times in the last month, there have been reports of social media and file-sharing sites being blocked in Oromia, including Facebook, Twitter, and Dropbox. Website-blocking has been documented before – in 2013, at least 37 websites with information from Ethiopia were blocked. Most of the sites were operated by Ethiopians in the diaspora.

Independent non-governmental organizations that might be reporting what is happening face similar restrictions. The government’s Charities and Societies Proclamation of 2009 virtually gutted domestic nongovernmental organizations that work on human rights issues. The independent Human Rights Council released a report on the protests in March. It was a breath of fresh air, but the council released it at great risk. As the first report from Ethiopian civil society on an issue of great political significance, it was a damning indictment of the limits of freedom of expression in Africa’s second-largest country, with a population of 100 million.

The government may believe that by strangling the flow of information coming out of Oromia it can limit international concern and pressure. And so far the response from countries that support Ethiopia’s development has been muted. The deaths of hundreds, including many children, have largely escaped condemnation.

Yet the government’s brutally repressive tactics cannot be contained behind Ethiopia’s information firewall for long. The sooner the government recognizes this and acts to stop the mass arrests and excessive use of force, the better the outlook for the government and the affected communities.

The government—with the assistance of its allies and partners—needs to support an independent investigation of the events in Oromia, commit to accountability and justice for the victims, and start dismantling the legislative and security apparatus that has made Ethiopia one of the most hostile places for free expression on the continent. What’s happening in Oromia has long-term implications for Ethiopia’s stability and economic progress, and Ethiopians and the world need to know what is happening.

Felix Horne is the Ethiopia researcher at Human Rights Watch.


 

Deafening Silence from Ethiopia

https://www.hrw.org/news/2016/04/12/deafening-silence-ethiopia

Africa Land Post: Twitter, WhatsApp offline in Ethiopia’s Oromia State April 12, 2016

Posted by OromianEconomist in #OromoProtests, Africa, Oromia.
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Odaa Oromootweet tweet #OromoProtests

 

The Economist on #OromoProtests#OromoProtests Global solidarity rally  in Vancouver, BC, Canada, 11 March 2016.#OromoProtests iconic picture#OromoProtests at Awaro Campus, Ambo, Oromia, 11 and April 2016 p2


 

 

INTERNET messaging applications such as WhatsApp haven’t worked for more than a month in parts of Ethiopia that include Oromia region, which recently suffered fatal protests, according to local users.

Smartphone owners haven’t been able to access services including Facebook Messenger and Twitter on the state-owned monopoly Ethio Telecom’s connection, Seyoum Teshome, a university lecturer, said by phone from Woliso, about 115 kilometers (71.5 miles) southwest of the capital, Addis Ababa.

“All are not working here for more than one month,” said Seyoum, who teaches at Ambo University’s Woliso campus. “The blackout is targeted at mobile data connections.”

A spokesman for Twitter Inc. declined to comment on the issue when e-mailed by Bloomberg on Monday. Facebook Inc., which bought WhatsApp Inc. in 2014, didn’t respond to an e-mailed request for comment.

Protests that began in November in Oromia over perceived economic and political marginalisation of Ethiopia’s most populous ethnic group led to a crackdown in which security forces allegedly shot dead as many as 266 demonstrators, according to a March report by the Kenya-based Ethiopia Human Rights Project.

The government has said that many people died, including security officers, without giving a toll. One social-media activist, U.S.-based Jawar Mohammed, disseminated information and footage from protests to his more than 500,000 followers on Facebook.

No explanation
Restricting access isn’t a policy and may be because of “erratic” connections, according to government spokesman Getachew Reda. “We have not yet found any explanation,” he said by phone from Addis Ababa on Monday.

The government has the technology to “control” the messaging applications, the Addis Ababa-based Capital newspaper reported on April 10, citing Andualem Admassie, Ethio Telecom’s chief executive officer. Andualem didn’t answer two calls to his mobile phone seeking comment.

Hawassa city in Ethiopia’s southern region has suffered similar difficulties in accessing applications for more than a month, said Seyoum Hameso, an economics lecturer at the University of East London. “We couldn’t communicate with relatives,” he said in an e-mailed response to questions on Monday.


Twitter, WhatsApp offline in Ethiopia’s Oromia region

 

Economics: Traditional & Behavioural: System Thinking 1 &2 April 12, 2016

Posted by OromianEconomist in 10 best Youtube videos, 25 killer Websites that make you cleverer, Economics.
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Odaa OromooTraditional  and  Behavioural Economics, System Thnking 1 and 2

 

Traditional economics views humans as robotic machines who make calculated decisions based on logic. In contrast, behavioural economics views humans as irrational and emotional beings who are influenced by biases and experience when making decisions. This infographic takes a closer look at just what behavioural economics is and how it can be used.

Read more at:- https://www.b2binternational.com/publications/what-is-behavioural-economics/

 

Related:-

10 key economic concepts

10 key economic concepts

Oromo TV: OFC-ISG Birhanu Lenjiso lecturing on Land grab in Oromia (Ethiopia). #OromoProtests April 12, 2016

Posted by OromianEconomist in #OromoProtests, Africa, Ethiopia's Colonizing Structure and the Development Problems of People of Oromia, Afar, Ogaden, Sidama, Southern Ethiopia and the Omo Valley, Land Grabs in Africa, Land Grabs in Oromia.
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Odaa OromooEthiopian-land-giveawayTigrean Neftengna's land grabbing and the Addis Ababa Master plan for Oormo genocideTigrean Neftengna's land grabbing2 and the Addis Ababa Master plan for Oormo genocide

 

PAFD (NE Africa): Resolution of the Peoples Alliance for Freedom and Democracy’s Public Meeting on 9th of April, 2016 in Frankfurt am Main Germany April 11, 2016

Posted by OromianEconomist in Uncategorized.
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Odaa OromooPAFD, the genuinely-multinational coalition for freedom and democracy in Ethiopia, covers greater than 70% of area in EthiopiaPAFD NEWS
 PAFD Public Meeting on 9th of April, 2016 in Frankfurt am Main Germany
 PAFD Public Meeting on 9th of April, 2016 in Frankfurt am Main Germany. p1
Peoples Alliance for Freedom and Democracy (PAFD) public meeting hosted by Oromo Student Union and Ogaden Community in Germany was held on 9th of April 2016 in Frankfurt am Main, Germany.
It was attended by two Executive committee members of PAFD, human rights advocators, invited guests, Veteran members of successful liberation movement, representatives of youths and Women and generally by the peoples and nations of member organisations of PAFD.
On this meeting, paper was presented by the officials of PAFD on the current political situation in the Horn of Africa with special emphasis on Ethiopia. The objectives of the PAFD were also explained. The atrocious nature of EPRDF across the empire, images and videos of the ongoing protest and public resistance from Oromia have been presented. Artists have entertained with cultural music in between discussions.
Member Communities and other peace loving friends in Germany all gathered on this occasion have expressed their unflinching  support and solidarity for the Alliance. They noted that the oppressed peoples in Ethiopia have now reached a tipping point where the outcry of the peoples under Occupation of the Ethiopian regime cannot be ignored any more.
After thorough discussions and comments on the presentations during the meeting the participants continued discussions on the various issues. Finally the participants concluded the meeting upon passing political resolution.

The Political Resolution of this public meeting in Germany: –

  1. Hereby in unison we convey our unflinching support for PAFD in its struggle against the TPLF/EPRDF-led Ethiopian regime, to regain the legitimate national right for the Nations and peoples. We also appreciate the outcome of PAFD congress that brought member organisations under one umbrella leadership to forge stronger bond of unity among member organisations which allowed them to strengthen their combined effort on diplomatic, political and armed struggle against TPLF. The participants of the meeting also summoned all nations and Nationalities in Ethiopia to create a firm ground for a unity of purpose and mutual respect. In the last twenty plus years TPLF/EPRDF has been tactically engaged in instigation of ethnic discord. We call up on our peoples to be aware of “divide and rule” colonial principle and resolve their conflict in a manner they used to live in it.
  2. The Ethiopian government is currently playing a destructive and destabilizing role in the Horn of Africa in general and on the peoples under its rule in particular. The Dictatorial regime run by the TPLF is currently using every means at its disposal to silence the quest of people for justice. Freedom of press, civil Societies and independent judiciary are non-existence in this country. The Regular army and Agazi militias are using brute force against innocent Oromo protesters with complete impunity; extra-judicial executions, enforced disappearances, arbitrary mass detentions and harsh prison terms under dubious laws are practiced beyond imagination. People are evicted from their ancestral land under the pretext of “Development” and “master plans”. We strongly condemn such belligerent act of Ethiopian regime.
  3. The partnership of EU with Ethiopia is aimed to bring a political environment guaranteeing peace, security and stability, which are the solid ground for sustainable economic policies and developments. Respect of human right violations, sustained economic growth, developing the private sector, increasing employment, good governance and etc. are the main witness and visible criterion for the objective of the partnership. Concerning the current Tigryan Peoples Liberation Front (TPLF) led regime of Ethiopia, there is massive evidence, which demonstrates beyond any doubt that the government is intensifying the persecution of Ogadeni, Oromo, Sidama, Gambella, Benishangul and other nations and nationalities in the empire. We appeal to the international communities in general and EU to implement ACP-EU agreement and its resolution passed on 21st January 2016.
  4. The public meeting appreciated Resolution of EU, Concerns of some democratic governments and honours Amnesty International, Human Rights Watch, Human rights League Horn of Africa, Oromia Support Group, Ethiopian Human Rights Council and International Commission of Jurists for their principled and responsible activities in exposing the atrocities of TPLF government behind the curtail. Although the effort of these humanitarian organisations are limited to exposure, as it ought to be as a matter of rule, the participants of this public meeting values this contribution to be immense in bridling the militant and aggressive nature of the TPLF regime.
  5. It is clear that the EPRDF force’s violent manoeuvre is intensifying from day to day. People are being denied to lead peaceful life. Such deplorable act has to be unequivocally condemned by all peace-loving forces. Therefore, we call upon all peoples in the empire of Ethiopia to join us in the struggle against the EPRDF regime.
  6. We also call USA, EU and AU to refrain themselves on current deal with TPLF’s regime about the Oromo protest behind the curtail without the consent of peoples in Ethiopia and particularly in this case the Oromos.

Peace and justice shall prevail!

Frankfurt, Germany

9 Apri 2016

Illicit financial outflows from Ethiopia: Migrant Workers Find $356,246 In Chinese Airport, Return Cash Back To Owners: Three Woyane (TPLF) travelers claimed the lost money. It was wrapped up with Ethiopian Airlines official bag April 11, 2016

Posted by OromianEconomist in Illicit financial outflows from Ethiopia, Uncategorized.
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Odaa Oromoo

Three Woyane travelers claimed the lost money. It was wrapped up with Ethiopian Airlines official bag

(National Helm) — Two Chinese migrant workers found $356,246 cash in airport and returned it to three travelers from‪ Ethiopia. The migrant workers who were working on a construction project in southern China‬‘s Guangzhou Baiyun International Airport Friday found a white paper bag containing bulks of US dollar bills unattended.

The workers reported the situation to the police and later on met three Ethiopian travelers who came to claim the lost. The migrant workers’ move won lots of praises after the story went viral.


 

http://www.nationalhelm.net/2016/04/migrant-workers-find-356246-in-chinese.html


 

IPS: Ethiopia’s (Fascist TPLF) Smoldering Oromo. #OromoProtests April 11, 2016

Posted by OromianEconomist in #OromoProtests.
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Odaa OromooNo To Fascist TPLF Ethiopia's genocidal militarism and mass killings in Oromia, Ethiopia#OromoProtests against the Ethiopian regime fascist tyranny. Join the peaceful movement for justice, democracy, development and freedom of Oromo and other oppressed people in Ethiopiaagazi-fascist-tplf-ethiopias-forces-attacking-unarmed-and-peaceful-oromoprotests-in-baabichaa-town-central-oromia-w-shawa-december-10-20151Abay Tsehaye TPLF fascist mass killerTigrean Neftengna's land grabbing and the Addis Ababa Master plan for Oormo genocide


 

 

Ethiopia’s Smoldering Oromo


 By James Jeffrey, Inter Press Service, April 11, 2016

 

The Ethiopian government’s most serious domestic political crisis in more than a decade began over a scruffy football field appropriated by local officials for development.

After students responded by taking to the streets of Ginchi, a small town 80km from the capital, Addis Ababa, their protest was quickly quelled. But a spark had been lit for what has turned into an outpouring of grievances by the Oromo—Ethiopia’s largest ethnic group, accounting for about a third of the country’s 95 million population.

As protests spread, they ostensibly focused on a plan to expand the Ethiopian capital’s city limits into Oromia—the largest of the federal republic’s nine regional states and two city states—which encircles Addis Ababa.

Land in Ethiopia—all of which is government owned—has become an increasingly contentious issue as Ethiopia has opened up to the world, reflecting a worldwide trend particularly effecting developing countries such as Ethiopia.

Globally, investors are increasingly looking to investments not linked to volatile equities and bonds: other countries’ land. And few have attracted as much attention as Ethiopia, with its lowlands watered by the tributaries of the Blue Nile, a particularly bountiful draw.

The Ethiopian government has been on the front foot and quick to respond to such interest, and since around 2009 has leased about 2.5 million hectares to more than 50 foreign investors, from the likes of India, Turkey, Pakistan, China, Sudan and Saudi Arabia.

The so-called Addis Ababa Integrated Development Master Plan was seen as fitting a disturbing trend by the Oromo—many of whom are smallholder farmers—and they weren’t having any more of it. Ethiopia’s security forces are well equipped to deal with protests and unrest, although such has been the scale of the Oromo protests that security forces have been stretched. But even after the Oromo People’s Democratic Organisation—the regional arm of the Ethiopian government—shelved the plan, a government back down described as historic by many, protests continued.

“The widespread, sustained and recurring protests are clear messages of no confidence by a young and restless segment of the population which is driven by a feeling of marginalization,” stated a February editorial in Addis Ababa-based Fortune newspaper.

Many observers in Ethiopia, local and foreigners alike, note that although protests have taken an ethnic-based identity and focused on land, other deeper issues behind them—corruption, unfair elections, political and socioeconomic marginalisation—are familiar to many disenchanted Ethiopian voters.

Numbers of those killed since November given by international rights organisations, activists and observers range from 80 to 250-plus.

Some Addis Ababa residents suggest such numbers are preferable to even higher numbers if the government lost control of a situation that could, they argue, spiral into anarchy.

For against the narrative of a typically brutal Ethiopian government crackdown that brooks no dissent, there have been reports of looting, and organised armed gangs attacking foreign-owned factories, and private and governmental buildings. Even churches were damaged during a particularly violent flare up in the south in February.

Ethiopian citizens had a right to question the master plan but protests were hijacked by people looking to incite violence, according to Getachew Reda, a government spokesperson.

“You shouldn’t define a largely peaceful movement by this,” says a security analyst who focuses on Ethiopia for an Africa-based research organisation.

Despite February’s trouble in the south, many observers in Ethiopia say the majority of protests were peaceful, involving Oromo from across the demographic spectrum airing widely held grievances.

“It is also about competent government structure,” says Daniel Berhane, a prominent Addis Ababa-based political blogger, covering Ethiopia for the website Horn Affairs. “You have got ministries next door to each other not talking, and at every level—regional, zone or district—governmental staff arguing about who is responsible while criticising each other.”

“People have a perception of lack of competence in governance on the ground,” Daniel adds.

The government heeded the call of the people, according to Getachew, and observers say the government deserves credit for listening about the master plan.

But, more importantly, these same observers add, the government must allow Ethiopians to exercise their constitutional right to protest, and handle events in a way that does not escalate.

Protests have often resulted in deployment of military forces to support federal police, both regularly accused of ruthless suppression, with the perceived unaccountability of Ethiopia’s security forces added to the list of grievances, the analyst says.

There have even been reports of police taking head shots and shooting people in the back. But such alleged actions by police in remote locations, with backup often hundreds of miles away, defy logic as they would result in such a ferocious backlash by the local populace, according to a foreign politico in Addis Ababa.

This individual also suggested that some local militia, ostensibly part of state security but who sided with protestors and turned against federal forces, fired from behind women and children at police. Numbers of state security forces killed haven’t been released.

Nevertheless, shooting at protesters, as well as arbitrary arrests, especially of students—who initially formed the body of protests—have a long track record in Ethiopia, preceding this government back to during the brutal military dictatorship that ruled between 1974 and 1991.

Many who fled that period now compose part of the large Ethiopian diaspora, with the government claiming foreign-based opposition bolstered by US-based social media activists is manipulating the situation to its own ends.

“The diaspora magnifies news of what is happening, yes, but no matter how much it agitates it cannot direct at village level in Ethiopia—this is about dissatisfaction,” says Jawar Mohammed, executive director of US-based broadcaster Oromia Media Network, strongly criticised by the government and some non-government observers for fomenting conflict.

Imprisonment of leaders of the Oromo Federalist Congress party, Oromia’s largest legally registered political party, along with thousands of other Oromo political prisoners, makes negotiating a lasting solution a tall order, Jawar says.

Governance in today’s Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia—to use its full title—exhibits an inherent tension.

A decentralised system of ethnic federalism jars with the Ethiopian People’s Revolutionary Democratic Front ruling party’s authoritarian one-party developmental state style of leadership, similar to China’s.

“The political space has increasingly narrowed, becoming uneven, non-competitive and unwelcoming…contrary to the diversity of desires and interests in Ethiopian society,” states the same editorial.

It is a long way from the heady hopeful days of Ethiopia’s new federal constitution after the overthrow of the military dictatorship in 1991.

“The ruling government is a victim of its own success—the constitution it developed made promises and people trusted the EPRDF,” the analyst says. “Now people are demanding those rights and the government is responding with bullets and violence.”

The analyst acknowledges the government deserves credit for creating a constitution that is the best fit for an ethnically diverse country like Ethiopia, and for expanding basic services, infrastructure, respecting different cultural and ethnic identities, and better integrating Ethiopia’s large Muslim population.

But, the analyst adds, this federal constitution espouses a liberal philosophy that the government appears unable to reconcile with its decision-making processes.

The government’s hitherto successful job of holding together this particularly heterogeneous federation is not about to crumble tomorrow, observers note.

But things may get worse before they get better, unless underlying sources of friction and frustration are addressed.

The government has since acknowledged there was insufficient consultation with those likely to be effected by the master plan.

And during his latest six-monthly performance report to Parliament in March, Prime Minister Hailemariam Desalegn apologised to those who lost family members during protests, while the government has suggested there will be investigations into allegations of police brutality.

What is happening in Ethiopia could be a foretaste of what is to come elsewhere, as forces of global markets—including a growing global urban population in more developed nations that eats more than it farms—clash with indigenous desires to protect historical homelands.

“A fundamental tenet of the ruling party at its creation was its social democratic focus on farmers, who still make up 80 per cent of the country,” Daniel says. “It cannot suddenly become capitalist.”

http://www.globalissues.org/news/2016/04/11/21991

Appeal for urgent action to UNHCR :Oromo Refugees in Egypt need immediate protection April 11, 2016

Posted by OromianEconomist in Oromo, Oromo Refugees in Egypt.
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Odaa Oromoo Oromo refugees in Egypt, we need protection

 

Appeal for urgent action


 

Oromo Refugees in Egypt need your immediate protection
To: The United Nations Higher Commission for Refugees (UNHCR),
Geneva,


Australian Oromo Community Association expresses its deep concern about the rejection of Oromo refugee appeal for protection and resettlement case. We appeal to request your immediate action on a very urgent demand, particularly, that involving Oromo refugees living in Cairo, Egypt.
Oromo refugees fled their homeland to various neighboring countries to rescue their lives and their families. Majority experienced years of detention, torture and suffering behind bars while others escaped due to fear for their lives as the results of occurrences of unbearable human right violations in Ethiopia. Commonly, Oromo refugees have fled from the extra-judicial killings, removal from their properties and land confiscation, illegal arrests, trials without evidence, torture, and constant humiliations.
Therefore, rejection of their refugee case appeal for resettlement and protection means not only making them hopelessness and darken their futurity but also devastating for them as they are left without a guarantee from not to be deported back to Ethiopia that certainly exposing them to detention, torture, and possible death.
The Australian Oromo Community Association intensely concern for the physical and emotional well-being of these refugees and their families. We utterly believe these genuine Oromo refugees are forced to flee persecution and desperately search for safety and protection from violence and intimidation. They are in an extreme situation that needs your prompt action.
Regarding this urgent matter, the Australian Oromo Community Association appeals for your supportive action, and sincerely request to consider their case and continue processing their protection status and resettlement process in third countries. Please show your kind sympathy instantly to save these very vulnerable innocent Oromo refugees’ life in Cairo, Egypt.
Thank you for consideration of our concern and this urgent matter.


 

VIDEO: Oromo refugees protest for registration outside UNHCR Egypt

http://english.ahram.org.eg/NewsContentMulti/198854/Multimedia.aspx

Green Left Weekly: Oromo protest displacement and death. #OromoProtests Global Rally April 10, 2016

Posted by OromianEconomist in #OromoProtests, Africa, Oromia, Oromo.
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Odaa Oromootweet tweet #OromoProtests

Ethiopia: Oromo protest displacement and death

 By Belen Fernandez,  Green Left Weekly, Saturday, April 9, 2016
Members of the Oromo community in Melbourne protest against the Ethiopian regime, 9 April 2016
Members of the Oromo community in Melbourne protest against the Ethiopian regime,  Photos: Ali Bakhtiarvandi.

“This government is at least better than previous ones,” remarked a 74-year-old Eritrean man to me last month in the Ethiopian capital of Addis Ababa, his longtime residence.

As it turned out, his assessment of the relative superiority of the current Ethiopian administration was for good reason: two of his children had been killed by a previous ruling outfit, the Derg military junta that took power in 1974 and began eliminating suspected opponents in droves.

Although that particularly bloody epoch came to an end in 1991, many a resident of Ethiopia might nowadays still have cause to complain about homicidal activity by the state.

In the Oromia region surrounding Addis Ababa, for example, there are claims that more than 200 people have been killed by Ethiopian security forces since November 2015, when protests broke out in response to the government’s so-called “Master Plan” to expand the boundaries of the capital by a factor of 20.

As a Newsweek article explains, the Oromo inhabitants of the region viewed the plan as “an attempted land grab that could result in the forced eviction of Oromo farmers and the loss of valuable arable land in a country regularly plagued by drought.”

This was no doubt a valid concern given the government’s established tradition of wantonly displacing Ethiopians in the interest of “development” — that handy euphemism for removing human obstacles to the whims of international and domestic investment capital.

Apparently, torture has also been a difficult habit for security forces to break.

Comprising some 35% of the population, the Oromo are Ethiopia’s largest ethnic group and have regularly decried discrimination by the ruling coalition party, the Ethiopian People’s Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF), which is dominated by ethnic Tigrayan interests.

Politically motivated detention, incarceration, and other abuses have long characterised the landscape in Oromia, and the current protests have seen children as young as eight arrested.

And while the government has opted to shelve the Master Plan for now, protests in Oromia have continued. When I recently visited the town of Woliso, one of many protest sites in the region, residents pointed out that cancelling the plan wouldn’t bring back the dead people.

Events in Oromia have been described as the worst civil unrest in a decade.
Even without the Master Plan, meanwhile, the government is doing a decent job of courting investors. As I travelled west from Addis Ababa toward Woliso – a journey of about two hours — I passed sprawling factory complexes, including one featuring a Turkish flag flying alongside its more indigenous counterparts.

Launched in 2010 with a price tag of US$140 million, the Turkish-owned Ayka Addis factory is said to occupy several hundred thousand square meters of land.

The website of the Ethiopian Investment Commission furthermore lists Ayka Addis as one of “a number of private Industrial Zones” in Ethiopia, described as “success stories.”

Indeed, the EPRDF can point to double-digit economic growth over recent years to justify plowing ahead with its development model. But there’s more to life than GDP – as sizable poverty-stricken sectors of the Ethiopian population can presumably confirm.

About 200,000 people were reportedly in danger of trachoma-induced blindness in Oromia alone.

We might also take a look at the estimated 10.2 million Ethiopians currently “in need of urgent food assistance” — as reported, perhaps ironically, in a March edition of the English-language Ethiopian newspaper Capital, “the paper that promotes free enterprise.”

Additional troublesome statistics are contained in a 2014 BBC dispatch titled “The village where half the people are at risk of blindness.” The village in question is Kuyu, located in the Oromia region; the risk is due to infectious trachoma, “the world’s leading cause of preventable blindness.”

In the end, a lot of people in Oromia and beyond might have greater priorities than, say, income tax immunity for international developers.

[Abridged from TeleSUR English.]

https://www.greenleft.org.au/node/61511


 

Indigenous Crops Promoting Health and Contributing to Food Security April 10, 2016

Posted by OromianEconomist in Uncategorized.
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Odaa OromooAncootee

 

 

Restoring interest and investment in indigenous crops may offer a solution to food insecurity and the increasing loss of biodiversity. Some traditional plant varieties can help improve nutrition and health, improve local economies, create resilience to climate change, revitalize agricultural biodiversity, and help preserve tradition and culture.

For example, the World Vegetable Center (AVRDC)’s Vegetable Genetic Resources System and Slow Food International’s Ark of Taste are working to catalog indigenous species of fruits and vegetables around the world. And Bioversity International, a research organization in Italy, is delivering scientific evidence, management practices, and policy options to use and safeguard biodiversity among trees and agriculture to achieve sustainable global food and nutrition security.

Botanical Explorer Joseph Simcox travels around the world, documenting and tasting thousands of crops. He traverses the wilderness, interviews villagers, and searches markets across the globe for rare and indigenous crops. Joseph helps preserve species and varieties that are in danger of extinction, improving biodiversity and distributing rare seeds to the public.

Food Waste: from field to fork

originally posted in Food tank blog

According to the U.N. Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), just twelve crops provide 75 percent of the world’s food. Three of these crops, rice, maize, and wheat contribute to nearly 60 percent of the protein and calories obtained by humans from plants. Since the beginning of the 20th century, some 75 percent of plant genetic diversity has been lost.

Restoring interest and investment in indigenous crops may offer a solution to food insecurity and the increasing loss of biodiversity. Some traditional plant varieties can help improve nutrition and health, improve local economies, create resilience to climate change, revitalize agricultural biodiversity, and help preserve tradition and culture.

For example, the World Vegetable Center (AVRDC)’s Vegetable Genetic Resources System and Slow Food International’s Ark of Taste are working to catalog indigenous species of fruits and vegetables around the world. And Bioversity International, a research organization in…

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UNDP: Multidimensional Poverty Index: Ethiopia has the second highest percentage of people who are MPI poor in the world: of Ten Poorest Countries in The World (All in #Africa) – MPI 2015 Ranking April 10, 2016

Posted by OromianEconomist in Africa, Africa Rising, African Poor, Economics: Development Theory and Policy applications, Ethiopia the least competitive in the Global Competitiveness Index, Ethiopia's Colonizing Structure and the Development Problems of People of Oromia, Afar, Ogaden, Sidama, Southern Ethiopia and the Omo Valley, Free development vs authoritarian model, Growth and Inequqlity, Poverty, The extents and dimensions of poverty in Ethiopia, Uncategorized.
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Multidimensional Poverty Index: Ethiopia has the second highest percentage of people who are MPI poor in the world: of Ten Poorest Countries in The World (All in #Africa) – MPI 2015 Ranking

According to UNDP Ethiopia is the second poorest country in the world


 

population in multidimensional povertyEthiopia, who servives in trashAfrica is still struggling with poverty


 

‘Human development is a process of enlarging people’s choices—as they acquire more capabilities and enjoy more opportunities to use those capabilities. But human development is also the objective, so it is both a process and an outcome. Human development implies that people must influence the process that shapes their lives. In all this, economic growth is an important means to human development, but not the goal. Human development is development of the people through building human capabilities, for the people by improving their lives and by the people through active participation in the processes that shape their lives. It is broader than other approaches, such as the human resource approach, the basic needs approach and the human welfare approach.’ -UNDP 2015 Report

 


Ethiopia’s HDI value for 2014 is 0.442— which put the country in the low human development category— positioning it at 174 out of 188 countries and territories.

In Ethiopia 88.2 percent of the population (78,887 thousand people) are multidimensionally poor while an additional 6.7 percent live near multidimensional poverty (6,016 thousand people). The breadth of deprivation (intensity) in Ethiopia, which is the average of deprivation scores experienced by people in multidimensional poverty, is 60.9 percent. The MPI, which is the share of the population that is multidimensionally poor, adjusted by the intensity of the deprivations, is 0.537. Rwanda and Uganda have MPIs of 0.352 and 0.359 respectively. Ethiopia, UNDP country notes

 


 

(Sunday Adelaja’s Blog) — When Poverty and non-existent double digit growth met face-to-Face at a dumpster site called KORA in Ethiopia. As we speak, thousands of people in Addis Ababa survive from the leftover “food” dumped in such dumpsters. People, in fact, used to call them “Dumpster Dieters”. They are either the byproducts or victims of the cooked economic figures. You be the judge!

Yet the new measurement known as the Multidimensional Poverty Index, or MPI, that will replace the Human Poverty index in the United Nations’ annual Human Development Report says that Ethiopia has the second highest percentage of people who are MPI poor in the world, with only the west African nation of Niger fairing worse. You probably heard that Ethiopia has been a fast growing economy in the content recording very high growth rate not just in Africa but the world as well.

This comes as more international analysts have also began to question the accuracy of the Meles government’s double digit economic growth claims and similar disputed government statistics referred by institutions like the IMF. The list starts with the poorest.

  1. Niger
  2. Ethiopia
  3. Mali
  4. Burkina Faso
  5. Burundi
  6. Somalia
  7. Central African Republic
  8. Liberia
  9. Guinea
  10. Sierra Leone

What is the MPI?

People living in poverty are affected by more than just income. The Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) complements a traditional focus on income to reflect the deprivations that a poor person faces all at once with respect to education, health and living standard. It assesses poverty at the individual level, with poor persons being those who are multiply deprived, and the extent of their poverty being measured by therange of their deprivations.

 

Why is the MPI useful?

According to the UNDP report, the MPI is a high resolution lens on poverty – it shows the nature of poverty better than income alone. Knowing not just who is poor but how they are poor is essential for effective humandevelopment programs and policies. This straightforward yet rigorous index allows governments and other policymakers to understand the various sources of poverty for a region, population group, or nation and target their humandevelopment plans accordingly. The index can also be used to show shifts in the composition of poverty over time so that progress, or the lack of it, can be monitored.

The MPI goes beyond previous international measures of poverty to:

Oromo TV: GABAASA OROMO TV IRRAA HAALA HIRIIRA NAGAA Australia -2016. #OromoProtests Global Solidarity Rally (Australia) April 10, 2016

Posted by OromianEconomist in #OromoProtests, Africa.
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Odaa Oromootweet tweet #OromoProtests#OromoProtests global solidarity rally organised by the Australian Oromo community in Melbourne, 10 March 2016 p2

 

Saba Oromoo fi Sirna Gadaa (The history of the Oromo nation and the Gadaa System) April 10, 2016

Posted by OromianEconomist in Ancient African Direct Democracy, Gadaa System, Oromia, Oromiyaa, Oromo, Oromo Nation, Oromummaa, Sirna Gadaa, The Oromo Democratic system, The Oromo Governance System, Uncategorized.
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Photogadaa system, parties.png, p1

Saba Oromoo Fi Sirna Gadaa

Dhibbaa alagaa bitamuu waggaa dhibbaa Oromoo irra turuurraa kan ka’e hedduun ummata Oromoo har’a Oromummaa isaa haa beeku malee, seenaa ummanni kun keessa dabree as ga’e ragaa qorannoon deggaramee barreeyfame irraa wanti inni hubatu baay’ee xiqqaadha.
Ammaas tanaan seenaa ummaata guddaa kanaa guutumatti barreeyfamee jira jachuu utuu hin ta’in gaaffiilee Oromoon tokko ofgaafatuufiis tahee, seenaa dharaa diinni Oromoo irratti odeessuuf deebii ga’aa ni taha waan jedhamuuf; kunoo seenaa Oromoo kan sab-boontoota ilmaan Oromootiin haala rakkisaa keessaaa barreeyfamee, akka ummaata keenya gargaaruuf asirratti maxxansine. Nuti maxxansitootni kan keessa qabnu gulaala dogongora qubee dabree dabree mul’atuufi maxxansaa qofa malee, qophiin isaa kan sab-boontoota ilmaan Oromoo tahuu isaa osoo hin hubachiisne bira hin tarru.

Barbaachisummaan barreeyfama kanaa bal’inaan seenaa irratti waan kaa’amee jiruuf, Oromoon ani eenyu? Maddi koo eessa? Daangaan koo eessa? Firaafii diinni koo eenyu kan jedhu hundi haala gahaatiin deebii quubsaa akka argachuu dandayu shakkii hin qabnu.

Sirna gadaa

Hamma kiyyoo kolonii jala hin seeniniti Oromoon sirna ittiin bulan kan mataa isaanii qabau turan. Maqaan sirna kanaas Gadaa jedhama. Sirni kuniis bal’aa ture. Dhimma jireenya ummata Oromoo fuula hundaan kan ilaalu sirna siyaasa, aada diinagdeefi amantiiti. Sirna hawaasaa guutuu ture jechuudha. Sirni Gadaa sirnaafi seera Oromoonni ittiin walbulchu, kan duulee roorroo ofirraa ittisu, kan dinagdee isaa ittiin tikfatuufi dagaagfatu, akkaata inni itti waliin jiraatuufi kan hawwiin dhala Oromoo cufa ittiin guutu ture.

Sirn kun haala Oromoonni tokkummaan isaanii laaffate kan itti roorrisaa turan Habashaafi Affaar ofirraa deebisuu dadhabe keessatti, haala hawaasaa ilaalerraa, jaarraa 14ffaa keessa biqiluu jalqabee suuta guddatee deeme. Oromoota sirna akkasii jalatti qindeessuudhaaf yeroo dheeraa fudhate. Oromoota gosatti hiraman walitti fidanii sirna tokko jalatti walitti qabuun kufaatiifi ka’uumsaa yeroo dheeraa gaafate. Gara walakkaa jaarraa 15faa isa lammaffaa keessa sirna gutuun argamuu dandaye.

Akkaata himamsa aadaa Boorana kibbaa keessatti yeroon itti Gadaan dhaabbate kanumaan walkipha. Akka mangoddoonni Booranaa himanitti Gadaa jaaruuf yaalii dheeraan eega godhame booda, Gadaan yeroo dheeraaf bifa hojechuu dandayu dhaabbate. Gadaa kanatti Abbaan Gadaa Gadayyoo Galgaloo ture. Raabni isaa (yeroosii) Yaayyaa Gulleelee jedhama ture. Eega gaafasii jalqabee Booranni Abbootii Gadaa 61 lakkaawa. Kanarraa waggaa saddeet saddeetiin yoo herrgne (Gadaan tokko waggaa 8) 61X8 = 488 taha. Eega Gadaan ijaarame, akka himamsa manguddootti Booranatti waggaa 488 taha jechuudha. Barri isaa 1499tti dhihaata. Kanaaf, sirni kun ijaaramuun isaa walakkaa jaarraa 15ffaa isa lammaffaa keessa kan jedhame dhugaa taha.

Sirna Gadaa keessatti wanni hundi gadaan walilaala. Lakkooysi yeroo, aadaan, amantiin, jireenyi hawaasaa, ittisi biyyaafi kkf hundi hidhata Gadaa qabu, fakkeenyaaf sadarkaalee Gadaa, goggeessa Gadaa, abaluu abaluu..jiru. kun, eegaa Gadaan sirna kabajamaafi guutuu akka ture mirkanessa.

Bara itti Gadaan sirna gutuu ture sana akka silaa tahutti galmeessuun hindandaymane. Hammi galmeeyfame baay’ee yaraadha. Sana keessaahillee irra guddaan kan baroota dhihooti. Waa’een isaa hammi beekamu baay’ee yaraadha. Guddinaan odeeffannoon argaman oduu afaaniin kan daddabraniidha. Isaaniis bakka bakkati garagar tahu. Sunillee Gadaan Caffe Caffetti deebi’uu haa agarsiisu malee, tokkummaa sirna kanaaf ragaa kan tahu haftee sirna kan Gadaa Booranaa har’aalee haga taheefuu hojjataa jiruudha. Kanaaf, waa’ee sirna Gadaarratti hangi hubatame xiqqaadha. Waliigalatti sirna kana caalatti hubachuudhaaf qormaata cimaa sirna Gadaa kan mul’isan armaan gaditti ilaalla.

uunkaa jereenya hawaasaa
siyaasaa sirna Gadaa
aadaa sirna gadaa
amantii sirna gadaa
1.  Uunkaa jireenya hawaasaa

Hawaasa keessatti dhalli namaa kophaa hinjiraatu. Kophaas hindalagu. Namoota biraa wajji jiraata, hojjataas. Jireenyi dhala namaa walitti hidhaataadha. Hawaasa Oromoo bara Gadaa keessaa yoo fudhannee akkaataa jiruufii jireenya Oromoo, akkaataa qoodama dalagaa, hariiroo ummanni Oromoo hawaasa keessatti waliinqabau, sirna Gadaa keessatti qaama tokko. Akkaataan polotikaa sirnichaas uunkaa jireenyya hawaasa Oromootti hidhamee jira.

Uunkaa jireenya hawaasa sirna Gadaa keessaa hubachuuf waan kanaa gadii hubachuun barbaachisaadha. Suniis:

a.   Goggeessa Gadaa (Miseensaa) fi Marsaa Gadaa

b.  Hiriyyaa

c.   Ilmaan jaarsaafii ilmaan Kormaa

d.  Sadarkaalee Gadaafi Murnoota Gadaa

a.   Gaggeessa Gadaa(miseensa) fi Marsaa Gadaa:

Gadaan tokko waggaa saddeet qaba. Waggaa saddeettan waliin GADAA TOKKOTTI YEROO ITTI AANGOON polotikaa warra Gadaa tokko harka jiraatuudha. Kanaaf, Gadaan waggaa saddeet saddeetiin lakkaawama. Waljijjiiraas. Waggaan saddeettan Gadaa tokko maqaa mataa isaa qabaata. Gadaa tokkicha maqaa adda addaa qabaatu. Kun Goggeessa Gadaa ykn miseensa jedhamee waamama. Kun hawaasa Oromoo keessaa, bakka gargaraatti maqaa adda addaa qabata. Jechuun:-

Boorana keessatti- Goggeessa Gadaa jedhama.

Tuulama keessatti- Miseensa jedhama.

Arsii keessatti- Miseensa jedhama.

Gujii keessatti-Baallii jedhama.

Ituu keessatti-Miseensa jedhama.

Qormaata Gadaa Oromoo bakka bakkaarratti godhameen lakkooysi Goggeessa gadaa bakka heddutti shan. Kan kanarraa adda tahees nijiraa. Fakkeenyaaf Boorana keessatti Goggeessa Gadaa torba qabaatu jira. Maqaan isaaniifi tartiibni isaaniia kopha kophaafi beekamaadha. Hoggaa Goggeessi Gadaa jiran tartiibaan deemanii raaw’atan gara isa jalqabaatti deebi’uudhaan marsaa tokko tahu. Goggeessi Gadaa tokko bakka heddutti waggaa 40 booda malee, hin deebi’u. Fakkeenyaaf Ituu keessatti Goggeessi Gadaa (missensi) jiran, Hormaata, Sabbaaqa, Dibbeessa, Fadataafi Daraaraadha. Kanneen tariiba maqaa Gadaawwan waggaa saddeet saddeetiin deeman tahanii Daraaraan gaafa raaw’ate Hormaatatti deebi’a jechuudha. Yeroon kun itti raaw’atee deebi’ee marsuuf naannawuu marsaa Gadaa tokko taha. Marsaan Gadaa tokkoo waggaa 40 qabaata. Goggeessi Gadaa shanan, walitti marsaa Gadaa shanan jalqabarraa ka’anii tartiibaan deemanii xumuramanii marsuuf gara isa jalqabaatti kan deebi’an kun “marsaa Gadaa(Gadaa cycle)” jedhama.

Yeroo idiletti laalamu jireenya nam tokkoo keessatti, Marsaa Gadaa lamaatu jira. Isaaniis, Marsaan duraa Gadaa abbaa yeroo tahu, inni lammaffaa Gadaa ilmaati. Ilmi Marsaa tokko fixee, Gadaan isaa kan abbaa tahe, kan itti aanu kan ilmaan isaa taha jechuudha. Akkuma kanatti itti fufee dabra.

Eega, bakka heddutti Marsaan Gadaa waggaa 40 akka qabaatu olitti ilaalleerra. Arsii keessatti miseensi Gadaa tokko waggaa 16 waan qabuuf kanarraa adda. Kanarraa Marsaan Gadaa Arsii keessatti waggaa 80 taha jechuudha.dagaagina keessaa Gadaan eega Caffetti qoodamee, as lakkooysifi maqaan Goggeessota Gadaa Marsaa Gadaa tokko keessa jiranii bakka adda addaa tahuun mul’ateera. Kanaas, qabsiisuuf armaa gaditti mee haa ilaallu. Maqaan Goggeessota Gadaa bakka garagaraatti:-

Goggeessa Gadaafi Marsaan Gadaa waan hiriyymummaafi aangoo polotika ilaaluun hariiroo murteessa qabu. Sanaas bal’inaan booda laalla.

B. Hiriyyaa:-

Hiriyyaan warra goggeessi Gadaa isaanii tokko taheedha. Kana jechuuniis hawaasa Oormoo keessatti warrii waggaa Gadaa keessatti dhalatan hundiifi kan maqaan Goggeessa Gadaa isaanii yoo dulloomoo tahanillee wal’irraa bu’ee yookaa tokko tahee hiriyyaadha. Ijoolleen waggaa Gadaa 1-8 jidduufi gaheeyyiin waggaa Gadaa 45-56 jidduu yoo Goggeessi Gadaa isaanii tokko tahe hiriyyaa tokko jedhamu. Marsaan Gadaa naannawutti walitti fidee ijoolleefi jaarsoolii hiriyyaa taasisaa. Marsaan Gadaafi Goggeessi Gadaa akkanatti hiriyyummaa murteessu. Hawaasa Oromoo keessatti hiriyyaan akka obbaleeyyaniitti wal’ilaalu. Ayyaana gurguddaafi beekamoorratti hiriyyaan wal argee waliin turuudhaan walfaarsa. Jaalalti walii, walamanuun, waliif dhimmuun, walgargaaruun…kkf hiriyyaa biratti jabaadha. Aangoo polotikaa keessatti paartii tokko tahu.

Kanaf, hiriyyummaan karaa hawaassfi polotikaa Oromootaa walitti hidhuudha. Waa’een hiriyyaa hoggaa akkas tahu, ijoolleefi ga’eessoota maaltu walitti fidee hiriyyaa godha? Gaaffiin jedhu ka’uun nimala. Gaaffi kana deebisuuf, nama Goggeessa Gadaa isaatiin Gadaa keenya jedha. Gadaa isaa faarsa, kabaja. Kanarraa akka ilaalcha polotikaa baraatti hubachuuf waan Paartii ilaaluun gaarii taha. Hawaasa keessatti paartiileen uumamtu turan jechuudha. Goggeessi Gadaa shanan paartiilee shan kan ijoolleefii manguddoota hiriyyaa godhuus paartii tokkicha waliin qabaachuudha.

c. Ilmaan kormaafi Ilmaan jaarsaa:

sirna Gadaa keessatti Ilmaan kormaafi Ilmaan Jaarsaa qoodameef beekama. Kan hawaasa bakka lamatti qooduudha. Kun jireenya hawaasa Oromoo bara sirna Gadaa keesaatti akkaataa Qabannoo aangoo polotikaa kan murteessuudha. Warra aangoo polotikaa qabachuuf deemaniifi kanatti hawasa qooda. Kuniis, waggaa Gadaa wajjiin walitti hidhataadha. Carraan aangoo polotikaa keessaa qooda qabaachuufi dhiisuun isaa yeroo itti dhalaterratti hundeeyfama. Kanaaniis ilmaan Oromoo yeroo dhalatanirraa kaasee ilmaan kormaafi ilmaan Jaarsaatti qoodamu. Akkaataan qoodamaa kuniis, seera umamaa kan hordofu qaba.

Ijoolleen Abbootiin isaanii sadarkaalee Gadaa keessa seenanii yeroo isaan aangoo polotikaa qabachuttii dhihaatan ykn qabatan (gadooma keessa) dhalatan ” ilmaan kormaa” jedhamu. Isaaniis, bara Gadooma abbootii isaanii keessa (waggaa 40 abbootii isaanii eeganii) kan dhalatan waan tahaniif sadarkaa Gadaa keessa seenuudhaan miseensa paartii tahuu dandayan. Kanaaf aangoo polotikaa keessaa qooda fudhachuu dandayu.

Ilmaan Gadooma abbootii isaanii (aangoo polotikaa qabachuu) dura ykn booda dhalataniifi abbootiin sadarkaalee Gadaa seenuu hindandeenyerraa dhalatan hundi “ilmaan jaarsaa” jedhamu. Ilman jaarsaa warra sadarkaalee Gadaa seenanii miseensa paartii tahuu hindandeenyedha. Kanaafiis aangoo polotikaa keessaa warraa qooda fudhachuu hin dandeenyeedha. Ilmaan jaarsaa warra waliin dhalatan hundaan hiriyyaa tahuu dandayu, jechuun ilmaan kormaa wajjiinillee hiriyyaa walii tahuu dandayu.

Eega, hawaasa keessatti Gadoomuuf carraa kan qaban ilmaan kormaa thuu hubanne. Ilmaan kormaa gaafa dhalatanirraa kaasee sadarkaalee Gadaa seenanii akkuma gudachaa deemaniin dalagaa garagaraarratti dirqama polotikaafiis qophaawan. Kun dirqama isaaniiti. Ilmaan jaarsaa garuu, waa’een waan qoratamuufi baratamu hundaaf dirqamuun yoo hawaasicha keessa jiraachuu dandayuuf tahe malee, itti hin dirqaman. Ilmaan Oromoo akkanatti qoodamuun bakka heddutti mul’ate. Gadaa Boorana, Maccaa, Tuulamaafii Gujii keessatti qoodamni kun jira. Qoodamni yoo hinjiraanne tarii Gadaa Arsii, Ituufi Humbanna keessatii tahuu hin’oolu.

d. Sadarkaalee Gadaafi Murnoota Gadaa:

Akkaataa waggaa dhalootaatiin gurmuu ykn murni ilmaan kormaa tartiibaan keessa dabran sadarkaa Gadaa jedhama. Sadarkaan Gadaa maqaa gurmuu waggaa dhaloota ilmaan kormaati jechuudha. Gurmuu kanaan akkaataan jiruufi jireenya dhala Oromoo hundaatu keessatti murtaawa. Ilmaan kormaatu kormaatu keessa daddabran yoo tahellee, jirenya dhala Oromoo karaa polotikaa, amanti, aadaa, dinagdeefi waraanaafi kkf keessatti kan ilaalu addatti maqaa haaqabaatan malee akkaataan guddinaa, dalagaafii jireenyaa, kan ilmaan Jaarsaa wajjiin tokkuma. Karaa polotikaatiin garuu, garaagarummaa guddaatu jira. Tahullee sadarkaaleen Gadaa jiruuf jireenya dhala Oromoo mara calaqqisiisa. Sadarkaalee Gadaa garagaraakeessatti ilmaan Oromoo dirqama (dalagaa) adda addaatu isa eeggata. Yeroon isaas osoo hin gahinnillee waan beekamuuf sadarkaa itti aanuuf isa qopheessaa ture.

Sadarkaa Gadaa tokko waggaa saddeet qaba. Waggaa saddeet saddeettan kanaan namni Oromoo hamma gaafa dulloomee du’utti hawaasa keessatti bakkafi qoodama dalagaa qabaata. Sadarkaaleen Gadaa ilmaan kormaa keessa dabran bakka gariitti amala addaa yoo qabaatanillee waliigalatti akka armaa gadiitti keenya.

1. Dabballooma waggaa 0-8

2. Gaammoma waggaa 9- 16

3. Dargaggooma waggaa 17- 24

4. Kuusoma waggaa 25- 32

5. Raaboma waggaa 33 – 40

6. Gadooma waggaa 41- 48

7. Yubooma waggaa 49- 56

Gadaa Tuulamaa keessatti Gadoomni waggaa 32 – 40 gidduutii waan taheef kana yaadachiisuun barbaachisaadha. Armaa gaditti sadarkaalee Gadaa jiraniifi murnoota Gadaa isaanii laalla.

1.  Dabballooma

Kun jecha dabballee jedhamu kan Gadaa Booranaarraa fudhatameedha. Ijoolleen dhiiraa Gadooma abbaa isaanii keessatti dhalatan Dabballee jedhamanii yaamaman. Ijoolleen kun waggaa saddeet hamma fixaanitti Dabballetti beekamu, Boorana keessatti Dabballee haa jedhaman malee, bakka biraatti maqaa biraa qabu. Fakkeenyyaaf:

a.   Tuulam keessatti – Itti makoo jedhamu.

b.  Ituu keessatti – maxxarrii jedhamu.

c.   Gujii keessatti- Suluda jedhamu.

Sadarkaan Gadaa kun bakkayyuu waan jiruuf walitti qabatti Dabballoota jechuun hin badu. Dabballoomanii sadarkaa Gadaa isa dura ilmaan kormaa akka dhalataniin itti seenaniidha. Sadarkaa Gadaa kanatti ijoolleen hojii beekamaa hinqaban. Naannoo qa’ee turanii toohannoofi tajaajila guddaadhaan guddatan. Ilmaan kormaa sadarkaa kana:

a.   Boorana keessatti ilmaan Dooriiwwaniifi warra Gadaati.

b.  Tuulam keessatti Foollee jedhama

.

2. Gaammoma:-

jechi kun sadarkaa Gadaa Boornaa keessaa maqaa gaammee jedhamurraa kan fudhatameedha. Ilmaan kormaa sadrakaa Dabballoomaa fixan Gaammotti dabru. Waggaa 8 – 16tti akkaataa itti rifeensii isaanii qoramurraa yoo jedhame dhugaadharraa hin fagaatu. Ijoolleen dhiiraa sadarkaa Gammomaarra jiran:

a.   Booran keessatti – Gaammee xixiqqoo jedhamu.

b.  Tuulama keessatti – Dabballee jedhamu.

c.   Gujii keessatti – Dabballee jedhamu.

d.  Ituu keessatti – Ruuboo jedhamu.

Gaammoonni sadarkaa Gadaa yeroo itti ijoolleen jabbiilee tiksan, hojii warraarratti gargaaraniifi loon tiksaniidha. Dalagaa kanaafi kana fakkaatanitti haa bobbahan malee, sadarkaa kanatti tohannoo warraa ala hin bahan. Yeroo kanatti taphatanii caalatti walbaruu jalqabu.

1.  Dargaggooma

Yeroo kana kan itti dargaggooman waan taheef, sadarkaa Gadaa kanaas bakka gargaraatti maqaa garagaraa waan qabuuf sadarkaa kanaan, Dargaggooma jedhama. Ilmaan kormaa sadarkaa lammaffaa fixanii waggaa 16 – 24 jidduu:

a.   Booran keessatti – Gaammee Gurguddaa jedhamu

b.  Tuulam keessatti – Foollee jedhamu.

c.   Gujii keessatti – kuusa jedhamu.

d.  Ituu keessatti – Goobam jedhamu.

Dargaggoomni sadarkaa itti namichi toohannoo warraarraa hillee walaba tahaa deemuufi warrarraa fgaatee soch’auu dandayuudha. Akkasumas, yeroo itti jabina, beekumsafi jagnummaa ofii mul’isuu jalqaabniidha. Jiruu dhufataa deemuudhaan yeroo itti ofdandayutti tarkaanfataniidha. Hawaasichaa bu’aa buusuufiis kan keessatti ofqophessu. Dalagaarratti bobbahanii, loon fagaatanii bobbaasuu, ol’aantoota isaanii wajjiin deddeemuu, adamoo bahuufi bineessoota loonirraa ittisuudha.

4. kuusoma

kuusomni sadrkaa loltummaati. Naannoo garagaraatti ilmaan kormaa sadrkaa kanaa adda addaa qabaatanillee Booran keessatti kuusa waan jedhamaniif kanarraa fudhannee kuusoma ittiin jenne.

Murni kun:-

a.   Boorna keessatti – Kuusa jedhama.

b.  Tuulama keessatti – Qondaala jedhama.

c.   Gujii keessatti – Raaba jedhama.

d.  Ituu keessatti Raaba jedhama.

Hawaasa Oromoo bara sirna gadaa keessatti, kun murna lolu ture. Waggaa 25 – 32 jidduu kan tahan dirqama loltummaa qabu. Namuu roorroo biyyarra geesse ittisuuf waan ittiin lolu- xiyyaas tahee, eeboofii gaachana mataa isaatii qopheeyfatee farda lolaas qabaate taha. Lolli argamnaan akka dhagayeen qophaawee walgurmeessee duula. Kanatti dabalee waan dhimma biyyaa ilaalan yeroo kanaa kaasee qorachuu dandaya. Sadarkaan kun, Tuulamaafi Ituu keessatti yeroo itti ilmaan kormaa aangoo qabachuuf ofqophessan, sadarkaa 4ffaa tahuudhaanifi dirqama loltummaa qabaachuudhaan tokko yoo tahan kaanirraa kanaan adda bahu.

1.  Doorama

Bakka heddutti sadarkaa itti aangoo qabachuudhaaf ilmaan kormaa qophii barbaachisaa godhaniidha. Yeroo kana keessatti dhimma biyya, bulchiinsa, sera, aadaa, amantiifi seena dabre baratu. Waa’ee sirna Gadaa caalatti hubachuu dandayu. Haalli isaanii warra biyya bulchuu ykn qondaaloota Gadaa wajjiin walitti hidhataadha. Bakka warrii Gadaa itti murtii seeraa kennan, dubbii gosaa ilaalanfi marii godhanitti argamanii irraa baratu. Bakka aadaafi amantiitti argamanii sirna qalbifatu. Caffee yaa’ii Gadaarratti argamanii murtii kennuudhaan hojiidhaan ofqaru. Hayyoonniifi manguddoonni biyyaarraa qoratanii barachuudhaan beekumsa isaanii bal’ifatu. Biyya keessa sossohanii ummataan walbaruu, akkanatti aangoo polotikaaf ofqopheessu jechuudha.

Sadarkaan kun, Tuulamafi Ituu keessatti isa afraffaadha. Ilma kormaa sadarkaa kanaa, akkamu asii olitti kaa’ametti Tuulama keessatti qondaala, Ituu keessatti Raba jedhamu. Sadarkaan Gadooma isaanii waggaa 32- 40 jiddutti waan tahaniif, isaan keessatti dalagaa akkanaa (doorama) kan qaban wagaa 23-32 jidduutti kan jiran Tuulama keessatti Qondaala, Ituu keessatti Raaba, akkanatti ofqopheessu.

Boranaafi Gujii keessatti ammoo, yeroon aangoon qabanna tartiibaan waggaa 45-53ttifi waggaa 40-48tti waan taheef, yeroon itti aangoof ofqopheessan kun waggaa Gadaa 32-40 jiddutti taha. Arsii kessattiis akkanuma.

Sadarkaa Dooramaa Booranaa keessatti iddoo lamatti qoodama. Isaniis Raabamaafi Doorama tahu. Raaboonni yeroo itti ilmaan kormaa Raaba tahan jedhamu, waggaa 32-40 jiddutti. Waggaa 41-45tti Doorama jedhama. Inniniis yeroo itti ilmaan kormaa Doorii jedhamaniidha. Kanaaf, sadarkaadhaan bakka itti garaagarummaan jiru tokko kana taha. Kuniis kan mul’ateef dagaagina sirni Gadaa arge keessatti jijjiiramni waan argameefi. Yoo sadarkaa kana ilaalle ilmaan kormaa sadarkaa shanaffaatti (waggaa 32-40 jiuddutti)

a.   Tuulama keessatti- Luba jedhama.

b.  Ituu keessatti – Doorii (Raaba-dorii) jedhamu.

c.   Boorana keessatti – Raaba dorii jedhamu.

d.  Gujii keessatti – Doorii jedhamu.

Idileen sadarkaa kanatti kan ilaalle garuu, Dooramni qophii aangoo qabachuuf godhamuudha.

6. Gadooma

sadarkaa itti ilmaan kormaa aangoo polotikaa qabataniidha. Yeroo itti warri Gadaan isaanii geessee biyya bulchan, seera ilaalan, dubbii Gosaa furaniidha. Sadarkaa Gadaa kun Tuulamafi Ituu keessatti isa shannaffaadha. Boorana, Gujiifi Arsii keessatti ammoo, isa jahaffaadha. Ilmaan kormaa sadarkaa Gadooma Booranaafi Gujii keessatti Gadaa; Tuulamafi Ituu keessatti Luba. Ituu keessatti Raaba doorii jedhamu. Yeroo Gadoomaa:

a.   Tuulama keessatti – waggaa 32-40tti

b.  Ituu keessatti – waggaa Gadaa 32-40tti

c.   Boorana keessatti – waggaa Gadaa 45-54tti

d.  Gujii keessatti – waggaa Gadaa 40-48tti

e.   Arsii keessatti – waggaa Gadaa 40-48tti taha

Bakka heddutti Gadooma keessatti ilmaan kormaa martinuu sadarkaa Gadaa keessaa hamma guutuu biyyatti dhibdee polotikaa, dinagdee, hawaasafi waraanaa cufa furuuf itti gaafatama qaba.

7. Yubooma

Sadarkaa gadaa, murni itti aangoo Gadaarra ture aangoo eega gadi dhiisee itti dabruudha. Gadaa jaarsummaa ykn manguddummaati. Sadarkaa kana keessatti ilmaan kormaa akka hangafaatti ilaalamu. Dalagaan isaanii warra Gadooman gorsuu, qacheelchuu, maandhaa isaanii kan tahan gorsuu, leenjisuufi barsiisuudha. Gara boodaatti hojiirraa walaboomanii ta’anii sadarkaa itti aangoo dhiisanii soorama seenaa kana keessa kan jiran (kan Yubooma)

a.   boorana keessatti – yubaafi booda Gadamoojji

b.  Tuulam keessatti Yuba

c.   Ituu keessatti Lubajedhamu.

Aadaa sirna gadaa

Dhallii namaa akkaata itti naannoo isaa hubatee, itti jijjiiru qaba. Kana keessatti hooda, safuu, beekumssa, qaroomaafi yaadumsi qooda guddaa kennu. Kun hundi dinagdeefi polotikaa sirna hawaasaarratti hundeeyfamau; kanneenirraa calaqqisa argamaniidha. Akkaataaan itti dhalli namaa naannoo isaa hubatee jijjiiru, daawwannoo dinagdeefi polotikaa kan tahe kun aadaa jedhama.

Sirna Gadaa keessaas aadaan maddu jira. Akkaataa dinagdeefi polotikaa issaarraa aadaan hawaasa Oromoo keessatti, bara Gadaa dagaagee beekamaa ture. “aadaa Gadaa” jedhama. Kuniis sirnicha sirna aadaa fakkeessa. Hubannootni karaa cufaa jiru akka aadaatti fudhatamee hawaasa keessatti fudhatama. Kabajaa, safuu, hoodaafi kkf qabaatee mul’ata.

Hoodni, safuufi amantiin sirna kana keessa ture hundi nama hunda biratti fudhatamee kabajama; sanii ala bahuun hawaasaa ala tahutti waan fudhatamuuf nam-tokkoo kaasee hamma maatiitti, maatiirraa kaasee hamma sabaatti qaama walii tahanii jiraatu. Akkaataan jireenya maatii, fuudhaafii heerumaa, hariiroon uumaa, baasiin gumaa, adabni seeraa cabsaniifi kkf hundi aadaa waan tahaniif fudhtamoo turan. Akka bara saniitti eenyulleen aadaa kana nifudhata. Murtiin du’aa yoo itti dabrellee namni sun aadaa waan taheef, beekee eegumsa tokko malee, taa’ee adaba isarritti raaw’atamu eeggata jedhamee himama.

Waliigalteen jaalalaan, tokkummaan waliinjiraachuuniis aadaa jiraachaa ture. Aadaa kanaa ala bahuun, badii isa sadarkaa oliitti waan fudhatamuuf, namuu aadaa tahuu isaa waan beekuuf sirna Gadaa keessa jiru kabajee osoo keessaa hinbaasin kabajee jiraata.

Heeraafii seerri biyyaa akka aadaatti fudhatamee jabaata, kabajamaas, waan jiruufi jireenya ofii ittiin geggeeffatan taheef seeraafi heerri ni kabajamu jechuudha. Waan sirna kana keessatti tahan hundi akka aadaafii amala biyyaatti fudhatamee kabajama. Akkaataan qabannoo qabeenyaa itti loon bobbaasan, looniifi bishaan eelaa baasan, itti qotaniifi akkaataan itti waa horatanii dhimma ittiin bahan aadaa Gadaa keessatti gamtoomaafi marabbaatu calaqqisa. Namuu qabeenya mataa isaa qabaatee irratti mirga guutuu qaba. Kan dhabe, kan balaan uumaafi lolli dhaqqabe, kan dhukkubsateefi abaarri itti dhufe, … hundaa suphuufi hadhaadhiyyuun beekamaadha. Har’allee Boorana keessatti “Buussaafi Gonfa” kan jedhamu aadaa osoo hin badin jiruudha. Namuu waan waliin horate waliin dhimma bahuurraa dabree hawaasa keessatti walbadhaasuufi walgargaaruun aadaa Gadaa keessatti beekamaadha.

Aadaa kanaafi kana fakkaatan ala bahuun hawaasa keessaa nama baasa. Jechuun adaba namarratti seeraan dabru malee, waan halaba (out-casted) nama taasisan jiru. Isaan keessaa haraamuu, caphanaa,…fikkf beekamoodha. Namni haraamuu, caphana,.. jedhamee gosa keessaa bahee namummaa dhabee kophaa jiraata; kophaa godaana, qubata. Gargaarsi hawaasummaa keessati godhamuuf irraa dhaabbata. Gatamuun kana fakkaatan waan jiraniif namuu aadaa Gadaa keessaa kabajee jiraata.

Sirna Gadaa keessatti yeroo garagaraatti aadaan jireenya hafuura ilmaan Oromoo calaqqisan jiru. Isaan keeessaa, ayyaanootni beekamoon kabajamuun waan jiraatani. Ayyaanoota kana keessaa kan sirna Gadaa keessaa jireenya polotikaa ilmaan Oromoocalaqqisu ayyaana buttaati. Guutuu hawaasichaa keessatti yeroo itti aangoon polotikaa Gadaa tokkorraa kanitti dabru, ayyaana kanarratti horiin (loon) qalamanii, nyaachisni guddaan godhama. Sirba, tapha, faaruufi wanni kana fakkaatan ayyaanicha ho’isan addatti beekamoodha. Ayyaana buttaa malee, kanneen sirna kana fakkaatanii maqaa mataa isaanii qaban sadarkaa oliiti dhaabbata tahanii yeroo beekoomaatti kabajaman hedduudha. Isaan keessaa garii maqaa dhawuuf:

Boorana keessatti ayyaana Guduruu buufachuufi qumbii walirraa fudhachuu.
Arsii keessatti ayyaana baraartiifi guduruu, gurra uraafii jaarraa qaluu
Tuulam keessatti ayyaana dhagaa kooraafi jaarraa
Gujii keessatti ayyaana bantii haaddachuu
Kanneenii alattiis, cidhni gargaraa yeroo beekamootti bakka bakkatti godhamu, amantiiniis qaama aadaa hawaasichaa waan taheef, ayyaanni amantii sirna Gadaa calaqqisan bakka hundatti godhamaa ture. Ayyaana kana namuu Qaalluu (geggeessaa amantii) muuduudhaan eeyba kadhata, waaqa (rabbi) isaa galateeyfata; biyyaaf nagaya kadhata; hormaatarratti milkaa’uufi ilmaan isaa, uummtaafi mataa isaaf, fayyaafi jireenya kaadhata. Eegaa, kun aadaa amantii sirna Gadaa keessaa isa tokko. Aadaa Oromoo kan bara sirna Gadaa keessatti yeroon baay’ee barbaachisaadha. Guyyaa, ji’a (baati), waggaafi Gadaa lakkaawuudhaan hawaasa Oromoo sirna kan jalatti qindeessuun qaama aadaa ture. Kanaafiis, hawaasa Oromoo keessatti qaroomni (civilization) addunyyaf gumaache kalandarii Oromooti. Kalandariin Oromo kuniis, astronoomiin kan qoratamee argameedha. Ji’a waggaa dhaloota, bara Gadaa, guyyaafi ji’a ayyaanaa lakkaawanii add baafachuuf tattaafii qormaata ji’a, urjiifi aduu irratti godhamaniin qarooma Oromoota adda godhuufi dagaagina argameedha.

Akkaataa kalandarii Oromootti ji’i (baatiin) tokko guyyaa 29.5 qaba. Waggaan tokko ammoo, ji’a 12 ykn guyyaa 354 qaba. Kanneeniis addaan kan baafataman:

ba’uu, seenuufi guddina addeessaa (ji’a) lakkaawuu
bakka, teessuma, mul’ina urjiilee keessaa buusaa, bakkalcha, … to’achuufi jala bu’anii hordafuudhaan tahu.
Hojii mataa isaanii godhanii hordafuudhaan kan hawaasicha beeksisan, beektoota astronoomiiti. Isaaniis beekumsa qaban kana kaaniif dabarsuurratti barnoota laatu, shaakalsiisu. Guyyootiin ji’a tokkoo soddomitti dhihaatan hundi maqaa mataa isaanii addatti qabaatu. Guyyootii jiraniif maqaa 27tu jira. Har’a Boorana keessatti hojjetaa jiru. Maqaan 27n tartiibaan guyyootii 27f tahanii hoggaa xumuraman gara isa jalqabaatti deebi’anii ammaas marsuuf itti fufu. Maqaaleen 27n kun:

Maqootiin kun hundi hiikkaa mataa isaanii qabu. Inniniis urjii, bakkalcha fi ji’arratti huundeeyfamee hiikama. Yeroo hiikamuus ayyaana guyyootii sana ibsu. Fakkeenyaaf, Gidaadaafi Gabra naannaa kan jedhaman ayyaana carraa gadheeti. Inni hiikaa hangafaa waan qabuuf, dureettiin jaalatama waan ibsuufi gaafa wanti hojjetan hundi, waan namatti tolaniifi ayyaana carraa gaariidha. Namni dhalatu ayyaana akkamiirra akka dhalate kanneen irraa himama. Eegaa, hundi qarooma Oromoota haatahan malee, sirna Gadaa keessatti aadaa tureedha.

Waggaa tokko keessa kan jiran ji’ooti (baatiileen) Oromoo 12n maqaa mataa isaani qabu. Isaaniis bakka garagaraatti maqaa adda addaa qabaatu. Ji’ 12n wagga tokko keessa jiran keessa guyyaa 354 akka jiran olitti kaafneerra, ammaas ni yaadachiifna. Maqaan ji’oota Oromoo bakka bakkaatti:

Walumaagalatti aadaan calaqqisan akkaataa dinagdeefi polotikaa sirna tokkoo, akkaataa dhalli namaa ittiin naannoo isaa hubatee jijjiiru tahuu olitti ilaalleera. Sirna Gadaa keessattiis ummanni Oromoo aadaa walii galatti bifa armaan olii qabaatu akka qabu, aadaa kanarraahiis qaroomni ummata Oromoo kalandara mataa isaa qabaachutti akka geesse hubanna. Aadaa sana keessaa immoo amantiin maddee maal akka fakkaatu kophatti ilaalla.

Amantii sirna gadaa

Amaantiin Gadaa ummanni qabaatu keessaa tokko waan sirna Gadaa keessatti hojjetaman aadaa tahee qaama Oromootaa akka ture olitti kaafneerra. Inniniis waan sirna sana gadi jabeesse akka tahe hubatamaadha. Aadaa jiran keessaahiis amantiin hordafamaa ture, sirnicha utubee kan jabeesse dha. Amantiin aadaa haatahuu malee, mataa isaatiis sirna Gadaa keessatti waan aadaa tahan hundaa kan jabeesseedha. Kanaaf amantiifi aadaan tokkummaa akka qaban ifaadha.

Jireenya hafuura qabu keessatti dhalli namaa, hubannoota naannoo isaarraa qabuun waan amanu qabaachuu waan malu, bara Gadaa keessattiis ummanni Oromoo waan itti amanu qaba ture. Inniniis waaqa jedhamee yaamama. Waaqni waan hundumaa ol kan tahe, hunda kan tolcheefi kan uume, waan hunda kan dandayu, … tahuu isaatti amanama. Ormootaafi waaqa kana kan walqunnamsiisan qaalloota jedhamu. Hojiin isaaniis akka qeesotafii sheekootaati.

Qaaloota yeroo jennu akka bara dhihoo keessa ummata samuuf jecha sobanii, gowwoomsanii irraa waa guurratan akka qaallichaa Habashaamiti. Qaalloonni Oromoo bara sirna Gadaa ummata, uumamaafi biyyaaf waaqa kadhatu; galateeffatu, ummata eeybisu, looniifi madhaaniif rooba kadhatu, warra bira dhaqanii waaqa kadhachuuf isaaf muudaniif eebba keennu. Dalagaa kana fi kana fakkaataniin akka ummanni amantii Waaqatti amanuufi hordofu godhu; ummataafi Waaqa walqunnamsiisu.

Oromoonni karaa Qaalluu Waaqaan walqunnamuu malee, akkaataa biraas niqabu. Kuniis yeroo garagaraarratti ofiis waaqa kadhachuufi galateeyfachuudha. Bakki itti waaqa kadhatan, galateeffataniis galma ijaarame keessa, muka jala, gaararraa malkaa gubbaa,…dha. Kanneen utuu kana godhanii, yeroo yerotti dhaqanii Qaalluu muudu. Ayyaanni amantiis yerootti ayyaaneeffataman nijiru. Isaaniis warraa akka

Ateetee- Kan dubartootaati. Inniniis kan mucaa argachuuti.
Nabii – Kan abbootiiti.
Jaarri ayyaana nagayaa, tikfama namaa, looniifi qa’eeti.
Abdaarrii-ayyaana dachii midhaan baasisuuti
Qaallonniis sirna ayyaana amantii kanarratti ummata gorsu, jajjebeessu. Qaalluun eessaa baha? Gaaffiin jedhuu ka’uun nidandaya. Gosa keessaa Qaalluun bahuu dandayuufi hin dandeenye jiru. Inniniis waanuma hangafummaafi quxxusummaa hawaasa Oromoo keessa turerraa tahuun nimala. Qaalluun gosa beekamaa keessaa baha. Achi keessaa bahee gosoota hafniifiis Qaalluu tahu. Hundaaniis muudama. Qaalluun gosa beekamaa keessaa haa bahu malee, tokko qofa taha jechuumiti. Maadhee hawaasa olii sana keessaa dabalanii jiraachuu dandayu. Garuu isaan keessaa tokkootu hundarra kabajaa qabaata. Isaanutuus yeroo ayyaanaa muudatti muudamaas. Fakkeenyaaf Boorana keessatti Qaalloota (laduu) shana jiran kan Maxxaarrii sadaniifi kan Karrayyuu tokkoofi kan Odituu tokko keessaa hunda caala kabajaman Qaalluu Odituuti.

Qaalluun isa oliiti jechuudha. Booranaa alaas qaalluun kana muuduuf Oromoonni lafa fagoo deemanii dhaqu. Kanaaf, sadarkaa qabu; warri gad hafan isaa gaditti dalagu jechuudha. Qaalluun abbaadhaa ilmatti dabree dhaalama deema. Namchi mataan amantii Qaalluu hoggaa jedhamu, haati mana isaa ammoo, qaallitti jedhamti. Qaallitiiniis akkuma qaalluu kabajamtuudha. Ilma hangafaatu yeroo abbaan isaa du’u dhaalee qaaluu tahuuf carraa duraa qaba.

Sirna Gadaa keessatti muuda Qaaluu kan yeroo malee, ayyaanni guddaan muuda jedhamu jira. Inniniis jidduu Gadaa tokkootti yeroo (si’a) beekamaafi dhaabbata tokkotti yaha. Ayyaana kanarratti Oromoonni dhaqanii galma isaatti qaalluu olii muudu. Sirna tahu keessatti yeroo kanatti eeyba Qaalluu fudhachuun beekamaadha. Namoonni lafa fagoorraa ka’anii dhaqan, ganda isaatti muudu, achitti qalanii nyaatu, nyaachisuusi.

Eegaa, walumaagalatti dalagaan Qaalluu inni tokko namaafi waaqa walqunnamsiisuu akka tahefi jireenyi hafuura Oromootaa maal akka fakkaatu ilaalleerra. Qooda Qaalluufi amantiin sirna Gadaa keessaas sirni kun sirna amantii tahuu fakkeessa. Dhugaan isaa garuu sirna amantiis, ofkeessaa qabaachuudha.

Qoodni Qaalluun qabu kan biraa aadaa Oromoo kan sirna Gadaa keessaa tiksuufi too’achuudha. Kanarratti bakka guddaa qaba. Akka aadaan sirna kanaa hin dabnefi seerriifi heerri sirnichaa hin banne qaceelcha. Ummata biratti karaa aadaafi amantii fudhatama guddaa guddaa waan qabuuf, yaada ummataa (public opinion) dhufata isaa jalaa waan qabuuf aadaa Oromoo tiksuufi daandii sirna Gadaarratti too’achuu dandaya. Waan haraamuu, caphana,… gatama namatti fiduu dandayanirraa ummata eegu dandaya.

Kanneenirratti dabalee qoodni guddaan Qaalluun qabu jireenya polotikaa sirna Gadaa too’achuufi qajeelchuudha. Murtii polotikaarratti fuulaan yoo qooda hin fudhannellee, waan yaada ummataa of harkaa qabaniif qajeelchuufi karooraratti qooda guddaa kennu. Filmaata qondaaloota Gaddfi marii biyyaarratti argamuudhaan gargaaru. Filmaata qondaaloota Gadaarratti yaada ummataa sassaabuudhaan irratti hundeeyfamanii ija filmaata godhamee adda baasanii labsu. Marii seeraafi heeraarratti argamanii akka seerriifi heerri Gadaa hin dabneef gorsuufi qajeechuudha. Qoondaaloota Gadaa aangoo qabatan sirnaan muudu, eeybisu. Kanaaf, amantiin sirna Gadaas karaa kanaafii kana fakkaataniin jireenya polotikaa ummata Oromoo qajeelchuurratti qooda guddaa qaba.

Eegaa xumuruudhaaf, geggeessaa amantii kan tahe Qaalluun jireenya hawaasa Oromoo sirna Gadaa keessatti qooda guddaa sadii qabaata. Isaaniis:-

qooda amantii – namafii waaqa walqunnamsiisuu
qooda aadaa- aadaa sirna Gadaa eeguuf, tiksuufi too’achuu
qooda polotikaa- filmaatarrattiifi marii biyyaa kan seeraafi heeraarratti too’achuufi qajeelchuudha.
Dhumarratti aadaan, polotikaafi amantiin walitti hidhatoo tahuun ifaadha.

Godaansa Oromoo Jaarraa 16ffaan duratti

Ummata akka waan hinsossoonee kana akka garaa, dhagaa ykn galaanaa godhanii fudhachuun hin tahu. Ummatni kamiyyuu ni sossoha, bakka takka gadhiisee bakka biraatti ni godaana. Seenaa ummatoota addunyaa keessatti godaansa heedduu argina. Sababootii godaansaa uuman akkuma biyya sanaafi haala yeroo sanaarratti hudeeyfama. Kanaaf sababootii godaansa uuman bal’aafi hedduudha. Haa tahuu malee, warri keessaa gurguddaa tahan nijiru:

haalli qilleensaa geeddaramuun balaa dhufee jalaa dheessuuf,

lakkooysi ummataa sanaa hedduu dabaluun dhiphina lafaa dhalatu keessaa bahuuf,

lola ummatoota olla jiddutti dhalaturraa kan ka’ee jalaa dheessuuf, kun ammoo lafa bal’ifachuuf tahu nidandaya. Seenaan godaansa Oromoo kan jaarraa 16ffaan duraa haala kana keessaa tokkorratti hundeeyfamuun nimala.

Madda ummata Oromoo yeroo ilaalletti Oromoon Baddaa Baaleefi gam tokkoon Sidaamoo keessa yeroo dheeraaf akka jiraataa ture mirkana’ee jira. Kana jechuun Oromoon hangaa jaarraa 16ffaa keessatti naannoo kana duwwatti murtaa’ee jiraataa ture jechuumiti. Godaansa haala akkasiitiin dhiheessinu warri barbaadan Qeesoota Amaaraati. Godaansi ummata kamiyyuu ballama qabatee jaarraa akkasiitiin godaana hinjedhu. Godaansi sossohiinsa ummata dhawaataan, suuta suutaan, yeroo dheerinaa keessa kan mul’atudha. Waan jaarraa tokko keessatti jalqabee dhumatuusiimiti.

Herbert S Luwis madda saba Oromoo argacuuf afaanoota Kushoota bahaa bakka 24tti qoode. Afaanoota isaanii karraa kan ka’e, durattii isaa kun lammii tokko turan jedhe. Yroo dheeraa keessa lakkooysii namaa babal’achurraa kan ka’e walirraa fagaatanii qubacuun, lammiin adda addaa dagaagan. Walbiraa godaanuun isaanii kun yoomifii akkamitti akka jalqabameef wanti beekamu hinjiru. Sababnii isaa garuu, waa asii olitti ka’erraa tokko tahuun nimala.

Lammiin affaariifi Saahoon dura godaanuu waan jalqaban fakkaata. Gara kaabaatti baay’ee fagaatanii kan qubatan, isaan kana. Lammiin kun lameen, yeroo dheeraaf waliin jiraataa turanii booda foxxqanii akka qubataniidha. Bara dhihoo dura akka waliin turan, afaan isaanii walitti seenuun ragaa nitaha. Lammiin Somaalee itti aanee sossohee waan gara bahaafi kibbaa qubate fakkaata. Ar’a Somaaleen Oromoorraa gara bahaafi kibbaa, Affaarirraa ammoo, gaara kibbaa qubattee jirti. Akka Herbert S. Luwis jedutti isaan kanatti aanee kan godaane Oromoodha. Affaar, Sahoo,Somaaleefi Oromoon hoggaa naannoo sanarraa sossohan Kuushootni bahaatti hafan ammoo, naannoo ha’a irra jiraatan keessa babal’atan malee hedduu hinsossoone.

Ormoon naannoo Mandayyoo, Dallofi Jamjam bara dheeraa jiraataa turanii dhawaata lafa naannoo isaaniitti siqaa, irra jiraataa dhufan. Yeroo isaan itti naannoo Baaleefii Saidaamoorraa sossohanii hamma Wallootti qubatan waan beekamuumiti. Garuu yeroo dheeraa keessa tahuun hinmamu. Eega Affaarootnifi Saahootni naannoo amma jiran keessa jiraachuu jalqabanii ykn, isaanumatti aananii godaananii qubacuun waan malu.

Akkaata godaansa Oromoo kan ofumaan deemaa ture kana, isa jaarraa 16ffaatti akeekuun hin tahu. Abbaa Baahireenuu yeroo akkaataa godaansa Oromoo barreeyse:

Booranni biyya isaarraa yeroo godaanu hundaan hindeemu, warri deemuu hin baebaanne nihafa. Kuniis waan mootii hinqabneef namni isaan ajaju hinjiru. Abbaan akka barbaade hojjata” jedhe. Bartels namchi jedhamu ammoo, akkaata godaansa Oromoorratti yeroo barreeyse: nama Oromoo tokko gaafatee deebii argate:

Yeroo tochoonu, ilmi hangafni bakka itti dhalateetti hafa. Ilmi quxxusuun dabranii lafa haaraya barbaadu. Ilmaa warra hangafaa naannotti hafan ammoo, firoota isaanii barbaaduu ka’anii godaanu” jedhee jira. Ragaa kana lamaanirraa kan hubachuu dandeenyu, Oromoon godaanee daangaa Keeniya kaasee hamma daangaa Tigreetti qubachuu kan dandahee, yeroo dheeraa keessa akka tureedha. Jaarraa 16ffaa keessa yeroo Baahireen barreeyse baayyinni ummata Oromoo meeqa taha? Akaa inni jedhutti utuu godaansi Oromoo yeroosunii jalqabee ilmaan quxxusuu duwwaan dabranii kan qubatan yoo tahee, lafa har’a Oromoon irra jiraatu firfirsanillee wal hingayan jechuudha. Kanaaf Oromoon jaarraa 16ffaa keessa godaanuu jalqabee utuu hintaane, jaarraa hedduun dura suuta suutaan, ilmi quxxisuun dabree qubachaa, lafa margaafi bishaan qabu barbaadaa godaane. Haalli jaarraa 16 ffaa keessatti mul’ate waan gara biraa waan taheef bakka isaatti laalla.

Duraani Oromoonni lammi tokko tahee osoo jiraatanii gosa Booranafi Bareentummati adda bahan. Bareentumafi Booranni osoo naannoo Baaleefi Sidaamoorraa gara bahaa jiraatanii lakkooysi namaafi horiin saanii baay’achuun gargar fagaatanii qubachuu jalqaban. Ilmaan Bareenummaas akka walitti heddommaachaa deemaniin adda adda bahanii qubachuu jalqaban. Ituufii Humbanni Mormorirraa ka’anii gara bahaatti sossohanii osoo adda hin bahin naannoo Odaa Bultum qubatan. Odaan Bultum kaarra Qurquraarraa gara kibbaatti hamma km 3 fagaatee argama. Ituufi Humbanni osoo adda hinbahin bakka Odaa Bultum kana

Akkaataa bultuma Oromoon Gaddaan duratti.

Sirna Gadaan duratti akkaataa bultuma Oromoo akkam akka ture wanti beekamu hinjiru. Qesoota Amaaraa tahee, seenaa barreeysitoonni gara biraa waa’ee Orommoo kan barreeyssuu jalqaban jaarraa 16ffaa booda ture. Kanaf sanaan dura seenaan Oromoo ture himamsa aadaarraa, yoo argame malee wanti galmaa’e kan jiru hinfakkaatu. Haa tahuu malee, himamsa afaaniitfi akkaataa dagaagina hawaasaarraa kan hubachuu dandeenyu nijira.

Akkaataan dagaagina hawaasaa dhala namaa kamiyyuu sirna keeessa dabru niqaba. Haalli hawaasni Oromoo bara Gadaa duraafi booddee keessa ture calaqqiinsa akkaataa bulmaata isaa ka duraanii nuuf ibsuu ni dandaya. Akkuma ummata kamiyyuu hawaasni Oromooo gamtooma Doofaa durii keessa turuun isaa waan hin’ooleedha. Kuniis akkaata qabeenya dhuufaa turerraa calaqqisa. Ormoon waan tikfattee tureef qabeenya dhuunfaa loon yoo tahe malee, lafti qabeenya gamtaa ture. Kanaa wajjiin kan ilaalamu haala walbulchiinsa isa jidduu tureedha. Hamma hawaasaatti Oromoon guddatee sadarkaa gosa gahetti manguddoo walbulchuun saa hin’oolle. Kabajaa manguddoon hawaasa Oromoo keessatti qabu har’allee aadaa Oromoo keessatti ni calaqqisa. Hamma Gadaan dhufee bakka qabtetti, manguddootaan buluun kun sadarkaa sadarkaan guddataa dhufuun hinhafne.

Haalli kun akkamitti ture? Akkamitti hojjachuu dandaye? Wanti kana calaqqisu boodana dabree maali? Hawaasa Oromoo keessatti aadaan jalqabarraa ka’ee gad dhaabbate hariiroo hangafaafi quxxusuuti. Hariiroon kun dura sadarkaa maatii keessatti gad dhaabbate. Ilmi hangafni kabajamuu qaba. Warri quxxusuu isa hordofu. Waan inni jedhe dhagayu. Hariiroon kun maati duwwaa keessatti hin hafu. Akkuma hawaasni sun dagaaguun hangafaafi quxxusuun ibidda, manaafi gosa keessattiis hojiirra oola. Ibiddi hangafaafi quxxusutti adda bahee walkabjuuniifi waliif abboomamuun buluun dhalate. Hariiroon ku yeroo dheeraaf hawaasa Oromoo keessatti hojjate.

Goso tokko keessa karra hagafaafi quxxusuu nijiraatu. Maanguddootni karra hangafaa keessa jiran biyya (gosa) bulchuurratti qceelfama kennu. Karri quxxusuu tahan warra hanagafa kana jalatti gurmaawu. Sadarkaa gossaattiis hariiroon kun ittifufa.

Gositi hangafni yeroo warra kaan qaceechu, geggeessu warri quxxusuun isaan jalati walitti qabamu. Gosootni kun akkasitt walitti dhufanii tokkooma gosaa (tribal confederacies) tolfatan. Tokkoomni gosaa kun ammoo, walkeessatti hangafaafi quxxusuu qabu. Hawaasa Oromoo keessatti akkaataan hangafaafi quxxusutti qoodamuun kun qoodama karra cimdii” ( bi social differentiation) jedhama. Sirni bulmaataa karra lamatti qoodamuun bu’ureeyfamu ammoo, sirna qoodama karra cimdii taha. Hamma Gadaan dagaagutti akkaataan bulmaata Oromoo sirna kanaan ture.

Sirna kana keessatti manguddoonni qooda lammii guddaa qabu. Manguddoota lammii keessaa ammoo, kan warra hangafaa hunda dursu. Waldhabbii gosoota giddutti ka’u manguddoota kanaatu ilaala. Gosoota Oromoo keessaa Booranni hangafa. Kanaaf waldhabbiin gosa bareentumaa, fakkeenyaaf Arsiifi Macca giddutti yoo ka’e, manguddoota Booranaatu ilaala. Haalli kun gosa, karra hundumaa keessatti akkasitti hojjata. Ummata ollaa wajjiin waldhabbiin yoo argamees, gumaabaasuufiis tahee, falmu, lola waan ilaaluufi dantaa lammii saanaa guutummatti manguddootaan ilaalamee murtii godhata.

Sirni manguddootaan qaceelu amaluma hawaasa doofaa taheellee kan Oromoon dhaabbate jabaa tahuun isaa, hangafaafi quxxusuun qaceeluu isaati. Sirna isa booddee Oromoon tolfatee ittiin walbulcheef bu’ura kan qabuudha. Sirna Gadaa keessatti hawaasni Oromoo gartuu lamatti qoodamee ijaarame. Gartuuleen kun aadaadhaan hangafaafi quxxusutti beekamu. Garuu waltoo’achuufi walgituurratti walqixa. Fakkeenyaaf qoodamni akkasii Boorana keessati Sabboofi Goona, Maccaa keessatti Booranaafi Gabaro, Ituu keessatti Kuraafi Galaan, Humabnna keessatti Qal’oofi Anniyya jedhamanii beekamu. Haaluma qoodama gosa keessa duraan tureetu Sirna Gadaa keessattiis ga-dhaabbate jechuudha. Kanaaf Oromoon osoo sirna Gadaatiin as hin bahin, sirna qoodama karra cimdii kanaan walbulchaa ture jechuun nidandeenya.

Meelba:- bara 1522-1530

Gadaan duraa Melba jedhama jedhu. Bara Gadaa Melbaa kana Oromoon abbaa duulaa itti ijaaree yeroo duraatiif gurmuun duulutti bobbaase. Baalli weeraruu jalqaban. Namichaa Amaara Faasil jedhamuu wajji wal lolanii inniis duularratti du’e. Duula Oromoo isa jalqabaa kanaan amaarri “dawwee” jedhan. Afaan Amaaraatti dawwee jechun, dhukkuba lamxii jechuudha

Muudana:- bara 1531-1538

Mebatti aane kan Gadaa fudhate Muudana jedham. Bara Muudana kana seera jajjabaa lama tumatan. Lubni hundi duula akka duuluufi laf haaraya baasan malee, meendhicha akka hin hidhanne kan jedhu ture. Baalli kan Melba weeraruu jalqabe Muudannii dhufatee hamma qarqara laga Awaashitti irra qubatan. Barri Gadaa Muudanaa kun bara Islaamoonni Imaam Ahmadiin geggeefamanii Kiristaanootaan lolaa turani. Lola diinootni isaa lamaan wal lolaa jiran kan Oromoon faana bu’aa ture. daareel Baates namichi jedhamu kana hogga ibsu:

“lolli Kiristaanoota Habashafi Islaamoota ture, Poortugaal gargaartee Imaam Ahmed mohamullee hin dhaabbanne. Waggootii dheeraaf dabree dabree deemsifamaa ture, gaallaa (Oromoo) haala kana duukaa bu’anii too’ataa turan. Gartuun lamanuu waan miidhameef lafa isaanii deebifachuuf ….yeroo itti eeggachaa turan”jedha. Lolli amantii yeroof akkasiit qabbanaawullee Oromoon lola isaa itti fufe. Muudanni Gadaa isaa fixee Kiiloleetti dabarse.

Kiilolee:- bara 1539-1546

Kiiloleen duula bal’isee DAWAAROO rukutuu jalqabe. Yeroo gabaaba keessati handhuura Dawaaroo gahe. Galaawudoos mooti Habashaa waana isaa kan nama Adaal Mabraq jedhamuun hoogganamu Dawarrootti bara 1545tti erge. Waraanni Adaal Mabraq harka Oromootti baqe, inniniis lbaqatee laga Awaash cehe.Dawaaroo kan jedhamu Arsii har’aatt akeekuun ni dandayama. Galaawudoos Islaamoota mohuu dandahullee Oromoobiyya isaaf lolu mohuu hindandeenye. Kiiloleen Gadaa isaa fixee Biifoleetti dabarse.
Biifolee:- bara 1547-1554

Galaawudoos Adaal Mabraq moohamuu dhagayee humna isaa waliti gurmeessee, waraana warra Poortugaaal fogargaarsisee Oromootti bara 1548tti duule. Humna guddaan itti haa duulu malee, Galaawudoos Oromoo mohuu dadhabee, dahannoo jabaa qotatee Dawaaroo keessa qubate. Oromoonni achitti iti marsanii lolan. Lolli sun guyyaa kudhalama deeme. Oromoonni gootummaan lolanii gaafa 12ffaa waraana Habashaa dahannoo isaa keessatti itti seenaanii hedduu irraa fixan. Ajajaan waraana Poortugaal Ayrees Deez jedhamu madaawee boodarratti du’e. Waraanni Habashaa moohame. Biifoleen duulaa isaa itti fufef Awaash cehee Faxagar waraanuu jalqabe. Hatahuu malee, Biifoleen akka Luboota isa duraa lafa haaraya qabachuudhaan hinmilkooyne. Habashoonni dhiibbaan Oromoo gara qa’ee isaaniitti dhihaataa waan deemeef jabaatanii dura dhaabbatan. Galaawudoos humna Habasha gurmeesse ofirraa ittise. Gama lachuu namni dhube baay’ee guddaa ture. biifoleen Gadaa isaa raaw’atee Michilleetti dabarse.

Michille:- bara 1555-1562

Michilleen Gadaa isaa kana keessatti namni diina hinajjeefne akka hin fuune, akka rifeensa mataa hinhaaddanne seera baase. Akka jedhamuttiis bara Gadaa Michillee kana Oromoon fardaan loluu jalqabe. Kanaaf lafa fagoo deemee lola gochuu jalqabe. Bara Michillee kana Galaawudoos waraana isaa Faxagar keessa jiru namicha Hamalmaal jedhamuti kennee bataskaana Imaam gube ijaarutti deebi’ee ture. bara 1555tti Michilleen Hamlmaaliin bakka Dagoo jedhamutti waraanee moohe. Hamalmaal moohamuun Faxagariin guutumatti harka Oromootti deebise. Faxagar Enriif Karrayyuu har’aani taha. Michilleen Faxagar irra dhaabbatee Cafaat, Bazimoofi Daamoot salphatti rukutuu jalqabe. Gibeen qabachuuniis yeroo kana jalqabe. Bara Michillee injifannoo guddaan argame garuu, Islaamootarratti ture. islaamoonni eega Imaam Ahmed boodde weerara guddaa kiristaanatti bobbaasuu hindandeenye. Hatahuu malee, geggeessaan Islaama Harar Amiir Nuur jedhamu humna walitti qabatee bara 1559tti Habashatti duulee ture. amiir Nuur Galaawudoosiin lolee moohe. Galaawudoos lola sanirratti du’e. Amiir Nuur osoo inni injifannoo argatetti gammadee ayyaaneeffachaa jiruu Oromoonni magaalaa Harar seenanii barbadeessan. Oduu kana dhagahee osoo inni gara Harar deebu’utti jiruu Michillee bakka Tulluu Hazaaloo jedhamtutti haxxee hidhee rukute. Lola taherratti Oromoonni haa dhuman malee, Amiir Nuur ni moohame. Waraanni saa harka loltuu Oromoorratti akka dhadhaa baqee dhume. Lubbuun kan keessa bahan xiqqaa ture. lolli Tulluu Hazaaloo biratti tahe kun, yeroo dheeraaf Kiristaanaafii Islaama gidduutti lola deemaa ture addaan kute. Humni Oromoo jabaachuun warra wal lolaa turan gidduutti nagaya buuse.

Michillee booddee duulli Oromoo karaa lamaarraa tahuu jalqabe. Isaaniis:- Oromoota Walloofi Maccaafi Tuulama. Wallo keessati kan Gadaa fudhate Harmuffaa jedhama. Kan Tuulama ammoo, Hambisaa jedhama. Lachuu saanii bara 1563-70tti Gadaarra turan. Hambisaan duula gurguddaa Shawaa keessatti haa godhu malee, Amaara dhiibuu hin dandeenye. Mootiin Habashaa Minaas akka jabatti Hambisaafi Harmuffaa dura dhaabbate. Osoo isaaniin loluu du’e. Malaak Saggad ykn Sarta Dingil kan jedhamu itti dabree aangoo Habashaa qabatee lola ittifufe. Hambisaaniis lafaa haaraya osoo hinqabatin Minas wajjiin lola gurguddaa osoo godhuu Gadaan isaa dhumeeRoobaleetti dabarse. Harmuf Awaash cehee Affaarootafi Habashootatti duuluu jalqabe. Gi’orgis Haaylee kan jedhamu bakka qacinaafi Wayaata jedhamutti lolee Moo’e. Affaarootaas lolee naannoo Angootttifi Ganyi jedhamtu qabatee taa’e. Bakka kanarraa Amaara Saaynitiifi Bagamidritti duuluu jalqabe. Harmuuf bara Gadaa isaa Affaaroota, Argoboota, Doobotafi Amaaroota Ganyiifi Angoot keessa turan waraanee ofjala galchee gosa moggaase. Harmuuf Affaaroota humna isaanii cabsee baay’ee xiqqeese. Harmuuf Gadaan isaa dhumee Robaleen harka fudhate.

Robaleen:- bara 1571-1578

Malaak Saggad Roobalee Shawaa keessatti dabarsuu dhoorke. Ofiis garuu Roobalee dhiibuu hindandeenye. Shawaa keessatti haala akkanaan jiru Roobaleen Walloo Bagamidir seenee lola jalqabe. Yeroo kana Malaak Saggad saffisaan gara Bagaamidir deebi’ee Roobalee bakka wayinaa Dagaa jedhamutti lolee Roobaleen moohame wallotti deebi’e. Roobaleen hoggaa Malaak Saggfad gara Bagaamidir deeme, duula Shawaa keessatti jabeessee Amaaroota gara hallayyafi olqatti naqee biyya qabate. Malaak Saggad deebi’ee Roobalee dhiibuu hindandeenye. Gadaan isaanii dhumee lamaanuu Birmajiif bakka gaddhiisan.

Birmajii:- bara 1579-1586

Bara Gadaa Birmajii Oromootni Amaara hedduu muddanii qaban. Birmajiin Wallo Bagamidir seenanii Amaaroota hedduu fixan. Aantoot Malaak Saggad lolarratti dhuman. Amaara Bagamidir akka malee hollachiisee. Birmajiin Tuulamaafi Macaa lafa fardi isaa dhaquu dandayu mara deemee qabate. Amaarri gara hallayyaafi holqatti galtee dhokatte. Osoo gaarri, hoqiifi hallayyaan hinjiru tahee, namni hafu hinjiru jedhaa ture barreeysaan Habashaa Alaqaa Atsimeen. Malaa Saggad oliifi gad fiigutti yeroo isaa fixe. Birmajiin Shawaa laga Jamayii cehee Waqaa qabatee Amaara lafa Oromoo keessa qubatte Habashaarraa kute. Achirraa Gojjaamiifi Daamoot waraanuu jalqabe. Malaak Saggad nama Daragoot jedhamu akka Gojjaamiin ittisuuf itti erge. Birmajiin lola Daaragootirratti du’e. Haa tahu malee Birmajiin gara dhuma Gadaa isaati jala Gojjaam keessatti moohame. Biramjiin bakka lachuutti Gadaa gad dhiisanii Mul’atatti dabarsan.

Mul’ata:- bara 1587-1594

Bara Gadaa Mul’ataa kana Walloon hedduu hinduulle. Yeroo lama duwwaa Godaritti duulee saamee Wallotti deebi’e. Qubatee waan taa’e fakkaata. Mula’ati, Maccaafi Tuulama duula isaa itti fufe. Bifa lolaa geeddaree Amaara karaarratti gaadanii ajjeesuu jalqaban. Gaara gidduufi saaqaa dhiphoo ta’an jiddutti eegee Amaara murachuu jalqabe. Kanaaf Amaarri bara sana lafa sodaatu bira hoggaa gahewalitti lallaba, walwaama dabra ture jedhama. Bakka fardasaaf mijjaa’u Gondariifi Gojjaam keessa gulufee basha’e. Boodaas achi quabatee taa’e. Amaarri araarfachuu jalqabdee, suuta suutaan walmakuu jalqaban. Haa tahu malee, lolli isaan jiddu hindhaabbanne: isaan keessa warri gurguddaan:

Jaarraa 17ffaa jalqabarratti (1605-1617) bara mooti Habashaa Suusiniyoos Oromoon Bagamidrifi Gojjaamitti duulaa ture, garuu ofirraa ittisan.

1620 Oromootni Walloo Bagamidriti duulan.

Qaabsis Paaris (Paris chronicle) jedhamu lolli gurguddaan baroota 1639, 1643, 1649, 1652fi 1658tti akka tahan galmeessee jira.

1661 Oromoonni Walloo Warra HimannooGondaritti duulanii Faasilaa Dasiin lolan.

1683-1688 Oromoon Guduruu Habashaa lolee moohe.

1709 bara Tewoofiloos mooti Habashaa ture Oromoon Amaaratti duulee ture.

Jaarraa 18ffaa kaasee lolli xixiqqaan Amaaraafii Oromoo jiddutti deemaature. Amaaroonni Oromoo ofitti qabuu (firoomfatuu)jalqaban. Waldhabbii isaan jidduu jirurratti akka Oromoon isaan gargaaru hawwachaaturan. Yeroon itti Oromoon waardiyaa mooti Habashaa tahee qa’ee(gibbii) isaaniitti galees niture. Habashoonni walii isaai fonqolchuufi aangoorraa turuufiis Waraana Oromootti yeroon dhimma ba’aa turan niture.

Duula Oromoo kana booddee haala akkamiitu Gaafa Afrikaa keessatti dhalate? Humni Oromoo jechuuniis maal uume? Hamma Oromoon Gadaan of hinjaaranitti miidhaa gurguddaan irrgahaa akka ture beekamaadha. Yeroo sanaas Kiristaanootnifi Islaamootni duula wailrraa hincinne walirratti oofaa turan. Gaafni Afrikaa bakka lolaa turte jechuun nidandayama. Oromoon Gadaan ijaaramee as bahuun, madaala humna Gaafa Afrikaa keessatti jijjiire. I) lola Kiristaanaafi Islaama jidduu nidhaabe. 2) hawwii babal’achuu Habashaan qabu dhaabee walitti isii suntuurse. 3) Oromoo kabajamaafi sodaatamaa taasise. 3) Mootummaa Islaama Harar dhawee walitti bute. 5) daangaarratti waldhiibuufi lola xixiqqaa tahan malee, nagaya gara jaarraa lamaaf Gaafa Afrikaatti buuse.

Madaalli humnaa kan yeroo dheeraaf ture, kan jijjiiramuu jalqabe walakkaa jaarraa 19ffaa booda eega meeshaan lolaa haarayni harka Habashoota seene ture. Yeroo kanarraa kaaseeti kn Oromoon caphee kolonii Habashaa tahuu kan jalqabe. maddii: marsaa alaabaa

Seenaan haayyoota Oromootin barreefammee kunoo as isiinif jira. Dubbisaati baradhaa. yoo barruu seenaa biraa qabaattan tessoo exellent823@yahoo.com  irratti nuf ergaa.

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Kitaaba (seenaa saba Oromoo fi Sirna Gadaa/Birraa/Fulbaana/1995)

(Toleeraa Tasammaa fi Hundasaa Waaqwayyaa)

Seenaan qorannoo ykn barnoota akka ummanni tokko itti jiraataa tureedha. Seenaan saba tokko yeroo jennu qorannoo ykn barnoota waa’ee shanyii saba saba saniiti jechuudha. Seenaan sabni tokko akkamitti jiraataa ture? Haala akkam keessa dabre? Ogummaa akkam qaba ture? Aadaan isaa maal fakkaata? Kan jedhaniifi gara biraas kaasee deebii itti barbaada. Gabaatti, seenaan qorannoo ykn barnoota haala shanyyiin (sanyyiin) ummata biyya tokkoo karaa dina’gdeefi hawaasummaa keessa dabreedha.

Ummanni tokko haala jireenya isaa hubachuuf abbootiin abbootii isaa ykn shanyyiin isaa haala keessa dabran qorachuu barbaachisa. Haalli ykn akkaataan jireenyi shanyii ofii keessa dabre jireenya har’aa irratti calaqqiinsa ni qabaata. Isa ha’aa hubachuuf isa dabre qorachuun barbaachisaadha. Kaleessi yoo hin jiraanne har’i hinjiraatu. Waan shanyyiin keenya keessa dabree as gahe qorannee baruun kan har’aa ijaarachuuf baay’ee barbaachisa. Kaleessi har’a, har’i boru maddisiisa. Kan dabre yoo hinhubatin kan har’aa hubachuun, kan har’aa yoo hinhubatin kan boruu qiyaasuun hinkajeelamu.

Namni seenaa abbootii isaa, kan shanyii isaa hinbeekne jaamaadha. Bishaan gabatee irra jiru, kan gara barbaadanitti oofamuun wajjiin walfakkaata. Namni seenaa irraa hinbare, badii seenaa deebisee dalaguuf dirqama. Namni seenaa shanyii isaa hinbeekne, maqaa, aadaafi sabummaa isaa gatee kan alagaa fudhachuuf tattaafata. Ummanni Oromoo seenaa boonsaa, biyya badhaatuufi aadaa dagaagaa qaba. Ilmaan Oromoo hedduun garuu, kan waan hinbeeyneef alagatti ofharkisuu kan barbaadan nijiran. Seenaa saba ofii baruun eenyummaa ofii nama barsiisa. Firaaf diina adda baafachuuf nama gargaara. Walumaa galatti, seenaa saba ofii beekuun sab-boonummaa dagaagsa.

Seenaa saba keenyaa kan boru itti boonnu duwwaafi miti. Tahuus hin qabu. Mataa ofii dabree beekuufi yaadachuuf barra. Barree ammoo dabarsinee barsiifna. Kanaaf ilmaan Oromoo hundi seenaa Oromoo baranii dabarsanii barsiisuun dirqama taha. Seenaa dabrerraa kan barree yaadachuuf, jireenya keenya har’aa hubachuuf nu gargaara. Madda rakkoo keenya har’aa baruuf, seenaa abbotiin teenya dabarsan beeku qabna. Rakkina har’aa furuuf mala lafa kaayyachuuf seenaa dabre beekuun hedduu barbaachisaadha. Rakkinaafi guddina sabni keenya keessa dabree as gsahe yoo beekne kan boruu yaaduu dandeenya. Daandii qabsoon keenya fudhachuu qabu tolchuufi tolchinees sirritti ta’uu isa kan itti ilaallu calaqqee seena Oromoo keessatti taha. Seenaa dabre kan fagoofi dhihoo, yaadaafi ilaalcha keenya irratti ifaan ykn osoo hin mul’anne dhiibbaa niqabbata. Seenaa keenya ka barruuf, ofii hubannee akka sirritti galmeessinee dhaloota boruutiif dabarsuudhaafi. Waanti nuti har’a hojjannu , boru seenaa taha. Kanaaf Oramoo kan tahe hundi seenaa shanyyii isaa baree dabarsee barsiisuun haalaan barbaachisaadha.

Barbaachisummaa seenaa baruu erga hubatamee, gaaffi ka’antu jira. Seenaan Oromoo barreeyfamee jiraa? Eenyufaatu barreeyse? Yoo hin barreeyfamne tahe akkamiti barreeysuun dandayama? Gaaffiileen kan fakkaatan hedduun ka’uu mala. Osoo deebii gaaffiilee kanaa kennuu hinyaalin dura madda seenaa waan athan keessaa lama qofa yoo ka’aan gaarii taha.

Maddi seenaa ummata tokkoo inni duraafi guddaan seenaa afaanii(oral history) fi aadaadha. Hamma sadarkaan dagaagina hawaasummaa tokkoo barreeysaan waa galmeessuun hinjalqabaminitti, seenaa dhalootarraa dhalootatti himamsa afaaniitiin dabraa dhufa. Abbaan ijollee isaatti “dur shanyiin keenya akkasiti bulaa ture, bara akkasii rakkina akkasiitu tur, dur jireenyi akkas ture” jedhee yeroo itti odeessu, seenaa dabarsaa jira jechuudha. Sabootni hedduun har’allee afaan isaaniitiin barreeysuu hinjalqabne nijiran. Seenaan saboota akkasii barreeyfamuuf maddi guddaan seenaa afaaniifi aadaa isaaniiti taha.

Seenaa tokko qorachuuf ykn barreeysuuf maddi lammaffaan waan galmeeyfameedha. Beektoonnif qorottoonni haala jiruufi jireenya, aadaafi afaan ummata tokkoo yeroo galmeessan seenaa dabarsaa jiru. Waan beektoonni ykn qorottoonni barruudhaan har’a lafa kaayan, boru kaan itti dhufee barata ykn irra dhaabatee xiinxala. Seenaan ummata tokkoo nama isaa keessa dhalateen barreeyfame irra wayyinni hinhafu. Inninuu, yoo namni sun dhiibbaa adda addaarraa qulqulluu tahe malee, mudaa qabaachuu nidandaya. Keessattu yeroo seenaa uummata gara biraa barreeysan jibba, jaalalalfi dhiibbaa adda addaarraa qulqulluu yoo hintaane badii guddaan dalagamuu nimala.

Seenaa tokko qorachuufi baruuf madda waan tahan keessaa guddaa lama kaafnee jirra. Eegaa, seenaan ummata Oromoo barreeyfamee jiraayi? Ykn ummanni Oromoo seenaa qabaayi? Gaaffiilee jedhan laaluu ni dandeenya.diinootni ummata Oromoo, ‘Oromoon seena hinqabu’ jedhu. Ummanni seenaa hinqabne hinjiru. Namni tokko hoo seenaa mataa isaatti,seenaa jireenyaa niqaba. Seenaan ummata sanaa barreeyafamee jiraachuufi dhiisuun waan gara biraati. Diinootni Oromoo seenaa hoggaa jedhan waan galmeeyfame qofa ifdura qabu. Seenaan ummataa hedduun barreeyfamuu kan dandaye erga beekkumsi barreeysuu argame booda ture. Har’allee afaanotni tokko tokko barreeysaa hin qaban, seenaan saboota akkasii karaa lamaan qoratama.

seenaa afaanii
waan alagaan, waa’ee ummata sanaa barreeyse irraa taha.
Ummanni Oromoo afaan isaan kan barreeyssuu jalqabe bara dhihoo keessa. Kanaaf ilma Oromoo tokkoon seenaan isaa galmeeyfamee jira jechuu hindandeenyu. Bara dhihoo as garuu, ilmaan Oromoo tokko tokko seenaa saba isaanii barreeysuuf tattaafataa jiru. Haathu malee seenaan Oromoo himamsa afaaniifi aadaatiin dhalootarraa dhalootatti daddabraa har’a as gahe jira. Seenaa saba keenyaa qorannee galmeessuuf, seenaan afaaniifi aadaa madda guddaadha. Haa tahu malee, himamsi afaanii lakkuma bubbuluun jijjiiiramaa hiikkaafi ilaalcha adda addaa fudhachaa akka deemu irraanfachuun namarra hinjiru. Har’a seenaa keenya qorachuuf himamsa afaaniitti daballee maddi gara biraa kan seenaa afaan keenyaa (oromiffaa) tiifi antiropolojii taha.

Antiroppolojiin saayinsii qorannoo waa’ee dhala namaa, aadaa, hoodaafi amantii, akkaataa jireenya isaa irratti godhamuudha. Kanaaf seenaa afaanii kan dhalootarraa dhalootatti daddabraa dhufeefi, qormaata afaniifi antiroppolojii irratti godhamu walqabachiifnaan seenaan dhugaa barreeyfamuu nidandaya.

Seenaa Oromoorratti qormaanni godhamuu qaba hoggaa jennu, seenaan Oromoo akka waan tasa hinbarreeyfamneetti fudhachuu hinqabnu. Oromoonni seenaa ummata isaanii barreeysuu kan jalqaban dhihoo kanatti haatahuu malee, namoonni alagaa hedduun seenaa Ummata Oromoo barreeysanii jiran. Har’aas kan qormaata godhaa jiran hedduudha. Anmoota alaagaa kan seenaa Oromoo barreeysan gosa sadihitti, qooduu nidandeenya.

Isaaniis: 1)qeessota Habshaa,2) waarra Orooppaa 3) Araboota. Isaan kana tokko tokkoon haalaallu.

handhuura godhatanii turan. Arsiin ammoo, naannoo sanarraa gara bahaatti sossohee Ituufi Humbannatti aanee qubate. Ilmaan Bareentoo keessaa gara kaabaatti fagaatee kan qubate Walloodha.

Ilmaan Booranaa ammoo, adda bahanii gosti Booranaa xiqqoo gara kibbaatti siqee qubate. Achirraa godaansa haga laga Xaanaa Keeniyaa keessatti deeme. Gujiin naannoo Jamjamirraa hedduu osoo hin fagaatin achumatti lafa bal’ifate. Booranni kaabaa (Maccaafi Tuulama) gara kaabaatti sosshan. Naannoo Shawaa har’aa eega gayanii booda Macc gara dhihaatti godaanee qubachuu jalqabe.

Godaansi Oromoo kun yeroo kam akka tahe beekuun nama dhibullee jaarraa 9ffaa ykn 10ffaa dura akka tahe beekamaadha. Naannoo jaarraa kanatti Oromootafi Habashoota jidduu (gidduu) wallolli akka ture barreeyfamee jira. Jaarraa kana keessa hoggaa Islaamummaan Shawaa seenuu jalqabe Oromoon akka achi turees waan hubatameedha. Ormoon yeroo lafa kanatti godaane, ummatni gara biraaa irra jiraachuuf dhiisuu irraa wanti beekamu hinjiru. Habarlaand akka jedhutti naannoo Shawaa har’aatti yeroo Oromoon godaane lafti duwwaa turuun nimala jedha. Namichi Poortugaal Franaaz jedhamubara 161tti yroo naannoo Gojjaamii ka’ee gara qarqara galaanaatti deemu argee akka barreeysetti ” Kibba laga Abbayya keessaa Oromoonni nijiru. Isaaniifi Innaariyaa gidduu garuu, lafti duwwaadha” jedhee ture. Kanaaf lafti Oromoon itti godaanerraa guddaan duwwaa lafa daggala qabu akka ture hubatamaadha.

Seenaa Barreeysitoota Habashaa

Seenaa Oromoo inni jalqabaafi qabatamaan qeesii Amaaraa, abbaa Baahiree jedhmuun bara 1593tti barreeyffame. Barreeyfama Baahireen duratti wanti qabatamaan barreeyffame waan jiru hinfakkaatu. Abbaa Bahireen Amaara waan taheef seenaa Oromoo tan inni barreeyse mudaa gurguddaa qaba. Bara inni barreeysaa ture (jaarraa 16ffaa) keesssa Oromoon duula lafa isaa falmachuurra waan tureef hijaa(haloo) Oromoo bahuuf poolisii (imaammata) hordafamuu qabu lafa kayuuf barreeyse.

Mootoota habasha yeroo sana turan gorsuuf barreeyse. Akeekni Baahiree jabinni Oromoo eessaa akka maddufi dadhabiinsi Habashaa maala akka tahee xiinxaluu ture. Seenaa Oromoo ija diinummaatiin laalee barreeyse. Bahireen seenaa kitaaba isaa “ye Gaallaa Taarik” jedhu yeroo barreeyse akkas jedha. “seenaa Gaallaa barreeysuu kaniin jalqabeef, lakkooysa gosa isaanii, nama ajjeesuuf qophii tahuu isaaniifi amala saanii kan gara lafina hinqabne beeksisuufi. Seenaa ummata gadhee kanaa maalif barreeysite, osoo kan ummata gaariidhaa jiruu jedhee yoo namni nagaafate, “kitaaba keessa laali, seenaan Mohammadiifi mootoota Islaamaatu barreeyfamaa jiraamiti?..jedhee jalqabe.

Baahireen ilaalcha ummata Oromoof qabu seenaa kitaaba isaa keessatti xumure. Jibbiinsaafi diinummaa Oromoorraa akka ifatti mul’ata. Haala kanaan yeroo barreeyse Baahireen dogoggora gurguddaa keessa seene. Seenaa Oromoo dabsee waan barreeysseef, seena barreeysitoota isa booddee barreeysaniis karaarra dabsee jira. Daba inni hojjate kana booqannaa itti aanu keessatti laalla. Seenaa Oromoo guutumaatti, akka mata dureetti fudhatanii akka baahireetti hin barreeysin malee, qeesoota qabsiisa mootoota habashaa barreeysan, qabsiisa isaanii keessatti waa’ee Oromoo kaasanii jiru. Haa tahu malee, ija diinummaatiin waan qabsiisaniif seenaa Oromoo hedduu dabsan. Qeesiin Atsime gi’orgs jedhamu seenaa Oromoo akka baay’ee nama dinqutti barreeyse. Namummaa oromoo haga haalutti gahee “ilmaan sheeyxaanaa” jedhee barreeyse. Alqaa Taayyee kan jedhamu ammoo, “innas tawuqaallan Gallaa indeet ka baahir indewaxaa” jedhee haala baayyee fokkisaan barreeyse. Yeroo qeessotni kun waa’ee Oromoo barreeysaa turan, yeroo Oromoon itti jabaa ture. Jabinaafi laafina Oromoo baranii akkaataa itti dura dhaabbatan qiyaafachuuf ture. Eega Oromoo cabasanii koloneeffaatan boodaas, seenaa Oromoo barreeysuu nidhaaban. Warri Orooppaas akka hinbarreeysine dhiibbaa irratti godhuu jalqaban. Walumaa galatti waan qeesootni kijibduun Habashaa dabsanii barreeysan sana, seenaa dhugaa kan qormaataan bira gahame barreeysuudhaan kijibdoota Habashaa faalleessuun haalaan barbaachisaadha.

Seena barreeysitoota Awrooppaa:

Namoonni biyya Orooppaa sababafi yeroo adda addaatti naannoo Kaaba Baha Afrikaa dhufanii seenaa barreeysan nijiru. Isaan kun heeddu waan tahaniif gosa gurguddaa lamatti qoodnee ilaluu dandeenya.

waarra amantii babal’isuutiin biyya Orooppaarraa dura biyya Habashaa kan dhufan warra Poortugaal turan. Isaan kun jalqabaa jaarraa 17ffaarraa kaasanii Habashaa seenuudhaan dame amantii kristiyaanaa -Kaatolikii babal’isuuf tattaafachha turan. Habashootaaf jaalalaafi maraarfannoo gudda qabu turan. Habashoonni tuqamuufi miidhamuu hinjaalatan turan. Habashoota gara amantii isaaniitti hawwachuuf tattaafataa waan turannif, waan mootoota Habashaa dallansiisu hin barreeysine. Seenaa Oromoo yeroo barreeysaniis akkuma Habashootaatti barreeysan. Namichi Poortugal-Manu’eel de Almeedaa jedhamu, yeroo seenaa Oromoo baarreeyse, Baahireerraa fudhatee ijaa jibbiinsaan barreeyse. Kanaaf waan isaan barreeysan hoggaa xiinxalmuufi kan warra kaanii wajjiin ennaa walbira qabamu seenaa Oromoo barreeysuun nidandayama. Tahaas jira.
Biyya Daawwatootafi Qorottota:
Biyya daawwatoonni haala, akeekaafi yeroo adda addaatti dhufan, biyya daawwataa fakkaatanii dhufuudhaan kan mootuummaa isaaniif basaasan nituran. Waarri kaan immoo qormaata ji’ograafii ykn saayinsii gochuuf warri dhufaniis turan. Bifa adda addaan haa dhufan malee isaan kun waan argan, ummata, aadaaa, afaaniifi akkaata jireenyaa biyya sanaa barreeysanii jiru. Namoota alagaa waan tahaniif waan ijaan arkan malee, ofii isaaniitiin ummata haaseessuudhaan kallattiin waa baruu hindadayan. Nama afaan isaanii hiiku barbaadu. Kanaaf hangi isaan seenaa barreeysuuf deeman heedduu xiqqaadha. Aadaafi maalummaa ummata sanaa baruudhaaf, yeroon isaan keessa turaniis waan xiqqaa tahuuf, hubannaan isaaniis akkasuma taha. Dhiibba malee waan hojjetaniif hanga dhaga’aniifi arkan qulqullutti barreeysuu saanii hin oolamu.

Namoonni Arooppaa seenaa Oromoo, Orommtarraa qoratanii barreeysaniis nijiru. Oromoonni gabrummatti gurguramanii boodaa namooni Arooppaa tokko tokko baitatanii bilisoomasaniis nijiru. Gabroota bilisooman kanrra seenaa Oromoo waari qoratanii barreeysaniis nituran. Haala kanaan bara 1830fi 1840 namoonni Arooppaa kan seenaa Oromoo barreeysuuf carraaqan nituran. Qorannoo seenaa keenyaa kan har’a godhamaa jiruuf, kun madda tokko tahee argama.

Jalqaba jaarraa 20ffaarraa kaasee seenaa qorattootni Arooppaa, seenaa Oromoo barreeysuuf yaalii guddaa godhaa turan. Keessattuu bara Haayle Sillaasee keessa carraaqiin isaan godhaa turan guddaa ture. Mootoonni Habashaa, akka seenaan Oromoo hin barreeyfamne mala adda addaatiin dura dhaabbachaa turan. Waan qeesotni isaanii dur barreeysanillee dhoksuudhaan, gara biraatiniis akka hin barreeyfamne ittisaa turan. Har’aas itti jiru. Akka seenaan Oromoo hin barreeyfamne, dhiibbaan isaan godhan: tokkoffaa namni akkeka kana qabu, akka dhiisuykn akka kun hindandayamne godhanii itti dhiheessuudhaan harkatti busheessuuf yaalu. Lammmaffaa, akka eehama argatee qormaata kana hingoone karaa itti cufu. Haa tahuu malee, qormaata ummatoota naannoo Kaaba Baha Afrikiirratti godhame keessaa kan Oromoorratti godhameefi godhamaa jiru baayyee guddaadha. Waa’ee ummata Oromoo qorachuun mata duree qormaata guddaa tahee jira.

Seenaa Barreeysitoota Arabaa

Seenaa ummatoota Gaafa Afrikaa warra barreeysan keessaa Arabootiin warra duraati. Keessattu eega amantiin Islaamummaa Gaafa Afrikaatti babl’achuu jalqabe, Araboonni bifa lamaan dhufuu jalqaban. Kuniis bifa amantii babal’isuufi nagadaan ture. Araboonni bifa kanneen keessa tokko ykn lachuutuu, waa’ee Oromoo galmeessanii seenaa barreeysanii jiru. Har’a seenaa Oromoo barreeysuuf qorachuuf maddi tokko barreeysaa Arabootaa taheeti argama. Akkauma haalaafi yeroo isaan barreeysanitti, akkasumas ilaacha isaanirraa kan ka’e, barreeysan isaanii mudaa qabaachuu nidandaya.

Seenaa Oromoo qoratanii barreeysuuf, madda adda addaafi mudaa isaan qaban ilaallee jira. Madda jiran kanatti dhimma bahuudhaan seenaa haqaa barreeysuuf, maddi amansiisaan himamsa afaanif aadaa Oromoti taha. Seenaan afaanii akka barri dheeratuun, ilaalchaafi muxannoo haaraya dabalataa akka demu yaadachaa, qormaata godhamuun seenaa keenya barreysuu nidandeenya. Jarsooliin Oromoo kan seenaa dur beekan utuu hin dhabamin waan godhamuun irra jiru. Maddi kun gayuu akka dandayu irraanfachuun nurra hinjiru.

Hunda caalaa seenaan Oromoo dgaagsuufi guddisuuf qoodni qabsoon qabu guddaa akka tahe dagachuun namarra hinjiru. Sadarkaa har’a ummanni Oromoo ABO jalatti hiriiree kallachaa isaa waliin qabsoorra waan jiruuf, waa’ee ummata Oromoo baruuf gaaffiin ka’aa jiran guuddaadha. Har’a waa’ee Oromorratti qormaata guddaatu beektoota bijyya baayyeen godhamaa jira. Keessattu waggaa 10rnan dabranii as qormaatni kun dabalaatuma jira. Kun tolatti kan dhufe utuu hin tahin, dhaabni waa’ee ummata kanaaf falmu waan jiruufi. Qabsoo godhuun seenaa dabaa jiru sirreessuudha dandaya. Dur namootni hedduun maqaa Gaallaa jedhu malee, maqaa Oromoo hin beekan. Har’a garuu maqaan Oromoo jedhu hundaan beekamee jira. Kun bu’aa qabsoo keenyaati.

Koloneeffattoonni yoomillee taanaan, ummanni isaan koloneeffattan seenaa qabu jedhanii hin yaadan. Seenaa ummata koloneeffatanii dabsanii ykn akka waan hin jirree godhanii dhiheessu. Seena oromoos kan qunnamte kanuma. Qabsoon arra godhaa jirru, seenaa ummata keenyaa gaddhaaba, baduurraa hambisa, alagaan akka qoratuuf karaa bana. Qabsoo keenya finiinsuun sagalee ummata Oromoo baay’atee akka dhagayamu godha, fedhii alagaan waa’ee isaa baruuf godhu guddisee, qormaata irra bal’aatiif karaa bana. Kaanaaf seenaa keenya haga har’aa alagaan barreeyfamee ija qeeqaafi xiinxalaan barata, sabbontonni Oromoo seenaa dhugaa qoratanii bareeysuuf dirqamni akka irra jiru yaadachiifna. Haga har’aatti kan argamees firii qabsoo keenyaati.

Seenaa Barreeysitoota Arabaa

Seenaa ummatoota Gaafa Afrikaa warra barreeysan keessaa Arabootiin warra duraati. Keessattu eega amantiin Islaamummaa Gaafa Afrikaatti babl’achuu jalqabe, Araboonni bifa lamaan dhufuu jalqaban. Kuniis bifa amantii babal’isuufi nagadaan ture. Araboonni bifa kanneen keessa tokko ykn lachuutuu, waa’ee Oromoo galmeessanii seenaa barreeysanii jiru. Har’a seenaa Oromoo barreeysuuf qorachuuf maddi tokko barreeysaa Arabootaa taheeti argama. Akkauma haalaafi yeroo isaan barreeysanitti, akkasumas ilaacha isaanirraa kan ka’e, barreeysan isaanii mudaa qabaachuu nidandaya.

Seenaa Oromoo qoratanii barreeysuuf, madda adda addaafi mudaa isaan qaban ilaallee jira. Madda jiran kanatti dhimma bahuudhaan seenaa haqaa barreeysuuf, maddi amansiisaan himamsa afaanif aadaa Oromoti taha. Seenaan afaanii akka barri dheeratuun, ilaalchaafi muxannoo haaraya dabalataa akka demu yaadachaa, qormaata godhamuun seenaa keenya barreysuu nidandeenya. Jarsooliin Oromoo kan seenaa dur beekan utuu hin dhabamin waan godhamuun irra jiru. Maddi kun gayuu akka dandayu irraanfachuun nurra hinjiru.

Hunda caalaa seenaan Oromoo dgaagsuufi guddisuuf qoodni qabsoon qabu guddaa akka tahe dagachuun namarra hinjiru. Sadarkaa har’a ummanni Oromoo ABO jalatti hiriiree kallachaa isaa waliin qabsoorra waan jiruuf, waa’ee ummata Oromoo baruuf gaaffiin ka’aa jiran guuddaadha. Har’a waa’ee Oromorratti qormaata guddaatu beektoota bijyya baayyeen godhamaa jira. Keessattu waggaa 10rnan dabranii as qormaatni kun dabalaatuma jira. Kun tolatti kan dhufe utuu hin tahin, dhaabni waa’ee ummata kanaaf falmu waan jiruufi. Qabsoo godhuun seenaa dabaa jiru sirreessuudha dandaya. Dur namootni hedduun maqaa Gaallaa jedhu malee, maqaa Oromoo hin beekan. Har’a garuu maqaan Oromoo jedhu hundaan beekamee jira. Kun bu’aa qabsoo keenyaati.

Koloneeffattoonni yoomillee taanaan, ummanni isaan koloneeffattan seenaa qabu jedhanii hin yaadan. Seenaa ummata koloneeffatanii dabsanii ykn akka waan hin jirree godhanii dhiheessu. Seena oromoos kan qunnamte kanuma. Qabsoon arra godhaa jirru, seenaa ummata keenyaa gaddhaaba, baduurraa hambisa, alagaan akka qoratuuf karaa bana. Qabsoo keenya finiinsuun sagalee ummata Oromoo baay’atee akka dhagayamu godha, fedhii alagaan waa’ee isaa baruuf godhu guddisee, qormaata irra bal’aatiif karaa bana. Kaanaaf seenaa keenya haga har’aa alagaan barreeyfamee ija qeeqaafi xiinxalaan barata, sabbontonni Oromoo seenaa dhugaa qoratanii bareeysuuf dirqamni akka irra jiru yaadachiifna. Haga har’aatti kan argamees firii qabsoo keenyaati

Ummata Oromoo

Ummanni Oromoo jedhamu Gaafa Aafrikaa keessa kan jiraatudha. Kan inni dubbatu afaan Oromooti. Ummanni Oromoo walitti ejjee osoo addaan hincitin, godina kana keessa qubatee argama. Bakka bal’aa irra haaqubatuu malee, afaan tokkicha kan hundi itti waliigalu qaba. Kaabaa-Kibbatti, Bahaa-Dhihatti ummata aadaa tokkicha qabuudha. Diinagdeedhaaniis walirratti irkannoo cimaa qaba. Bara dheeraaf walabmmaan jiraataa turee, dhuma jaara19ffaa keessa alagaan kan koloneeffatameedha. Har’aas waliin dhaabbatee bilisummaa isaatiif lolachaa jira. Kanaaf akkaataan yaadasaa walfakkaata, hawwiifi fedhi siyaasa tokkicha qaba. Kaanfi ummnni Oromoo kan saba tokko kan jedhamuuf.

Damee dhala namaa Afrikaa keessatti argaman keeessa, Orommoon damee kuush jalatti argama. Dameen dhla namaa Afrikaa keessatti argaman:

Haam ykn kuush

Seem

Neegiroo

Buushmeen ykn Hotteentoos

Negirilloos jedhamu. Dameen kuush bakka gurguddaa lamatti addaa qoodaman. Kuush Kaabaafi Bahaatti warri argaman:

Beejjaa , Berberiins (barbara,nuuba), Oromoo, Sumaaleefi saboota Kibba empaayera Tophiyaa jala jirani, garuu isaan dhiiga Neegiroo wajjiin walmakuun hin’oolle. Misroota duriifi haaraya. Ummata kana keessa hammi hammi tokko dhiiga gara biraa makachuu hin’oolle.

Kuush (haam) Kaabaa keessaatti warri argaman ammoo, Berbersii, Siraanaayikaa, Trippolitaaniyaa, Tuniisiyaa, Aljeeriyaa, Berbersii Morookkoo, Tureegfi Tiibuu saharaa fuulbe dhiha Suudaaniifi Gu’aanchee warra kanaari Aayland keessaati.

Ummanni Oromoo saboota Gaafa Afrikaa keessatti argaman keesssaa isa guddaadha. Lakkooysi ummata Oromoo kan har’a kolnii Toophiyaa jala jiru duwwaan miliyoona 40 ol nitaha. Biyyoota Afrikaa keessaa kan baayyina namaatiin Oromoo caalan afur qofa, akka sabaatti yoo fudhanne, sabni Oromoo, saba tokkicha guddaa Gaafa Afrikaa, tarii kan Afrikaati. Ummata Empaayera Toophiyaa har’aa kessaa walakkaa ol kan tahan Oromoota maqaa “Gaallaa” jedhu.

Ormoon maqaa gaallaa jedhu kanaan akka ofi hinyaamne, seenaa barreeysitoonni raagaa nibahu. Fakkeenyaaf namichi Chaarles T. Beke jedhamu bara 1847tti yeroo barreeyse- “isaan maqaa boonaa Ilma Oromoo” jedhuun ofwaamu, garuu warri Habashaa Gaallaa jedhuun waamu” jedhe. Ummanni Oromoo eega maqaa kanaan ofhinwaamne, maddi isaa eessa taha? Hundee maqaa kanaatiifi hiikkaa isaarratti wanti odeeyfameefi barreeyfame hedduudha.

1. Oromoon dur hogguu lola dhaqee, yeroo moo’ee ykn moo’amee jedhu ” Kootta ni gallaa” jedhee walwaama. Kootta nigallaa isa inni jedhurraa maqaan “gaallaa” dhufe warri jedhan nituran.

2. Oromoon dur gaala waan tiiysuuf, akkasumaas fe’atee waan demuuf yeroo inni gaala jedhu dhagayanii 2. “gaallaa” ittiin jedhan jedhu:

dur ummata gosa “Gool” jedhamuutu Faransaayii keessa ture, maqaan achirraa dhufee jedhanii warri odeessu nijiru.

Namichi Yihuudii kan Abbaa Balzezar Tellez jedhamu ammoo, jechi “Gaallaa” jedhuu kun afaan Hibiruufi Giriikirraa dhfeedha jedha. Afaan hibiruufi Girikii kessati “gala2 jechuun “aannan” jechuudha. Kanaaf achirraa dhufuun nimala jedhu.

Habashoonni ammoo, maqaa gaalaa jedhu kanaaf hiikkaa kannanii jiru. Namichi kassate Birhaan Tassammaa kan guuboo (kuusa) jechoota afaan Amaaraa barreeyse yeroo hiike: Gaalaa jechuun aramanee, yaal salaxxanee, cakkanyi, ye amaaraa xilaat” jechuudha, jedhee jira. Barreeysaan amaaraa gara biraan ammoo, dhugaa jiru lafa kaayee jira. Maqaa Gaallaa jedhu kan kanneef warra Habashaa,warra qomaaxaafi beela biyya keenyati fideedha. Akka inni jedhetti “isaan Oromoodha ofiin jedhan, garuu Amaarri immoo, “Gaallaa” jedhaan” maqaa kanaan dura Oromoo yaamuu kan jalqabe Amaara tahuun ifa ta’a. Biyyoonni ollaafi warri Arooppaas isaanirraa fudhachuun isaanii dirree ta’a.

Amaarri maqaa kanaan Oromoota yaamuun jibbiinsaafi diinummaa, akkasumas garaagarummaa karaa amantii isaanii gidduu jirurratti kan hundaa’eedha. Kuniis battala Oromootaafi Habashootni walqunnamanitti, Oromoon amantiilee guddaa lamaan keessaa hinqabu ture. Habashoonni lafa Oromoo irraafudhachuuf fedhii waan qabaniif, Oromoon ammoo, biyyaa saa irra jabaatee waan ittiseef, jibbiinsaafi diinummaa guddaatu gidduu isaanii jira. Kanaaf maqaan “Gaallaa” jedhu kan diinni Oromootaaf baaseef, maqaa balfachuufi tuffii tahee argama.

Har’a Oromoo ta’ee kan maqaa Gaallaa jedhuun ofwaamu hinjiru. Yoo jiraatees nama doofa (sodaataa) isa dhumaa ykn qaamaan duwwaa utuu hintaane, kan sammuu dhaaniis gabroome qofa. Seenaa qorattoonni addunyaa, gaazeexoonni biyya adda addaafi raadiyoon addunyatti lallaban hundi maqaa “Gaallaa” jedhu dhiisanii Oromotti dhimma bahaa jiru. Kun bu’aa qabsoo Oromoo akka tahe ifaadh

Madda saba Oromoo

Maddi ummata tokko lafa akkasii, goleefi boolla akkasii keessaa jedhanii himuun baay’ee nama rakkisa; hin barbaachisuus ture. Ummanni tokko akka bineessaa boolla keessaa jiraataa turee, gaaf tokko akka waakkoo kan olba’uumiti. Idiletti maddi saba sanaa damee dhala namaa irraa gosa akkasii keessaati jechuun nigaya ture. Madda saba Oromoos hoggaa xiinxalan haala kana hordafuun quubsaa ture. Haa tahuu malee seenaa Oromoo warri barreeysan dabsaa waan turaniif dirqitti waa’ee madda Oromoo kaafnee xiinxaluun barbaachisa taha.

Maddi saba Oromoo eessa? Gaaffii jedhu namoonni adda addaa akka adda addaati deebisu. Isaan kaan akka yaada isaan dhiheessanitti yooo adda qoodne:

Waan qeesoonni Habasha barreeysan,.

Aafrikaa alaa dhufe warra jedhan

Aafrikaa keessaa golee tokko lafa kaa’uu warri barbaadaniifi

Himamsa afaan Oromootaatti adda baasuu nidandeenya

Isaan kana tokko tokkoon haalaalluu.

Waan qeesootni Habasha barreeysan

Qeesotnii Habashaa Oromoo ija diinummaatiin waan laalaniif kan isaan barreeysan dhugaa irraa fagoodha. Jibbiinsi isaan Oromoodhaaf qaban waan guddaa taheef, haga namummaa Oromoo haalanitti gahu.

Alaqaa Taayye kan jedhu “akkata Gaallaan bishaan keessa itti bahan beeksisa.” Jedhee barreeyse. Gaalloonni bishaan keessaa waan bahaniif qurxummii hin nyaatan. Kanaafiis bishaanitti waaqeeyfathu jeddha.

Astime Gi’orgs kan jedhu ammoo, Gaallaan ilmaan sheeyxaanaati jechuu kajeela. Kanaan utuu hindhaabbatin oduu afaanii kan balfachuuf odeeffaman fhudhatee hiddi sanyii Oromoo gabra jadhee barreeyse. Namichi Jalqaba laali Maatewoos jedhamu tokko gabra heedduu qaba ture. Gabroota isaa kana waan miidheef jalaa badanii biyya (lafa) gara kibbaa jirutti galan. Namoonni amala gadhee qabaniifi yakkaman badanii itti dabalamuudhaan achitti walhoran. Kana boodde Habahsaa weeraran jedhee barreetsee jira. Qeesootni Habashaa kun madda Oromoo barreeysina jedhanii tuffiifi ija jibbansa Oromoof qaban dirretti himanii jiru. Wanti isaan barreeysan kan dhugaarraa fagaate waan taheef hedduu wajjiin cinqamuu hinqabnu.

Aafriika alaatti akeekuu warra barbaadan

Hindii:- Oromoon Aafriikaa ala, hindiirraa dhufe warri jedhaniis nijiru. Oromoon dur biyya Hindii keessa jiraataa turer , booda bidiruudhaan garba Hindii cahee gara Maadagaaskar dhufe. Achirraa gara Taanzaaniyaatti cahee booda Keeniyatti babal’ate jedhu. Gaarri Kilmanjaaroo jedhamu afaan Oromootiin tulluu janjaaroo jechuudha jedha. Monbaasaa jechuun bobbaa sa’aa jechu, Naayroobi jechuun naaroobi, keeniyaa jechuun keennya jechuudha jedhu. Maqaalee kana Oromoon keennuufi ykn akka tasaatti walkiphuun nimala. Garuu Oromoon Hindiirraa dhufuu har’a wanti mirkaneessau hinjiru. Ummata har’a Hindii keessa jiraatan keessa kan aadaadhaafi seenaadhaan Oromoo fakkaatan tokkolleen hinjiru. Oromoon beekkumsa bidiruu tolchuus hinqabu. Kanaaf garba Hindii guddaa kana akkamitti cehuu danda’a? Oromoon Hindiirraa dhufe jechuun dhugaa hintahu.

Faransayii :- Oromoon dur Faransaayii ture; kan jechuu barbaadaniis nijiru. Biyya Faransaayii keessa gosa Gool jedhamtu ture. Kanaaf Oromoon (Gaallaan) achirraa dhufuun nimala jedhu. Haatahuu malee kana wanti mirkaneessu hinjiru.

Faarsii:- Oromoon Faarsiirraa dhufe jechuu warri barbaadan nijiru. Kanaas Islaamoota qarqara Galaanaa jiraatantu jedhu. Namichi M.D Abdi’e jedhamu yeroo galmeessu hundeen ykn shanyiin saba Oromoo ijoollee dubraa obbalaa sadii turan. Isaaniis dubartoota Jarusalaam(Iyyerusalam) ; booda sanyiin isaanii walhoranii baay’anaan mootummaa Kibbaa isaanii (Arabiyaa) jiru weeraran. Sana booddee karaa Baab-el-mandab gara Aafriikaatti cehann jedhu.

Konii Israa’eel:- seenaa barreeysaan Yehuudii kan abbaa Belzezar jedhamu ammoo, waan dinqii katabe. Oromoonni kolonii Israa’eel turan jechuu barbaade. Abbaan Belzezar Tellez akka jedhutti dur ummtni kun adii ture. Israa’iiliitu isaan bulchaa ture. Bara Israa’iloonni faca’an ummatni kun Aafrikaatti cehanii naannoo kaaba baha Afrikaa keessa qubatan jedha. Kun eegaa yaada tasa namaaf hinfudhatamneefi waan mirkana tahees kan hinqabneedha.

Yaadni Oromoon Afrikaa alaa dhufe jedhu dhugaa waan hinqabneedha. Seenaa mirkanii hinqabne akkasii tana fudhatanii babal’isuuf warri tattaafatan akeeka qabau. Keessattu warri seema Afrikaa alarraa waan dhufaniif kan Oromoos kanatti harkisuu barbaadu. Oromoon osoo Hindii, Fransaayii, ykn giddu galeessa bahaarraa dhufe tahee ummatni aadaan, afaaniin, qaamaafi seenaan Oromoo wajjiin walfakkaatu achitti argamuutu irra jira. Garuu har’a Hindii, Fransaayiifi Faarisii keessatti kana hinarginu. Kanaafu maddi saba Oromoo Afrikaa alaamiti. Ummatni Oromoo, ummata Afrikaa qulqulluu keessaa isa tokko thuun hin mamsiisu.

Afrikaa keessa golee tokko warri akkekuu yaalan

Ummatni Oromoo ummatoota kuush keessaa tokko akka ta’ee mamiin hinjiru. Kuush ammoo, damee dhala namaa keessaa isa tokko tahee Afrikaa keessatti kan argamuudha. Kanaaf Afrikaa keessaa bakka madda Oromoo akeekuuf yaalame haalaallu.

Duuchaa dhumtti Oromoon toora sabbata lafaa (equator) irraa dhufe warri jedhan nijiru. Maddi ummata Oromoo ammoo, Hora Viktooriyaati warri jedhaniis nijiru. Oromoon Suudaan keessaa bakka Sinaar jedhamuu ka’ee karaa Gojjaamiifi Tulluu walaliin seene warri jedhaniis nijiru. Jechoonni kun hundinuu waan qorannoodhaan mirkanwuu qabaniidha.har’a ummatoota Burundiifi Ruwaandaa keessa jiraatan keessaa sanyiin isaanii gara Oromootti warri dhihaatan nijiru. Garuu Oromootu dur achi turee irraa godaneefi, isaantu gara sanatti godaananii wanti beekamu hinjiru. Qormaata gahaa barbaada.

Qeesiin Amaaraa Abbaa Baahiree jedhamu bara 1593tti hoggaa waa’ee ummata Oromoo barreeyse.

Oromoonni gara dhihaarraa laga biyya saanii kan galaana jedhamu cehanii, bara Atsee waang Saggad gara huduuda Baallii dhufa” jedhee ture. Algni galaana jedhamu har’a adda hinbahu. Oromoon lagaan galaana jedhee ni waama. Tarii inni Abba Baahireen jedhu kun laggeen gannaalee, wabee, saganfi walmal ykn Dawwaa keessaa tokko tahuun nimala. Naannoo Baalli jedhamu kutaa har’a Baale jedhamuun walitti fakkeessuun hintahu. Seena qorqttoonni Baahiree booda garii haala gaafas Oromoon lafa isaa deebifachuuf sosso’aa itti ture hubachuu dhbuu irraa, waan Baahireen barreeyse fudhatanii waan Baahireen barreeyse fudhatanii madda ummata Oromoo himu. Haathuu malee, Baahireen madda Oromoo Afrikaa keessatti akeeka malee ala hinbaafne.

Maddi Oromoo Afrikaa kessa tahuu isaa seena barreessitoonni hedduun amananii jiru. Haathuu malee, Afrikaa keessaa naannoo Kaaba-Bahaa tahee achi keessatti golee tokkotti Oromoo murteessuuf warri tattaafatan nijiru. Isaan kana keessaa warra bebeekkamoo duwwaa ilaalla. Namni biyya Xaliyaanii Enrikoo cheruulii jedhamu, maddi saba Oromoo fiinxee Gaafa Afrikaa, Kaaba bahaa Somaaliyaa naannoo mijerteeniyaati jedha. I:M: Luwiis kan jedhamuus waan Cheruuliin jedhe kan fudhachuudhaan seenaa Somaalee barreeyse. Obboo Yilmaa Dheereessaas yaaduma Cheruulii kan hundee fudhachuun maddi OromooKaaba-baha Soomaaliyaati jedha. Cheruulli irraa jalqabanii seenaa qorattoonni yaada kan dhugoomsuuf akkas jedhan: “maddi Oromoo Majarteeniyaa ture. Somaaloonni yeroo sana Oromoorraa gara Kaabaa naannoo Barbaraafi Zayilaa turan. Jaarra 1ffaa ykn 11ffaa keessa Arbitichii Sheek ismaa’il jedhamu biyya Somaalee dhufe. Dubartii Somalee fudhee gosa daroot irraa hore. Qur’aana isaan barsiisee Islaameesse…jaarraa12ffaa keessa bakka turan -Barbaraafi Zayilaarraa warraaqanii Oromoo waraanuu jalqaban. Oromoon dura dhaabachuu waan hindandayiniif jalaa siqaa Ogaadeen seenan. Booddee Somaaloonni waan itti jabaataniif, Oromoonni jalaa sossohanii Waabi Shabeellee cehanii qubatan.

Yaadni isaan dhiheessan akka tocho’iinsa (godaansa) Oromookan jaarraa 16ffaa ragaa ni taha kan jedhaniidha. Yyadni kun Oromoofi Somaalee gidduu karaa antrippoloojii hidhata jiru haaluudha. Oromoofi Somaaleen yeroo kamii jalqabanii adda bahanii, kopha kophatti gara sabaatti dagaaguugu jalqaban gaaffii jedhuuf deebii gahaa dura argachuu barbaachisa. Tarii yeroon Oromoofi Somaaleen gosa tokko turanii waliin naannoo jedhame keessa jiraatan jiraachuun nimala.

Yaadni Oromoon Kaaba baha Somaaliyaarraa madde jedhu hamma 1963tti beektoota baay’een waan fudhatamee ture. Yaada kana kan faalleessu qorannoon godhomee Habarlaand nama jedhamuun ture. Oromoon Somaaliyaa keessaa dhibamee dhufe osoo hintaane, baddaa Baalee keessa jiraata ture. Habarland hoggaa kana ibsu. Oromoonni kan maddan Kaaba Somaalee keessa osoo hintaane baddaa Baalee irraati. Achitti gosa tokko tahanii horii horsiifachuu qofaan utuu hin thin qotiinsaan bulan. Dongoraadhaan qotuu turan. Garbuus facaafatu. Booda walitti baay’anaan karaa hundaan, gara Somaaletti hamma Bur-haqabaafi Mija-rteenitti, gara Booranaafi Keeniyaatti hamma laga xaanaatti, gara Habashaattis hamma daangaa Tigraayitti, hamma Suudaaniifi hararitti bittinnaa’an” jedhe.

Habarlaandaan kan irratti dabalee yaada Oromoonni Somalootan dhibaamanii gara naannoo har’a jiraatanitti faca’an jedhu kun waan hinfakkaanne tahuu isaa ibsa. Yaada Habaralaandi kan kan warrra kaanirraa kan adda isa godhu, Oromoon baddaa Baalee keessa qubatee qonna qotataa kan ture malee, jaarraa beekama tokko keessa akka awwaannisaa ka’ee kan godaane akka hintaane ibsuu isaati.

Yaada Habarlandaa kan deeggaru, seenaa qorattoonni adda addaa yaada darbatanii jiru. Charles T.beke barreeyfama isaa kan 1847 barreeyse keessatti Oromoon lafa gammoojjii, lafa naannoo Somaaleeti kan dhfteemiti jedha. Naannoo isaan dura turan, lafa gaara qabu, baddaa tahuu qaba jedha.bifti Oromoo akka inni ummata gammoojjii (negiroo) hin taane ragaa nitaha. Habashaarraa gara kibbaa ummata jiraataa ture, lafti isaa badda, nannoon isaa galaanni ykn bishaan guddaan turuu nimala. Beekeen yaada isaa akkasitti hogga lafa kaayu, kan Habarlaandi wajjiin waliitti dhufa. Tellez kan jedhamuus Oromoon lafa Baalliifi galaana hindii gidduu jiru keessaa jiraataa ture jedha. Kanaaf wanti qorattoonni kun jedhan idileetti Oromoon lafa baddaa kaaba baha Afrikaa keessa jiraataa ture kan jedhuudha.

Hunda caalaatti qorannoo irraa bal’aa gochuudhaan, uummatni Oromoo ummata Afrikaa qulqulluu tahuu isaa kan addeesse Harbert S. Luwiis jedhama. Waa’ee madda saba Oromoo qorachuudhaaf S.Luwiis waan lama gurguddaa irratti hundaawe.

Qormaata afaanoota kush Bahaafi

Himamsa aadaati.

Luwis afaanoota ummatoota kuush afurtamii-torba keessaa kan Kuusha bahaa warra baay’ee waliitt dhihaatan 24 qorate. Afaanootni kun, akka walfakkaatanitti bakka afuritti qoode. Afaanootni kaan bara dheeraaf wailirraa adda waan turaniif malee, hundi isaanii dur tokko akka tahan addeesse. Herbert.S.Luwis ummatoota Kuush bahaa keessaa kanneen baay’ee Oromoo wajjiin walfakkaatu qoratee, madda Oromoo hoggaa ibsu:

Hunda caalaa afaan isaanii Afaan Oromoo wajjiin kan walfakkaatu kan ummata Koonsoo, Gidoollee, Gatoo, Arboora, Gaawwata, Waraasa, Tsemaayiifi Galab kan isaan argaman Toophiyaarraa gara kibba har’a biyya Gamuugoofa jedhamtu keessa., Hora Abbyyaafi Caamoorraa gara kibbaatti nannooa laga Sagaanifi Duulee keessa. Jaarraa baay’een fuuldura afaan Oromoo afaanoota jara kanaa wajjiin tokkicha tur. Booda eega afaan hunda isaanii adda babahee raaw’atee Oromoon gara dhihaarraa kan hafe gara hundatti yeroo socha’u jarri kaan achuma biyya isaanii kan duritti hafan. Kanaafiis Oromoonni tooruma Haroo Abbaayyaatiifi Caamoo naannoo lageen saganiifi Duulee turan jedhee jira. As keessaatti Harbert S.Luwis warra kaan caalaa bakka beekamaa tokko lafa kaayuuf carraaqe. Qormaanni inni godhe kun, saboota kaani wajjiin walbiraqabee waan taheef irra bal’aadha. Haatahuu malee, Oromoon bara kanarraa kaasee akkamitti saboota kanaa wajjiin adda bahee kophatti saba tahuu jalqabe gaaffiin jedhu ammallee qormaata barbaada. Sabootni ollaa walii jiran waldhibuu nijiraata, yeroo tokko inni tokko jabaatee hoggaa lafa isaa bal’ifatu, lafti isa kaani ammoo nidhiphata. Haalli kun wal jijjiree jiraata. Qormaata Harbertirraa akka hubannutti maddi saba Oromoo naannoo lageen saganiifi Duuleeti. Garuu madda saba Oromoo lafa dhiphaa akkasii keessatti hidhuun qormaata boru godhamuuf nama rakkisa. Qormaata gara biraatiin utubamuu qaba. Jalqaba laali

Madda ummata Oromoo bira gahuuf, himamsi aadaa bakka guddaa qaba. Seenaan afaaniin dabru madda seenaa keessaa isa jabaa tahullee waan bara dheeraan duraa himuurraatti mudaa hinqabaatin hin hafu. Hammi afaaniin waltti dabarsaa fidan yeroo wajjiin ni jijjiirama, kaniis irraanfatamuun nimala. Haatahuu malee, seenaa tokko barreeysuu keessaatti qooda guddaa qaba. Xasoo Magiraa qormaata seenaa Oromoo godhe keessatti himamsa aadaaf bakka guddaa kenne jira. Manguddoota Oromoo kutaa adda addaa keessa jiran gaafatee, hundi saanii naannoo walitti dhihoo tahe akka himatan bira gahe.

1. Jaarsooliin Ituufi Humbanna (Harargee) afaan tokkoon mormorii dhufne jedhu. Mormor kutaa Baalee naannoo Dalloofi Mandooyyuu jedhaman keessaa qarqara laga Gannaaleetti argama.

2. Jaarsooliin Arsii naannoo Bareedduu Kurkurruu jedhamu himatu. Kuniis Baalee keessatti lageen walamaliifi Mannaa giddutti argama. Laggeen kun Baddaa Baalee keessaa burqanii Konyaalee Dalloofi Mandooyyuurraa yaa’anii Gannaaleetti galu.

Oromoon Wardaayi Keeniyaa keessatti kan argaman Tullu Nam-durii dhufne jedhu. Mangddoonni Booranaas Tulluu Nam-durii kana himatu. Tulluun Nam-dur kan argamu Baalee keessaa Koonyaa Dalloofi laga walmaliifi Gannaalee giddutti.

Oromoonni Maccaafii Tuulama oggaa gaafataman afaan tokkoon, Haroo Walaabuu himatu. Walaabuun kan aragamu Baale keessa Konyaa Dalloo laga Gannaalee qarqaratti ganda Bidree jedhamtu cinatti.

Ormoonni Gujii bitaafi mirga laga Gannaalee naannoo Girjaarraa dhufne jedhu. Girjaan kutaa Sidaamoo Awraajjaa Jamjam keessatti gara mummee laga Gannaaleetti argama.

Eegaa himamsa aadaa kanarraa akka hubatamuu dandayutti Oromoon Afrikaa alaa akka dhufe wanti akeeku hinjiru. Oromoon as Afrikaa keessaa akka ture, keessattuu Kaab baha Afrikaa keessa akka ture argisiisa. Himamsi aadaa kun kan akeeku Ormoon Kutaalee har’a Sidaamoofi Baale jedhaman keessaa Konyaalee Dalloo, Mandooyyuufi Jamjam keessa akka jiraata tureedha. Ormoon yeroo dheeraadhaaf naannoo kan jiraate jechuun ni dandaya. Haa tahuu malee, Ormoon asitti dhalate jechuuf qormaata irra bal’aa kan hariiroo ummatoota kuush wajjiin jiru xiixaluu barbaachisa.ummatni tokko gaafuma tokkotti bakka tokkotti kan dhalatuumiti. Dagaagina dhala nama kan yeroo fudhatu keessa dabree kophatti bahee ummata mataa isaa dandahe taha. Xumuramuudhaaf kan jedhuu dandayu, ummatni Oromoo ummata Gaafa Afrikaa keessaa isa tokko, damee kuush keessatti argama, yeroo dheeraa irraa kaasee kaaba-baha Afrikaa keessa jiraate, har’aas jiraataa jira.

Lola Amntiifi Miidhaa Oromoorra gahe jaarraa 10ffaa _15ffaa

Amantiin Kiristaanaafi Islaamaa Gaafaa Afrikaa walduraa duubaan seenaan. Amantiin Kiristaanaa jaarraa 4ffaa keessa warra Habashaa keessaa seenee amantii warra mootii tahe. Mootoonni Habashaa Kiritaanummaa fudhatanii saboota kaaniis fudhachiisuu jalqaban. Amaantiin Islaamaa gara Afrikaatti kan cehuu jalqabde Jaarraa 7ffaa keessa ture. Nagadaafi Islaamummaa babal’isuun walqabatanii gara Afrikaa qarqara galaana diimaarraa bakka heddutti faca’e. Jaarraa 10fi12 giduutti lafaa qarqara galaana diimaa bira dabree godina kana keessatti babal’achuu jalqabe. Hawwiin babal’achuu amantii kana lamaanii, waldura dhaabbatee lola lubbuufi qabeenya ummata godina kana balleessuuf deemsifame. Lolli kun keessattuu ummata Oromoorraan miidhaa gudda gahe.

Oromootniifi Affaarootni walitti aananii qubatan. Giddu saaniitti lafa irra tiikfatan bal’ifachuuf waldhiibuu irratti lolli sadarkaa adda addaatti ture. Lafa bishaaniifii margaa qaburraa waldhiibanii gumaa gidduu isaaniitti argamu manguddoota gosaan fixachuun niture. Haalli kun garuu eega amantiin Islaamaa Affaaroota seenee jalqabe bifa amantii babal’isuu dabalatee cimaadhufe. Affaarootni lafa Oromoorraa dhiibanii qabatan mootooma Islaamaa tolfachuu jalqaban.

Affaarootni amantii Islaamummaa fudhatanii mootooma dhaabbachuu haajalqaban malee, haalli isaan keessa turan gaariimiti. Islaamummaa hundaan hinfudhanne, kanaafuu isaan jidduu waldhabbiin niture. Tokkooma gosa tokkicha jalatti waan hin sassaabamneef haala faffaca’ee keessa turan. Mootoomni Islaamaa dhaabbataniin xixiqqoo faffaca’oo turan. Mootoomni Islaamaa hoggaas uumaman Ifaat, Adaal, Harar, Awwusaa,…turan. Mootoomni hoggaa Ifaat keessatti dhaabbate Walashama jedhamee beekama.

1.  Motomni Islaamaa kun hawwii lama-sdii qabu turan. Isaaniis:

2.  Amantii Islaamaa babal’suu

3.  Daandii nagadaa harkatti galfachuufi

4.  Daga gabbataa tahe qabachuudha.

Kanaaf Oromoota olla isaanii jiran dhiibuu jalqaban. Jaarraa 13ffaa keessa Oromoota naannoo Faxagariifi Dawwaaroo keessaa arihanii dhufatan, achiirraa dhaabbatanii Baalliifi Daraaratti duulanii Oromoota amantii Islaamaa Fudhachiisan. Bakka kanatti mootooma Islaamaa tolafatan. Babal’ifannoon Islaamaa kun Habashoota yaaddeesse. Hawwii isaan Kiristaanumma babal’isuuf qaban dura dhaabbate.

Islaamummaan babal’atee, Oromoota daga isaaniirraa dhiibee yeroo daga kiristaanaatti dhihaate kana, Habashoonni rakkina keessa turan. Yeroon kun yeroo mootummaan Aksum caphee harka Agawutti gale, lolli Agawootaafi Habashoota jiddutti tahe, yeroo humni isaanii itti laaffisuudha. Eega Agawuun qabatees lolli Habashoota jiddutti deemaa waan tureef, humni isaanii keessatti nilaaffate. Mootonni Agaw kan Zaaguwee jedhamee beekamu, hamma walkkeessa jaarraa 13ffaatti irra turee booda moo’ame. Habashoonni aangotti deebi’an. Habashoonni eegasii human isaanii jabeeyfatanii dhiibbaa Islaamoota ykn Affaarootaa dura dhaabbachuu jalqaban.

Bara 1250rraa kaasee lolli kiristaanafi Islaama jiddutti yeroo dheeraaf godhame jalqabe. Habashoonni Affaaroota ofjalatti gabbarsiisuu, dagaafii mantii isaanii babal’ifachuuf babal’ina amantii Islaamaa dhaabuuf; Affaarootniniis daga bal’ifachuufi, babal’ina amantii kiristaanaa dhaabuuf tattaafataa turan. Lamaanuu daga Oromoo kan hoggaa Affaarootni dhunfatanirratti waan walqunnamaniif lolli hedduun lafa Oromoorratti tahan. Wallolli Kiristaanaafi Islaama giddutti jalqabame itti fufe, bara Imaam Ahmed sadarkaa guddaarraa gahee hamma Oromoon Gadaan ofjaaree ka’etti deeme. Habashoonnifi Islaamoonni daga Oromoo Faxagar, Dawwaaroofi Baalli keessatti wallolanii qabeenya Oromoo saamuudhaan dabree ofcimsaa turan. Lola kana keessatti hedduu kan hubame Oromoodha. Ormoon qabeenya saamamee, lubbu namni heedduu irraa dhumanii, miidhaa guddaan irra gahe. Umanni Oromoo diina isaa lachuu ofirraa lolaa lafa isaa deebifachuuf tattaafachaa ture.

Lolli Habashootaafi affaaroot jidduu bara mootii Habashaan Yagiba Tsiyoon (1285-94) jalqabame. Yagibaan Tsiytoon Adaalitti duulee cabsee irra aane. Duula isaa kana booddee Islaamoota wajjiin araara uume, akka nagadoonni Islaamaa biyya seenaan yeroo eehamu, isaafiis karaan kennamee ABUNA alaa fidachuu dandaye. Yagbia Tsiytoon gaafa du’e ijoolleen isaa aangoorratti walqabuu jalqaban. Haala kana keessatti Habashaan deebi’ee laaffate. Affaarootni haala kan hubatanii ifatti weeraruuf human walitti qabachuu jalqaban. Yeroo kan Habashoonni Affaarootaaf daga dhiisanii araaraman. Araarri kun ammallee fedhii babal’ifannoo Islaamaa quubsuu didee ifaan ifatti weeraruuf qophii gochuu jalqaban. Dhiibbaan Islaamootaa Habashoota walitti itichee sabboonummaa keessatti dagaagse.

Yagiba Tsiyoon booddee waggaa saddeettamaaf Habashoonni eega waljeeqanii booda Amde Tsyoon (1314-44) aangoo qabate. Amde Tsyoon Habashaa daddaaqamuu kana keessaa baasee walitt itichee jabeesse. Kanaaf bu’ureessaa mootummaa Habashaa jedhamee beekama. Bara isaa keessa Habashoonni weerara gurguddaa Affaarootarratti oofanii milkaawan. Amde Tsyoon lola isaa ifatti rukutuun jalqabe. Sulxaan Ifaat bulchaa ture, haqaddiin nama jedhamu ture. Haqq-ad-diin Habashaa loluudhaaf osoo qopkhirra jiruu, ergamaa Habashaa kan Kaayroodhaa galu Islaamummaa fudhachiisuuf yaalee dinnaan ajjeese. Amde Tsyoon kana sababa godhatee bara 1328tti Ifaatitti duula bobbaase. Ifaatiin rukutee moo’e. Haqqaddiin booji’ame. Amde Tsyoon Faxagaariis rukutee eega ofjala galchee booda oobaleessa Haqqaddiin Sabnaddiin itti shuume. Eega Amde Tsyoon deebi’e booda Sabnaddiin Habasharratti fincila kaasuu yaade. Mootummaan Islaama Adiyyaafi Baaletti ergatee akka issaf tumsan gaafate. Agawuttiis dhaamsa ergee akka isaan keessaan itti ficilanii humna mootichaa tamasaasan gaafate. Akeekni isaa Habashatti, karaa lamaa sadiin duulanii of giddutti rukutuu ture. Amde Tsyoon garuu mala isaani kana dafee bira gahee, diinoota saa tokko tokkoon rukutuu jalqabe. Dura hadiyyaa cabse, achii Faxagar, itti aansee Dawwaaroofi Ifaat rukutee cabse. Affaarootiifi Islaamoonni akkasitti saphatti kan cabuu dandayaniif 1 ) mootummaa xixiqqotti waan adda qoodamanii turaniif 2) ummanni isaanii irra guddaa waan tiikfatteefi godaantuu waan tahaniif ture. Amde Tsyoon Faxagar, Dawwaaroo, Ifaatfi Hadiyyaa dhunfatee nama Jamaal addiin jedhamu irratti shuumee gara daga issaatti deebi’e.

Kun lola Habashootaaf Affaaroota jidduu hoggaa tahu Faxagariifi Dawwaaroo keessattiis Oromootaafii Habashoota gidduutti lolli niture. Bara 11329-32tti hoggaa Amde Tsiyoon Faxagariifi Dawwaarotti duulaa ture, lola guddaatu tahee ture. Lola kanan Oromoota hedduutu dhume, qabeenyaan saamamee daangaa hinqabu. Lola balleessi kan lubbuufi qabeenya hinbararre waan taheef, Oromoonni Faxagariifi Dawwaaroo gad dhiisanii jalaa godaanuun dirqii itti tahe. Deebisaanii qabachuuf haa lolan malee, bara Amde Tsiyoon kana keeessatti Oromootni osoo dhiibamnii qarqara laga awaashiin gayan. Ormoon waan qabu fudhatee sababa jalaa godaaneef, keessa qubatanii bulcuu hindandeenye. Duula isaa qideeyfachuuf akka tahuufitti Amde Tsiyoon kaampii waraanaa Manzitti tolfate. Bara isaa kanaa jalqabee Habashoonni qubsuma waraanaa lafa Oromoo keessatti ijaarrachuu jalqaban.

Affaarootni eega bara Amde Tsiyoon cabanii moohamanii hamma 1441tti bayyanachuu hindandeenye. Ifaatiifi naannoo sanarraa fagaatanii ofjaaruu jalqaban. Dakar, Harariifi Awusaatti deebi’anii humna isaanii jabeeyfatanii duulaa turan. Garuu habashaa injifachuu hindandeenye. Bara 1441tti Affaarootni Adaal jedhaman Habashatti lola bananii mohaman. Affaarootni naannoo Awusaafi warri amantii hinfudhatiniis bulchiinsa Habashaa didanii walaqabatanii ficila kaasan. Baayidaa Maariyam (1478-94) waraana karaa lama 1473/74tti itti erge.waraanni lachuu nimoohame. Injifatamuun waraana Habashaa kun jabinafi ol’aantummaa isaa dhabamsiise, eegasii humni gad deemuu jalqabe.

Lolli Oromootaafi Habashoota jidduu hoo? Oromoon bara Amde Tsiyoon Faxagariifi Dawwaaroo keessaa dhiibamanii qarqara laga hawaash ga’anii lolli hindhaabbanne. Mootoomni Habashaa kan Amde Tsiyoon booda dhufaniis Oromoo dhiibuurraa turan. Bara Zara Yaaqoob (1434-68) mootii Habashaa ture waraanni Habashaa Baallii keessatti dhiibachaa ture. Yeroo tokko waraanni Zara Yaaqoobfi Oromootni naannoo Haroo Laangannootti wallolanii turan. Oromoota Baallii keessaa baasuuf haa dhiibaman malee, daga sana dhufachuu hindandeenye. Kuniis Oromoonni looniifi ilmaan isaanii jalaa godaansisanii gaafa dadhabban waan miliqaniif ture. Waraanni Habashaa daga isaarraa fagaatee dhufe kun, waan nyaatu dhabee yeroo beela’u deebi’ee galuuf dirqame. Waraana laafee jiru kana Oromoon karatti eegee daguun rukutee hedduu irraa fixe. Kanaaf lafa Oromoo keessa qubachuu hindandeenye.

Bara 1445tti Oromootni Dawwaroo deebifachuuf lola itti banan. Zara Yaaqoob itti duulee injifate. Waraanni Habashaa duula godhee eega raaw’ate booda gara daga isaatti yeroo debi’u Oromonni ammoo lola jalqabu. Haala duula ba’uufi galu kana xiqqeessuuf, Habashoonni boroo Baallii keessa qubsuma waraana gara biraa tolfatan. Achirraa Dawwaarootti duuluu jalqaban. Lolli kun haaluma kanaan takka ka’ee takka dhaamaa, hamma bara 1468tti itti fufe, dhumarratti Zara Yaaqoob Dawwaaroo keessatti lolarratti moohamee harka Oromootti du’e.

Zara Yaaqoob booddee Baa’ida Maariyam (1468-78) aangoo qabatee duula Oromoorratti godhuu ittifufe. Duula inni Baallii qabachuuf godhe keessatti Oromootni humna isaarraa hedduu fixan. Yeroof Oromo cabsuu dadhaban. Habashoonni qubsuma waraana isaanii kan bara Amde Tsiyoonfi Zara Yaaqoob lafa Oromoo keessatti tolfatanirraa ka’anii salphatti Oromoo weeraruu jalqaban. Lolli gurguddaan Dawwaaroo, Baallifi Faxagar keessatti deemuu jalqabe. Oromoon yeroo kanatti ofijaaree waan hinjirreef midhaa guddaan irragahe. Oromoon dhiibamee Awaashirraa gara kibbaatti ittifame. Naannoo kanatti ittifamuun saas akka inni ofjaaruuf isa dhiibe.

Lola Guddaa Jaarraa 16ffaarraa jalqabe

Ummanni Oromoo jaarraa 13ffaarraa kaasee diinoota lama: Habashootaafii Islaamoota ofrirraa lolaa ture. dinoota kana lameeniis miidhaa guddaatu irra gahaa ture. ofirraa ittisuuf haa faccisu malee, hamma sirna Gadaan ofjaaree jabaateetti akka humnaatti gad ofdhaabuu hindandeenye. Kanaafuu jaarraa 14ffaafi 16ffaa gidduutti Islaamoonnifi Kiristaanoonni Oromoo saamuudhaan dagaagaa turan. Garuu Oromoon walakkeessa jaarraa 15ffaarraa kaasee sirna Gadaa ijaarratee cimaafi jabaataa waan dhufeef roorroo gara lachuun itti dhufu ofirraa ittisuuf lafa isaa deebifachuu jalqabe. Haa tahuu malee, faaraan Oromoo kan cime jaarraa 16ffaa keessa ture. jaarraa 15ffaa keessatti waraana Habashaa wajjiin bara Zara Yaaqoobfi Ba’ida Maariyaam naannoo Hora Laangannoofi Baalli keessatti wal lolanii turan. Lolli jaarraa 16ffaa keessatti deeme ammoo, hundi isaa Gadaan geggeeffamaa ture. lubi tokko akka sadarkaa aangoo qabachuu gahen lolli bifa haarayaan deemaa ture. kanaaf duula Oromoo hubachuuf Luboota ka’anii Gadaa fudhatan waliin laalla.

Weerara Islaamaafi Haala Oromoo

Bara Baa’ida Maariyam waraanni habashaa maoohamee humni isaanii laafachaa deeme. Islaamoonni sana booddee human isaanii jabeeyfataa deeman. Bara Naa’ood (1494-1508) moohe keessatti haala isaan gidduu qabbaneessuuf gamni lachuu fedhii qabuture. Affaaroonni Adaal haala kana osoo argisiisaa jiranii Amiirri Harar- Mahfuuz kan jedhamu Habashaarratti lola bane. Naa’ood yeroof haa injifatuu malee, humni Islaamootaa walqunnamtii Islaamoota addunyaa wajjiin waan qabaniif daran jabaataa deeme. Habashoonni kan hubatanii isaaniis Kiristaana Arooppaatti, keessaahuu Poortugaalatti hidhachuu carraaqan. Bara 1509tti namicha Maatiwu jedhamu Armaantich gara Poortugaalitti ergatan. Haalli kun eega Naa’ood du’ee ilmi isaa Libana Dingil jedhamu ijoollee waan taheef Haati isaa bulchaa turteedha.

Libana Dingil (1508-40) guddatee eega aangoo qabatee haala nagayaan Islaama wajjiin jiraachuu jedhu kan Heleenaa (haadha isaa) geeddaree lola jalqabe. Adaaloonnis ofijaaranii gargaarsa alarraa argatanii waan turaniif Habashaarratti lola labsan. Bara 1516tti Adaaloonni Faxagar qabachuuf weerara jalqaban. Mahaafuuz lola kana keessatti du’e, lolli labsame hamma Imaam Ahmad Ibni Ibrahim al Gahaaztti bakka hin geenye.

Imaam Ahmad (1506-43) ykn Giraanyi Ahmad kan jedhamu ijoollumma isaa lafa Hubta jedhamu kan Baddeessaafii Harar gidduutti dabarse. Imaam Ahmad loltuu jabaa tahee guddate. Human waraanaa walitti qabatee Amiira Harar ajjeesee aangoo qabate. Eega sanaa human isaa guddifatee lolaaf ofqopheessutti ka’e, bara 1527tti human Habashaa kan Adaliin weeraru deemu lolee injifannoo guddaa irratti argate. Lola kana booddee Imaam Ahmad waraana isaa qabatee lola jalqabe. Bara 1529tti bakka shuburaa kuraa jedhamutti waraana Habashaa lolee moohe. Waraanni isaa garuu tiikfattootafi godaantootarraa waan ijaarameef, akkasumas gosa isaatiif waan abboomamaniif lola kan booddee ni faca’e. Kanaaf waggaa lama keessatti waraana haaraya ijaarrachuun dirqii itti tahe. Waraana isaa duwwaaaf ajajamu waggaa lama keessatti ijaarrattee lola itti fufe. Bara 1531tti Dawwaaroofi Shawaa qabate. 1533tti ammoo, Amaaraafi Laastaa dhufate. Baallii, Sidaama, Hadiyyaafi Guraagee yeroo tokkotti ofjala galche. Bara 1535tti Tigree weeraree qabatee habashaarraa harka guddaa qabate. Bakka dhaqetti Islaamummaa fudhachiisaa, bataskaana dhabamsisaa deeme. Liban Dingil gargaarsa Poortugaal gaafate osoo hindhaqqabin lolarratti du’e, Ilmi isaa Galaawudoos (1540-59) itti dabree moohe. Poortugaal waraana nama dhibba afur, qawwee wajjiin ergee ture, Liban Dingil bira gahe. Waraanni Kiristaanootaafi Ahmed Giraanyiis ni faca’e. Haa ta’uu malee, humni habashaafi Islaamootas hedduu hubamaee laffate. Haalli kun Oromoon biyya deebifachuurratti hedduu gargaare.

Duula Oromoo jarraa 16ffaa

Jaarraa 13ffrraa kaasee hamma dhuma jaarraa 15ffaatti Oromoon rakknaafi roorroo guddaa jala ture. Yeroo kana ture yeroo inni daga isaarraa dhiibamee laga Awaash gamatti ittifame. Yeroo kan ture yeroon lolli amantii kan Islaamootaafi Habashootaa gidduutti deeme hedduu isa miidhe. Sababnii saa maalirraa madde? Sabani guddaan jaarmaya isa tokkeessu dhabuusaati. Akkuma Oromoonni adda fagaatanii qubataniin gosa gosaan buluun waan isaan tokkeessu dhabame. Oromootni gosuma gosaan miidhaan isaan mudate malee, sirni walitti isaan itichee waliif tumsiisu hinturre. Kanaf roorroon guddaan irra gayuu dandahe.

Jaarraa 15ffaa keessa hawaasa Oromoo keessatti dagaagni argamuu jalqabe. Sirni tokko isaan taasisee roorroo alagaa ittiin ofirraa ittisan dagaagee hawaasa guutummaa dhaqqabuu jalqabe. Sirni haarayni biqilaa ture kun, yeroo dheera keessa kan dhufe tahullee Oromoota irree jabeessee akka lafa isaanii deebifataniifi roorroo alagaa akka ofirraa deebisan gargaare. Oromoos ummata sodaatamafii kabajamaa taasise. Sirni kuniis Gadaa dha. Jaarraa 16ffaa kaasee ummata Oromoo seenaa keessatti kan beeksiseefi harka isaatti kan hambise sirna kana. Ummanni Oromoo gara jaarraa sadii rakkinaafii roorroo isarra gahee ture ofirraa deebisuuf Gadaan ofijaare. Abbaa Bokkuu tokko jalatti walgurmeesse. Haala siyaasafi waraanaa jabaa tolchee ijaarrate. Jaarmaya isaa kanaan ummatoota naannoo isaa jiran caalatti jabaatee humna sodaatamaa tahe. Daga isaarraa qabatame deebifachuuf duula gurguddaa jaarraa 16ffaa jalqabarraa kaasee eegale, humni jajjaboon kan Habashootaafi Islaamootaa lolaan waldadhabsiisanii waan turaniif haala aanjaa argate.

Duula biyya isaa deebifachuuf Oromoon jaarra 16ffaa keessatti jalqabe kan seenaa barreeysitoonni haala adda addaatiin dhiheessuu barbaadu. Sababoota duulli kun itti dhalachuu dandayan akka adda addaatti himu.

Brus namich jedhamu yeroo burqaa laga Naayil (abbayya)qorachuuf kbiyya Habashaa dhaqe, waa’ee Oromoo qoratee akkas jedhe. “duratti osoo gara daangaa Habashaa hindhufin dura isaan ((Gaalla) walakkeesa Ardii Afriikaa jiraatu turan. Lafti jalaa olka’uu jalqabnaan gost isaanii tokko tokko godaanuu jalqaban. Dura gara bahaa galaana Hindiiti sossohan. Achiti walhoranii gara kaabaatti qaceelanii Dawwaaroofi Baallii qubataan. Gost torba walaqabatnii garaa dhihaatti sossohanii kibba laga Abbaayfi naannoo Gojjaam keessa qubatan. Gartuu sadaffaan ammoo, gosa torba tahee walkeessatii hafanii achirraa gara kibbaatti babal’atan” jedhee ture.
Akka Brus jedhu kanatti sossohiinsa Oromoo kan kaase lafti jalaa olka’uudha. Lafti kun yoom olka’e? Akkamitti? Olka’e kan jedhuuf garuu wanti ibsu hinjiru.

Charles T. Beke bara 1842/3 yeroo Habashaa keessa ture waa’ee babal’ifannoo Oromoo waan qorate niqaba. Oduu afaaniin daddabru Habashootarraa qoratee kan inni lafa kaa’e: “Bara dur Gaallaan doko (savage) ture. beekumsa waan tokko hinqabu, qonna hinqotu, loon hintiiksu, uffata hinbeeku, ija mukaa funaanee, hidda harkaan qotee nyaata ture, dubartiin Amaaraa ykn Kristaanaa tokko bidiruu(qorii) tokkotti nyaata, uffata, eeboo, gaachanaafi mia garagaraa guuttattee baahar gamatti argite. Gaallaa dokoon mia kana yeroo argan baay’ee diqisiifatan, nyaaticha dhandhamanii itti tole, uffata ofitti kaa’an, mia gara biraas ilaalanii itti gammadan. Bakka burqaa qabeenya kanaa qabaachuu qabna ja’anii bahara sana cehanii, gara Kiristaanaa dhufan. Kana booddee waldhabbiin dhalatee lolli tahee biyya Habashaa qabatan” jedhama jedhe.
Bekeen waan akka oduu afaanitti dhiheessu kana keessatti sababa babal’ifannoo Oromoo ibsuuf yaale. Oromoo cabsuuf, tuffachuufii seenaa isaa gara dabarsuuf kan odeeffamuudha malee, dhugaa tokkollee ofkeessaa hinqabu.

Charles T. Bekeen ammallee itti fufee oduu afaanii kan Oromoota Walloo biratti odeeffamu jedhee barreeyse jira. Akka oduu isaa kanatti durii:-
“Oromoon Hawaash gamaa dhufe. Osoo bahara kana hincehin duratti qarqara isaa loon tiikfatuu turan. Gaaftookko binessi jabbii tokko arihee bahara kana ceesise. Jabbiin kun laga sana ceetee achitti walhorte. Galgala hogga gaallaan loon bishaan obaafachuu dhaqu gaaddidduu loon baay’ee arge. Akka hinliqinfamneef harka walqabatanii laga cehanii loona sana dhaalan. Booda biyyi itti tollaan achuma turan. Walhoranii baay’anaan hamma daangaa habashaatti babal’atan” jedha. Oduu afaanii fakkeessanii duula Oromoo akkanatti ibsuu barbaadu.

namich J. Hultin jedhamu ammoo, babal’ifannoon Oromoo haala adda addaarraa tahuun nimala jedha. Akka inni jedhutti haalli qilleensaa waan geeddarameef bishaaniifi marga barbaacha sossohan. Kun sababa tuhuu nidandaya jedha. Garuu eega haalli qilleensaa deebi’ee tolee margaafi bishaaniis argame, maallif babal’i’annoon kun itti fufe jedhee ofgaafata. Kanaaf jedha: J. Hultin, akkaata sababa babal’ifannoo Oromoo ibsuudhaaf haala hawaasa dinagdeefi siyaasaa hawaasa Oromoo qorachuu feesisa jedhee cufe.
Namichi Poortugaal kan Amaanu’eel de Almaad jedhamu sababa babal’ifannoo Oromoo akkaataa lamatti hima. Tokkoffaa Habashoonni amantii katolikii fudhachuu waan didaniif waaqni isaa adabuudhaaf dha’ichaa Gaallaa kana itti erge. Osoo amantii kana fudhatanii kun hundi irra hingayu jedhee barreeyse. Lammaffaa bineessa Liqimsaa jedhamtu naannoo Gaara walaabuu bira isaan facaase. Abbaan muuda isaanii naannooo Walaabu kana jiraata. Naannoon Walabuu lafa baay’ee dinqiiti. Loon adaadii aanna baay’ee keennitu waan tureef namni qotuuf hinrakkatu. Aannan dhugee jiraata. Booda bineessi Lliqimsaa jedhamuu kan bifa saa gegeeddaratu namaafi loon nyaachutti ka’e. Kan baqatanii hamma Habashaatti babal’atan. Kun eegaa waan Almaadaan babal’ina Oromoo itti ibsuu yaaleedha.
I.M.Lewis ammoo, Oromoon babal’achuu kan jalqabe waan Somaaleedhaan dhiibameef jedha. Yaada isaa kana kan deeggaran barreessitoonni maddi saba Oromoo Somaaliyaa keessa warra jedhaniidha.
Asmaaroom Laggasee ammoo, sababni babal’ifannoo Oromoo tahu baay’achuu lakkooysa namaati jedha. Lakkooysi ummata Oromoo jaarraa 16ffaa keessa waan dabaleef lafti itti dhiphannaan irraa godaanuu jalqaban jedha.
J.Hultin ammoo, akka sababaatti hin dhiheessin malee babal’ifannoo Oromoo kan gargaare Gadaan ijaaramuu isaati jedha. Lubi aangoo irra jiru osoo gad hindhiisin, lafa haaraya dabalee qabachuu qaba. Kanaaf akkuma Lubni haarayni dhufee aangoo fudhateen lafti itti dabalameen Oromoon babal’atee lafa guddaa qabachuu dandaye jedha.

Kitaaba(seenaa saba Oromoo fi Sirna gadaa)Birraa/Fulbaana 1995)

(Toleeraa Tasammaa Hundasaa Waaqwayyaa) irraa.

 

http://gadaa.net/wp-content/plugins/google-document-embedder/view.php?url=http%3A%2F%2Fgadaa.net%2Fwp-content%2Fuploads%2F2014%2F10%2FGadaa-Tuulamaa_Sagalee-Gadaa.pdf&hl=en_US&gpid=1&embedded=true

OSA2014: Remarks by Former Abbaa Gadaa Aagaa Xanxano, and Gadaa Scholar Prof. Asmarom Legesse

The  Oromo Studies Association’s 2014  Annual Conference theme:  “Gadaa and Oromo Democracy: Celebrating 40 Years of Research and Oromo Renaissance.”

 

 

 

 

http://www.gadaa.com/culture.html

http://gadaa.com/oduu/21141/2013/08/09/gadaa-as-the-fountain-of-oromummaa-and-the-theoretical-base-of-oromo-liberation/

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-40H2_20sWE

http://trace.tennessee.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1005&context=utk_socopubs

http://gabuo.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=887&Itemid=91

http://web.me.com/opsa/Site/Oromia_National_Acadamy_O.N.A_files/kaawo_new1.pdf

http://gadaa.com/OromoStudies/wp-content/uploads/2014/01/History-of-Oromo-Social-Organization-Gadaa-Grades-Based-Roles.pdf

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City Paper: In Mount Vernon, Moussa Ali conducts a one-man protest for the Oromo People. #OromoProtests #Africa April 9, 2016

Posted by OromianEconomist in #OromoProtests, Africa.
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Odaa OromooNo To Fascist TPLF Ethiopia's genocidal militarism and mass killings in Oromia, Ethiopia#OromoProtests against the Ethiopian regime fascist tyranny. Join the peaceful movement for justice, democracy, development and freedom of Oromo and other oppressed people in Ethiopia

In Mount Vernon, Moussa Ali conducts a one-man protest for the Oromo People

It’s a bright, breezy Saturday in Mount Vernon with little else happening, making it even harder to miss Moussa Ali. Dressed in all-black and wearing a T-shirt that reads “I stand with the Oromo People,” Ali stands in front of the Washington Monument and nods at drivers passing him by on Charles Street. He raises his fist above his head and conducts a one-man demonstration.

“I’m protesting,” Ali, a 56-year-old Charles North resident and BP gas station manager, says, keeping his arm raised the whole time. “I’m standing with the Oromo students back home, which is in Ethiopia. The Oromo people are the majority in Ethiopia. In large numbers they are being killed. All young.”

Ali, who is ethnically Oromo, says a minority tribe, the Tigrayans, has had control of the Ethiopian government for over 20 years and oppress, disenfranchise, and take land from the other tribes, especially the largest tribe, the Oromos. According to Human Rights Watch, “Ethiopian security forces are violently suppressing the largely peaceful protests in the Oromia region that began in November 2015.”

Ali says: “They go to the students dorm, break into their rooms and because of this, the students cannot even go to school right now. Some of the students started escaping out of the country into the sea, trying to immigrate to Europe. And that struggle is still continuing right now! I want freedom for my people… this is part of me.”

Ali came to American from Ethiopia as a student 35 years ago, barely slipping the grip of government forces himself.

“[Back then] they started rounding up the students!” Ali says. “I was one of them marching. I used to go around doing the same thing I’m doing right now. I used to have my slogans, march in the towns, underground. Then they found out. They had their own spies. They give my name away. [My friends] told me, ‘The government’s looking for you! You better leave the country.’ That is how I left the country.”

Ali believes Americans should have an interest in this issue too. He says that American tax money in the form of military assistance is used to crush Oromo protests.Foreignassistance.gov shows that the U.S. Department of Defense has given the Ethiopian military $31 million in aid in 2015 alone. This is in addition to veteran American forces training the Ethiopian military.

“The interest for Obama and the United States is just to go after Al Qaeda in Somalia,” Ali says. “They get… cash. They train them. The Ethiopian government go into Somalia and fight for America.”

He shares the experience of his tribe back home with the hope that Baltimoreans can imagine the kind of freedom for his tribe that we have here: “Look at the freedom I have here. I’m talking to you right now. Nobody’s coming, arresting me, threatening me or going to take me to jail or torture me. No fear!”

He says he is “a representative of Baltimore City” who’s doing his part.

“There is no Oromo news except [what you hear from] the Ethiopian government, they choose it,” Ali says. “All over the globe, Oromos, no matter where they are, we are doing this.”

“It’s happening all over,” he continues. “Oromos are protesting in Sweden, France, Australia, England, Oromos are protesting everywhere. We are a strong community in Washington D.C., [but in Baltimore] communities are not large.”

Though he stands alone, he says he’ll “come back again” and be here this upcoming weekend as well for a couple hours.

“We welcome everybody [to stand with us],” Ali says. “I will provide s [t-shirts] if they’re coming.”


Read more at:-

http://www.citypaper.com/blogs/the-news-hole/bcpnews-in-mount-vernon-moussa-ali-stands-with-the-oromo-people-20160408-story.html