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Oromia: Sirna Gadaa: Abbaan Gadaa Booranaa 71essoo ya baallii fuudhe. The Borana Oromo have elected Kura Jarso, 30, as their 71st Abba Gadaa in an elaborate, week long ceremony attended by tens of thousands of people in Badhaasa, Borana, Southern Oromia March 9, 2017

Posted by OromianEconomist in Boran Oromo, Oromia, Oromia News, Oromiyaa, Oromo, Oromo Identity, Oromummaa, The Oromo Democratic system, The Oromo Governance System.
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Odaa OromooOromianEconomist


Kuraa Jaarsoo,abbaan Gadaa Booranaa 71essoo

Kuraa Jaarsoo,abbaan Gadaa Booranaa 71essoo


http://www.voaafaanoromoo.com/a/3749790.html


 

Oromo women attend the inauguration of the 71st Borana Abbaa Gadaa in Badhaasa, southern Oromia.

 

Oromo women attend the inauguration of the 71st Borana Abbaa Gadaa in Badhaasa, southern Oromia

The Borana Oromo have elected Kura Jarso, 30, as their 71st Abba Gadaa in an elaborate, week long ceremony attended by tens of thousands of people in Badhaasa, southern Oromia.

Spectators and invited guests started arriving at Arda Jila Badhaasa (the Badhasa ceremonial place) several days ahead of Jarso’s inaguration. The mood here was euphoric all week long and Badhaasa is packed with people from every corner of Oromia. This is where the Borana Oromo leaders have exchanged power peacefully and in a democratic manner every eight years for more than 560 years. Click here to read more at OPRIDE.

 

 

 

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Saba Oromoo fi Sirna Gadaa (The history of the Oromo nation and the Gadaa System) April 10, 2016

Posted by OromianEconomist in Ancient African Direct Democracy, Gadaa System, Oromia, Oromiyaa, Oromo, Oromo Nation, Oromummaa, Sirna Gadaa, The Oromo Democratic system, The Oromo Governance System, Uncategorized.
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Photogadaa system, parties.png, p1

Saba Oromoo Fi Sirna Gadaa

Dhibbaa alagaa bitamuu waggaa dhibbaa Oromoo irra turuurraa kan ka’e hedduun ummata Oromoo har’a Oromummaa isaa haa beeku malee, seenaa ummanni kun keessa dabree as ga’e ragaa qorannoon deggaramee barreeyfame irraa wanti inni hubatu baay’ee xiqqaadha.
Ammaas tanaan seenaa ummaata guddaa kanaa guutumatti barreeyfamee jira jachuu utuu hin ta’in gaaffiilee Oromoon tokko ofgaafatuufiis tahee, seenaa dharaa diinni Oromoo irratti odeessuuf deebii ga’aa ni taha waan jedhamuuf; kunoo seenaa Oromoo kan sab-boontoota ilmaan Oromootiin haala rakkisaa keessaaa barreeyfamee, akka ummaata keenya gargaaruuf asirratti maxxansine. Nuti maxxansitootni kan keessa qabnu gulaala dogongora qubee dabree dabree mul’atuufi maxxansaa qofa malee, qophiin isaa kan sab-boontoota ilmaan Oromoo tahuu isaa osoo hin hubachiisne bira hin tarru.

Barbaachisummaan barreeyfama kanaa bal’inaan seenaa irratti waan kaa’amee jiruuf, Oromoon ani eenyu? Maddi koo eessa? Daangaan koo eessa? Firaafii diinni koo eenyu kan jedhu hundi haala gahaatiin deebii quubsaa akka argachuu dandayu shakkii hin qabnu.

Sirna gadaa

Hamma kiyyoo kolonii jala hin seeniniti Oromoon sirna ittiin bulan kan mataa isaanii qabau turan. Maqaan sirna kanaas Gadaa jedhama. Sirni kuniis bal’aa ture. Dhimma jireenya ummata Oromoo fuula hundaan kan ilaalu sirna siyaasa, aada diinagdeefi amantiiti. Sirna hawaasaa guutuu ture jechuudha. Sirni Gadaa sirnaafi seera Oromoonni ittiin walbulchu, kan duulee roorroo ofirraa ittisu, kan dinagdee isaa ittiin tikfatuufi dagaagfatu, akkaata inni itti waliin jiraatuufi kan hawwiin dhala Oromoo cufa ittiin guutu ture.

Sirn kun haala Oromoonni tokkummaan isaanii laaffate kan itti roorrisaa turan Habashaafi Affaar ofirraa deebisuu dadhabe keessatti, haala hawaasaa ilaalerraa, jaarraa 14ffaa keessa biqiluu jalqabee suuta guddatee deeme. Oromoota sirna akkasii jalatti qindeessuudhaaf yeroo dheeraa fudhate. Oromoota gosatti hiraman walitti fidanii sirna tokko jalatti walitti qabuun kufaatiifi ka’uumsaa yeroo dheeraa gaafate. Gara walakkaa jaarraa 15faa isa lammaffaa keessa sirna gutuun argamuu dandaye.

Akkaata himamsa aadaa Boorana kibbaa keessatti yeroon itti Gadaan dhaabbate kanumaan walkipha. Akka mangoddoonni Booranaa himanitti Gadaa jaaruuf yaalii dheeraan eega godhame booda, Gadaan yeroo dheeraaf bifa hojechuu dandayu dhaabbate. Gadaa kanatti Abbaan Gadaa Gadayyoo Galgaloo ture. Raabni isaa (yeroosii) Yaayyaa Gulleelee jedhama ture. Eega gaafasii jalqabee Booranni Abbootii Gadaa 61 lakkaawa. Kanarraa waggaa saddeet saddeetiin yoo herrgne (Gadaan tokko waggaa 8) 61X8 = 488 taha. Eega Gadaan ijaarame, akka himamsa manguddootti Booranatti waggaa 488 taha jechuudha. Barri isaa 1499tti dhihaata. Kanaaf, sirni kun ijaaramuun isaa walakkaa jaarraa 15ffaa isa lammaffaa keessa kan jedhame dhugaa taha.

Sirna Gadaa keessatti wanni hundi gadaan walilaala. Lakkooysi yeroo, aadaan, amantiin, jireenyi hawaasaa, ittisi biyyaafi kkf hundi hidhata Gadaa qabu, fakkeenyaaf sadarkaalee Gadaa, goggeessa Gadaa, abaluu abaluu..jiru. kun, eegaa Gadaan sirna kabajamaafi guutuu akka ture mirkanessa.

Bara itti Gadaan sirna gutuu ture sana akka silaa tahutti galmeessuun hindandaymane. Hammi galmeeyfame baay’ee yaraadha. Sana keessaahillee irra guddaan kan baroota dhihooti. Waa’een isaa hammi beekamu baay’ee yaraadha. Guddinaan odeeffannoon argaman oduu afaaniin kan daddabraniidha. Isaaniis bakka bakkati garagar tahu. Sunillee Gadaan Caffe Caffetti deebi’uu haa agarsiisu malee, tokkummaa sirna kanaaf ragaa kan tahu haftee sirna kan Gadaa Booranaa har’aalee haga taheefuu hojjataa jiruudha. Kanaaf, waa’ee sirna Gadaarratti hangi hubatame xiqqaadha. Waliigalatti sirna kana caalatti hubachuudhaaf qormaata cimaa sirna Gadaa kan mul’isan armaan gaditti ilaalla.

uunkaa jereenya hawaasaa
siyaasaa sirna Gadaa
aadaa sirna gadaa
amantii sirna gadaa
1.  Uunkaa jireenya hawaasaa

Hawaasa keessatti dhalli namaa kophaa hinjiraatu. Kophaas hindalagu. Namoota biraa wajji jiraata, hojjataas. Jireenyi dhala namaa walitti hidhaataadha. Hawaasa Oromoo bara Gadaa keessaa yoo fudhannee akkaataa jiruufii jireenya Oromoo, akkaataa qoodama dalagaa, hariiroo ummanni Oromoo hawaasa keessatti waliinqabau, sirna Gadaa keessatti qaama tokko. Akkaataan polotikaa sirnichaas uunkaa jireenyya hawaasa Oromootti hidhamee jira.

Uunkaa jireenya hawaasa sirna Gadaa keessaa hubachuuf waan kanaa gadii hubachuun barbaachisaadha. Suniis:

a.   Goggeessa Gadaa (Miseensaa) fi Marsaa Gadaa

b.  Hiriyyaa

c.   Ilmaan jaarsaafii ilmaan Kormaa

d.  Sadarkaalee Gadaafi Murnoota Gadaa

a.   Gaggeessa Gadaa(miseensa) fi Marsaa Gadaa:

Gadaan tokko waggaa saddeet qaba. Waggaa saddeettan waliin GADAA TOKKOTTI YEROO ITTI AANGOON polotikaa warra Gadaa tokko harka jiraatuudha. Kanaaf, Gadaan waggaa saddeet saddeetiin lakkaawama. Waljijjiiraas. Waggaan saddeettan Gadaa tokko maqaa mataa isaa qabaata. Gadaa tokkicha maqaa adda addaa qabaatu. Kun Goggeessa Gadaa ykn miseensa jedhamee waamama. Kun hawaasa Oromoo keessaa, bakka gargaraatti maqaa adda addaa qabata. Jechuun:-

Boorana keessatti- Goggeessa Gadaa jedhama.

Tuulama keessatti- Miseensa jedhama.

Arsii keessatti- Miseensa jedhama.

Gujii keessatti-Baallii jedhama.

Ituu keessatti-Miseensa jedhama.

Qormaata Gadaa Oromoo bakka bakkaarratti godhameen lakkooysi Goggeessa gadaa bakka heddutti shan. Kan kanarraa adda tahees nijiraa. Fakkeenyaaf Boorana keessatti Goggeessa Gadaa torba qabaatu jira. Maqaan isaaniifi tartiibni isaaniia kopha kophaafi beekamaadha. Hoggaa Goggeessi Gadaa jiran tartiibaan deemanii raaw’atan gara isa jalqabaatti deebi’uudhaan marsaa tokko tahu. Goggeessi Gadaa tokko bakka heddutti waggaa 40 booda malee, hin deebi’u. Fakkeenyaaf Ituu keessatti Goggeessi Gadaa (missensi) jiran, Hormaata, Sabbaaqa, Dibbeessa, Fadataafi Daraaraadha. Kanneen tariiba maqaa Gadaawwan waggaa saddeet saddeetiin deeman tahanii Daraaraan gaafa raaw’ate Hormaatatti deebi’a jechuudha. Yeroon kun itti raaw’atee deebi’ee marsuuf naannawuu marsaa Gadaa tokko taha. Marsaan Gadaa tokkoo waggaa 40 qabaata. Goggeessi Gadaa shanan, walitti marsaa Gadaa shanan jalqabarraa ka’anii tartiibaan deemanii xumuramanii marsuuf gara isa jalqabaatti kan deebi’an kun “marsaa Gadaa(Gadaa cycle)” jedhama.

Yeroo idiletti laalamu jireenya nam tokkoo keessatti, Marsaa Gadaa lamaatu jira. Isaaniis, Marsaan duraa Gadaa abbaa yeroo tahu, inni lammaffaa Gadaa ilmaati. Ilmi Marsaa tokko fixee, Gadaan isaa kan abbaa tahe, kan itti aanu kan ilmaan isaa taha jechuudha. Akkuma kanatti itti fufee dabra.

Eega, bakka heddutti Marsaan Gadaa waggaa 40 akka qabaatu olitti ilaalleerra. Arsii keessatti miseensi Gadaa tokko waggaa 16 waan qabuuf kanarraa adda. Kanarraa Marsaan Gadaa Arsii keessatti waggaa 80 taha jechuudha.dagaagina keessaa Gadaan eega Caffetti qoodamee, as lakkooysifi maqaan Goggeessota Gadaa Marsaa Gadaa tokko keessa jiranii bakka adda addaa tahuun mul’ateera. Kanaas, qabsiisuuf armaa gaditti mee haa ilaallu. Maqaan Goggeessota Gadaa bakka garagaraatti:-

Goggeessa Gadaafi Marsaan Gadaa waan hiriyymummaafi aangoo polotika ilaaluun hariiroo murteessa qabu. Sanaas bal’inaan booda laalla.

B. Hiriyyaa:-

Hiriyyaan warra goggeessi Gadaa isaanii tokko taheedha. Kana jechuuniis hawaasa Oormoo keessatti warrii waggaa Gadaa keessatti dhalatan hundiifi kan maqaan Goggeessa Gadaa isaanii yoo dulloomoo tahanillee wal’irraa bu’ee yookaa tokko tahee hiriyyaadha. Ijoolleen waggaa Gadaa 1-8 jidduufi gaheeyyiin waggaa Gadaa 45-56 jidduu yoo Goggeessi Gadaa isaanii tokko tahe hiriyyaa tokko jedhamu. Marsaan Gadaa naannawutti walitti fidee ijoolleefi jaarsoolii hiriyyaa taasisaa. Marsaan Gadaafi Goggeessi Gadaa akkanatti hiriyyummaa murteessu. Hawaasa Oromoo keessatti hiriyyaan akka obbaleeyyaniitti wal’ilaalu. Ayyaana gurguddaafi beekamoorratti hiriyyaan wal argee waliin turuudhaan walfaarsa. Jaalalti walii, walamanuun, waliif dhimmuun, walgargaaruun…kkf hiriyyaa biratti jabaadha. Aangoo polotikaa keessatti paartii tokko tahu.

Kanaf, hiriyyummaan karaa hawaassfi polotikaa Oromootaa walitti hidhuudha. Waa’een hiriyyaa hoggaa akkas tahu, ijoolleefi ga’eessoota maaltu walitti fidee hiriyyaa godha? Gaaffiin jedhu ka’uun nimala. Gaaffi kana deebisuuf, nama Goggeessa Gadaa isaatiin Gadaa keenya jedha. Gadaa isaa faarsa, kabaja. Kanarraa akka ilaalcha polotikaa baraatti hubachuuf waan Paartii ilaaluun gaarii taha. Hawaasa keessatti paartiileen uumamtu turan jechuudha. Goggeessi Gadaa shanan paartiilee shan kan ijoolleefii manguddoota hiriyyaa godhuus paartii tokkicha waliin qabaachuudha.

c. Ilmaan kormaafi Ilmaan jaarsaa:

sirna Gadaa keessatti Ilmaan kormaafi Ilmaan Jaarsaa qoodameef beekama. Kan hawaasa bakka lamatti qooduudha. Kun jireenya hawaasa Oromoo bara sirna Gadaa keesaatti akkaataa Qabannoo aangoo polotikaa kan murteessuudha. Warra aangoo polotikaa qabachuuf deemaniifi kanatti hawasa qooda. Kuniis, waggaa Gadaa wajjiin walitti hidhataadha. Carraan aangoo polotikaa keessaa qooda qabaachuufi dhiisuun isaa yeroo itti dhalaterratti hundeeyfama. Kanaaniis ilmaan Oromoo yeroo dhalatanirraa kaasee ilmaan kormaafi ilmaan Jaarsaatti qoodamu. Akkaataan qoodamaa kuniis, seera umamaa kan hordofu qaba.

Ijoolleen Abbootiin isaanii sadarkaalee Gadaa keessa seenanii yeroo isaan aangoo polotikaa qabachuttii dhihaatan ykn qabatan (gadooma keessa) dhalatan ” ilmaan kormaa” jedhamu. Isaaniis, bara Gadooma abbootii isaanii keessa (waggaa 40 abbootii isaanii eeganii) kan dhalatan waan tahaniif sadarkaa Gadaa keessa seenuudhaan miseensa paartii tahuu dandayan. Kanaaf aangoo polotikaa keessaa qooda fudhachuu dandayu.

Ilmaan Gadooma abbootii isaanii (aangoo polotikaa qabachuu) dura ykn booda dhalataniifi abbootiin sadarkaalee Gadaa seenuu hindandeenyerraa dhalatan hundi “ilmaan jaarsaa” jedhamu. Ilman jaarsaa warra sadarkaalee Gadaa seenanii miseensa paartii tahuu hindandeenyedha. Kanaafiis aangoo polotikaa keessaa warraa qooda fudhachuu hin dandeenyeedha. Ilmaan jaarsaa warra waliin dhalatan hundaan hiriyyaa tahuu dandayu, jechuun ilmaan kormaa wajjiinillee hiriyyaa walii tahuu dandayu.

Eega, hawaasa keessatti Gadoomuuf carraa kan qaban ilmaan kormaa thuu hubanne. Ilmaan kormaa gaafa dhalatanirraa kaasee sadarkaalee Gadaa seenanii akkuma gudachaa deemaniin dalagaa garagaraarratti dirqama polotikaafiis qophaawan. Kun dirqama isaaniiti. Ilmaan jaarsaa garuu, waa’een waan qoratamuufi baratamu hundaaf dirqamuun yoo hawaasicha keessa jiraachuu dandayuuf tahe malee, itti hin dirqaman. Ilmaan Oromoo akkanatti qoodamuun bakka heddutti mul’ate. Gadaa Boorana, Maccaa, Tuulamaafii Gujii keessatti qoodamni kun jira. Qoodamni yoo hinjiraanne tarii Gadaa Arsii, Ituufi Humbanna keessatii tahuu hin’oolu.

d. Sadarkaalee Gadaafi Murnoota Gadaa:

Akkaataa waggaa dhalootaatiin gurmuu ykn murni ilmaan kormaa tartiibaan keessa dabran sadarkaa Gadaa jedhama. Sadarkaan Gadaa maqaa gurmuu waggaa dhaloota ilmaan kormaati jechuudha. Gurmuu kanaan akkaataan jiruufi jireenya dhala Oromoo hundaatu keessatti murtaawa. Ilmaan kormaatu kormaatu keessa daddabran yoo tahellee, jirenya dhala Oromoo karaa polotikaa, amanti, aadaa, dinagdeefi waraanaafi kkf keessatti kan ilaalu addatti maqaa haaqabaatan malee akkaataan guddinaa, dalagaafii jireenyaa, kan ilmaan Jaarsaa wajjiin tokkuma. Karaa polotikaatiin garuu, garaagarummaa guddaatu jira. Tahullee sadarkaaleen Gadaa jiruuf jireenya dhala Oromoo mara calaqqisiisa. Sadarkaalee Gadaa garagaraakeessatti ilmaan Oromoo dirqama (dalagaa) adda addaatu isa eeggata. Yeroon isaas osoo hin gahinnillee waan beekamuuf sadarkaa itti aanuuf isa qopheessaa ture.

Sadarkaa Gadaa tokko waggaa saddeet qaba. Waggaa saddeet saddeettan kanaan namni Oromoo hamma gaafa dulloomee du’utti hawaasa keessatti bakkafi qoodama dalagaa qabaata. Sadarkaaleen Gadaa ilmaan kormaa keessa dabran bakka gariitti amala addaa yoo qabaatanillee waliigalatti akka armaa gadiitti keenya.

1. Dabballooma waggaa 0-8

2. Gaammoma waggaa 9- 16

3. Dargaggooma waggaa 17- 24

4. Kuusoma waggaa 25- 32

5. Raaboma waggaa 33 – 40

6. Gadooma waggaa 41- 48

7. Yubooma waggaa 49- 56

Gadaa Tuulamaa keessatti Gadoomni waggaa 32 – 40 gidduutii waan taheef kana yaadachiisuun barbaachisaadha. Armaa gaditti sadarkaalee Gadaa jiraniifi murnoota Gadaa isaanii laalla.

1.  Dabballooma

Kun jecha dabballee jedhamu kan Gadaa Booranaarraa fudhatameedha. Ijoolleen dhiiraa Gadooma abbaa isaanii keessatti dhalatan Dabballee jedhamanii yaamaman. Ijoolleen kun waggaa saddeet hamma fixaanitti Dabballetti beekamu, Boorana keessatti Dabballee haa jedhaman malee, bakka biraatti maqaa biraa qabu. Fakkeenyyaaf:

a.   Tuulam keessatti – Itti makoo jedhamu.

b.  Ituu keessatti – maxxarrii jedhamu.

c.   Gujii keessatti- Suluda jedhamu.

Sadarkaan Gadaa kun bakkayyuu waan jiruuf walitti qabatti Dabballoota jechuun hin badu. Dabballoomanii sadarkaa Gadaa isa dura ilmaan kormaa akka dhalataniin itti seenaniidha. Sadarkaa Gadaa kanatti ijoolleen hojii beekamaa hinqaban. Naannoo qa’ee turanii toohannoofi tajaajila guddaadhaan guddatan. Ilmaan kormaa sadarkaa kana:

a.   Boorana keessatti ilmaan Dooriiwwaniifi warra Gadaati.

b.  Tuulam keessatti Foollee jedhama

.

2. Gaammoma:-

jechi kun sadarkaa Gadaa Boornaa keessaa maqaa gaammee jedhamurraa kan fudhatameedha. Ilmaan kormaa sadrakaa Dabballoomaa fixan Gaammotti dabru. Waggaa 8 – 16tti akkaataa itti rifeensii isaanii qoramurraa yoo jedhame dhugaadharraa hin fagaatu. Ijoolleen dhiiraa sadarkaa Gammomaarra jiran:

a.   Booran keessatti – Gaammee xixiqqoo jedhamu.

b.  Tuulama keessatti – Dabballee jedhamu.

c.   Gujii keessatti – Dabballee jedhamu.

d.  Ituu keessatti – Ruuboo jedhamu.

Gaammoonni sadarkaa Gadaa yeroo itti ijoolleen jabbiilee tiksan, hojii warraarratti gargaaraniifi loon tiksaniidha. Dalagaa kanaafi kana fakkaatanitti haa bobbahan malee, sadarkaa kanatti tohannoo warraa ala hin bahan. Yeroo kanatti taphatanii caalatti walbaruu jalqabu.

1.  Dargaggooma

Yeroo kana kan itti dargaggooman waan taheef, sadarkaa Gadaa kanaas bakka gargaraatti maqaa garagaraa waan qabuuf sadarkaa kanaan, Dargaggooma jedhama. Ilmaan kormaa sadarkaa lammaffaa fixanii waggaa 16 – 24 jidduu:

a.   Booran keessatti – Gaammee Gurguddaa jedhamu

b.  Tuulam keessatti – Foollee jedhamu.

c.   Gujii keessatti – kuusa jedhamu.

d.  Ituu keessatti – Goobam jedhamu.

Dargaggoomni sadarkaa itti namichi toohannoo warraarraa hillee walaba tahaa deemuufi warrarraa fgaatee soch’auu dandayuudha. Akkasumas, yeroo itti jabina, beekumsafi jagnummaa ofii mul’isuu jalqaabniidha. Jiruu dhufataa deemuudhaan yeroo itti ofdandayutti tarkaanfataniidha. Hawaasichaa bu’aa buusuufiis kan keessatti ofqophessu. Dalagaarratti bobbahanii, loon fagaatanii bobbaasuu, ol’aantoota isaanii wajjiin deddeemuu, adamoo bahuufi bineessoota loonirraa ittisuudha.

4. kuusoma

kuusomni sadrkaa loltummaati. Naannoo garagaraatti ilmaan kormaa sadrkaa kanaa adda addaa qabaatanillee Booran keessatti kuusa waan jedhamaniif kanarraa fudhannee kuusoma ittiin jenne.

Murni kun:-

a.   Boorna keessatti – Kuusa jedhama.

b.  Tuulama keessatti – Qondaala jedhama.

c.   Gujii keessatti – Raaba jedhama.

d.  Ituu keessatti Raaba jedhama.

Hawaasa Oromoo bara sirna gadaa keessatti, kun murna lolu ture. Waggaa 25 – 32 jidduu kan tahan dirqama loltummaa qabu. Namuu roorroo biyyarra geesse ittisuuf waan ittiin lolu- xiyyaas tahee, eeboofii gaachana mataa isaatii qopheeyfatee farda lolaas qabaate taha. Lolli argamnaan akka dhagayeen qophaawee walgurmeessee duula. Kanatti dabalee waan dhimma biyyaa ilaalan yeroo kanaa kaasee qorachuu dandaya. Sadarkaan kun, Tuulamaafi Ituu keessatti yeroo itti ilmaan kormaa aangoo qabachuuf ofqophessan, sadarkaa 4ffaa tahuudhaanifi dirqama loltummaa qabaachuudhaan tokko yoo tahan kaanirraa kanaan adda bahu.

1.  Doorama

Bakka heddutti sadarkaa itti aangoo qabachuudhaaf ilmaan kormaa qophii barbaachisaa godhaniidha. Yeroo kana keessatti dhimma biyya, bulchiinsa, sera, aadaa, amantiifi seena dabre baratu. Waa’ee sirna Gadaa caalatti hubachuu dandayu. Haalli isaanii warra biyya bulchuu ykn qondaaloota Gadaa wajjiin walitti hidhataadha. Bakka warrii Gadaa itti murtii seeraa kennan, dubbii gosaa ilaalanfi marii godhanitti argamanii irraa baratu. Bakka aadaafi amantiitti argamanii sirna qalbifatu. Caffee yaa’ii Gadaarratti argamanii murtii kennuudhaan hojiidhaan ofqaru. Hayyoonniifi manguddoonni biyyaarraa qoratanii barachuudhaan beekumsa isaanii bal’ifatu. Biyya keessa sossohanii ummataan walbaruu, akkanatti aangoo polotikaaf ofqopheessu jechuudha.

Sadarkaan kun, Tuulamafi Ituu keessatti isa afraffaadha. Ilma kormaa sadarkaa kanaa, akkamu asii olitti kaa’ametti Tuulama keessatti qondaala, Ituu keessatti Raba jedhamu. Sadarkaan Gadooma isaanii waggaa 32- 40 jiddutti waan tahaniif, isaan keessatti dalagaa akkanaa (doorama) kan qaban wagaa 23-32 jidduutti kan jiran Tuulama keessatti Qondaala, Ituu keessatti Raaba, akkanatti ofqopheessu.

Boranaafi Gujii keessatti ammoo, yeroon aangoon qabanna tartiibaan waggaa 45-53ttifi waggaa 40-48tti waan taheef, yeroon itti aangoof ofqopheessan kun waggaa Gadaa 32-40 jiddutti taha. Arsii kessattiis akkanuma.

Sadarkaa Dooramaa Booranaa keessatti iddoo lamatti qoodama. Isaniis Raabamaafi Doorama tahu. Raaboonni yeroo itti ilmaan kormaa Raaba tahan jedhamu, waggaa 32-40 jiddutti. Waggaa 41-45tti Doorama jedhama. Inniniis yeroo itti ilmaan kormaa Doorii jedhamaniidha. Kanaaf, sadarkaadhaan bakka itti garaagarummaan jiru tokko kana taha. Kuniis kan mul’ateef dagaagina sirni Gadaa arge keessatti jijjiiramni waan argameefi. Yoo sadarkaa kana ilaalle ilmaan kormaa sadarkaa shanaffaatti (waggaa 32-40 jiuddutti)

a.   Tuulama keessatti- Luba jedhama.

b.  Ituu keessatti – Doorii (Raaba-dorii) jedhamu.

c.   Boorana keessatti – Raaba dorii jedhamu.

d.  Gujii keessatti – Doorii jedhamu.

Idileen sadarkaa kanatti kan ilaalle garuu, Dooramni qophii aangoo qabachuuf godhamuudha.

6. Gadooma

sadarkaa itti ilmaan kormaa aangoo polotikaa qabataniidha. Yeroo itti warri Gadaan isaanii geessee biyya bulchan, seera ilaalan, dubbii Gosaa furaniidha. Sadarkaa Gadaa kun Tuulamafi Ituu keessatti isa shannaffaadha. Boorana, Gujiifi Arsii keessatti ammoo, isa jahaffaadha. Ilmaan kormaa sadarkaa Gadooma Booranaafi Gujii keessatti Gadaa; Tuulamafi Ituu keessatti Luba. Ituu keessatti Raaba doorii jedhamu. Yeroo Gadoomaa:

a.   Tuulama keessatti – waggaa 32-40tti

b.  Ituu keessatti – waggaa Gadaa 32-40tti

c.   Boorana keessatti – waggaa Gadaa 45-54tti

d.  Gujii keessatti – waggaa Gadaa 40-48tti

e.   Arsii keessatti – waggaa Gadaa 40-48tti taha

Bakka heddutti Gadooma keessatti ilmaan kormaa martinuu sadarkaa Gadaa keessaa hamma guutuu biyyatti dhibdee polotikaa, dinagdee, hawaasafi waraanaa cufa furuuf itti gaafatama qaba.

7. Yubooma

Sadarkaa gadaa, murni itti aangoo Gadaarra ture aangoo eega gadi dhiisee itti dabruudha. Gadaa jaarsummaa ykn manguddummaati. Sadarkaa kana keessatti ilmaan kormaa akka hangafaatti ilaalamu. Dalagaan isaanii warra Gadooman gorsuu, qacheelchuu, maandhaa isaanii kan tahan gorsuu, leenjisuufi barsiisuudha. Gara boodaatti hojiirraa walaboomanii ta’anii sadarkaa itti aangoo dhiisanii soorama seenaa kana keessa kan jiran (kan Yubooma)

a.   boorana keessatti – yubaafi booda Gadamoojji

b.  Tuulam keessatti Yuba

c.   Ituu keessatti Lubajedhamu.

Aadaa sirna gadaa

Dhallii namaa akkaata itti naannoo isaa hubatee, itti jijjiiru qaba. Kana keessatti hooda, safuu, beekumssa, qaroomaafi yaadumsi qooda guddaa kennu. Kun hundi dinagdeefi polotikaa sirna hawaasaarratti hundeeyfamau; kanneenirraa calaqqisa argamaniidha. Akkaataaan itti dhalli namaa naannoo isaa hubatee jijjiiru, daawwannoo dinagdeefi polotikaa kan tahe kun aadaa jedhama.

Sirna Gadaa keessaas aadaan maddu jira. Akkaataa dinagdeefi polotikaa issaarraa aadaan hawaasa Oromoo keessatti, bara Gadaa dagaagee beekamaa ture. “aadaa Gadaa” jedhama. Kuniis sirnicha sirna aadaa fakkeessa. Hubannootni karaa cufaa jiru akka aadaatti fudhatamee hawaasa keessatti fudhatama. Kabajaa, safuu, hoodaafi kkf qabaatee mul’ata.

Hoodni, safuufi amantiin sirna kana keessa ture hundi nama hunda biratti fudhatamee kabajama; sanii ala bahuun hawaasaa ala tahutti waan fudhatamuuf nam-tokkoo kaasee hamma maatiitti, maatiirraa kaasee hamma sabaatti qaama walii tahanii jiraatu. Akkaataan jireenya maatii, fuudhaafii heerumaa, hariiroon uumaa, baasiin gumaa, adabni seeraa cabsaniifi kkf hundi aadaa waan tahaniif fudhtamoo turan. Akka bara saniitti eenyulleen aadaa kana nifudhata. Murtiin du’aa yoo itti dabrellee namni sun aadaa waan taheef, beekee eegumsa tokko malee, taa’ee adaba isarritti raaw’atamu eeggata jedhamee himama.

Waliigalteen jaalalaan, tokkummaan waliinjiraachuuniis aadaa jiraachaa ture. Aadaa kanaa ala bahuun, badii isa sadarkaa oliitti waan fudhatamuuf, namuu aadaa tahuu isaa waan beekuuf sirna Gadaa keessa jiru kabajee osoo keessaa hinbaasin kabajee jiraata.

Heeraafii seerri biyyaa akka aadaatti fudhatamee jabaata, kabajamaas, waan jiruufi jireenya ofii ittiin geggeeffatan taheef seeraafi heerri ni kabajamu jechuudha. Waan sirna kana keessatti tahan hundi akka aadaafii amala biyyaatti fudhatamee kabajama. Akkaataan qabannoo qabeenyaa itti loon bobbaasan, looniifi bishaan eelaa baasan, itti qotaniifi akkaataan itti waa horatanii dhimma ittiin bahan aadaa Gadaa keessatti gamtoomaafi marabbaatu calaqqisa. Namuu qabeenya mataa isaa qabaatee irratti mirga guutuu qaba. Kan dhabe, kan balaan uumaafi lolli dhaqqabe, kan dhukkubsateefi abaarri itti dhufe, … hundaa suphuufi hadhaadhiyyuun beekamaadha. Har’allee Boorana keessatti “Buussaafi Gonfa” kan jedhamu aadaa osoo hin badin jiruudha. Namuu waan waliin horate waliin dhimma bahuurraa dabree hawaasa keessatti walbadhaasuufi walgargaaruun aadaa Gadaa keessatti beekamaadha.

Aadaa kanaafi kana fakkaatan ala bahuun hawaasa keessaa nama baasa. Jechuun adaba namarratti seeraan dabru malee, waan halaba (out-casted) nama taasisan jiru. Isaan keessaa haraamuu, caphanaa,…fikkf beekamoodha. Namni haraamuu, caphana,.. jedhamee gosa keessaa bahee namummaa dhabee kophaa jiraata; kophaa godaana, qubata. Gargaarsi hawaasummaa keessati godhamuuf irraa dhaabbata. Gatamuun kana fakkaatan waan jiraniif namuu aadaa Gadaa keessaa kabajee jiraata.

Sirna Gadaa keessatti yeroo garagaraatti aadaan jireenya hafuura ilmaan Oromoo calaqqisan jiru. Isaan keeessaa, ayyaanootni beekamoon kabajamuun waan jiraatani. Ayyaanoota kana keessaa kan sirna Gadaa keessaa jireenya polotikaa ilmaan Oromoocalaqqisu ayyaana buttaati. Guutuu hawaasichaa keessatti yeroo itti aangoon polotikaa Gadaa tokkorraa kanitti dabru, ayyaana kanarratti horiin (loon) qalamanii, nyaachisni guddaan godhama. Sirba, tapha, faaruufi wanni kana fakkaatan ayyaanicha ho’isan addatti beekamoodha. Ayyaana buttaa malee, kanneen sirna kana fakkaatanii maqaa mataa isaanii qaban sadarkaa oliiti dhaabbata tahanii yeroo beekoomaatti kabajaman hedduudha. Isaan keessaa garii maqaa dhawuuf:

Boorana keessatti ayyaana Guduruu buufachuufi qumbii walirraa fudhachuu.
Arsii keessatti ayyaana baraartiifi guduruu, gurra uraafii jaarraa qaluu
Tuulam keessatti ayyaana dhagaa kooraafi jaarraa
Gujii keessatti ayyaana bantii haaddachuu
Kanneenii alattiis, cidhni gargaraa yeroo beekamootti bakka bakkatti godhamu, amantiiniis qaama aadaa hawaasichaa waan taheef, ayyaanni amantii sirna Gadaa calaqqisan bakka hundatti godhamaa ture. Ayyaana kana namuu Qaalluu (geggeessaa amantii) muuduudhaan eeyba kadhata, waaqa (rabbi) isaa galateeyfata; biyyaaf nagaya kadhata; hormaatarratti milkaa’uufi ilmaan isaa, uummtaafi mataa isaaf, fayyaafi jireenya kaadhata. Eegaa, kun aadaa amantii sirna Gadaa keessaa isa tokko. Aadaa Oromoo kan bara sirna Gadaa keessatti yeroon baay’ee barbaachisaadha. Guyyaa, ji’a (baati), waggaafi Gadaa lakkaawuudhaan hawaasa Oromoo sirna kan jalatti qindeessuun qaama aadaa ture. Kanaafiis, hawaasa Oromoo keessatti qaroomni (civilization) addunyyaf gumaache kalandarii Oromooti. Kalandariin Oromo kuniis, astronoomiin kan qoratamee argameedha. Ji’a waggaa dhaloota, bara Gadaa, guyyaafi ji’a ayyaanaa lakkaawanii add baafachuuf tattaafii qormaata ji’a, urjiifi aduu irratti godhamaniin qarooma Oromoota adda godhuufi dagaagina argameedha.

Akkaataa kalandarii Oromootti ji’i (baatiin) tokko guyyaa 29.5 qaba. Waggaan tokko ammoo, ji’a 12 ykn guyyaa 354 qaba. Kanneeniis addaan kan baafataman:

ba’uu, seenuufi guddina addeessaa (ji’a) lakkaawuu
bakka, teessuma, mul’ina urjiilee keessaa buusaa, bakkalcha, … to’achuufi jala bu’anii hordafuudhaan tahu.
Hojii mataa isaanii godhanii hordafuudhaan kan hawaasicha beeksisan, beektoota astronoomiiti. Isaaniis beekumsa qaban kana kaaniif dabarsuurratti barnoota laatu, shaakalsiisu. Guyyootiin ji’a tokkoo soddomitti dhihaatan hundi maqaa mataa isaanii addatti qabaatu. Guyyootii jiraniif maqaa 27tu jira. Har’a Boorana keessatti hojjetaa jiru. Maqaan 27n tartiibaan guyyootii 27f tahanii hoggaa xumuraman gara isa jalqabaatti deebi’anii ammaas marsuuf itti fufu. Maqaaleen 27n kun:

Maqootiin kun hundi hiikkaa mataa isaanii qabu. Inniniis urjii, bakkalcha fi ji’arratti huundeeyfamee hiikama. Yeroo hiikamuus ayyaana guyyootii sana ibsu. Fakkeenyaaf, Gidaadaafi Gabra naannaa kan jedhaman ayyaana carraa gadheeti. Inni hiikaa hangafaa waan qabuuf, dureettiin jaalatama waan ibsuufi gaafa wanti hojjetan hundi, waan namatti tolaniifi ayyaana carraa gaariidha. Namni dhalatu ayyaana akkamiirra akka dhalate kanneen irraa himama. Eegaa, hundi qarooma Oromoota haatahan malee, sirna Gadaa keessatti aadaa tureedha.

Waggaa tokko keessa kan jiran ji’ooti (baatiileen) Oromoo 12n maqaa mataa isaani qabu. Isaaniis bakka garagaraatti maqaa adda addaa qabaatu. Ji’ 12n wagga tokko keessa jiran keessa guyyaa 354 akka jiran olitti kaafneerra, ammaas ni yaadachiifna. Maqaan ji’oota Oromoo bakka bakkaatti:

Walumaagalatti aadaan calaqqisan akkaataa dinagdeefi polotikaa sirna tokkoo, akkaataa dhalli namaa ittiin naannoo isaa hubatee jijjiiru tahuu olitti ilaalleera. Sirna Gadaa keessattiis ummanni Oromoo aadaa walii galatti bifa armaan olii qabaatu akka qabu, aadaa kanarraahiis qaroomni ummata Oromoo kalandara mataa isaa qabaachutti akka geesse hubanna. Aadaa sana keessaa immoo amantiin maddee maal akka fakkaatu kophatti ilaalla.

Amantii sirna gadaa

Amaantiin Gadaa ummanni qabaatu keessaa tokko waan sirna Gadaa keessatti hojjetaman aadaa tahee qaama Oromootaa akka ture olitti kaafneerra. Inniniis waan sirna sana gadi jabeesse akka tahe hubatamaadha. Aadaa jiran keessaahiis amantiin hordafamaa ture, sirnicha utubee kan jabeesse dha. Amantiin aadaa haatahuu malee, mataa isaatiis sirna Gadaa keessatti waan aadaa tahan hundaa kan jabeesseedha. Kanaaf amantiifi aadaan tokkummaa akka qaban ifaadha.

Jireenya hafuura qabu keessatti dhalli namaa, hubannoota naannoo isaarraa qabuun waan amanu qabaachuu waan malu, bara Gadaa keessattiis ummanni Oromoo waan itti amanu qaba ture. Inniniis waaqa jedhamee yaamama. Waaqni waan hundumaa ol kan tahe, hunda kan tolcheefi kan uume, waan hunda kan dandayu, … tahuu isaatti amanama. Ormootaafi waaqa kana kan walqunnamsiisan qaalloota jedhamu. Hojiin isaaniis akka qeesotafii sheekootaati.

Qaaloota yeroo jennu akka bara dhihoo keessa ummata samuuf jecha sobanii, gowwoomsanii irraa waa guurratan akka qaallichaa Habashaamiti. Qaalloonni Oromoo bara sirna Gadaa ummata, uumamaafi biyyaaf waaqa kadhatu; galateeffatu, ummata eeybisu, looniifi madhaaniif rooba kadhatu, warra bira dhaqanii waaqa kadhachuuf isaaf muudaniif eebba keennu. Dalagaa kana fi kana fakkaataniin akka ummanni amantii Waaqatti amanuufi hordofu godhu; ummataafi Waaqa walqunnamsiisu.

Oromoonni karaa Qaalluu Waaqaan walqunnamuu malee, akkaataa biraas niqabu. Kuniis yeroo garagaraarratti ofiis waaqa kadhachuufi galateeyfachuudha. Bakki itti waaqa kadhatan, galateeffataniis galma ijaarame keessa, muka jala, gaararraa malkaa gubbaa,…dha. Kanneen utuu kana godhanii, yeroo yerotti dhaqanii Qaalluu muudu. Ayyaanni amantiis yerootti ayyaaneeffataman nijiru. Isaaniis warraa akka

Ateetee- Kan dubartootaati. Inniniis kan mucaa argachuuti.
Nabii – Kan abbootiiti.
Jaarri ayyaana nagayaa, tikfama namaa, looniifi qa’eeti.
Abdaarrii-ayyaana dachii midhaan baasisuuti
Qaallonniis sirna ayyaana amantii kanarratti ummata gorsu, jajjebeessu. Qaalluun eessaa baha? Gaaffiin jedhuu ka’uun nidandaya. Gosa keessaa Qaalluun bahuu dandayuufi hin dandeenye jiru. Inniniis waanuma hangafummaafi quxxusummaa hawaasa Oromoo keessa turerraa tahuun nimala. Qaalluun gosa beekamaa keessaa baha. Achi keessaa bahee gosoota hafniifiis Qaalluu tahu. Hundaaniis muudama. Qaalluun gosa beekamaa keessaa haa bahu malee, tokko qofa taha jechuumiti. Maadhee hawaasa olii sana keessaa dabalanii jiraachuu dandayu. Garuu isaan keessaa tokkootu hundarra kabajaa qabaata. Isaanutuus yeroo ayyaanaa muudatti muudamaas. Fakkeenyaaf Boorana keessatti Qaalloota (laduu) shana jiran kan Maxxaarrii sadaniifi kan Karrayyuu tokkoofi kan Odituu tokko keessaa hunda caala kabajaman Qaalluu Odituuti.

Qaalluun isa oliiti jechuudha. Booranaa alaas qaalluun kana muuduuf Oromoonni lafa fagoo deemanii dhaqu. Kanaaf, sadarkaa qabu; warri gad hafan isaa gaditti dalagu jechuudha. Qaalluun abbaadhaa ilmatti dabree dhaalama deema. Namchi mataan amantii Qaalluu hoggaa jedhamu, haati mana isaa ammoo, qaallitti jedhamti. Qaallitiiniis akkuma qaalluu kabajamtuudha. Ilma hangafaatu yeroo abbaan isaa du’u dhaalee qaaluu tahuuf carraa duraa qaba.

Sirna Gadaa keessatti muuda Qaaluu kan yeroo malee, ayyaanni guddaan muuda jedhamu jira. Inniniis jidduu Gadaa tokkootti yeroo (si’a) beekamaafi dhaabbata tokkotti yaha. Ayyaana kanarratti Oromoonni dhaqanii galma isaatti qaalluu olii muudu. Sirna tahu keessatti yeroo kanatti eeyba Qaalluu fudhachuun beekamaadha. Namoonni lafa fagoorraa ka’anii dhaqan, ganda isaatti muudu, achitti qalanii nyaatu, nyaachisuusi.

Eegaa, walumaagalatti dalagaan Qaalluu inni tokko namaafi waaqa walqunnamsiisuu akka tahefi jireenyi hafuura Oromootaa maal akka fakkaatu ilaalleerra. Qooda Qaalluufi amantiin sirna Gadaa keessaas sirni kun sirna amantii tahuu fakkeessa. Dhugaan isaa garuu sirna amantiis, ofkeessaa qabaachuudha.

Qoodni Qaalluun qabu kan biraa aadaa Oromoo kan sirna Gadaa keessaa tiksuufi too’achuudha. Kanarratti bakka guddaa qaba. Akka aadaan sirna kanaa hin dabnefi seerriifi heerri sirnichaa hin banne qaceelcha. Ummata biratti karaa aadaafi amantii fudhatama guddaa guddaa waan qabuuf, yaada ummataa (public opinion) dhufata isaa jalaa waan qabuuf aadaa Oromoo tiksuufi daandii sirna Gadaarratti too’achuu dandaya. Waan haraamuu, caphana,… gatama namatti fiduu dandayanirraa ummata eegu dandaya.

Kanneenirratti dabalee qoodni guddaan Qaalluun qabu jireenya polotikaa sirna Gadaa too’achuufi qajeelchuudha. Murtii polotikaarratti fuulaan yoo qooda hin fudhannellee, waan yaada ummataa of harkaa qabaniif qajeelchuufi karooraratti qooda guddaa kennu. Filmaata qondaaloota Gaddfi marii biyyaarratti argamuudhaan gargaaru. Filmaata qondaaloota Gadaarratti yaada ummataa sassaabuudhaan irratti hundeeyfamanii ija filmaata godhamee adda baasanii labsu. Marii seeraafi heeraarratti argamanii akka seerriifi heerri Gadaa hin dabneef gorsuufi qajeechuudha. Qoondaaloota Gadaa aangoo qabatan sirnaan muudu, eeybisu. Kanaaf, amantiin sirna Gadaas karaa kanaafii kana fakkaataniin jireenya polotikaa ummata Oromoo qajeelchuurratti qooda guddaa qaba.

Eegaa xumuruudhaaf, geggeessaa amantii kan tahe Qaalluun jireenya hawaasa Oromoo sirna Gadaa keessatti qooda guddaa sadii qabaata. Isaaniis:-

qooda amantii – namafii waaqa walqunnamsiisuu
qooda aadaa- aadaa sirna Gadaa eeguuf, tiksuufi too’achuu
qooda polotikaa- filmaatarrattiifi marii biyyaa kan seeraafi heeraarratti too’achuufi qajeelchuudha.
Dhumarratti aadaan, polotikaafi amantiin walitti hidhatoo tahuun ifaadha.

Godaansa Oromoo Jaarraa 16ffaan duratti

Ummata akka waan hinsossoonee kana akka garaa, dhagaa ykn galaanaa godhanii fudhachuun hin tahu. Ummatni kamiyyuu ni sossoha, bakka takka gadhiisee bakka biraatti ni godaana. Seenaa ummatoota addunyaa keessatti godaansa heedduu argina. Sababootii godaansaa uuman akkuma biyya sanaafi haala yeroo sanaarratti hudeeyfama. Kanaaf sababootii godaansa uuman bal’aafi hedduudha. Haa tahuu malee, warri keessaa gurguddaa tahan nijiru:

haalli qilleensaa geeddaramuun balaa dhufee jalaa dheessuuf,

lakkooysi ummataa sanaa hedduu dabaluun dhiphina lafaa dhalatu keessaa bahuuf,

lola ummatoota olla jiddutti dhalaturraa kan ka’ee jalaa dheessuuf, kun ammoo lafa bal’ifachuuf tahu nidandaya. Seenaan godaansa Oromoo kan jaarraa 16ffaan duraa haala kana keessaa tokkorratti hundeeyfamuun nimala.

Madda ummata Oromoo yeroo ilaalletti Oromoon Baddaa Baaleefi gam tokkoon Sidaamoo keessa yeroo dheeraaf akka jiraataa ture mirkana’ee jira. Kana jechuun Oromoon hangaa jaarraa 16ffaa keessatti naannoo kana duwwatti murtaa’ee jiraataa ture jechuumiti. Godaansa haala akkasiitiin dhiheessinu warri barbaadan Qeesoota Amaaraati. Godaansi ummata kamiyyuu ballama qabatee jaarraa akkasiitiin godaana hinjedhu. Godaansi sossohiinsa ummata dhawaataan, suuta suutaan, yeroo dheerinaa keessa kan mul’atudha. Waan jaarraa tokko keessatti jalqabee dhumatuusiimiti.

Herbert S Luwis madda saba Oromoo argacuuf afaanoota Kushoota bahaa bakka 24tti qoode. Afaanoota isaanii karraa kan ka’e, durattii isaa kun lammii tokko turan jedhe. Yroo dheeraa keessa lakkooysii namaa babal’achurraa kan ka’e walirraa fagaatanii qubacuun, lammiin adda addaa dagaagan. Walbiraa godaanuun isaanii kun yoomifii akkamitti akka jalqabameef wanti beekamu hinjiru. Sababnii isaa garuu, waa asii olitti ka’erraa tokko tahuun nimala.

Lammiin affaariifi Saahoon dura godaanuu waan jalqaban fakkaata. Gara kaabaatti baay’ee fagaatanii kan qubatan, isaan kana. Lammiin kun lameen, yeroo dheeraaf waliin jiraataa turanii booda foxxqanii akka qubataniidha. Bara dhihoo dura akka waliin turan, afaan isaanii walitti seenuun ragaa nitaha. Lammiin Somaalee itti aanee sossohee waan gara bahaafi kibbaa qubate fakkaata. Ar’a Somaaleen Oromoorraa gara bahaafi kibbaa, Affaarirraa ammoo, gaara kibbaa qubattee jirti. Akka Herbert S. Luwis jedutti isaan kanatti aanee kan godaane Oromoodha. Affaar, Sahoo,Somaaleefi Oromoon hoggaa naannoo sanarraa sossohan Kuushootni bahaatti hafan ammoo, naannoo ha’a irra jiraatan keessa babal’atan malee hedduu hinsossoone.

Ormoon naannoo Mandayyoo, Dallofi Jamjam bara dheeraa jiraataa turanii dhawaata lafa naannoo isaaniitti siqaa, irra jiraataa dhufan. Yeroo isaan itti naannoo Baaleefii Saidaamoorraa sossohanii hamma Wallootti qubatan waan beekamuumiti. Garuu yeroo dheeraa keessa tahuun hinmamu. Eega Affaarootnifi Saahootni naannoo amma jiran keessa jiraachuu jalqabanii ykn, isaanumatti aananii godaananii qubacuun waan malu.

Akkaata godaansa Oromoo kan ofumaan deemaa ture kana, isa jaarraa 16ffaatti akeekuun hin tahu. Abbaa Baahireenuu yeroo akkaataa godaansa Oromoo barreeyse:

Booranni biyya isaarraa yeroo godaanu hundaan hindeemu, warri deemuu hin baebaanne nihafa. Kuniis waan mootii hinqabneef namni isaan ajaju hinjiru. Abbaan akka barbaade hojjata” jedhe. Bartels namchi jedhamu ammoo, akkaata godaansa Oromoorratti yeroo barreeyse: nama Oromoo tokko gaafatee deebii argate:

Yeroo tochoonu, ilmi hangafni bakka itti dhalateetti hafa. Ilmi quxxusuun dabranii lafa haaraya barbaadu. Ilmaa warra hangafaa naannotti hafan ammoo, firoota isaanii barbaaduu ka’anii godaanu” jedhee jira. Ragaa kana lamaanirraa kan hubachuu dandeenyu, Oromoon godaanee daangaa Keeniya kaasee hamma daangaa Tigreetti qubachuu kan dandahee, yeroo dheeraa keessa akka tureedha. Jaarraa 16ffaa keessa yeroo Baahireen barreeyse baayyinni ummata Oromoo meeqa taha? Akaa inni jedhutti utuu godaansi Oromoo yeroosunii jalqabee ilmaan quxxusuu duwwaan dabranii kan qubatan yoo tahee, lafa har’a Oromoon irra jiraatu firfirsanillee wal hingayan jechuudha. Kanaaf Oromoon jaarraa 16ffaa keessa godaanuu jalqabee utuu hintaane, jaarraa hedduun dura suuta suutaan, ilmi quxxisuun dabree qubachaa, lafa margaafi bishaan qabu barbaadaa godaane. Haalli jaarraa 16 ffaa keessatti mul’ate waan gara biraa waan taheef bakka isaatti laalla.

Duraani Oromoonni lammi tokko tahee osoo jiraatanii gosa Booranafi Bareentummati adda bahan. Bareentumafi Booranni osoo naannoo Baaleefi Sidaamoorraa gara bahaa jiraatanii lakkooysi namaafi horiin saanii baay’achuun gargar fagaatanii qubachuu jalqaban. Ilmaan Bareenummaas akka walitti heddommaachaa deemaniin adda adda bahanii qubachuu jalqaban. Ituufii Humbanni Mormorirraa ka’anii gara bahaatti sossohanii osoo adda hin bahin naannoo Odaa Bultum qubatan. Odaan Bultum kaarra Qurquraarraa gara kibbaatti hamma km 3 fagaatee argama. Ituufi Humbanni osoo adda hinbahin bakka Odaa Bultum kana

Akkaataa bultuma Oromoon Gaddaan duratti.

Sirna Gadaan duratti akkaataa bultuma Oromoo akkam akka ture wanti beekamu hinjiru. Qesoota Amaaraa tahee, seenaa barreeysitoonni gara biraa waa’ee Orommoo kan barreeyssuu jalqaban jaarraa 16ffaa booda ture. Kanaf sanaan dura seenaan Oromoo ture himamsa aadaarraa, yoo argame malee wanti galmaa’e kan jiru hinfakkaatu. Haa tahuu malee, himamsa afaaniitfi akkaataa dagaagina hawaasaarraa kan hubachuu dandeenyu nijira.

Akkaataan dagaagina hawaasaa dhala namaa kamiyyuu sirna keeessa dabru niqaba. Haalli hawaasni Oromoo bara Gadaa duraafi booddee keessa ture calaqqiinsa akkaataa bulmaata isaa ka duraanii nuuf ibsuu ni dandaya. Akkuma ummata kamiyyuu hawaasni Oromooo gamtooma Doofaa durii keessa turuun isaa waan hin’ooleedha. Kuniis akkaata qabeenya dhuufaa turerraa calaqqisa. Ormoon waan tikfattee tureef qabeenya dhuunfaa loon yoo tahe malee, lafti qabeenya gamtaa ture. Kanaa wajjiin kan ilaalamu haala walbulchiinsa isa jidduu tureedha. Hamma hawaasaatti Oromoon guddatee sadarkaa gosa gahetti manguddoo walbulchuun saa hin’oolle. Kabajaa manguddoon hawaasa Oromoo keessatti qabu har’allee aadaa Oromoo keessatti ni calaqqisa. Hamma Gadaan dhufee bakka qabtetti, manguddootaan buluun kun sadarkaa sadarkaan guddataa dhufuun hinhafne.

Haalli kun akkamitti ture? Akkamitti hojjachuu dandaye? Wanti kana calaqqisu boodana dabree maali? Hawaasa Oromoo keessatti aadaan jalqabarraa ka’ee gad dhaabbate hariiroo hangafaafi quxxusuuti. Hariiroon kun dura sadarkaa maatii keessatti gad dhaabbate. Ilmi hangafni kabajamuu qaba. Warri quxxusuu isa hordofu. Waan inni jedhe dhagayu. Hariiroon kun maati duwwaa keessatti hin hafu. Akkuma hawaasni sun dagaaguun hangafaafi quxxusuun ibidda, manaafi gosa keessattiis hojiirra oola. Ibiddi hangafaafi quxxusutti adda bahee walkabjuuniifi waliif abboomamuun buluun dhalate. Hariiroon ku yeroo dheeraaf hawaasa Oromoo keessatti hojjate.

Goso tokko keessa karra hagafaafi quxxusuu nijiraatu. Maanguddootni karra hangafaa keessa jiran biyya (gosa) bulchuurratti qceelfama kennu. Karri quxxusuu tahan warra hanagafa kana jalatti gurmaawu. Sadarkaa gossaattiis hariiroon kun ittifufa.

Gositi hangafni yeroo warra kaan qaceechu, geggeessu warri quxxusuun isaan jalati walitti qabamu. Gosootni kun akkasitt walitti dhufanii tokkooma gosaa (tribal confederacies) tolfatan. Tokkoomni gosaa kun ammoo, walkeessatti hangafaafi quxxusuu qabu. Hawaasa Oromoo keessatti akkaataan hangafaafi quxxusutti qoodamuun kun qoodama karra cimdii” ( bi social differentiation) jedhama. Sirni bulmaataa karra lamatti qoodamuun bu’ureeyfamu ammoo, sirna qoodama karra cimdii taha. Hamma Gadaan dagaagutti akkaataan bulmaata Oromoo sirna kanaan ture.

Sirna kana keessatti manguddoonni qooda lammii guddaa qabu. Manguddoota lammii keessaa ammoo, kan warra hangafaa hunda dursu. Waldhabbii gosoota giddutti ka’u manguddoota kanaatu ilaala. Gosoota Oromoo keessaa Booranni hangafa. Kanaaf waldhabbiin gosa bareentumaa, fakkeenyaaf Arsiifi Macca giddutti yoo ka’e, manguddoota Booranaatu ilaala. Haalli kun gosa, karra hundumaa keessatti akkasitti hojjata. Ummata ollaa wajjiin waldhabbiin yoo argamees, gumaabaasuufiis tahee, falmu, lola waan ilaaluufi dantaa lammii saanaa guutummatti manguddootaan ilaalamee murtii godhata.

Sirni manguddootaan qaceelu amaluma hawaasa doofaa taheellee kan Oromoon dhaabbate jabaa tahuun isaa, hangafaafi quxxusuun qaceeluu isaati. Sirna isa booddee Oromoon tolfatee ittiin walbulcheef bu’ura kan qabuudha. Sirna Gadaa keessatti hawaasni Oromoo gartuu lamatti qoodamee ijaarame. Gartuuleen kun aadaadhaan hangafaafi quxxusutti beekamu. Garuu waltoo’achuufi walgituurratti walqixa. Fakkeenyaaf qoodamni akkasii Boorana keessati Sabboofi Goona, Maccaa keessatti Booranaafi Gabaro, Ituu keessatti Kuraafi Galaan, Humabnna keessatti Qal’oofi Anniyya jedhamanii beekamu. Haaluma qoodama gosa keessa duraan tureetu Sirna Gadaa keessattiis ga-dhaabbate jechuudha. Kanaaf Oromoon osoo sirna Gadaatiin as hin bahin, sirna qoodama karra cimdii kanaan walbulchaa ture jechuun nidandeenya.

Meelba:- bara 1522-1530

Gadaan duraa Melba jedhama jedhu. Bara Gadaa Melbaa kana Oromoon abbaa duulaa itti ijaaree yeroo duraatiif gurmuun duulutti bobbaase. Baalli weeraruu jalqaban. Namichaa Amaara Faasil jedhamuu wajji wal lolanii inniis duularratti du’e. Duula Oromoo isa jalqabaa kanaan amaarri “dawwee” jedhan. Afaan Amaaraatti dawwee jechun, dhukkuba lamxii jechuudha

Muudana:- bara 1531-1538

Mebatti aane kan Gadaa fudhate Muudana jedham. Bara Muudana kana seera jajjabaa lama tumatan. Lubni hundi duula akka duuluufi laf haaraya baasan malee, meendhicha akka hin hidhanne kan jedhu ture. Baalli kan Melba weeraruu jalqabe Muudannii dhufatee hamma qarqara laga Awaashitti irra qubatan. Barri Gadaa Muudanaa kun bara Islaamoonni Imaam Ahmadiin geggeefamanii Kiristaanootaan lolaa turani. Lola diinootni isaa lamaan wal lolaa jiran kan Oromoon faana bu’aa ture. daareel Baates namichi jedhamu kana hogga ibsu:

“lolli Kiristaanoota Habashafi Islaamoota ture, Poortugaal gargaartee Imaam Ahmed mohamullee hin dhaabbanne. Waggootii dheeraaf dabree dabree deemsifamaa ture, gaallaa (Oromoo) haala kana duukaa bu’anii too’ataa turan. Gartuun lamanuu waan miidhameef lafa isaanii deebifachuuf ….yeroo itti eeggachaa turan”jedha. Lolli amantii yeroof akkasiit qabbanaawullee Oromoon lola isaa itti fufe. Muudanni Gadaa isaa fixee Kiiloleetti dabarse.

Kiilolee:- bara 1539-1546

Kiiloleen duula bal’isee DAWAAROO rukutuu jalqabe. Yeroo gabaaba keessati handhuura Dawaaroo gahe. Galaawudoos mooti Habashaa waana isaa kan nama Adaal Mabraq jedhamuun hoogganamu Dawarrootti bara 1545tti erge. Waraanni Adaal Mabraq harka Oromootti baqe, inniniis lbaqatee laga Awaash cehe.Dawaaroo kan jedhamu Arsii har’aatt akeekuun ni dandayama. Galaawudoos Islaamoota mohuu dandahullee Oromoobiyya isaaf lolu mohuu hindandeenye. Kiiloleen Gadaa isaa fixee Biifoleetti dabarse.
Biifolee:- bara 1547-1554

Galaawudoos Adaal Mabraq moohamuu dhagayee humna isaa waliti gurmeessee, waraana warra Poortugaaal fogargaarsisee Oromootti bara 1548tti duule. Humna guddaan itti haa duulu malee, Galaawudoos Oromoo mohuu dadhabee, dahannoo jabaa qotatee Dawaaroo keessa qubate. Oromoonni achitti iti marsanii lolan. Lolli sun guyyaa kudhalama deeme. Oromoonni gootummaan lolanii gaafa 12ffaa waraana Habashaa dahannoo isaa keessatti itti seenaanii hedduu irraa fixan. Ajajaan waraana Poortugaal Ayrees Deez jedhamu madaawee boodarratti du’e. Waraanni Habashaa moohame. Biifoleen duulaa isaa itti fufef Awaash cehee Faxagar waraanuu jalqabe. Hatahuu malee, Biifoleen akka Luboota isa duraa lafa haaraya qabachuudhaan hinmilkooyne. Habashoonni dhiibbaan Oromoo gara qa’ee isaaniitti dhihaataa waan deemeef jabaatanii dura dhaabbatan. Galaawudoos humna Habasha gurmeesse ofirraa ittise. Gama lachuu namni dhube baay’ee guddaa ture. biifoleen Gadaa isaa raaw’atee Michilleetti dabarse.

Michille:- bara 1555-1562

Michilleen Gadaa isaa kana keessatti namni diina hinajjeefne akka hin fuune, akka rifeensa mataa hinhaaddanne seera baase. Akka jedhamuttiis bara Gadaa Michillee kana Oromoon fardaan loluu jalqabe. Kanaaf lafa fagoo deemee lola gochuu jalqabe. Bara Michillee kana Galaawudoos waraana isaa Faxagar keessa jiru namicha Hamalmaal jedhamuti kennee bataskaana Imaam gube ijaarutti deebi’ee ture. bara 1555tti Michilleen Hamlmaaliin bakka Dagoo jedhamutti waraanee moohe. Hamalmaal moohamuun Faxagariin guutumatti harka Oromootti deebise. Faxagar Enriif Karrayyuu har’aani taha. Michilleen Faxagar irra dhaabbatee Cafaat, Bazimoofi Daamoot salphatti rukutuu jalqabe. Gibeen qabachuuniis yeroo kana jalqabe. Bara Michillee injifannoo guddaan argame garuu, Islaamootarratti ture. islaamoonni eega Imaam Ahmed boodde weerara guddaa kiristaanatti bobbaasuu hindandeenye. Hatahuu malee, geggeessaan Islaama Harar Amiir Nuur jedhamu humna walitti qabatee bara 1559tti Habashatti duulee ture. amiir Nuur Galaawudoosiin lolee moohe. Galaawudoos lola sanirratti du’e. Amiir Nuur osoo inni injifannoo argatetti gammadee ayyaaneeffachaa jiruu Oromoonni magaalaa Harar seenanii barbadeessan. Oduu kana dhagahee osoo inni gara Harar deebu’utti jiruu Michillee bakka Tulluu Hazaaloo jedhamtutti haxxee hidhee rukute. Lola taherratti Oromoonni haa dhuman malee, Amiir Nuur ni moohame. Waraanni saa harka loltuu Oromoorratti akka dhadhaa baqee dhume. Lubbuun kan keessa bahan xiqqaa ture. lolli Tulluu Hazaaloo biratti tahe kun, yeroo dheeraaf Kiristaanaafii Islaama gidduutti lola deemaa ture addaan kute. Humni Oromoo jabaachuun warra wal lolaa turan gidduutti nagaya buuse.

Michillee booddee duulli Oromoo karaa lamaarraa tahuu jalqabe. Isaaniis:- Oromoota Walloofi Maccaafi Tuulama. Wallo keessati kan Gadaa fudhate Harmuffaa jedhama. Kan Tuulama ammoo, Hambisaa jedhama. Lachuu saanii bara 1563-70tti Gadaarra turan. Hambisaan duula gurguddaa Shawaa keessatti haa godhu malee, Amaara dhiibuu hin dandeenye. Mootiin Habashaa Minaas akka jabatti Hambisaafi Harmuffaa dura dhaabbate. Osoo isaaniin loluu du’e. Malaak Saggad ykn Sarta Dingil kan jedhamu itti dabree aangoo Habashaa qabatee lola ittifufe. Hambisaaniis lafaa haaraya osoo hinqabatin Minas wajjiin lola gurguddaa osoo godhuu Gadaan isaa dhumeeRoobaleetti dabarse. Harmuf Awaash cehee Affaarootafi Habashootatti duuluu jalqabe. Gi’orgis Haaylee kan jedhamu bakka qacinaafi Wayaata jedhamutti lolee Moo’e. Affaarootaas lolee naannoo Angootttifi Ganyi jedhamtu qabatee taa’e. Bakka kanarraa Amaara Saaynitiifi Bagamidritti duuluu jalqabe. Harmuuf bara Gadaa isaa Affaaroota, Argoboota, Doobotafi Amaaroota Ganyiifi Angoot keessa turan waraanee ofjala galchee gosa moggaase. Harmuuf Affaaroota humna isaanii cabsee baay’ee xiqqeese. Harmuuf Gadaan isaa dhumee Robaleen harka fudhate.

Robaleen:- bara 1571-1578

Malaak Saggad Roobalee Shawaa keessatti dabarsuu dhoorke. Ofiis garuu Roobalee dhiibuu hindandeenye. Shawaa keessatti haala akkanaan jiru Roobaleen Walloo Bagamidir seenee lola jalqabe. Yeroo kana Malaak Saggad saffisaan gara Bagaamidir deebi’ee Roobalee bakka wayinaa Dagaa jedhamutti lolee Roobaleen moohame wallotti deebi’e. Roobaleen hoggaa Malaak Saggfad gara Bagaamidir deeme, duula Shawaa keessatti jabeessee Amaaroota gara hallayyafi olqatti naqee biyya qabate. Malaak Saggad deebi’ee Roobalee dhiibuu hindandeenye. Gadaan isaanii dhumee lamaanuu Birmajiif bakka gaddhiisan.

Birmajii:- bara 1579-1586

Bara Gadaa Birmajii Oromootni Amaara hedduu muddanii qaban. Birmajiin Wallo Bagamidir seenanii Amaaroota hedduu fixan. Aantoot Malaak Saggad lolarratti dhuman. Amaara Bagamidir akka malee hollachiisee. Birmajiin Tuulamaafi Macaa lafa fardi isaa dhaquu dandayu mara deemee qabate. Amaarri gara hallayyaafi holqatti galtee dhokatte. Osoo gaarri, hoqiifi hallayyaan hinjiru tahee, namni hafu hinjiru jedhaa ture barreeysaan Habashaa Alaqaa Atsimeen. Malaa Saggad oliifi gad fiigutti yeroo isaa fixe. Birmajiin Shawaa laga Jamayii cehee Waqaa qabatee Amaara lafa Oromoo keessa qubatte Habashaarraa kute. Achirraa Gojjaamiifi Daamoot waraanuu jalqabe. Malaak Saggad nama Daragoot jedhamu akka Gojjaamiin ittisuuf itti erge. Birmajiin lola Daaragootirratti du’e. Haa tahu malee Birmajiin gara dhuma Gadaa isaati jala Gojjaam keessatti moohame. Biramjiin bakka lachuutti Gadaa gad dhiisanii Mul’atatti dabarsan.

Mul’ata:- bara 1587-1594

Bara Gadaa Mul’ataa kana Walloon hedduu hinduulle. Yeroo lama duwwaa Godaritti duulee saamee Wallotti deebi’e. Qubatee waan taa’e fakkaata. Mula’ati, Maccaafi Tuulama duula isaa itti fufe. Bifa lolaa geeddaree Amaara karaarratti gaadanii ajjeesuu jalqaban. Gaara gidduufi saaqaa dhiphoo ta’an jiddutti eegee Amaara murachuu jalqabe. Kanaaf Amaarri bara sana lafa sodaatu bira hoggaa gahewalitti lallaba, walwaama dabra ture jedhama. Bakka fardasaaf mijjaa’u Gondariifi Gojjaam keessa gulufee basha’e. Boodaas achi quabatee taa’e. Amaarri araarfachuu jalqabdee, suuta suutaan walmakuu jalqaban. Haa tahu malee, lolli isaan jiddu hindhaabbanne: isaan keessa warri gurguddaan:

Jaarraa 17ffaa jalqabarratti (1605-1617) bara mooti Habashaa Suusiniyoos Oromoon Bagamidrifi Gojjaamitti duulaa ture, garuu ofirraa ittisan.

1620 Oromootni Walloo Bagamidriti duulan.

Qaabsis Paaris (Paris chronicle) jedhamu lolli gurguddaan baroota 1639, 1643, 1649, 1652fi 1658tti akka tahan galmeessee jira.

1661 Oromoonni Walloo Warra HimannooGondaritti duulanii Faasilaa Dasiin lolan.

1683-1688 Oromoon Guduruu Habashaa lolee moohe.

1709 bara Tewoofiloos mooti Habashaa ture Oromoon Amaaratti duulee ture.

Jaarraa 18ffaa kaasee lolli xixiqqaan Amaaraafii Oromoo jiddutti deemaature. Amaaroonni Oromoo ofitti qabuu (firoomfatuu)jalqaban. Waldhabbii isaan jidduu jirurratti akka Oromoon isaan gargaaru hawwachaaturan. Yeroon itti Oromoon waardiyaa mooti Habashaa tahee qa’ee(gibbii) isaaniitti galees niture. Habashoonni walii isaai fonqolchuufi aangoorraa turuufiis Waraana Oromootti yeroon dhimma ba’aa turan niture.

Duula Oromoo kana booddee haala akkamiitu Gaafa Afrikaa keessatti dhalate? Humni Oromoo jechuuniis maal uume? Hamma Oromoon Gadaan of hinjaaranitti miidhaa gurguddaan irrgahaa akka ture beekamaadha. Yeroo sanaas Kiristaanootnifi Islaamootni duula wailrraa hincinne walirratti oofaa turan. Gaafni Afrikaa bakka lolaa turte jechuun nidandayama. Oromoon Gadaan ijaaramee as bahuun, madaala humna Gaafa Afrikaa keessatti jijjiire. I) lola Kiristaanaafi Islaama jidduu nidhaabe. 2) hawwii babal’achuu Habashaan qabu dhaabee walitti isii suntuurse. 3) Oromoo kabajamaafi sodaatamaa taasise. 3) Mootummaa Islaama Harar dhawee walitti bute. 5) daangaarratti waldhiibuufi lola xixiqqaa tahan malee, nagaya gara jaarraa lamaaf Gaafa Afrikaatti buuse.

Madaalli humnaa kan yeroo dheeraaf ture, kan jijjiiramuu jalqabe walakkaa jaarraa 19ffaa booda eega meeshaan lolaa haarayni harka Habashoota seene ture. Yeroo kanarraa kaaseeti kn Oromoon caphee kolonii Habashaa tahuu kan jalqabe. maddii: marsaa alaabaa

Seenaan haayyoota Oromootin barreefammee kunoo as isiinif jira. Dubbisaati baradhaa. yoo barruu seenaa biraa qabaattan tessoo exellent823@yahoo.com  irratti nuf ergaa.

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Seenaa saba Oromoo

Kitaaba (seenaa saba Oromoo fi Sirna Gadaa/Birraa/Fulbaana/1995)

(Toleeraa Tasammaa fi Hundasaa Waaqwayyaa)

Seenaan qorannoo ykn barnoota akka ummanni tokko itti jiraataa tureedha. Seenaan saba tokko yeroo jennu qorannoo ykn barnoota waa’ee shanyii saba saba saniiti jechuudha. Seenaan sabni tokko akkamitti jiraataa ture? Haala akkam keessa dabre? Ogummaa akkam qaba ture? Aadaan isaa maal fakkaata? Kan jedhaniifi gara biraas kaasee deebii itti barbaada. Gabaatti, seenaan qorannoo ykn barnoota haala shanyyiin (sanyyiin) ummata biyya tokkoo karaa dina’gdeefi hawaasummaa keessa dabreedha.

Ummanni tokko haala jireenya isaa hubachuuf abbootiin abbootii isaa ykn shanyyiin isaa haala keessa dabran qorachuu barbaachisa. Haalli ykn akkaataan jireenyi shanyii ofii keessa dabre jireenya har’aa irratti calaqqiinsa ni qabaata. Isa ha’aa hubachuuf isa dabre qorachuun barbaachisaadha. Kaleessi yoo hin jiraanne har’i hinjiraatu. Waan shanyyiin keenya keessa dabree as gahe qorannee baruun kan har’aa ijaarachuuf baay’ee barbaachisa. Kaleessi har’a, har’i boru maddisiisa. Kan dabre yoo hinhubatin kan har’aa hubachuun, kan har’aa yoo hinhubatin kan boruu qiyaasuun hinkajeelamu.

Namni seenaa abbootii isaa, kan shanyii isaa hinbeekne jaamaadha. Bishaan gabatee irra jiru, kan gara barbaadanitti oofamuun wajjiin walfakkaata. Namni seenaa irraa hinbare, badii seenaa deebisee dalaguuf dirqama. Namni seenaa shanyii isaa hinbeekne, maqaa, aadaafi sabummaa isaa gatee kan alagaa fudhachuuf tattaafata. Ummanni Oromoo seenaa boonsaa, biyya badhaatuufi aadaa dagaagaa qaba. Ilmaan Oromoo hedduun garuu, kan waan hinbeeyneef alagatti ofharkisuu kan barbaadan nijiran. Seenaa saba ofii baruun eenyummaa ofii nama barsiisa. Firaaf diina adda baafachuuf nama gargaara. Walumaa galatti, seenaa saba ofii beekuun sab-boonummaa dagaagsa.

Seenaa saba keenyaa kan boru itti boonnu duwwaafi miti. Tahuus hin qabu. Mataa ofii dabree beekuufi yaadachuuf barra. Barree ammoo dabarsinee barsiifna. Kanaaf ilmaan Oromoo hundi seenaa Oromoo baranii dabarsanii barsiisuun dirqama taha. Seenaa dabrerraa kan barree yaadachuuf, jireenya keenya har’aa hubachuuf nu gargaara. Madda rakkoo keenya har’aa baruuf, seenaa abbotiin teenya dabarsan beeku qabna. Rakkina har’aa furuuf mala lafa kaayyachuuf seenaa dabre beekuun hedduu barbaachisaadha. Rakkinaafi guddina sabni keenya keessa dabree as gsahe yoo beekne kan boruu yaaduu dandeenya. Daandii qabsoon keenya fudhachuu qabu tolchuufi tolchinees sirritti ta’uu isa kan itti ilaallu calaqqee seena Oromoo keessatti taha. Seenaa dabre kan fagoofi dhihoo, yaadaafi ilaalcha keenya irratti ifaan ykn osoo hin mul’anne dhiibbaa niqabbata. Seenaa keenya ka barruuf, ofii hubannee akka sirritti galmeessinee dhaloota boruutiif dabarsuudhaafi. Waanti nuti har’a hojjannu , boru seenaa taha. Kanaaf Oramoo kan tahe hundi seenaa shanyyii isaa baree dabarsee barsiisuun haalaan barbaachisaadha.

Barbaachisummaa seenaa baruu erga hubatamee, gaaffi ka’antu jira. Seenaan Oromoo barreeyfamee jiraa? Eenyufaatu barreeyse? Yoo hin barreeyfamne tahe akkamiti barreeysuun dandayama? Gaaffiileen kan fakkaatan hedduun ka’uu mala. Osoo deebii gaaffiilee kanaa kennuu hinyaalin dura madda seenaa waan athan keessaa lama qofa yoo ka’aan gaarii taha.

Maddi seenaa ummata tokkoo inni duraafi guddaan seenaa afaanii(oral history) fi aadaadha. Hamma sadarkaan dagaagina hawaasummaa tokkoo barreeysaan waa galmeessuun hinjalqabaminitti, seenaa dhalootarraa dhalootatti himamsa afaaniitiin dabraa dhufa. Abbaan ijollee isaatti “dur shanyiin keenya akkasiti bulaa ture, bara akkasii rakkina akkasiitu tur, dur jireenyi akkas ture” jedhee yeroo itti odeessu, seenaa dabarsaa jira jechuudha. Sabootni hedduun har’allee afaan isaaniitiin barreeysuu hinjalqabne nijiran. Seenaan saboota akkasii barreeyfamuuf maddi guddaan seenaa afaaniifi aadaa isaaniiti taha.

Seenaa tokko qorachuuf ykn barreeysuuf maddi lammaffaan waan galmeeyfameedha. Beektoonnif qorottoonni haala jiruufi jireenya, aadaafi afaan ummata tokkoo yeroo galmeessan seenaa dabarsaa jiru. Waan beektoonni ykn qorottoonni barruudhaan har’a lafa kaayan, boru kaan itti dhufee barata ykn irra dhaabatee xiinxala. Seenaan ummata tokkoo nama isaa keessa dhalateen barreeyfame irra wayyinni hinhafu. Inninuu, yoo namni sun dhiibbaa adda addaarraa qulqulluu tahe malee, mudaa qabaachuu nidandaya. Keessattu yeroo seenaa uummata gara biraa barreeysan jibba, jaalalalfi dhiibbaa adda addaarraa qulqulluu yoo hintaane badii guddaan dalagamuu nimala.

Seenaa tokko qorachuufi baruuf madda waan tahan keessaa guddaa lama kaafnee jirra. Eegaa, seenaan ummata Oromoo barreeyfamee jiraayi? Ykn ummanni Oromoo seenaa qabaayi? Gaaffiilee jedhan laaluu ni dandeenya.diinootni ummata Oromoo, ‘Oromoon seena hinqabu’ jedhu. Ummanni seenaa hinqabne hinjiru. Namni tokko hoo seenaa mataa isaatti,seenaa jireenyaa niqaba. Seenaan ummata sanaa barreeyafamee jiraachuufi dhiisuun waan gara biraati. Diinootni Oromoo seenaa hoggaa jedhan waan galmeeyfame qofa ifdura qabu. Seenaan ummataa hedduun barreeyfamuu kan dandaye erga beekkumsi barreeysuu argame booda ture. Har’allee afaanotni tokko tokko barreeysaa hin qaban, seenaan saboota akkasii karaa lamaan qoratama.

seenaa afaanii
waan alagaan, waa’ee ummata sanaa barreeyse irraa taha.
Ummanni Oromoo afaan isaan kan barreeyssuu jalqabe bara dhihoo keessa. Kanaaf ilma Oromoo tokkoon seenaan isaa galmeeyfamee jira jechuu hindandeenyu. Bara dhihoo as garuu, ilmaan Oromoo tokko tokko seenaa saba isaanii barreeysuuf tattaafataa jiru. Haathu malee seenaan Oromoo himamsa afaaniifi aadaatiin dhalootarraa dhalootatti daddabraa har’a as gahe jira. Seenaa saba keenyaa qorannee galmeessuuf, seenaan afaaniifi aadaa madda guddaadha. Haa tahu malee, himamsi afaanii lakkuma bubbuluun jijjiiiramaa hiikkaafi ilaalcha adda addaa fudhachaa akka deemu irraanfachuun namarra hinjiru. Har’a seenaa keenya qorachuuf himamsa afaaniitti daballee maddi gara biraa kan seenaa afaan keenyaa (oromiffaa) tiifi antiropolojii taha.

Antiroppolojiin saayinsii qorannoo waa’ee dhala namaa, aadaa, hoodaafi amantii, akkaataa jireenya isaa irratti godhamuudha. Kanaaf seenaa afaanii kan dhalootarraa dhalootatti daddabraa dhufeefi, qormaata afaniifi antiroppolojii irratti godhamu walqabachiifnaan seenaan dhugaa barreeyfamuu nidandaya.

Seenaa Oromoorratti qormaanni godhamuu qaba hoggaa jennu, seenaan Oromoo akka waan tasa hinbarreeyfamneetti fudhachuu hinqabnu. Oromoonni seenaa ummata isaanii barreeysuu kan jalqaban dhihoo kanatti haatahuu malee, namoonni alagaa hedduun seenaa Ummata Oromoo barreeysanii jiran. Har’aas kan qormaata godhaa jiran hedduudha. Anmoota alaagaa kan seenaa Oromoo barreeysan gosa sadihitti, qooduu nidandeenya.

Isaaniis: 1)qeessota Habshaa,2) waarra Orooppaa 3) Araboota. Isaan kana tokko tokkoon haalaallu.

handhuura godhatanii turan. Arsiin ammoo, naannoo sanarraa gara bahaatti sossohee Ituufi Humbannatti aanee qubate. Ilmaan Bareentoo keessaa gara kaabaatti fagaatee kan qubate Walloodha.

Ilmaan Booranaa ammoo, adda bahanii gosti Booranaa xiqqoo gara kibbaatti siqee qubate. Achirraa godaansa haga laga Xaanaa Keeniyaa keessatti deeme. Gujiin naannoo Jamjamirraa hedduu osoo hin fagaatin achumatti lafa bal’ifate. Booranni kaabaa (Maccaafi Tuulama) gara kaabaatti sosshan. Naannoo Shawaa har’aa eega gayanii booda Macc gara dhihaatti godaanee qubachuu jalqabe.

Godaansi Oromoo kun yeroo kam akka tahe beekuun nama dhibullee jaarraa 9ffaa ykn 10ffaa dura akka tahe beekamaadha. Naannoo jaarraa kanatti Oromootafi Habashoota jidduu (gidduu) wallolli akka ture barreeyfamee jira. Jaarraa kana keessa hoggaa Islaamummaan Shawaa seenuu jalqabe Oromoon akka achi turees waan hubatameedha. Ormoon yeroo lafa kanatti godaane, ummatni gara biraaa irra jiraachuuf dhiisuu irraa wanti beekamu hinjiru. Habarlaand akka jedhutti naannoo Shawaa har’aatti yeroo Oromoon godaane lafti duwwaa turuun nimala jedha. Namichi Poortugaal Franaaz jedhamubara 161tti yroo naannoo Gojjaamii ka’ee gara qarqara galaanaatti deemu argee akka barreeysetti ” Kibba laga Abbayya keessaa Oromoonni nijiru. Isaaniifi Innaariyaa gidduu garuu, lafti duwwaadha” jedhee ture. Kanaaf lafti Oromoon itti godaanerraa guddaan duwwaa lafa daggala qabu akka ture hubatamaadha.

Seenaa Barreeysitoota Habashaa

Seenaa Oromoo inni jalqabaafi qabatamaan qeesii Amaaraa, abbaa Baahiree jedhmuun bara 1593tti barreeyffame. Barreeyfama Baahireen duratti wanti qabatamaan barreeyffame waan jiru hinfakkaatu. Abbaa Bahireen Amaara waan taheef seenaa Oromoo tan inni barreeyse mudaa gurguddaa qaba. Bara inni barreeysaa ture (jaarraa 16ffaa) keesssa Oromoon duula lafa isaa falmachuurra waan tureef hijaa(haloo) Oromoo bahuuf poolisii (imaammata) hordafamuu qabu lafa kayuuf barreeyse.

Mootoota habasha yeroo sana turan gorsuuf barreeyse. Akeekni Baahiree jabinni Oromoo eessaa akka maddufi dadhabiinsi Habashaa maala akka tahee xiinxaluu ture. Seenaa Oromoo ija diinummaatiin laalee barreeyse. Bahireen seenaa kitaaba isaa “ye Gaallaa Taarik” jedhu yeroo barreeyse akkas jedha. “seenaa Gaallaa barreeysuu kaniin jalqabeef, lakkooysa gosa isaanii, nama ajjeesuuf qophii tahuu isaaniifi amala saanii kan gara lafina hinqabne beeksisuufi. Seenaa ummata gadhee kanaa maalif barreeysite, osoo kan ummata gaariidhaa jiruu jedhee yoo namni nagaafate, “kitaaba keessa laali, seenaan Mohammadiifi mootoota Islaamaatu barreeyfamaa jiraamiti?..jedhee jalqabe.

Baahireen ilaalcha ummata Oromoof qabu seenaa kitaaba isaa keessatti xumure. Jibbiinsaafi diinummaa Oromoorraa akka ifatti mul’ata. Haala kanaan yeroo barreeyse Baahireen dogoggora gurguddaa keessa seene. Seenaa Oromoo dabsee waan barreeysseef, seena barreeysitoota isa booddee barreeysaniis karaarra dabsee jira. Daba inni hojjate kana booqannaa itti aanu keessatti laalla. Seenaa Oromoo guutumaatti, akka mata dureetti fudhatanii akka baahireetti hin barreeysin malee, qeesoota qabsiisa mootoota habashaa barreeysan, qabsiisa isaanii keessatti waa’ee Oromoo kaasanii jiru. Haa tahu malee, ija diinummaatiin waan qabsiisaniif seenaa Oromoo hedduu dabsan. Qeesiin Atsime gi’orgs jedhamu seenaa Oromoo akka baay’ee nama dinqutti barreeyse. Namummaa oromoo haga haalutti gahee “ilmaan sheeyxaanaa” jedhee barreeyse. Alqaa Taayyee kan jedhamu ammoo, “innas tawuqaallan Gallaa indeet ka baahir indewaxaa” jedhee haala baayyee fokkisaan barreeyse. Yeroo qeessotni kun waa’ee Oromoo barreeysaa turan, yeroo Oromoon itti jabaa ture. Jabinaafi laafina Oromoo baranii akkaataa itti dura dhaabbatan qiyaafachuuf ture. Eega Oromoo cabasanii koloneeffaatan boodaas, seenaa Oromoo barreeysuu nidhaaban. Warri Orooppaas akka hinbarreeysine dhiibbaa irratti godhuu jalqaban. Walumaa galatti waan qeesootni kijibduun Habashaa dabsanii barreeysan sana, seenaa dhugaa kan qormaataan bira gahame barreeysuudhaan kijibdoota Habashaa faalleessuun haalaan barbaachisaadha.

Seena barreeysitoota Awrooppaa:

Namoonni biyya Orooppaa sababafi yeroo adda addaatti naannoo Kaaba Baha Afrikaa dhufanii seenaa barreeysan nijiru. Isaan kun heeddu waan tahaniif gosa gurguddaa lamatti qoodnee ilaluu dandeenya.

waarra amantii babal’isuutiin biyya Orooppaarraa dura biyya Habashaa kan dhufan warra Poortugaal turan. Isaan kun jalqabaa jaarraa 17ffaarraa kaasanii Habashaa seenuudhaan dame amantii kristiyaanaa -Kaatolikii babal’isuuf tattaafachha turan. Habashootaaf jaalalaafi maraarfannoo gudda qabu turan. Habashoonni tuqamuufi miidhamuu hinjaalatan turan. Habashoota gara amantii isaaniitti hawwachuuf tattaafataa waan turannif, waan mootoota Habashaa dallansiisu hin barreeysine. Seenaa Oromoo yeroo barreeysaniis akkuma Habashootaatti barreeysan. Namichi Poortugal-Manu’eel de Almeedaa jedhamu, yeroo seenaa Oromoo baarreeyse, Baahireerraa fudhatee ijaa jibbiinsaan barreeyse. Kanaaf waan isaan barreeysan hoggaa xiinxalmuufi kan warra kaanii wajjiin ennaa walbira qabamu seenaa Oromoo barreeysuun nidandayama. Tahaas jira.
Biyya Daawwatootafi Qorottota:
Biyya daawwatoonni haala, akeekaafi yeroo adda addaatti dhufan, biyya daawwataa fakkaatanii dhufuudhaan kan mootuummaa isaaniif basaasan nituran. Waarri kaan immoo qormaata ji’ograafii ykn saayinsii gochuuf warri dhufaniis turan. Bifa adda addaan haa dhufan malee isaan kun waan argan, ummata, aadaaa, afaaniifi akkaata jireenyaa biyya sanaa barreeysanii jiru. Namoota alagaa waan tahaniif waan ijaan arkan malee, ofii isaaniitiin ummata haaseessuudhaan kallattiin waa baruu hindadayan. Nama afaan isaanii hiiku barbaadu. Kanaaf hangi isaan seenaa barreeysuuf deeman heedduu xiqqaadha. Aadaafi maalummaa ummata sanaa baruudhaaf, yeroon isaan keessa turaniis waan xiqqaa tahuuf, hubannaan isaaniis akkasuma taha. Dhiibba malee waan hojjetaniif hanga dhaga’aniifi arkan qulqullutti barreeysuu saanii hin oolamu.

Namoonni Arooppaa seenaa Oromoo, Orommtarraa qoratanii barreeysaniis nijiru. Oromoonni gabrummatti gurguramanii boodaa namooni Arooppaa tokko tokko baitatanii bilisoomasaniis nijiru. Gabroota bilisooman kanrra seenaa Oromoo waari qoratanii barreeysaniis nituran. Haala kanaan bara 1830fi 1840 namoonni Arooppaa kan seenaa Oromoo barreeysuuf carraaqan nituran. Qorannoo seenaa keenyaa kan har’a godhamaa jiruuf, kun madda tokko tahee argama.

Jalqaba jaarraa 20ffaarraa kaasee seenaa qorattootni Arooppaa, seenaa Oromoo barreeysuuf yaalii guddaa godhaa turan. Keessattuu bara Haayle Sillaasee keessa carraaqiin isaan godhaa turan guddaa ture. Mootoonni Habashaa, akka seenaan Oromoo hin barreeyfamne mala adda addaatiin dura dhaabbachaa turan. Waan qeesotni isaanii dur barreeysanillee dhoksuudhaan, gara biraatiniis akka hin barreeyfamne ittisaa turan. Har’aas itti jiru. Akka seenaan Oromoo hin barreeyfamne, dhiibbaan isaan godhan: tokkoffaa namni akkeka kana qabu, akka dhiisuykn akka kun hindandayamne godhanii itti dhiheessuudhaan harkatti busheessuuf yaalu. Lammmaffaa, akka eehama argatee qormaata kana hingoone karaa itti cufu. Haa tahuu malee, qormaata ummatoota naannoo Kaaba Baha Afrikiirratti godhame keessaa kan Oromoorratti godhameefi godhamaa jiru baayyee guddaadha. Waa’ee ummata Oromoo qorachuun mata duree qormaata guddaa tahee jira.

Seenaa Barreeysitoota Arabaa

Seenaa ummatoota Gaafa Afrikaa warra barreeysan keessaa Arabootiin warra duraati. Keessattu eega amantiin Islaamummaa Gaafa Afrikaatti babl’achuu jalqabe, Araboonni bifa lamaan dhufuu jalqaban. Kuniis bifa amantii babal’isuufi nagadaan ture. Araboonni bifa kanneen keessa tokko ykn lachuutuu, waa’ee Oromoo galmeessanii seenaa barreeysanii jiru. Har’a seenaa Oromoo barreeysuuf qorachuuf maddi tokko barreeysaa Arabootaa taheeti argama. Akkauma haalaafi yeroo isaan barreeysanitti, akkasumas ilaacha isaanirraa kan ka’e, barreeysan isaanii mudaa qabaachuu nidandaya.

Seenaa Oromoo qoratanii barreeysuuf, madda adda addaafi mudaa isaan qaban ilaallee jira. Madda jiran kanatti dhimma bahuudhaan seenaa haqaa barreeysuuf, maddi amansiisaan himamsa afaanif aadaa Oromoti taha. Seenaan afaanii akka barri dheeratuun, ilaalchaafi muxannoo haaraya dabalataa akka demu yaadachaa, qormaata godhamuun seenaa keenya barreysuu nidandeenya. Jarsooliin Oromoo kan seenaa dur beekan utuu hin dhabamin waan godhamuun irra jiru. Maddi kun gayuu akka dandayu irraanfachuun nurra hinjiru.

Hunda caalaa seenaan Oromoo dgaagsuufi guddisuuf qoodni qabsoon qabu guddaa akka tahe dagachuun namarra hinjiru. Sadarkaa har’a ummanni Oromoo ABO jalatti hiriiree kallachaa isaa waliin qabsoorra waan jiruuf, waa’ee ummata Oromoo baruuf gaaffiin ka’aa jiran guuddaadha. Har’a waa’ee Oromorratti qormaata guddaatu beektoota bijyya baayyeen godhamaa jira. Keessattu waggaa 10rnan dabranii as qormaatni kun dabalaatuma jira. Kun tolatti kan dhufe utuu hin tahin, dhaabni waa’ee ummata kanaaf falmu waan jiruufi. Qabsoo godhuun seenaa dabaa jiru sirreessuudha dandaya. Dur namootni hedduun maqaa Gaallaa jedhu malee, maqaa Oromoo hin beekan. Har’a garuu maqaan Oromoo jedhu hundaan beekamee jira. Kun bu’aa qabsoo keenyaati.

Koloneeffattoonni yoomillee taanaan, ummanni isaan koloneeffattan seenaa qabu jedhanii hin yaadan. Seenaa ummata koloneeffatanii dabsanii ykn akka waan hin jirree godhanii dhiheessu. Seena oromoos kan qunnamte kanuma. Qabsoon arra godhaa jirru, seenaa ummata keenyaa gaddhaaba, baduurraa hambisa, alagaan akka qoratuuf karaa bana. Qabsoo keenya finiinsuun sagalee ummata Oromoo baay’atee akka dhagayamu godha, fedhii alagaan waa’ee isaa baruuf godhu guddisee, qormaata irra bal’aatiif karaa bana. Kaanaaf seenaa keenya haga har’aa alagaan barreeyfamee ija qeeqaafi xiinxalaan barata, sabbontonni Oromoo seenaa dhugaa qoratanii bareeysuuf dirqamni akka irra jiru yaadachiifna. Haga har’aatti kan argamees firii qabsoo keenyaati.

Seenaa Barreeysitoota Arabaa

Seenaa ummatoota Gaafa Afrikaa warra barreeysan keessaa Arabootiin warra duraati. Keessattu eega amantiin Islaamummaa Gaafa Afrikaatti babl’achuu jalqabe, Araboonni bifa lamaan dhufuu jalqaban. Kuniis bifa amantii babal’isuufi nagadaan ture. Araboonni bifa kanneen keessa tokko ykn lachuutuu, waa’ee Oromoo galmeessanii seenaa barreeysanii jiru. Har’a seenaa Oromoo barreeysuuf qorachuuf maddi tokko barreeysaa Arabootaa taheeti argama. Akkauma haalaafi yeroo isaan barreeysanitti, akkasumas ilaacha isaanirraa kan ka’e, barreeysan isaanii mudaa qabaachuu nidandaya.

Seenaa Oromoo qoratanii barreeysuuf, madda adda addaafi mudaa isaan qaban ilaallee jira. Madda jiran kanatti dhimma bahuudhaan seenaa haqaa barreeysuuf, maddi amansiisaan himamsa afaanif aadaa Oromoti taha. Seenaan afaanii akka barri dheeratuun, ilaalchaafi muxannoo haaraya dabalataa akka demu yaadachaa, qormaata godhamuun seenaa keenya barreysuu nidandeenya. Jarsooliin Oromoo kan seenaa dur beekan utuu hin dhabamin waan godhamuun irra jiru. Maddi kun gayuu akka dandayu irraanfachuun nurra hinjiru.

Hunda caalaa seenaan Oromoo dgaagsuufi guddisuuf qoodni qabsoon qabu guddaa akka tahe dagachuun namarra hinjiru. Sadarkaa har’a ummanni Oromoo ABO jalatti hiriiree kallachaa isaa waliin qabsoorra waan jiruuf, waa’ee ummata Oromoo baruuf gaaffiin ka’aa jiran guuddaadha. Har’a waa’ee Oromorratti qormaata guddaatu beektoota bijyya baayyeen godhamaa jira. Keessattu waggaa 10rnan dabranii as qormaatni kun dabalaatuma jira. Kun tolatti kan dhufe utuu hin tahin, dhaabni waa’ee ummata kanaaf falmu waan jiruufi. Qabsoo godhuun seenaa dabaa jiru sirreessuudha dandaya. Dur namootni hedduun maqaa Gaallaa jedhu malee, maqaa Oromoo hin beekan. Har’a garuu maqaan Oromoo jedhu hundaan beekamee jira. Kun bu’aa qabsoo keenyaati.

Koloneeffattoonni yoomillee taanaan, ummanni isaan koloneeffattan seenaa qabu jedhanii hin yaadan. Seenaa ummata koloneeffatanii dabsanii ykn akka waan hin jirree godhanii dhiheessu. Seena oromoos kan qunnamte kanuma. Qabsoon arra godhaa jirru, seenaa ummata keenyaa gaddhaaba, baduurraa hambisa, alagaan akka qoratuuf karaa bana. Qabsoo keenya finiinsuun sagalee ummata Oromoo baay’atee akka dhagayamu godha, fedhii alagaan waa’ee isaa baruuf godhu guddisee, qormaata irra bal’aatiif karaa bana. Kaanaaf seenaa keenya haga har’aa alagaan barreeyfamee ija qeeqaafi xiinxalaan barata, sabbontonni Oromoo seenaa dhugaa qoratanii bareeysuuf dirqamni akka irra jiru yaadachiifna. Haga har’aatti kan argamees firii qabsoo keenyaati

Ummata Oromoo

Ummanni Oromoo jedhamu Gaafa Aafrikaa keessa kan jiraatudha. Kan inni dubbatu afaan Oromooti. Ummanni Oromoo walitti ejjee osoo addaan hincitin, godina kana keessa qubatee argama. Bakka bal’aa irra haaqubatuu malee, afaan tokkicha kan hundi itti waliigalu qaba. Kaabaa-Kibbatti, Bahaa-Dhihatti ummata aadaa tokkicha qabuudha. Diinagdeedhaaniis walirratti irkannoo cimaa qaba. Bara dheeraaf walabmmaan jiraataa turee, dhuma jaara19ffaa keessa alagaan kan koloneeffatameedha. Har’aas waliin dhaabbatee bilisummaa isaatiif lolachaa jira. Kanaaf akkaataan yaadasaa walfakkaata, hawwiifi fedhi siyaasa tokkicha qaba. Kaanfi ummnni Oromoo kan saba tokko kan jedhamuuf.

Damee dhala namaa Afrikaa keessatti argaman keeessa, Orommoon damee kuush jalatti argama. Dameen dhla namaa Afrikaa keessatti argaman:

Haam ykn kuush

Seem

Neegiroo

Buushmeen ykn Hotteentoos

Negirilloos jedhamu. Dameen kuush bakka gurguddaa lamatti addaa qoodaman. Kuush Kaabaafi Bahaatti warri argaman:

Beejjaa , Berberiins (barbara,nuuba), Oromoo, Sumaaleefi saboota Kibba empaayera Tophiyaa jala jirani, garuu isaan dhiiga Neegiroo wajjiin walmakuun hin’oolle. Misroota duriifi haaraya. Ummata kana keessa hammi hammi tokko dhiiga gara biraa makachuu hin’oolle.

Kuush (haam) Kaabaa keessaatti warri argaman ammoo, Berbersii, Siraanaayikaa, Trippolitaaniyaa, Tuniisiyaa, Aljeeriyaa, Berbersii Morookkoo, Tureegfi Tiibuu saharaa fuulbe dhiha Suudaaniifi Gu’aanchee warra kanaari Aayland keessaati.

Ummanni Oromoo saboota Gaafa Afrikaa keessatti argaman keesssaa isa guddaadha. Lakkooysi ummata Oromoo kan har’a kolnii Toophiyaa jala jiru duwwaan miliyoona 40 ol nitaha. Biyyoota Afrikaa keessaa kan baayyina namaatiin Oromoo caalan afur qofa, akka sabaatti yoo fudhanne, sabni Oromoo, saba tokkicha guddaa Gaafa Afrikaa, tarii kan Afrikaati. Ummata Empaayera Toophiyaa har’aa kessaa walakkaa ol kan tahan Oromoota maqaa “Gaallaa” jedhu.

Ormoon maqaa gaallaa jedhu kanaan akka ofi hinyaamne, seenaa barreeysitoonni raagaa nibahu. Fakkeenyaaf namichi Chaarles T. Beke jedhamu bara 1847tti yeroo barreeyse- “isaan maqaa boonaa Ilma Oromoo” jedhuun ofwaamu, garuu warri Habashaa Gaallaa jedhuun waamu” jedhe. Ummanni Oromoo eega maqaa kanaan ofhinwaamne, maddi isaa eessa taha? Hundee maqaa kanaatiifi hiikkaa isaarratti wanti odeeyfameefi barreeyfame hedduudha.

1. Oromoon dur hogguu lola dhaqee, yeroo moo’ee ykn moo’amee jedhu ” Kootta ni gallaa” jedhee walwaama. Kootta nigallaa isa inni jedhurraa maqaan “gaallaa” dhufe warri jedhan nituran.

2. Oromoon dur gaala waan tiiysuuf, akkasumaas fe’atee waan demuuf yeroo inni gaala jedhu dhagayanii 2. “gaallaa” ittiin jedhan jedhu:

dur ummata gosa “Gool” jedhamuutu Faransaayii keessa ture, maqaan achirraa dhufee jedhanii warri odeessu nijiru.

Namichi Yihuudii kan Abbaa Balzezar Tellez jedhamu ammoo, jechi “Gaallaa” jedhuu kun afaan Hibiruufi Giriikirraa dhfeedha jedha. Afaan hibiruufi Girikii kessati “gala2 jechuun “aannan” jechuudha. Kanaaf achirraa dhufuun nimala jedhu.

Habashoonni ammoo, maqaa gaalaa jedhu kanaaf hiikkaa kannanii jiru. Namichi kassate Birhaan Tassammaa kan guuboo (kuusa) jechoota afaan Amaaraa barreeyse yeroo hiike: Gaalaa jechuun aramanee, yaal salaxxanee, cakkanyi, ye amaaraa xilaat” jechuudha, jedhee jira. Barreeysaan amaaraa gara biraan ammoo, dhugaa jiru lafa kaayee jira. Maqaa Gaallaa jedhu kan kanneef warra Habashaa,warra qomaaxaafi beela biyya keenyati fideedha. Akka inni jedhetti “isaan Oromoodha ofiin jedhan, garuu Amaarri immoo, “Gaallaa” jedhaan” maqaa kanaan dura Oromoo yaamuu kan jalqabe Amaara tahuun ifa ta’a. Biyyoonni ollaafi warri Arooppaas isaanirraa fudhachuun isaanii dirree ta’a.

Amaarri maqaa kanaan Oromoota yaamuun jibbiinsaafi diinummaa, akkasumas garaagarummaa karaa amantii isaanii gidduu jirurratti kan hundaa’eedha. Kuniis battala Oromootaafi Habashootni walqunnamanitti, Oromoon amantiilee guddaa lamaan keessaa hinqabu ture. Habashoonni lafa Oromoo irraafudhachuuf fedhii waan qabaniif, Oromoon ammoo, biyyaa saa irra jabaatee waan ittiseef, jibbiinsaafi diinummaa guddaatu gidduu isaanii jira. Kanaaf maqaan “Gaallaa” jedhu kan diinni Oromootaaf baaseef, maqaa balfachuufi tuffii tahee argama.

Har’a Oromoo ta’ee kan maqaa Gaallaa jedhuun ofwaamu hinjiru. Yoo jiraatees nama doofa (sodaataa) isa dhumaa ykn qaamaan duwwaa utuu hintaane, kan sammuu dhaaniis gabroome qofa. Seenaa qorattoonni addunyaa, gaazeexoonni biyya adda addaafi raadiyoon addunyatti lallaban hundi maqaa “Gaallaa” jedhu dhiisanii Oromotti dhimma bahaa jiru. Kun bu’aa qabsoo Oromoo akka tahe ifaadh

Madda saba Oromoo

Maddi ummata tokko lafa akkasii, goleefi boolla akkasii keessaa jedhanii himuun baay’ee nama rakkisa; hin barbaachisuus ture. Ummanni tokko akka bineessaa boolla keessaa jiraataa turee, gaaf tokko akka waakkoo kan olba’uumiti. Idiletti maddi saba sanaa damee dhala namaa irraa gosa akkasii keessaati jechuun nigaya ture. Madda saba Oromoos hoggaa xiinxalan haala kana hordafuun quubsaa ture. Haa tahuu malee seenaa Oromoo warri barreeysan dabsaa waan turaniif dirqitti waa’ee madda Oromoo kaafnee xiinxaluun barbaachisa taha.

Maddi saba Oromoo eessa? Gaaffii jedhu namoonni adda addaa akka adda addaati deebisu. Isaan kaan akka yaada isaan dhiheessanitti yooo adda qoodne:

Waan qeesoonni Habasha barreeysan,.

Aafrikaa alaa dhufe warra jedhan

Aafrikaa keessaa golee tokko lafa kaa’uu warri barbaadaniifi

Himamsa afaan Oromootaatti adda baasuu nidandeenya

Isaan kana tokko tokkoon haalaalluu.

Waan qeesootni Habasha barreeysan

Qeesotnii Habashaa Oromoo ija diinummaatiin waan laalaniif kan isaan barreeysan dhugaa irraa fagoodha. Jibbiinsi isaan Oromoodhaaf qaban waan guddaa taheef, haga namummaa Oromoo haalanitti gahu.

Alaqaa Taayye kan jedhu “akkata Gaallaan bishaan keessa itti bahan beeksisa.” Jedhee barreeyse. Gaalloonni bishaan keessaa waan bahaniif qurxummii hin nyaatan. Kanaafiis bishaanitti waaqeeyfathu jeddha.

Astime Gi’orgs kan jedhu ammoo, Gaallaan ilmaan sheeyxaanaati jechuu kajeela. Kanaan utuu hindhaabbatin oduu afaanii kan balfachuuf odeeffaman fhudhatee hiddi sanyii Oromoo gabra jadhee barreeyse. Namichi Jalqaba laali Maatewoos jedhamu tokko gabra heedduu qaba ture. Gabroota isaa kana waan miidheef jalaa badanii biyya (lafa) gara kibbaa jirutti galan. Namoonni amala gadhee qabaniifi yakkaman badanii itti dabalamuudhaan achitti walhoran. Kana boodde Habahsaa weeraran jedhee barreetsee jira. Qeesootni Habashaa kun madda Oromoo barreeysina jedhanii tuffiifi ija jibbansa Oromoof qaban dirretti himanii jiru. Wanti isaan barreeysan kan dhugaarraa fagaate waan taheef hedduu wajjiin cinqamuu hinqabnu.

Aafriika alaatti akeekuu warra barbaadan

Hindii:- Oromoon Aafriikaa ala, hindiirraa dhufe warri jedhaniis nijiru. Oromoon dur biyya Hindii keessa jiraataa turer , booda bidiruudhaan garba Hindii cahee gara Maadagaaskar dhufe. Achirraa gara Taanzaaniyaatti cahee booda Keeniyatti babal’ate jedhu. Gaarri Kilmanjaaroo jedhamu afaan Oromootiin tulluu janjaaroo jechuudha jedha. Monbaasaa jechuun bobbaa sa’aa jechu, Naayroobi jechuun naaroobi, keeniyaa jechuun keennya jechuudha jedhu. Maqaalee kana Oromoon keennuufi ykn akka tasaatti walkiphuun nimala. Garuu Oromoon Hindiirraa dhufuu har’a wanti mirkaneessau hinjiru. Ummata har’a Hindii keessa jiraatan keessa kan aadaadhaafi seenaadhaan Oromoo fakkaatan tokkolleen hinjiru. Oromoon beekkumsa bidiruu tolchuus hinqabu. Kanaaf garba Hindii guddaa kana akkamitti cehuu danda’a? Oromoon Hindiirraa dhufe jechuun dhugaa hintahu.

Faransayii :- Oromoon dur Faransaayii ture; kan jechuu barbaadaniis nijiru. Biyya Faransaayii keessa gosa Gool jedhamtu ture. Kanaaf Oromoon (Gaallaan) achirraa dhufuun nimala jedhu. Haatahuu malee kana wanti mirkaneessu hinjiru.

Faarsii:- Oromoon Faarsiirraa dhufe jechuu warri barbaadan nijiru. Kanaas Islaamoota qarqara Galaanaa jiraatantu jedhu. Namichi M.D Abdi’e jedhamu yeroo galmeessu hundeen ykn shanyiin saba Oromoo ijoollee dubraa obbalaa sadii turan. Isaaniis dubartoota Jarusalaam(Iyyerusalam) ; booda sanyiin isaanii walhoranii baay’anaan mootummaa Kibbaa isaanii (Arabiyaa) jiru weeraran. Sana booddee karaa Baab-el-mandab gara Aafriikaatti cehann jedhu.

Konii Israa’eel:- seenaa barreeysaan Yehuudii kan abbaa Belzezar jedhamu ammoo, waan dinqii katabe. Oromoonni kolonii Israa’eel turan jechuu barbaade. Abbaan Belzezar Tellez akka jedhutti dur ummtni kun adii ture. Israa’iiliitu isaan bulchaa ture. Bara Israa’iloonni faca’an ummatni kun Aafrikaatti cehanii naannoo kaaba baha Afrikaa keessa qubatan jedha. Kun eegaa yaada tasa namaaf hinfudhatamneefi waan mirkana tahees kan hinqabneedha.

Yaadni Oromoon Afrikaa alaa dhufe jedhu dhugaa waan hinqabneedha. Seenaa mirkanii hinqabne akkasii tana fudhatanii babal’isuuf warri tattaafatan akeeka qabau. Keessattu warri seema Afrikaa alarraa waan dhufaniif kan Oromoos kanatti harkisuu barbaadu. Oromoon osoo Hindii, Fransaayii, ykn giddu galeessa bahaarraa dhufe tahee ummatni aadaan, afaaniin, qaamaafi seenaan Oromoo wajjiin walfakkaatu achitti argamuutu irra jira. Garuu har’a Hindii, Fransaayiifi Faarisii keessatti kana hinarginu. Kanaafu maddi saba Oromoo Afrikaa alaamiti. Ummatni Oromoo, ummata Afrikaa qulqulluu keessaa isa tokko thuun hin mamsiisu.

Afrikaa keessa golee tokko warri akkekuu yaalan

Ummatni Oromoo ummatoota kuush keessaa tokko akka ta’ee mamiin hinjiru. Kuush ammoo, damee dhala namaa keessaa isa tokko tahee Afrikaa keessatti kan argamuudha. Kanaaf Afrikaa keessaa bakka madda Oromoo akeekuuf yaalame haalaallu.

Duuchaa dhumtti Oromoon toora sabbata lafaa (equator) irraa dhufe warri jedhan nijiru. Maddi ummata Oromoo ammoo, Hora Viktooriyaati warri jedhaniis nijiru. Oromoon Suudaan keessaa bakka Sinaar jedhamuu ka’ee karaa Gojjaamiifi Tulluu walaliin seene warri jedhaniis nijiru. Jechoonni kun hundinuu waan qorannoodhaan mirkanwuu qabaniidha.har’a ummatoota Burundiifi Ruwaandaa keessa jiraatan keessaa sanyiin isaanii gara Oromootti warri dhihaatan nijiru. Garuu Oromootu dur achi turee irraa godaneefi, isaantu gara sanatti godaananii wanti beekamu hinjiru. Qormaata gahaa barbaada.

Qeesiin Amaaraa Abbaa Baahiree jedhamu bara 1593tti hoggaa waa’ee ummata Oromoo barreeyse.

Oromoonni gara dhihaarraa laga biyya saanii kan galaana jedhamu cehanii, bara Atsee waang Saggad gara huduuda Baallii dhufa” jedhee ture. Algni galaana jedhamu har’a adda hinbahu. Oromoon lagaan galaana jedhee ni waama. Tarii inni Abba Baahireen jedhu kun laggeen gannaalee, wabee, saganfi walmal ykn Dawwaa keessaa tokko tahuun nimala. Naannoo Baalli jedhamu kutaa har’a Baale jedhamuun walitti fakkeessuun hintahu. Seena qorqttoonni Baahiree booda garii haala gaafas Oromoon lafa isaa deebifachuuf sosso’aa itti ture hubachuu dhbuu irraa, waan Baahireen barreeyse fudhatanii waan Baahireen barreeyse fudhatanii madda ummata Oromoo himu. Haathuu malee, Baahireen madda Oromoo Afrikaa keessatti akeeka malee ala hinbaafne.

Maddi Oromoo Afrikaa kessa tahuu isaa seena barreessitoonni hedduun amananii jiru. Haathuu malee, Afrikaa keessaa naannoo Kaaba-Bahaa tahee achi keessatti golee tokkotti Oromoo murteessuuf warri tattaafatan nijiru. Isaan kana keessaa warra bebeekkamoo duwwaa ilaalla. Namni biyya Xaliyaanii Enrikoo cheruulii jedhamu, maddi saba Oromoo fiinxee Gaafa Afrikaa, Kaaba bahaa Somaaliyaa naannoo mijerteeniyaati jedha. I:M: Luwiis kan jedhamuus waan Cheruuliin jedhe kan fudhachuudhaan seenaa Somaalee barreeyse. Obboo Yilmaa Dheereessaas yaaduma Cheruulii kan hundee fudhachuun maddi OromooKaaba-baha Soomaaliyaati jedha. Cheruulli irraa jalqabanii seenaa qorattoonni yaada kan dhugoomsuuf akkas jedhan: “maddi Oromoo Majarteeniyaa ture. Somaaloonni yeroo sana Oromoorraa gara Kaabaa naannoo Barbaraafi Zayilaa turan. Jaarra 1ffaa ykn 11ffaa keessa Arbitichii Sheek ismaa’il jedhamu biyya Somaalee dhufe. Dubartii Somalee fudhee gosa daroot irraa hore. Qur’aana isaan barsiisee Islaameesse…jaarraa12ffaa keessa bakka turan -Barbaraafi Zayilaarraa warraaqanii Oromoo waraanuu jalqaban. Oromoon dura dhaabachuu waan hindandayiniif jalaa siqaa Ogaadeen seenan. Booddee Somaaloonni waan itti jabaataniif, Oromoonni jalaa sossohanii Waabi Shabeellee cehanii qubatan.

Yaadni isaan dhiheessan akka tocho’iinsa (godaansa) Oromookan jaarraa 16ffaa ragaa ni taha kan jedhaniidha. Yyadni kun Oromoofi Somaalee gidduu karaa antrippoloojii hidhata jiru haaluudha. Oromoofi Somaaleen yeroo kamii jalqabanii adda bahanii, kopha kophatti gara sabaatti dagaaguugu jalqaban gaaffii jedhuuf deebii gahaa dura argachuu barbaachisa. Tarii yeroon Oromoofi Somaaleen gosa tokko turanii waliin naannoo jedhame keessa jiraatan jiraachuun nimala.

Yaadni Oromoon Kaaba baha Somaaliyaarraa madde jedhu hamma 1963tti beektoota baay’een waan fudhatamee ture. Yaada kana kan faalleessu qorannoon godhomee Habarlaand nama jedhamuun ture. Oromoon Somaaliyaa keessaa dhibamee dhufe osoo hintaane, baddaa Baalee keessa jiraata ture. Habarland hoggaa kana ibsu. Oromoonni kan maddan Kaaba Somaalee keessa osoo hintaane baddaa Baalee irraati. Achitti gosa tokko tahanii horii horsiifachuu qofaan utuu hin thin qotiinsaan bulan. Dongoraadhaan qotuu turan. Garbuus facaafatu. Booda walitti baay’anaan karaa hundaan, gara Somaaletti hamma Bur-haqabaafi Mija-rteenitti, gara Booranaafi Keeniyaatti hamma laga xaanaatti, gara Habashaattis hamma daangaa Tigraayitti, hamma Suudaaniifi hararitti bittinnaa’an” jedhe.

Habarlaandaan kan irratti dabalee yaada Oromoonni Somalootan dhibaamanii gara naannoo har’a jiraatanitti faca’an jedhu kun waan hinfakkaanne tahuu isaa ibsa. Yaada Habaralaandi kan kan warrra kaanirraa kan adda isa godhu, Oromoon baddaa Baalee keessa qubatee qonna qotataa kan ture malee, jaarraa beekama tokko keessa akka awwaannisaa ka’ee kan godaane akka hintaane ibsuu isaati.

Yaada Habarlandaa kan deeggaru, seenaa qorattoonni adda addaa yaada darbatanii jiru. Charles T.beke barreeyfama isaa kan 1847 barreeyse keessatti Oromoon lafa gammoojjii, lafa naannoo Somaaleeti kan dhfteemiti jedha. Naannoo isaan dura turan, lafa gaara qabu, baddaa tahuu qaba jedha.bifti Oromoo akka inni ummata gammoojjii (negiroo) hin taane ragaa nitaha. Habashaarraa gara kibbaa ummata jiraataa ture, lafti isaa badda, nannoon isaa galaanni ykn bishaan guddaan turuu nimala. Beekeen yaada isaa akkasitti hogga lafa kaayu, kan Habarlaandi wajjiin waliitti dhufa. Tellez kan jedhamuus Oromoon lafa Baalliifi galaana hindii gidduu jiru keessaa jiraataa ture jedha. Kanaaf wanti qorattoonni kun jedhan idileetti Oromoon lafa baddaa kaaba baha Afrikaa keessa jiraataa ture kan jedhuudha.

Hunda caalaatti qorannoo irraa bal’aa gochuudhaan, uummatni Oromoo ummata Afrikaa qulqulluu tahuu isaa kan addeesse Harbert S. Luwiis jedhama. Waa’ee madda saba Oromoo qorachuudhaaf S.Luwiis waan lama gurguddaa irratti hundaawe.

Qormaata afaanoota kush Bahaafi

Himamsa aadaati.

Luwis afaanoota ummatoota kuush afurtamii-torba keessaa kan Kuusha bahaa warra baay’ee waliitt dhihaatan 24 qorate. Afaanootni kun, akka walfakkaatanitti bakka afuritti qoode. Afaanootni kaan bara dheeraaf wailirraa adda waan turaniif malee, hundi isaanii dur tokko akka tahan addeesse. Herbert.S.Luwis ummatoota Kuush bahaa keessaa kanneen baay’ee Oromoo wajjiin walfakkaatu qoratee, madda Oromoo hoggaa ibsu:

Hunda caalaa afaan isaanii Afaan Oromoo wajjiin kan walfakkaatu kan ummata Koonsoo, Gidoollee, Gatoo, Arboora, Gaawwata, Waraasa, Tsemaayiifi Galab kan isaan argaman Toophiyaarraa gara kibba har’a biyya Gamuugoofa jedhamtu keessa., Hora Abbyyaafi Caamoorraa gara kibbaatti nannooa laga Sagaanifi Duulee keessa. Jaarraa baay’een fuuldura afaan Oromoo afaanoota jara kanaa wajjiin tokkicha tur. Booda eega afaan hunda isaanii adda babahee raaw’atee Oromoon gara dhihaarraa kan hafe gara hundatti yeroo socha’u jarri kaan achuma biyya isaanii kan duritti hafan. Kanaafiis Oromoonni tooruma Haroo Abbaayyaatiifi Caamoo naannoo lageen saganiifi Duulee turan jedhee jira. As keessaatti Harbert S.Luwis warra kaan caalaa bakka beekamaa tokko lafa kaayuuf carraaqe. Qormaanni inni godhe kun, saboota kaani wajjiin walbiraqabee waan taheef irra bal’aadha. Haatahuu malee, Oromoon bara kanarraa kaasee akkamitti saboota kanaa wajjiin adda bahee kophatti saba tahuu jalqabe gaaffiin jedhu ammallee qormaata barbaada. Sabootni ollaa walii jiran waldhibuu nijiraata, yeroo tokko inni tokko jabaatee hoggaa lafa isaa bal’ifatu, lafti isa kaani ammoo nidhiphata. Haalli kun wal jijjiree jiraata. Qormaata Harbertirraa akka hubannutti maddi saba Oromoo naannoo lageen saganiifi Duuleeti. Garuu madda saba Oromoo lafa dhiphaa akkasii keessatti hidhuun qormaata boru godhamuuf nama rakkisa. Qormaata gara biraatiin utubamuu qaba. Jalqaba laali

Madda ummata Oromoo bira gahuuf, himamsi aadaa bakka guddaa qaba. Seenaan afaaniin dabru madda seenaa keessaa isa jabaa tahullee waan bara dheeraan duraa himuurraatti mudaa hinqabaatin hin hafu. Hammi afaaniin waltti dabarsaa fidan yeroo wajjiin ni jijjiirama, kaniis irraanfatamuun nimala. Haatahuu malee, seenaa tokko barreeysuu keessaatti qooda guddaa qaba. Xasoo Magiraa qormaata seenaa Oromoo godhe keessatti himamsa aadaaf bakka guddaa kenne jira. Manguddoota Oromoo kutaa adda addaa keessa jiran gaafatee, hundi saanii naannoo walitti dhihoo tahe akka himatan bira gahe.

1. Jaarsooliin Ituufi Humbanna (Harargee) afaan tokkoon mormorii dhufne jedhu. Mormor kutaa Baalee naannoo Dalloofi Mandooyyuu jedhaman keessaa qarqara laga Gannaaleetti argama.

2. Jaarsooliin Arsii naannoo Bareedduu Kurkurruu jedhamu himatu. Kuniis Baalee keessatti lageen walamaliifi Mannaa giddutti argama. Laggeen kun Baddaa Baalee keessaa burqanii Konyaalee Dalloofi Mandooyyuurraa yaa’anii Gannaaleetti galu.

Oromoon Wardaayi Keeniyaa keessatti kan argaman Tullu Nam-durii dhufne jedhu. Mangddoonni Booranaas Tulluu Nam-durii kana himatu. Tulluun Nam-dur kan argamu Baalee keessaa Koonyaa Dalloofi laga walmaliifi Gannaalee giddutti.

Oromoonni Maccaafii Tuulama oggaa gaafataman afaan tokkoon, Haroo Walaabuu himatu. Walaabuun kan aragamu Baale keessa Konyaa Dalloo laga Gannaalee qarqaratti ganda Bidree jedhamtu cinatti.

Ormoonni Gujii bitaafi mirga laga Gannaalee naannoo Girjaarraa dhufne jedhu. Girjaan kutaa Sidaamoo Awraajjaa Jamjam keessatti gara mummee laga Gannaaleetti argama.

Eegaa himamsa aadaa kanarraa akka hubatamuu dandayutti Oromoon Afrikaa alaa akka dhufe wanti akeeku hinjiru. Oromoon as Afrikaa keessaa akka ture, keessattuu Kaab baha Afrikaa keessa akka ture argisiisa. Himamsi aadaa kun kan akeeku Ormoon Kutaalee har’a Sidaamoofi Baale jedhaman keessaa Konyaalee Dalloo, Mandooyyuufi Jamjam keessa akka jiraata tureedha. Ormoon yeroo dheeraadhaaf naannoo kan jiraate jechuun ni dandaya. Haa tahuu malee, Ormoon asitti dhalate jechuuf qormaata irra bal’aa kan hariiroo ummatoota kuush wajjiin jiru xiixaluu barbaachisa.ummatni tokko gaafuma tokkotti bakka tokkotti kan dhalatuumiti. Dagaagina dhala nama kan yeroo fudhatu keessa dabree kophatti bahee ummata mataa isaa dandahe taha. Xumuramuudhaaf kan jedhuu dandayu, ummatni Oromoo ummata Gaafa Afrikaa keessaa isa tokko, damee kuush keessatti argama, yeroo dheeraa irraa kaasee kaaba-baha Afrikaa keessa jiraate, har’aas jiraataa jira.

Lola Amntiifi Miidhaa Oromoorra gahe jaarraa 10ffaa _15ffaa

Amantiin Kiristaanaafi Islaamaa Gaafaa Afrikaa walduraa duubaan seenaan. Amantiin Kiristaanaa jaarraa 4ffaa keessa warra Habashaa keessaa seenee amantii warra mootii tahe. Mootoonni Habashaa Kiritaanummaa fudhatanii saboota kaaniis fudhachiisuu jalqaban. Amaantiin Islaamaa gara Afrikaatti kan cehuu jalqabde Jaarraa 7ffaa keessa ture. Nagadaafi Islaamummaa babal’isuun walqabatanii gara Afrikaa qarqara galaana diimaarraa bakka heddutti faca’e. Jaarraa 10fi12 giduutti lafaa qarqara galaana diimaa bira dabree godina kana keessatti babal’achuu jalqabe. Hawwiin babal’achuu amantii kana lamaanii, waldura dhaabbatee lola lubbuufi qabeenya ummata godina kana balleessuuf deemsifame. Lolli kun keessattuu ummata Oromoorraan miidhaa gudda gahe.

Oromootniifi Affaarootni walitti aananii qubatan. Giddu saaniitti lafa irra tiikfatan bal’ifachuuf waldhiibuu irratti lolli sadarkaa adda addaatti ture. Lafa bishaaniifii margaa qaburraa waldhiibanii gumaa gidduu isaaniitti argamu manguddoota gosaan fixachuun niture. Haalli kun garuu eega amantiin Islaamaa Affaaroota seenee jalqabe bifa amantii babal’isuu dabalatee cimaadhufe. Affaarootni lafa Oromoorraa dhiibanii qabatan mootooma Islaamaa tolfachuu jalqaban.

Affaarootni amantii Islaamummaa fudhatanii mootooma dhaabbachuu haajalqaban malee, haalli isaan keessa turan gaariimiti. Islaamummaa hundaan hinfudhanne, kanaafuu isaan jidduu waldhabbiin niture. Tokkooma gosa tokkicha jalatti waan hin sassaabamneef haala faffaca’ee keessa turan. Mootoomni Islaamaa dhaabbataniin xixiqqoo faffaca’oo turan. Mootoomni Islaamaa hoggaas uumaman Ifaat, Adaal, Harar, Awwusaa,…turan. Mootoomni hoggaa Ifaat keessatti dhaabbate Walashama jedhamee beekama.

1.  Motomni Islaamaa kun hawwii lama-sdii qabu turan. Isaaniis:

2.  Amantii Islaamaa babal’suu

3.  Daandii nagadaa harkatti galfachuufi

4.  Daga gabbataa tahe qabachuudha.

Kanaaf Oromoota olla isaanii jiran dhiibuu jalqaban. Jaarraa 13ffaa keessa Oromoota naannoo Faxagariifi Dawwaaroo keessaa arihanii dhufatan, achiirraa dhaabbatanii Baalliifi Daraaratti duulanii Oromoota amantii Islaamaa Fudhachiisan. Bakka kanatti mootooma Islaamaa tolafatan. Babal’ifannoon Islaamaa kun Habashoota yaaddeesse. Hawwii isaan Kiristaanumma babal’isuuf qaban dura dhaabbate.

Islaamummaan babal’atee, Oromoota daga isaaniirraa dhiibee yeroo daga kiristaanaatti dhihaate kana, Habashoonni rakkina keessa turan. Yeroon kun yeroo mootummaan Aksum caphee harka Agawutti gale, lolli Agawootaafi Habashoota jiddutti tahe, yeroo humni isaanii itti laaffisuudha. Eega Agawuun qabatees lolli Habashoota jiddutti deemaa waan tureef, humni isaanii keessatti nilaaffate. Mootonni Agaw kan Zaaguwee jedhamee beekamu, hamma walkkeessa jaarraa 13ffaatti irra turee booda moo’ame. Habashoonni aangotti deebi’an. Habashoonni eegasii human isaanii jabeeyfatanii dhiibbaa Islaamoota ykn Affaarootaa dura dhaabbachuu jalqaban.

Bara 1250rraa kaasee lolli kiristaanafi Islaama jiddutti yeroo dheeraaf godhame jalqabe. Habashoonni Affaaroota ofjalatti gabbarsiisuu, dagaafii mantii isaanii babal’ifachuuf babal’ina amantii Islaamaa dhaabuuf; Affaarootniniis daga bal’ifachuufi, babal’ina amantii kiristaanaa dhaabuuf tattaafataa turan. Lamaanuu daga Oromoo kan hoggaa Affaarootni dhunfatanirratti waan walqunnamaniif lolli hedduun lafa Oromoorratti tahan. Wallolli Kiristaanaafi Islaama giddutti jalqabame itti fufe, bara Imaam Ahmed sadarkaa guddaarraa gahee hamma Oromoon Gadaan ofjaaree ka’etti deeme. Habashoonnifi Islaamoonni daga Oromoo Faxagar, Dawwaaroofi Baalli keessatti wallolanii qabeenya Oromoo saamuudhaan dabree ofcimsaa turan. Lola kana keessatti hedduu kan hubame Oromoodha. Ormoon qabeenya saamamee, lubbu namni heedduu irraa dhumanii, miidhaa guddaan irra gahe. Umanni Oromoo diina isaa lachuu ofirraa lolaa lafa isaa deebifachuuf tattaafachaa ture.

Lolli Habashootaafi affaaroot jidduu bara mootii Habashaan Yagiba Tsiyoon (1285-94) jalqabame. Yagibaan Tsiytoon Adaalitti duulee cabsee irra aane. Duula isaa kana booddee Islaamoota wajjiin araara uume, akka nagadoonni Islaamaa biyya seenaan yeroo eehamu, isaafiis karaan kennamee ABUNA alaa fidachuu dandaye. Yagbia Tsiytoon gaafa du’e ijoolleen isaa aangoorratti walqabuu jalqaban. Haala kana keessatti Habashaan deebi’ee laaffate. Affaarootni haala kan hubatanii ifatti weeraruuf human walitti qabachuu jalqaban. Yeroo kan Habashoonni Affaarootaaf daga dhiisanii araaraman. Araarri kun ammallee fedhii babal’ifannoo Islaamaa quubsuu didee ifaan ifatti weeraruuf qophii gochuu jalqaban. Dhiibbaan Islaamootaa Habashoota walitti itichee sabboonummaa keessatti dagaagse.

Yagiba Tsiyoon booddee waggaa saddeettamaaf Habashoonni eega waljeeqanii booda Amde Tsyoon (1314-44) aangoo qabate. Amde Tsyoon Habashaa daddaaqamuu kana keessaa baasee walitt itichee jabeesse. Kanaaf bu’ureessaa mootummaa Habashaa jedhamee beekama. Bara isaa keessa Habashoonni weerara gurguddaa Affaarootarratti oofanii milkaawan. Amde Tsyoon lola isaa ifatti rukutuun jalqabe. Sulxaan Ifaat bulchaa ture, haqaddiin nama jedhamu ture. Haqq-ad-diin Habashaa loluudhaaf osoo qopkhirra jiruu, ergamaa Habashaa kan Kaayroodhaa galu Islaamummaa fudhachiisuuf yaalee dinnaan ajjeese. Amde Tsyoon kana sababa godhatee bara 1328tti Ifaatitti duula bobbaase. Ifaatiin rukutee moo’e. Haqqaddiin booji’ame. Amde Tsyoon Faxagaariis rukutee eega ofjala galchee booda oobaleessa Haqqaddiin Sabnaddiin itti shuume. Eega Amde Tsyoon deebi’e booda Sabnaddiin Habasharratti fincila kaasuu yaade. Mootummaan Islaama Adiyyaafi Baaletti ergatee akka issaf tumsan gaafate. Agawuttiis dhaamsa ergee akka isaan keessaan itti ficilanii humna mootichaa tamasaasan gaafate. Akeekni isaa Habashatti, karaa lamaa sadiin duulanii of giddutti rukutuu ture. Amde Tsyoon garuu mala isaani kana dafee bira gahee, diinoota saa tokko tokkoon rukutuu jalqabe. Dura hadiyyaa cabse, achii Faxagar, itti aansee Dawwaaroofi Ifaat rukutee cabse. Affaarootiifi Islaamoonni akkasitti saphatti kan cabuu dandayaniif 1 ) mootummaa xixiqqotti waan adda qoodamanii turaniif 2) ummanni isaanii irra guddaa waan tiikfatteefi godaantuu waan tahaniif ture. Amde Tsyoon Faxagar, Dawwaaroo, Ifaatfi Hadiyyaa dhunfatee nama Jamaal addiin jedhamu irratti shuumee gara daga issaatti deebi’e.

Kun lola Habashootaaf Affaaroota jidduu hoggaa tahu Faxagariifi Dawwaaroo keessattiis Oromootaafii Habashoota gidduutti lolli niture. Bara 11329-32tti hoggaa Amde Tsiyoon Faxagariifi Dawwaarotti duulaa ture, lola guddaatu tahee ture. Lola kanan Oromoota hedduutu dhume, qabeenyaan saamamee daangaa hinqabu. Lola balleessi kan lubbuufi qabeenya hinbararre waan taheef, Oromoonni Faxagariifi Dawwaaroo gad dhiisanii jalaa godaanuun dirqii itti tahe. Deebisaanii qabachuuf haa lolan malee, bara Amde Tsiyoon kana keeessatti Oromootni osoo dhiibamnii qarqara laga awaashiin gayan. Ormoon waan qabu fudhatee sababa jalaa godaaneef, keessa qubatanii bulcuu hindandeenye. Duula isaa qideeyfachuuf akka tahuufitti Amde Tsiyoon kaampii waraanaa Manzitti tolfate. Bara isaa kanaa jalqabee Habashoonni qubsuma waraanaa lafa Oromoo keessatti ijaarrachuu jalqaban.

Affaarootni eega bara Amde Tsiyoon cabanii moohamanii hamma 1441tti bayyanachuu hindandeenye. Ifaatiifi naannoo sanarraa fagaatanii ofjaaruu jalqaban. Dakar, Harariifi Awusaatti deebi’anii humna isaanii jabeeyfatanii duulaa turan. Garuu habashaa injifachuu hindandeenye. Bara 1441tti Affaarootni Adaal jedhaman Habashatti lola bananii mohaman. Affaarootni naannoo Awusaafi warri amantii hinfudhatiniis bulchiinsa Habashaa didanii walaqabatanii ficila kaasan. Baayidaa Maariyam (1478-94) waraana karaa lama 1473/74tti itti erge.waraanni lachuu nimoohame. Injifatamuun waraana Habashaa kun jabinafi ol’aantummaa isaa dhabamsiise, eegasii humni gad deemuu jalqabe.

Lolli Oromootaafi Habashoota jidduu hoo? Oromoon bara Amde Tsiyoon Faxagariifi Dawwaaroo keessaa dhiibamanii qarqara laga hawaash ga’anii lolli hindhaabbanne. Mootoomni Habashaa kan Amde Tsiyoon booda dhufaniis Oromoo dhiibuurraa turan. Bara Zara Yaaqoob (1434-68) mootii Habashaa ture waraanni Habashaa Baallii keessatti dhiibachaa ture. Yeroo tokko waraanni Zara Yaaqoobfi Oromootni naannoo Haroo Laangannootti wallolanii turan. Oromoota Baallii keessaa baasuuf haa dhiibaman malee, daga sana dhufachuu hindandeenye. Kuniis Oromoonni looniifi ilmaan isaanii jalaa godaansisanii gaafa dadhabban waan miliqaniif ture. Waraanni Habashaa daga isaarraa fagaatee dhufe kun, waan nyaatu dhabee yeroo beela’u deebi’ee galuuf dirqame. Waraana laafee jiru kana Oromoon karatti eegee daguun rukutee hedduu irraa fixe. Kanaaf lafa Oromoo keessa qubachuu hindandeenye.

Bara 1445tti Oromootni Dawwaroo deebifachuuf lola itti banan. Zara Yaaqoob itti duulee injifate. Waraanni Habashaa duula godhee eega raaw’ate booda gara daga isaatti yeroo debi’u Oromonni ammoo lola jalqabu. Haala duula ba’uufi galu kana xiqqeessuuf, Habashoonni boroo Baallii keessa qubsuma waraana gara biraa tolfatan. Achirraa Dawwaarootti duuluu jalqaban. Lolli kun haaluma kanaan takka ka’ee takka dhaamaa, hamma bara 1468tti itti fufe, dhumarratti Zara Yaaqoob Dawwaaroo keessatti lolarratti moohamee harka Oromootti du’e.

Zara Yaaqoob booddee Baa’ida Maariyam (1468-78) aangoo qabatee duula Oromoorratti godhuu ittifufe. Duula inni Baallii qabachuuf godhe keessatti Oromootni humna isaarraa hedduu fixan. Yeroof Oromo cabsuu dadhaban. Habashoonni qubsuma waraana isaanii kan bara Amde Tsiyoonfi Zara Yaaqoob lafa Oromoo keessatti tolfatanirraa ka’anii salphatti Oromoo weeraruu jalqaban. Lolli gurguddaan Dawwaaroo, Baallifi Faxagar keessatti deemuu jalqabe. Oromoon yeroo kanatti ofijaaree waan hinjirreef midhaa guddaan irragahe. Oromoon dhiibamee Awaashirraa gara kibbaatti ittifame. Naannoo kanatti ittifamuun saas akka inni ofjaaruuf isa dhiibe.

Lola Guddaa Jaarraa 16ffaarraa jalqabe

Ummanni Oromoo jaarraa 13ffaarraa kaasee diinoota lama: Habashootaafii Islaamoota ofrirraa lolaa ture. dinoota kana lameeniis miidhaa guddaatu irra gahaa ture. ofirraa ittisuuf haa faccisu malee, hamma sirna Gadaan ofjaaree jabaateetti akka humnaatti gad ofdhaabuu hindandeenye. Kanaafuu jaarraa 14ffaafi 16ffaa gidduutti Islaamoonnifi Kiristaanoonni Oromoo saamuudhaan dagaagaa turan. Garuu Oromoon walakkeessa jaarraa 15ffaarraa kaasee sirna Gadaa ijaarratee cimaafi jabaataa waan dhufeef roorroo gara lachuun itti dhufu ofirraa ittisuuf lafa isaa deebifachuu jalqabe. Haa tahuu malee, faaraan Oromoo kan cime jaarraa 16ffaa keessa ture. jaarraa 15ffaa keessatti waraana Habashaa wajjiin bara Zara Yaaqoobfi Ba’ida Maariyaam naannoo Hora Laangannoofi Baalli keessatti wal lolanii turan. Lolli jaarraa 16ffaa keessatti deeme ammoo, hundi isaa Gadaan geggeeffamaa ture. lubi tokko akka sadarkaa aangoo qabachuu gahen lolli bifa haarayaan deemaa ture. kanaaf duula Oromoo hubachuuf Luboota ka’anii Gadaa fudhatan waliin laalla.

Weerara Islaamaafi Haala Oromoo

Bara Baa’ida Maariyam waraanni habashaa maoohamee humni isaanii laafachaa deeme. Islaamoonni sana booddee human isaanii jabeeyfataa deeman. Bara Naa’ood (1494-1508) moohe keessatti haala isaan gidduu qabbaneessuuf gamni lachuu fedhii qabuture. Affaaroonni Adaal haala kana osoo argisiisaa jiranii Amiirri Harar- Mahfuuz kan jedhamu Habashaarratti lola bane. Naa’ood yeroof haa injifatuu malee, humni Islaamootaa walqunnamtii Islaamoota addunyaa wajjiin waan qabaniif daran jabaataa deeme. Habashoonni kan hubatanii isaaniis Kiristaana Arooppaatti, keessaahuu Poortugaalatti hidhachuu carraaqan. Bara 1509tti namicha Maatiwu jedhamu Armaantich gara Poortugaalitti ergatan. Haalli kun eega Naa’ood du’ee ilmi isaa Libana Dingil jedhamu ijoollee waan taheef Haati isaa bulchaa turteedha.

Libana Dingil (1508-40) guddatee eega aangoo qabatee haala nagayaan Islaama wajjiin jiraachuu jedhu kan Heleenaa (haadha isaa) geeddaree lola jalqabe. Adaaloonnis ofijaaranii gargaarsa alarraa argatanii waan turaniif Habashaarratti lola labsan. Bara 1516tti Adaaloonni Faxagar qabachuuf weerara jalqaban. Mahaafuuz lola kana keessatti du’e, lolli labsame hamma Imaam Ahmad Ibni Ibrahim al Gahaaztti bakka hin geenye.

Imaam Ahmad (1506-43) ykn Giraanyi Ahmad kan jedhamu ijoollumma isaa lafa Hubta jedhamu kan Baddeessaafii Harar gidduutti dabarse. Imaam Ahmad loltuu jabaa tahee guddate. Human waraanaa walitti qabatee Amiira Harar ajjeesee aangoo qabate. Eega sanaa human isaa guddifatee lolaaf ofqopheessutti ka’e, bara 1527tti human Habashaa kan Adaliin weeraru deemu lolee injifannoo guddaa irratti argate. Lola kana booddee Imaam Ahmad waraana isaa qabatee lola jalqabe. Bara 1529tti bakka shuburaa kuraa jedhamutti waraana Habashaa lolee moohe. Waraanni isaa garuu tiikfattootafi godaantootarraa waan ijaarameef, akkasumas gosa isaatiif waan abboomamaniif lola kan booddee ni faca’e. Kanaaf waggaa lama keessatti waraana haaraya ijaarrachuun dirqii itti tahe. Waraana isaa duwwaaaf ajajamu waggaa lama keessatti ijaarrattee lola itti fufe. Bara 1531tti Dawwaaroofi Shawaa qabate. 1533tti ammoo, Amaaraafi Laastaa dhufate. Baallii, Sidaama, Hadiyyaafi Guraagee yeroo tokkotti ofjala galche. Bara 1535tti Tigree weeraree qabatee habashaarraa harka guddaa qabate. Bakka dhaqetti Islaamummaa fudhachiisaa, bataskaana dhabamsisaa deeme. Liban Dingil gargaarsa Poortugaal gaafate osoo hindhaqqabin lolarratti du’e, Ilmi isaa Galaawudoos (1540-59) itti dabree moohe. Poortugaal waraana nama dhibba afur, qawwee wajjiin ergee ture, Liban Dingil bira gahe. Waraanni Kiristaanootaafi Ahmed Giraanyiis ni faca’e. Haa ta’uu malee, humni habashaafi Islaamootas hedduu hubamaee laffate. Haalli kun Oromoon biyya deebifachuurratti hedduu gargaare.

Duula Oromoo jarraa 16ffaa

Jaarraa 13ffrraa kaasee hamma dhuma jaarraa 15ffaatti Oromoon rakknaafi roorroo guddaa jala ture. Yeroo kana ture yeroo inni daga isaarraa dhiibamee laga Awaash gamatti ittifame. Yeroo kan ture yeroon lolli amantii kan Islaamootaafi Habashootaa gidduutti deeme hedduu isa miidhe. Sababnii saa maalirraa madde? Sabani guddaan jaarmaya isa tokkeessu dhabuusaati. Akkuma Oromoonni adda fagaatanii qubataniin gosa gosaan buluun waan isaan tokkeessu dhabame. Oromootni gosuma gosaan miidhaan isaan mudate malee, sirni walitti isaan itichee waliif tumsiisu hinturre. Kanaf roorroon guddaan irra gayuu dandahe.

Jaarraa 15ffaa keessa hawaasa Oromoo keessatti dagaagni argamuu jalqabe. Sirni tokko isaan taasisee roorroo alagaa ittiin ofirraa ittisan dagaagee hawaasa guutummaa dhaqqabuu jalqabe. Sirni haarayni biqilaa ture kun, yeroo dheera keessa kan dhufe tahullee Oromoota irree jabeessee akka lafa isaanii deebifataniifi roorroo alagaa akka ofirraa deebisan gargaare. Oromoos ummata sodaatamafii kabajamaa taasise. Sirni kuniis Gadaa dha. Jaarraa 16ffaa kaasee ummata Oromoo seenaa keessatti kan beeksiseefi harka isaatti kan hambise sirna kana. Ummanni Oromoo gara jaarraa sadii rakkinaafii roorroo isarra gahee ture ofirraa deebisuuf Gadaan ofijaare. Abbaa Bokkuu tokko jalatti walgurmeesse. Haala siyaasafi waraanaa jabaa tolchee ijaarrate. Jaarmaya isaa kanaan ummatoota naannoo isaa jiran caalatti jabaatee humna sodaatamaa tahe. Daga isaarraa qabatame deebifachuuf duula gurguddaa jaarraa 16ffaa jalqabarraa kaasee eegale, humni jajjaboon kan Habashootaafi Islaamootaa lolaan waldadhabsiisanii waan turaniif haala aanjaa argate.

Duula biyya isaa deebifachuuf Oromoon jaarra 16ffaa keessatti jalqabe kan seenaa barreeysitoonni haala adda addaatiin dhiheessuu barbaadu. Sababoota duulli kun itti dhalachuu dandayan akka adda addaatti himu.

Brus namich jedhamu yeroo burqaa laga Naayil (abbayya)qorachuuf kbiyya Habashaa dhaqe, waa’ee Oromoo qoratee akkas jedhe. “duratti osoo gara daangaa Habashaa hindhufin dura isaan ((Gaalla) walakkeesa Ardii Afriikaa jiraatu turan. Lafti jalaa olka’uu jalqabnaan gost isaanii tokko tokko godaanuu jalqaban. Dura gara bahaa galaana Hindiiti sossohan. Achiti walhoranii gara kaabaatti qaceelanii Dawwaaroofi Baallii qubataan. Gost torba walaqabatnii garaa dhihaatti sossohanii kibba laga Abbaayfi naannoo Gojjaam keessa qubatan. Gartuu sadaffaan ammoo, gosa torba tahee walkeessatii hafanii achirraa gara kibbaatti babal’atan” jedhee ture.
Akka Brus jedhu kanatti sossohiinsa Oromoo kan kaase lafti jalaa olka’uudha. Lafti kun yoom olka’e? Akkamitti? Olka’e kan jedhuuf garuu wanti ibsu hinjiru.

Charles T. Beke bara 1842/3 yeroo Habashaa keessa ture waa’ee babal’ifannoo Oromoo waan qorate niqaba. Oduu afaaniin daddabru Habashootarraa qoratee kan inni lafa kaa’e: “Bara dur Gaallaan doko (savage) ture. beekumsa waan tokko hinqabu, qonna hinqotu, loon hintiiksu, uffata hinbeeku, ija mukaa funaanee, hidda harkaan qotee nyaata ture, dubartiin Amaaraa ykn Kristaanaa tokko bidiruu(qorii) tokkotti nyaata, uffata, eeboo, gaachanaafi mia garagaraa guuttattee baahar gamatti argite. Gaallaa dokoon mia kana yeroo argan baay’ee diqisiifatan, nyaaticha dhandhamanii itti tole, uffata ofitti kaa’an, mia gara biraas ilaalanii itti gammadan. Bakka burqaa qabeenya kanaa qabaachuu qabna ja’anii bahara sana cehanii, gara Kiristaanaa dhufan. Kana booddee waldhabbiin dhalatee lolli tahee biyya Habashaa qabatan” jedhama jedhe.
Bekeen waan akka oduu afaanitti dhiheessu kana keessatti sababa babal’ifannoo Oromoo ibsuuf yaale. Oromoo cabsuuf, tuffachuufii seenaa isaa gara dabarsuuf kan odeeffamuudha malee, dhugaa tokkollee ofkeessaa hinqabu.

Charles T. Bekeen ammallee itti fufee oduu afaanii kan Oromoota Walloo biratti odeeffamu jedhee barreeyse jira. Akka oduu isaa kanatti durii:-
“Oromoon Hawaash gamaa dhufe. Osoo bahara kana hincehin duratti qarqara isaa loon tiikfatuu turan. Gaaftookko binessi jabbii tokko arihee bahara kana ceesise. Jabbiin kun laga sana ceetee achitti walhorte. Galgala hogga gaallaan loon bishaan obaafachuu dhaqu gaaddidduu loon baay’ee arge. Akka hinliqinfamneef harka walqabatanii laga cehanii loona sana dhaalan. Booda biyyi itti tollaan achuma turan. Walhoranii baay’anaan hamma daangaa habashaatti babal’atan” jedha. Oduu afaanii fakkeessanii duula Oromoo akkanatti ibsuu barbaadu.

namich J. Hultin jedhamu ammoo, babal’ifannoon Oromoo haala adda addaarraa tahuun nimala jedha. Akka inni jedhutti haalli qilleensaa waan geeddarameef bishaaniifi marga barbaacha sossohan. Kun sababa tuhuu nidandaya jedha. Garuu eega haalli qilleensaa deebi’ee tolee margaafi bishaaniis argame, maallif babal’i’annoon kun itti fufe jedhee ofgaafata. Kanaaf jedha: J. Hultin, akkaata sababa babal’ifannoo Oromoo ibsuudhaaf haala hawaasa dinagdeefi siyaasaa hawaasa Oromoo qorachuu feesisa jedhee cufe.
Namichi Poortugaal kan Amaanu’eel de Almaad jedhamu sababa babal’ifannoo Oromoo akkaataa lamatti hima. Tokkoffaa Habashoonni amantii katolikii fudhachuu waan didaniif waaqni isaa adabuudhaaf dha’ichaa Gaallaa kana itti erge. Osoo amantii kana fudhatanii kun hundi irra hingayu jedhee barreeyse. Lammaffaa bineessa Liqimsaa jedhamtu naannoo Gaara walaabuu bira isaan facaase. Abbaan muuda isaanii naannooo Walaabu kana jiraata. Naannoon Walabuu lafa baay’ee dinqiiti. Loon adaadii aanna baay’ee keennitu waan tureef namni qotuuf hinrakkatu. Aannan dhugee jiraata. Booda bineessi Lliqimsaa jedhamuu kan bifa saa gegeeddaratu namaafi loon nyaachutti ka’e. Kan baqatanii hamma Habashaatti babal’atan. Kun eegaa waan Almaadaan babal’ina Oromoo itti ibsuu yaaleedha.
I.M.Lewis ammoo, Oromoon babal’achuu kan jalqabe waan Somaaleedhaan dhiibameef jedha. Yaada isaa kana kan deeggaran barreessitoonni maddi saba Oromoo Somaaliyaa keessa warra jedhaniidha.
Asmaaroom Laggasee ammoo, sababni babal’ifannoo Oromoo tahu baay’achuu lakkooysa namaati jedha. Lakkooysi ummata Oromoo jaarraa 16ffaa keessa waan dabaleef lafti itti dhiphannaan irraa godaanuu jalqaban jedha.
J.Hultin ammoo, akka sababaatti hin dhiheessin malee babal’ifannoo Oromoo kan gargaare Gadaan ijaaramuu isaati jedha. Lubi aangoo irra jiru osoo gad hindhiisin, lafa haaraya dabalee qabachuu qaba. Kanaaf akkuma Lubni haarayni dhufee aangoo fudhateen lafti itti dabalameen Oromoon babal’atee lafa guddaa qabachuu dandaye jedha.

Kitaaba(seenaa saba Oromoo fi Sirna gadaa)Birraa/Fulbaana 1995)

(Toleeraa Tasammaa Hundasaa Waaqwayyaa) irraa.

 

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OSA2014: Remarks by Former Abbaa Gadaa Aagaa Xanxano, and Gadaa Scholar Prof. Asmarom Legesse

The  Oromo Studies Association’s 2014  Annual Conference theme:  “Gadaa and Oromo Democracy: Celebrating 40 Years of Research and Oromo Renaissance.”

 

 

 

 

http://www.gadaa.com/culture.html

http://gadaa.com/oduu/21141/2013/08/09/gadaa-as-the-fountain-of-oromummaa-and-the-theoretical-base-of-oromo-liberation/

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-40H2_20sWE

http://trace.tennessee.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1005&context=utk_socopubs

http://gabuo.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=887&Itemid=91

http://web.me.com/opsa/Site/Oromia_National_Acadamy_O.N.A_files/kaawo_new1.pdf

http://gadaa.com/OromoStudies/wp-content/uploads/2014/01/History-of-Oromo-Social-Organization-Gadaa-Grades-Based-Roles.pdf

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Oromia: The 2015 Commemoration of Odaa-Bultum (One of the Major Oromo Gadaa System’s Administrative Centers) March 20, 2015

Posted by OromianEconomist in Africa, Ateetee (Siiqqee Institution), Black History, Chiekh Anta Diop, Gadaa System, Kemetic Ancient African Culture, Odaa Bultum, Oromia, Oromo Nation, Oromummaa, Sirna Gadaa, The Oromo Democratic system, The Oromo Governance System.
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???????????Odaa Bultum

The 2015 Commemoration of  Odaa-Bultum (One of the Major Oromo Gadaa System’s Administrative Centers)

Finfinne Tribune | Gadaa.com

Oromos from all corners of Oromiyaa have converged at the once-banned Odaa-Bultum, one of the major Oromo Gadaa System’s administrative centers and located in Eastern Oromiyaa, to celebrate Odaa-Bultum and witness the peaceful power-transfer to the newAbbaa-Gadaa; the celebration will last for eight days, starting on January 28, 2015. According to sources, the new Abbaa-Gadaa of Odaa-Bultum will be inaugurated at this week-long celebration.

Odaa-Bultum, together with the other Odaa’s across Oromiyaa, was banned by the invading Habesha army at the end of the 19-century. Though the banning was meant to destroy and erase people’s memory of the Oromo Gadaa heritage, the strong collective societal memory of the Gadaa System continues to propel the ongoing Renaissance of the Gadaa System across Oromiyaa.

Video#1 (click on the clip to play):
https://www.facebook.com/video/embed?video_id=10101480773474883

Video#3 (click on the clip to play):
https://www.facebook.com/video/embed?video_id=10101480878105203

Odaa Bultum Revives - The Oromo Gadaa Renaissance in Action

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Source: Amajjii/January 29, 2015 · Finfinne Tribune | Gadaa.com

Jila Odaa Bisil

 ‘Waggoota saddettan dabraniif Gadaa Odaa Bultum kan bulchan Abbaa Gadaa Mahammad Hammad Bookee guyyaa har’aa hogganaa haraya ta’uun kan filaman Abbaa Gadaa Shaamil Hammadootti baallii dabarsan. Gadaan haarayni, Gadaa quufaa-nagaayaa, tan bilisummaan biyyaafi ummata Oromoo keessatti goonfannu akka taatu hawwina.’ Jawar Mohammed,  Guraandhala 4 bara 2015.

Abbaa Gadaa Mahammad Hammad BookeeAbbaa Gadaa Shaamil Hammadoo

More at :

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Decolonizing Development:The Political and Cultural Locations of Nationalism and National Self-determination (The Case of Oromia) January 4, 2015

Posted by OromianEconomist in Africa, Colonizing Structure, Development, Dictatorship, Economics, Gadaa System, Humanity and Social Civilization, Ideas, Knowledge and the Colonizing Structure., Language and Development, Oromia, Oromia Quarterly, Oromo, Oromo Identity, Oromo Nation, Oromo Social System, Oromo the Largest Nation of Africa. Human Rights violations and Genocide against the Oromo people in Ethiopia, Self determination, Sirna Gadaa, The Oromo Democratic system, The Oromo Governance System, Theory of Development, Tyranny, Uncategorized, Wisdom.
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 Decolonising Development:The Political and Cultural Locations of   Nationalism and National Self-determination (the Case of Oromia)

Several scholars have argued that national self-determination is a claim for cultural independence and that nationalism in general is based on the right to cultural autonomy, right to a culture. In the Oromo context, national self-determination is about the representation of collective identity and dignity. It is the demand of the Oromo people to govern themselves. Practically, this can be interpreted as let us be governed by people who are like us, people of our nationality or people who accept and respect our value system. For the last hundred years and so, the Oromo nation has suffered from Abyssinian expansionism, social, ecological and economic destruction and continuous and intensive cultural and physical genocide. The Abyssinians and Oromians connections have been the coloniser (refers to the former) and the colonised (refers to the latter) relationships. Contrary to the Ethiopianist discourse, they have not developed a common unifying identity, social and political system. While the Abyssinians feel a sense of glory of their kings, warlords and dictators, the Oromians feel victimisation to these rulers, so they have not emerged a common ancestry, culture and collective memory, which can result in common ‘Ethiopian’ identity. From the perspective of Oromo social construction, the present Ethiopian domination over Oromia is a continuation of what pervious generations of Oromo nation had experienced. Thus, the Oromo people, sees the present political arrangement as illegitimate because it is a rule by the people who have engaged in destroying them. So, they claim not only cultural but also political independence. Oromo nationalism is also very democratic. It follows the UN principles of self-determination for the citizens of Oromia, claiming independence from the tyranny of Ethiopian Empire. The latter has been constructed based on Amhara-Tigre nationalism. The Oromo nationalism also offers democratic solutions to the ethnic minorities in the Ethiopian Empire. Scholars of Oromo studies claim that there is fundamental behavioural, linguistic, ethnic and cultural differences between the Abyssinians (northern) and their subjects (Southern). The Oromo, Sidama, Afar and the Ogaden (Ogaden Somalians) nations, beyond their common Cushitic progeny, they have common experiences of victimisation and illegitimately absorbed by Abyssinian southward expansion. Their collective memory of past experiences and present victimisation are making common identity. This identity is a key to understand politics there and to work together for self-determination, to recover their lost humanity.

For the early version of this article, see Temesgen M. Erena, The Political and Cultural Locations National Self – Determination,  Oromia Quarterly, Vol. II, No.2, March 1999; Temesgen, M. Erena, Oromia: The Nation and the Politics of National Self – Determination, Oromia Quarterly, Vol. I, No.2, December 1997, ISSN 1460-1346.

Man knows himself only insofar as he knows the world, and becomes aware of the world only in himself, and of himself only in it. Every new object, well observed, opens a new organ in ourselves.

-Goethe, Maximen und Reflexionen, VI Build therefore your own world. -Ralph Waldo Emerson, Nature

Introduction

The passions of national freedom and national interest are probably the strongest in the whole political spectrum that characterises the present world. Kellas (1998) holds that it is stronger than the passions aroused by religion, class, individual or group interest. This passion is not all futile, either. In Gellener’s (1983) understanding, nationalism has been considered as essential to the establishment of a modern industrial society. According to Smith (1991), it is ‘the sole vision and rationale of political solidarity.’ For Kellas (1998), it provides legitimacy to the state, and inspires its citizens to feel an emotional attachment towards it. It can be a source of creativity in the arts, and enterprise in the economy. Its power to mobilise political engagement is unrivalled, particularly in the vital activity of nation building. It is intimately linked with the operation of popular democracy. Indeed, the global pattern is a mosaic of political drives, economic interests, linguistic pride, cultural imperatives, psychological needs and nations seeking identity. These factors are manifesting as a powerful staying power in a modern Africa, either. As European colonialism and socialism melted away, the perpetual existence of the backlash against ‘neo-colonial’ colony colonialism and the reviving of national selfdom become more and more significant in social and political dynamics of contemporary multi-ethno-nation African societies. The African experience is motivated by the same aspirations as that of elsewhere. At its root is a need for freedom, dignity, for the right of people of distinct social communities to function freely and independently. In this regard, Oromia represents the case of rejuvenating claim for national freedom and the struggle against more than a century old Abyssinian Empire colonialism in Africa. Oromia is a homeland for an Oromo nation, a group of people with a common culture and value system (seera fi aadaa), language ( Afaan Oromo), political institutions (Gadaa), and historical memories and experiences. Oromia is the single largest, homogeneous and endogenous nation in Africa with a population of 40 to 45 million. Both in terms of territorial and population size, more than two-third’s today’s sovereign states that are making members of UN (United Nations) are smaller than Oromia. The Cushite (see Demie, 1998) Oromo people have inhibited their homeland, Oromia, since pre-history and in antiquity were the agents of humanity’s documented Cushitic civilisation in terms of science, technology, art, political and moral philosophy. The links between the Oromo and the ancient civilisations of Babylon, Cush and Egypt has been discussed in Asfaw Beyene (1992) and John Sorenson (1998) scholarly works. Utilising prodigious evidence from history, philosophy, archaeology and linguistics, Diop (1974 and 1991) confirms that the Cushite Egyptian civilisation was emerged from the Cushite civilisations of North East Africa, particularly, the present day Western Sudan and upper Nile Oromia (also known as Cush or Punt). Indeed, except the name of places, saints and prophets, many of the Old Testament and the Holy Koran moral texts are copies of the Oromo moral codes. The formers are written documents while the latter are orally transmitted. Since the late 1880s the Oromo people have disowned their sovereignty. They disowned their autonomous institutions of governance, culture, education, creativity, business, commerce, etc. Thus, they have been claiming for national self-determination, national-self government and the right to their own state and resist the Abyssinian Empire saver (supremacist’s) nationalism. The Oromians are not only against the quality of Ethiopian Empire governance but also against the philosophy on which it is based: domination, dehumanisation, inequality, double standard, hypocrisy, deceit, exclusion, chauvinism, war institution, rent-seeking, extractive state, conservatism, feudalism, Aste fundamentalism (Aste Tewodros, Aste Yohannis, Aste Menelik, Aste Haile Sellasie), etc. The political goal of national self-determination (national self-government) is asserted in the outlook and attitudes of the Oromo political and social organisations. Of course, the Oromo nationalism, which supports the interests and identity of the Oromo people, is a more subtle, complex and widespread phenomenon than common understanding and observation. It is within this context that we are going to discuss the Oromos’ politics of national self-determination and the search for the national homeland, the demand for reinventing a state of their own in the following sections.

Defining Nation, Nationalism and Self- determination

To define nation and nationalism is as Benjamin Akzin (1964, pp. 7-10) discussed five decades ago, to enter into a terminological jungle in which one easily gets lost. Different scholarly disciplines have their own more or less established and more or less peculiar ways of dealing with nation and nationalism. Ideally, our definition of nation and nationalism should be induced of elements of nationalist ideology. Getting at such a definition has confirmed phenomenally strenuous. Hugh Seton-Watson, an authority in this domain, has deduced that ‘no scientific definition’ of a nation can be concocted. All that we can find to say is that a nation exists when significant number of people in a community consider themselves to form a nation, or behave as if they formed one (Seton-Watson, 1982, p.5).Van den Berghe (1981) defines a nation as a politically conscious ethnic group. Several attempts have been made at making a cardinalist definition of the term, pointing out one or more key cultural variables as defining variables. Among those tried are language, religion, common history/descent, ethnicity/race, statehood and common territory (homeland). For a group of people to be termed a nation, its members typically have to share several of these characteristics, although historically, one criterion may have been predominant (for example, language in Germany, or culture and history in France). In the case of Oromo, common language (Afaan Oromo), common territory (Biyya Oromo, dangaa Oromiyaa or Oromia), common historical experiences (victimisation to Ethiopian Empire rules or Abyssinocracy) are particularly very significant. Stalin made his undertaking in 1913. His definition includes four criteria: the members of a nation live under the same economic conditions, on the same territory, speak the same language, and have similar culture and national character (Seton-Watson, 1982, p.14). Neither Ernest Gellner nor Eric Hobsbawn, two influencials, gave definite definitions of the nation in their major achievements. Indeed, they are very hostile towards what they define as nationalism. ‘…For ever single nationalism which has so far raised its ugly head…’ (Gellner, 1983, p.45), this is a Gellner’s conception and sees the world as naturally divided into nations, each with its own individuality. This implies an acceptance of the nationalist self-perception. There are also other conceptualisations. A social anthropologist, Thomas Hylland Eriksen (1992, p. 220) says ‘a nation is an ethnic group whose leaders have either achieved, or aspire to achieve, a state where its cultural group is hegemonic’, Anthony H. Birch (1989, p.6) considers that a nation is best defined as ‘a society which either governs itself today, or has done so in the past, or has a credible claim to do so in the not-too- distant future. Kellas (1998) defines the nation as a group of people who feel themselves to be a community bound together by ties of history, culture and common ancestry. Nations have ‘objective’ characteristics, which may include a territory, a language, a religion, or common descent, and ‘subjective’ characteristics, essentially a people’s awareness of its nationality and affection for it. In the last resort it is ‘the supreme loyalty’ for people who are prepared to die for their nation. The definition of ‘nation’ which we will make use of in the following is one suggested by Anthony D. Smith (1983,pp. 27-109, 1991, p. 14; 1995); a definition mastering well the ‘sounding board’ dimension. Smith here defines a nation as ‘a named human population sharing a historic territory, common myths and historical memories, a mass, public culture, a common economy and common legal rights and duties for all members. A recent definition of Smith holds nationalism, one manifestation of national-self-determination, as ‘an ideological movement for attaining and maintaining autonomy, unity and identity on behalf of a population deemed by some of its members to constitute an actual or potential ‘nation’ (Smith, 1991, p. 73; 1995). For Smith nationalism has a deep ethnic roots and rejuvenates itself in response to global and domestic impulses. While the phenomenon of globalisation and technocratic culture are there, nationalism is an eternal nature and nourishes and propels itself on technocratic innovations. In this context, national self-determination may be defined as many part aspirations of a nation: To be free to freely determine one’s own national identity, culture, including language, education, religion, and form of government, to be free of rule by another ‘nation’, that is to overcome social and political systems of domination and exclusion in which nations other than one’s own wield predominant power. To be free to select its own form of government; and those governed within it have the right of unflagging consent.

Culture and the Politics of Self-determination

Nation, nationalism and national self-determination are commanding attentions. One of the perennial issues within nationalism is whether national self-determination can stand alone, or whether it requires a ‘qualifier’ from within cultural or political ideas or both to clarify its precise cultural and political location. Several scholars have argued that national self-determination is a claim for cultural independence and that nationalism in general is based on the right to cultural independence and that nationalism is based on the right to a culture. Nielson, for example, peers a nation as groups of people whom ‘perceive themselves as having a distinct culture and traditions’, and Tamir presents that a nation is a community in which individuals develop their culture, and they therefore regard their place within a nation as membership in a cultural group. Indeed, she argues that ‘the right to national-self determination stakes a cultural rather than a political claim, namely, it is the right to preserve the existence of a nation as a distinct cultural entity.’ Will the people who demand national self-determination be satisfied with such an arrangement? Tamir gives credence to that the idea of basing the right to self-determination on the right to a culture is the one that has best conformity with a liberal internationalist viewpoint. That is thinkable, but international liberalism is incompetent on this particular matter. A nationalism, which is based on culture and cultural distinctions, was not very long a go. It is a concept that characteristic the thesis of right wing, or romantic theorists such as Herder. Indeed, Herder’s nationalism was not political, and it distrusted a state as something external, mechanical, not emerging spontaneously from the life of the people. Nevertheless, in the Oromo context the claim for national self-determination is a political rather than a cultural one. If we look at the distinction between the two, it would seem that the claim for national self-determination involves more than a demand to be tolerated while the cultural question is. For example, the Catalan’s and Quebecois’ culture and identity have been tolerated and respected to some extent, and yet many of them thought that this did not reflect a situation of self-determination. Indeed, meeting their claim would involve legislation and redefinition of institutions within the state, and perhaps even a new state. In the Oromo case the demand is actually the claim to have control over their lives. This does not mean over every individual’s private life, but over the public aspect of one’s existence, i.e. the system of mutual relationships, which reflect and sustain one’s membership of a certain collective. Here the self is conceptualised within the context of community, but one that has to be real, actual, and functioning and performing. Otherwise these communal ties are too abstract, which makes it impossible for the self to be defined by them. The statement of Cohen has to be recalled: ‘A person does not only need to develop and enjoy his powers. He needs to know who he is, and how his identity connects him with particular others. He must… find something outside himself which he did not create… He must be able to identify himself with some part of objective social reality’ (Cohen, 1988). Moreover, self-realisation, however, cannot be merely a mental situation; thus this community cannot be only cultural. It must be a political situation at least so that, in order for the Oromo people to realise themselves, they must not be dependent on the goodwill of a second party. They then must be certain that their self-realisation in all spheres of life will not be prevented by the Abyssinian government, the TPLF, the Orthodox Church, and so forth. They should therefore be politically active and watch such institutions carefully. In addition, they must participate in politics in order to decide collectively upon public matters, which influence their self-realisation. So the Oromos claim for national-self determination is about the realisation of their potential status, ability and collective character, which may be achieved only through participation in autonomous political institutions. But for more than a century Oromos have been denied access to these institutions, either officially or in practice. In other words, if  Oromos as a nation achieve self-determination they will better able to participate, better represented, better able to deliberate, gain much more control over their life than formerly and more autonomous. The Oromos demand for national self-determination thus, aims at establishing those institutions, which are needed for the realisation of the self-determination. When an Oromo demands national self-determination, he/she is not asserting that he/she would like to control his/her private life, e.g. his/her job, his/her shopping activities, his/her love affairs. Many Oromos do not control these aspects of their lives and yet nevertheless demand national self-determination. But the same principle also applies to cultural life. The Oromos may be allowed more-or-less to use their language, have their own newspapers and theatre, and the freedom of worship, etc. which are making cultural freedom. Actually, these rights are hardly exist at present. But when they claim national self-determination they are not only referring to these aspects of life, as political community: they want to be able to form and choose among and vote for the Oromo political parties, to observe the Oromo constitutional laws, to pay taxes to an Oromo authority, and to have a history (and indeed, myth) of independent Oromo state, from which their identity and self-determination can derive. Thus, the Oromo’s Declaration for Independence will emphasise parliamentary participation and the need to form a constitution, rather than cultural activities. In general the Oromos demand for national self-determination entails that the individuals in this nation should be citizens, engaged in politics as members of a community committed to the realisation of certain (their own) common goods, rather than participating as individuals who seek their self-interests, as it is implied by the right- to- culture school of thought and Liberal Internationalists. Perhaps for this reason Margalit and Halbertal revise the right-to- culture argument, arguing that the right is to a certain culture rather than to culture. A certain culture, then, becomes a common good. And yet, this is not enough, because they still regard the common good in cultural rather than political terms: ‘shared values and symbols… are meant to serve as the focus for citizens’ identification with the state, as well as the sources of their willingness to defend it even at the risk of their lives (Margalit and Halbertal, 1994). Why, then, do theories adhere to the culture discourse? Of course, for most of the Western theorists, the term national self-determination is affiliated to the strive to become part of humanity, to regain the human condition of autonomy; it is adjoined to the struggle to be part of the free world, of the more progressive forces; it is seen as decolonisation, as civilisation, as an attempt made to become part of the world of liberty, rights, and justice. But, it is seen as part of centrifugal forces, from the centre to the global, universalism or what Lane (1974) calls as ‘total situation’ or citizenship based on individual freedom and social justice. These theorists, therefore, universalise the notion of national self-determination: they make it part of liberalism. The liberals’ universal approach tends to be uniformist. This makes a society rootless and a citizen far removed from those who control his/her destiny. On the other hand, the notion as it is put forward and used by the Oromos that the demand for national self-determination is also centripetal, from the global and the greater units to the smaller ones. These groups demand the disengagement from the ‘other’, the global, the colonist, even from other humanity, by asserting that ‘we are not merely the essential equal and part of humanity, but rather we are also different and distinct: we have our own political identity, which we want to preserve, sustain, and establish institutionally, like the Scottish vision in multi-nation state Europe. This is the language of liberation from colonisation. It is also the language of particularisation within the universal or the global, and it seems that the uniformist approach is not sensitive enough to the real Oromos problems. Thus, the Oromos quest for self-determination involves the ultimate goal of particularism (its own unique space), reinventing the Oromia State, owning the national homeland. Of course, in a heterogeneous society of the Ethiopian Empire, though uniformity may simplify system of control, social justice will not be attained in one vast monolithic block of oppressed by colonial legislation, bureaucrats and its armies. An important work of Professor Asafa Jalata, an authority in the study of Oromo nationalism kindly quoted as’ The Oromo question involves both colonialism and ethno nationalism. Ethiopian colonialism has been imposed by global capitalism on the Oromo nation. Ethiopians, both Amharas and Tigrayans, through establishing settler colonialism in Oromia, have systematically killed millions of Oromo and expropriated their lands and other resources from the last decades of the nineteenth century until today. Ethiopian colonialists already destroyed the people called Agaw by taking their lands, systematically killing them, and assimilating the survivors. They attempt to do the same thing to the Oromo by destroying the Oromo national movement, confiscating Oromo lands, and forcing the remaining Oromo into ‘settlement villages’ or (reservations). Many times, some Oromo organisations attempted to democratize Ethiopia so that the Oromo would achieve equal citizenship rights and maintain their ethno cultural identity. Determined to maintain their colonial domination and to destroy the Oromo cultural personality through ethnocide or assimilation, Ethiopian colonialists destroyed or suppressed those Oromo political forces that attempted to transform Ethiopia into a multinational democratic society. Therefore, most Oromos are convinced that their rights and freedom cannot be obtained and respected without creating their own state, or state that they can create as equal partners with other ethno national groups interested in forming a multinational democratic society to promote ethno cultural diversity and human freedom. Hence, Oromo nationalism is an ideology of the subjugated Oromo who seek human rights, freedom, justice, and democracy’ (Jalata, 1997). In fact social justice can be attained when and only when the oppressed majority able to rule its homeland. The Oromos work for national self-determination is the great humanist and historical task in terms of Freire (1993) argument ‘To liberate themselves and their oppressors as well. The oppressors, who oppress, exploit, and rape by virtue of their power, cannot find in this power the strength to liberate either the oppressed or themselves. Only power that springs from the weakness of the oppressed will be sufficiently strong to free both. Any ‘attempt to soften the power of the oppressor in difference to the weakness of the oppressed almost always manifest itself in the form of false generosity; indeed, the attempt never goes beyond this.’ In this context, for Oromos in order to have the continued opportunity to express their ‘generosity,’ the Habasha colonist must perpetuate injustice, too. Tyranny is the permanent fount of this ‘generosity,’ that sustains at the price of death, dehumanisation, despair and poverty. ‘True generosity consists precisely in fighting to destroy the causes which nourish false charity.’ (Freire, 1993). For further discussions on Oromo nationalism, universalism, globalism, Ethiopianist discourses and Oromo Nationalism, see Sorenson (1998) and Sisai Ibssa (1998).

Concluding Thoughts

Man as a social animal always seeks his own territory and belongings to a social group in which his identity and sense of community is observed and respected. In the defence of the cause for social justice and social ecology, these are basic tenets to backlash against the danger of the rhetoric of universalism, polyarchy and false perspectives of social uniformity, which appear to appreciate the social problems from a single privileged point. Georg Hegel, The Phenomenology of Mind ( New York, 1967 edition), in his famous philosophical discussion of the relationship between ‘lordship and bondage’ maintained that a single consciousness could know itself only through another, even in a condition of totally unequal power relationship. According to this philosophical model, the lord (the oppressor) is lord only through the relationship with a bondservant (the oppressed, the one whose humanity is stolen). In the relationship, however, the other is annulled. The self of the mastery, the lord, derives from the conquest and negation of the servant, the bond. Only recognition of the selfhood of the other permits for its annulations. Thus, lordship covertly recognises the separate identity of the dominated. They are normally equal selves locked into unequal hierarchy. Metaphorically, Hegel’s dialectics of lordship and bondage is very important to understand the Ethiopian domination over Oromia. However, in the Ethiopianist discourse, the essential equality of the selves has been escaped totally. Rather, the persisting hierarchy has taken for granted. According to Sorenson (1998), Ethiopianist scholars like Clapham, Sven Rubenson and Levine because of their attachment to one version of the Ethiopian past and present make them either or unwilling to engage with the full complexity of the problem. From this point of view, to accept the unchanging polarity of Ethiopia and Oromia in the lordship-bondage relationship is to succumb to a structure of Ethiopian aggression and colonialism. The Oromians demand for national self-determination is, however, the civilised step out of the polarity upon which the coercive hierarchy relies, it is the collective political demand, as its main purpose is to achieve the good of the social whole, humanisation, the essential liberation of the Oromo national identity, dignity and the reinvention of Oromia as a sovereign state. The Abyssinian occupation of Oromia, the existence of the Abyssinian Rule, war-lordism and their armies in Oromia and the making of Finfinnee their garrison station, the centre of their crowds is not only an act of conquest, aggression and colonialism but also, from Oromo perspective, such elements are symbols of bondage and slavery that negate the Oromo selfhood as equal essential. For the last over hundred years, the Oromo nation has disowned selfhood, its own state or administration, and lived as a bondage of Abyssinia. The Abyssinian administration which has undermined the Oromo national traditions, exploited it economically, and maintained order through mechanical and repressive means- such a nation actually must seek national self-determination to foster within its politics, to bring dignity, justice, freedom and democracy and to survival as essential equal, as a nation and as part of humanity and its civilisation. It is necessary for Oromians to build the world of their own, a world which make them capable to sustain as a group of human people. They must able to liberate themselves and the violent, the oppressor too. In this context, the Oromo issue is a test case to the deceptive ‘democracy world-wide’ which is being advocated in the USA foreign policy and manipulated by the neo-nafxanyas (see Ibssa, 1998). It is a challenge to contemporary theories of democracy and polyarchy (Robinson, 1997) and actors of post cold war Ethiopian politics who simply take for granted that the boundaries and powers of political community in the ‘Horn’ have already been settled. Thanks to the dedicated works of human rights activists, particularly the OSG (the Oromia Support Group) and its UK based publication, Sagalee Haaraa, we have been well informed on plights of human population and their environment in the entire region. We are interested to recommend this publication to all actors of the region. In this context, we are confident to say that Ethiopian democracy rhetoric or federalism sham politics is nothing more than a fig leaf, covering up the continuation of an extraction of the ‘politics of the belly’, in terms of Bayart (1993) from ‘prudish eye of the West.’ Its democratic rhetoric is a new type of rent seeking (extracting economic rent). By making believe, it enables the collection of international aid that includes diplomatic, military and humanitarian. It enables the seizure of the resources of the modern economy for the benefit of the Tigrayan elites. The situation is not in democracy’s favour, rather it is a situation that the Tyranny is retaining control over the security forces, economic rents and the support of the West. Such manipulation is not new for Africa. Menilik, Haile sellassie, Mengistu, Mobutu, Biya, Senghor and Diouf did the same thing either in Ethiopia or elsewhere in the continent at one time or another. The Quote from Bayart’s (1993) African analyis comes to our mind ‘…The support of western powers and multilateral institutions of Bretton Woods and the Vatcan, who despite having waved the flag of democratic conditionality and respect for human rights, have not dared to pursue such sentiments to their logical conclusion and have continued to think in terms of ‘Mobutu or Chaos’ where Gorbachev given up saying ‘Ceaucescu or chaos’…’. Indeed, very recently, we have read the deceptive descriptions to neo-Mobutu, neo-Mengistu, etc.: democratic, new generation, confident and pragmatic, etc. Sadly, everything changes so that everything stays the same. Nevertheless, the oppressed Oromos are not passive objects, either. They have not allowed themselves to be ‘captured’, as in the past they have demonstrated their historical ability to resist dehumanisation, despair and poverty, and predictably will continue to resist until the justice will come to them. An everyday Oromo coins the following: ‘Victory to the Oromo people! Oromia shall be free!’ We feel moral and social responsibility to support the just cause of fellow humanity.

Listen to Oromo Voice Radio (OVR) Broadcast Afaan Oromo interviews with Dr. Almayayyoo Birru on topic of Self-determination:

http://ayyaantuu.com/horn-of-africa-news/oromia/oromo-freedom-from-what-and-for-what-part-1/

http://gadaa.com/oduu/4613/2010/06/27/on-the-question-of-nationalities-in-ethiopia/

 

‘External self-determination, in particular, seems to carry dual meaning. On the one hand it is taken to mean full independent statehood, while on the other hand it is taken to mean external recognition by other states within the
international community.’

http://bemis.org.uk/docs/redefining-self-determination.pdf

 

‘Every individual/group possesses a moral right to secede. The burden of proof rests with the opponents of secession.’ 

This article is mainly credited to Oromia Quarterly 1997 & 1999.

Copyright © Oromianeconomist 2015 and Oromia Quarterly 1997-2015. All rights reserved. Disclaimer.

Ateetee:The divinity for motherhood and fecundity in Oromo mythology December 18, 2014

Posted by OromianEconomist in Ancient African Direct Democracy, Ateetee (Siiqqee Institution), Culture, Gadaa System, Humanity and Social Civilization, Meroetic Oromo, Nubia, Oromia, Oromia Satelite Radio and TV Channels, Oromian Voices, Oromiyaa, Oromo, Oromo Artists, Oromo Culture, Oromo First, Oromo Identity, Oromo Music, Oromo Nation, Oromo Social System, Oromummaa, Qubee Afaan Oromo, Safuu: the Oromo moral value and doctrine, Sirna Gadaa, State of Oromia, The Goddess of Fecundity, The Oromo Democratic system, The Oromo Governance System, The Oromo Library.
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O

 

 

 

Yaa Maaraam furootu gahee

Waliin nu Gahee

Emmoo yaa obbolee emmoo

 

 

 

Maaram is believed to be the divinity of women. Maaram was created by Waaqa and
addressed as haadha boor (the mother of ocean). I think this is to indicate that Maaram
came to the Oromo from outside. The Oromo believe that Mooram is the mother of a
child. The Oromo women perform traditional ceremonies in respect of Maaram. It is
believed that Maaram will help barren women to beget a child, and help pregnant
women to give birth to a child. When a woman gives birth to a child Oromo women will
gather and ululate (say ilili ilili). They also prepare porridge, and splash butter. It is
normal for the Oromo to sacrifice an animal during this ceremony. Moreover, Maaram
is worshipped for the health of the environment, animals, human beings and crops.
The Oromo Qoolluu leaders pray to Maaram every two weeks for the continuation of
offspring of humans. Maaram has her own ritual house. Ritual goods include Jaaloo
(earthen caldron), and Qoloo (traditional shirt). It has also madabii (raised platform of
Earth). The dancing ceremony is performed on Tuesdays, Thursdays,. and Saturdays.

Some writers have explained the nature of Ateetee and Maaram. Knutsson states that the  names Ateetee and Maaram are used interchangeably for the same kind of being (Kmitsson 1967,55). Daniel states that  the various songs of Ateetee imply that “[a]teete is a ceremony prepared for Ayyolee, Maaram and Waaqa as thanksgiving by those who have children and a lamentation by the barren women” (Daniel 1984, 111). Bartels, however, questioned this assertion. To the Oromo of Western Matcha, Ateetee is the name of the ritual in which Maaram is invoked (Bartels 1983). Baxter (1979) had similar observation concerning the belief of the Arsi Oromo. For Cerulli, Ateetee is conceived as the goddess of fecundity (Cerulli 1922,127; Harris 1968,50).

– http://www.ossrea.net/publications/images/stories/ossrea/ssrr-19-p-3.pdf

In the traditional Oromo society, women played distinct roles through an institution called the Siiqqee (a symbolic decorated stick given to all women by their mothers upon marriage). This is an exclusively women’s solidarity institution sanctioned by tradition and respected by society. It is a sort of sorority that provides women with channels to participate in village councils, and a cultural vehicle to mobilize en masse against violence and abuse. Infringement of certain rights that women enjoy is regarded as an attack on human rights. In the event of violation of their rights, women take out the Siiqqee and mobilize to fight for the respect of rights, and for any perpetrator of abuse to be tried by society. The use of Siiqqee draws an enormous religious, ritual and moral authority and in the pursuit of peace and social tranquility. According to tradition peace is not merely the absence of war, but a constant state of unity and cooperation among the people as well as harmony with God and nature, with the power to bless or curse. Historically, women as a sector of society were designated as strangers and excluded from the Gadaa structures and rituals, but, they stuck together through the Siiqqee counting on one another within this common sorority. –http://oromowomensinternationalconferenceonline.com/general-information.html

http://http://ayyaantuu.com/horn-of-africa-news/oromia/interesting-messages-obtained-from-facebook/

http://ayyaantuu.com/horn-of-africa-news/oromia/interesting-messages-obtained-from-facebook/

http://portal.svt.ntnu.no/sites/ices16/Proceedings/Volume%203/Marit%20Tolo%20%C3%98steb%C3%B8%20-%20Wayyuu%20%E2%80%93%20Women%E2%80%99s%20Respect%20and%20Rights.pdf

http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=gCxLwdmLNMIC&pg=PA177&lpg=PA177&dq=siiqqee+Oromo+institution&source=bl&ots=TFj2Y7vo_G&sig=IrqVfrNe8PKIgo2ZCTkL0DtVtJE&hl=en&sa=X&ei=TxSwU8DwBYiK1AWaoYH4BQ&ved=0CCYQ6AEwATgK#v=onepage&q=siiqqee%20Oromo%20institution&f=false

http://www.academia.edu/4604793/Qaallu_Institution_A_theme_in_the_ancient_rock-paintings_of_Hararqee-implications_for_social_semiosis_and_history_of_Ethiopia

http://www.slideshare.net/chalihundu/oromo-peoplehood-historical-and-cultural-overview

http://trace.tennessee.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1080&context=utk_socopubs

http://zelalemkibret.files.wordpress.com/2013/07/jos-volume-4-numbers-12-1997.pdf

Weedduu Maaram / Weedduu Ateetee

(Translation: Zelelaem Aberra Tesfa)

http://www.zelealemaberra.com/?page_id=388

 

In Oromo mythology, the divinity for motherhood and fecundity is Ateetee or Maaram. Maaram or Ateetee is invoked and praised on birth-rituals. In addition, women prepare a feast and invoke Her, praise Her kindness so that they could be fertile, healthy, prosperous, and happy (Bartles, 1990,124; Cerulli 1917, 127, Tilahun Gamta, 2004,101)

Atoomaa hardhoo Maarami!
Maa mukoofna yee!

Yaa Maaram yaa Maaramii,
Wallaalaaf araarami.
Yaa Maaram, yaa kuullee koo,
Kottu taa’i fuullee koo.

Ciniinsuu afaa butuu
Miixuu dagalee butuu
Da’anii mucaa butuu
Iddoo ciniinsuu kee tii
Guddeen kun kan kee ti.

Yaa deessuu waalluu kobe,
Maaramtu boroo gonfe,
Dhirsatu balbalaa kolfe.
Yaa dhabduu waalluu moojoo
Dhirsatu aaree guungume,
Maaramtu boroo sokkee.

Utuun Balasiin ta’e,
Balas Boongaa ta’e,
Dhabaadhaaf mirgan kenna;
ittiin haa doorsifatu.
Utuun Maaramiin ta’e,
Maaram giiftii ta’e,
Dhabduudhaaf ilman kenna,
Dhirsa haadoorsifattu.

Yaa Maaram, yaa Maaramee
Dhabduudhaaf araarami mee.
Yaa Maaram godeettii koo
Yaa dhiiga toleettii koo
Yaa Maaram marmaartuu koo
Yaa hiika gargaartuu koo.
Aayyoleen walii lama
Tokkoo ishee carii gamaa
Tokko ishee asii kana.

Akka abbaa fardaa beeka
Irraangadee kaachisa
Akka abbaa warraa beeka
Niiti deessuu caalchisa
Gaangoo jedhee na cabsee
Gindoo saa nabaachisa
Yaa maaram hundaaf giiftii
Rakkoo kiyya naaf hiiki
Yookaan ilmaa naa kennii,
Beekaattan moggaafadha
Yookaan durba naa kennii
Beektuuttin moggaafadha
Yookaan dua naa kennii
Waayeekoon obbaafadhaa.

Get-together, for today is Maaram
Let us rejoice, throw away the boredom!

O Maaram, O dear Maaram,
Reconcile, with us who lack wisdom.
Maaram with beautiful eyes, O Maaram,
Have a sit, in front of me, please come!

When in pain, the mattress one clutches
When in labour, the wall one clutches
After delivery, a baby one snatches!
In return for your labour pain
Here, the little one is your gain.

O prolific woman, your clothes smell bad,
But Maaram has adorned your backyard,
The husband laughs from the front yard.
O sterile woman, with beautiful dress
Your husband furiously grumbles,
For your backyard, Maaram avoids.

If I were Balas,
That Balas of Boongaa,
To a bad-shooter his trophies I give;
So he could boast about it with relief.
If I were Maaram,
Our great lady Maaram,
A son I would give to the sterile woman,
So she could intimidate her man.

O Maaram, my dear Maaram
Be merciful to the childless.
O Maaram, with beauty and grace
You have revered blood in your face
O Maaram, you are my commuter [between me and God]
My parturifacient mother.
Two kinds of mothers are there
One is far across the river [The biological one]
The other one is the one here. [Maaram]

I know a rider’s thought and will
He gallops down the hill
I know a husband’s thought
He loves the prolific wife the most;
He equates me to a mule, dry and bare
and makes me carry his ploughshare.
O Maaram every women’s’ queen
Resolve this problem for me
Either grant me a baby boy
I call him “he the wise”
Either grant me a baby girl
I call her “she the wise”
Or either give me death
So I could get done with my worries.

 

The following stanza is taken from a birth song:

Odoshaa gofaa ka’u
Sareen agartee laata?
Agartee nyaattee laata?
Dhabduu ishee mucaaf boossu,
Yeelalaa fayyaaf boowu,
Adeemsa mirgaa boowuu
Maareen agartee laata?
Agartee laattee laata?

Ililleen Waaqa akka
Ililcheen Waaqiin kadha;
Gabaa shaqaxxuu faaqi
Anoo sagadduu Waaqi!

Loome qoraan karaa
Yomiree wal agarraa?
Bor guyyaa afaan waaree
Loonee wal agarra.

Garbuu kaballaa tokko
Manteessuun akaawwatte
Kan maseente ittiin horte
Kan deesse lakkaawwatte.

Deessuun akka naan jette
Mucaa koo hinargin jette
Diinqa koo hindarbin jette.
Maali yoon diinqa shee darbee?
Maali yoon mucaa shees argee?
Mucaa sheef argaan laadha
Garaa koof marqaan nyaadha
Jabbisheetu gola miti
Mucasaheen dhora miti.

Yaa dhabduu anaa nyaatu
Ulfooftee gumaa hin nyaannee
Deesse gumaata hindhugne.
Dhagaa kakatta guutuu
Rarra’etu wal baachise
Dhabduun dawuu hinjibbine
Maaramtu wal caalchise

Yaa deessuu waalluu qobe
Ayyaanni boroo gonfe.
Yaa dhabduu waalluu moojoo
Ayyaanni boroo sokke.

Yaa dhabduu masoo dhirsa
Dhirsatu dhaanu hawwee.
Yaa saree eegee dabbasaa
Kan quufee Waaqiin darbata
Kan Maaram namaa gootu
Haati ofii namaa hingootu.
Sibiila mutaa gootee
Kan djiiga mucaa gootee.

Baddaan qullubbii hinqabu
Muree laga dhaabbata
Kan kee dhukkubbii hinqabu
Turtee nama yaadattaa.
Araarfanne yaa maaram
Sirraa deenyee.
Gadi jedheen xaafii haamaa
Ol jedheen Waaqiin waama

An old horse’s rise from the stable,
I wonder if dogs have seen it and been able?
To have eaten it, and then did settle?
Cry of a baby-longing childles
Lament of a health-longing patient
A trophy-longing hunter’s plight
I wonder if Maaree have seen?
If She has seen and granted!

Ululation for Waaqa is a must
I ululate and beseech Waaqa;
Market of the taxing tanner
I am Waaqa’s earnest prayer!

The Loomee firewood of the street
When do you think we could meet?
Tomorrow, around mid-day
We will meet slipping away.

A handful of barley
That a widow parched and eat
the sterile prospered with it
the prolific counted it. [To equally divide.]

You know what the prolific said?
“Do not see my baby.” she said
“Do not enter my inner-room” she said.
What if I enter her inner-room?
What if I see her baby?
To her baby, I give a gift
To my stomach, porridge I eat.
No calf is kept in her inner-room,
She thinks I pine her child, I presume.

What a pity for the sterile lady
She could not get pregnant and eat a hunk of meat
She could not deliver and have showers of gift.
Abundance of rock and escarpment
Is hanging and piling up
The sterile did not hate giving birth
It is Maaram that un equalizes.

The prolific with smelly skirt
Her backyard is full of spirit.
But, the childless in a pretty skirt
Her backyard is devoid of spirit.

The sterile, the husband’s name-sake
The husband wishes to punish her.
O dog with a hairy tail
The over-fed hurls at Waaqa
The favour Maaram does for one
One’s own mother would not do.
She turned iron to needles
She turned blood to a baby that toddles.

The high land does not have onion
They cut and plant in the valley;
Your delay is not offensive
for you compensate gradually.
Reconciliation with you, O Maaram
You gave us deliverance.
I bow down and harvest xaafi [food plant]
I rise up and invoke Waaqi

Iyya Siiqqee

Hoga iyya Siiqqee

Ilmaan hidda Horoo,

Guchuma baattee siida Ateetee
Siiqqeen iyyite seenaaf godaante

Safuuf nagaa waaqa tokkichaan dursa
Na ofkolchaa iyya Siiqqeefan tumsaa
Godaana siiqqeefan imimman robsa!

Safuu! Hoga iyya Siiqqeef
kan mandiisu akka bakakkaa
Safuu! Godaana faana Siiqqeef
Seenaa hin duune, kan hin qabne fakkii fi akka!

Uggum! Hoga iyya Siiqqeef
Iyya eenyummaa – diroon fufe gumaaf birmatu
Uggum! Godaana faana Siiqqeef
Adeemsa seenaa – qaraan-qara hin dhaabbatu

Hoo dhommoqxes Siiqqeen hin cabdu
Harooressa hin haanxoftu – gogdee hin baddu

Ni latti akka coqorsaa – jilbeeffattee dhukaan riqxee
Ni lalisti akka saardoo – margee leensa diroon cobxee
Ni daraarti akka keelloo – kuusaa aadaan booka naqxee

Sarara ulumaa Siiqqeen hareeroo
Hormata eenyummaa seenaa iyya Horoo
Duudhaa ganamaa irkoo fi utubaa boroo
Jandoo baaxii galma suuqa sororoo
Siiqqeen hin baddu dagaleen Gadaa
Kanaaf iyyatti – qabattee guchuuma aadaa!

Kan Waaqni mildhate Ayyaantuun eebbaa
Eenyummaaf birmadhu jamaan kaabaa fi kibbaa
Hoga dabarsaa, bahaa fi lixaa seenaa utubaa
Seenaa iyya Siiqqeef goonni dhiiga roobaa!

Kuusaa Oromummaa fi Hooda Ayyaantuu
Bir’uu eenyummaaf Siiqqeef birmatu!
Gadaan quufaa fi gabbina
Gabbisi ya Waaq, keenniif humna!

Humna Siiqqee kan hin cabne
Humna Gadaa kan hin dabne
Humna Oromummaa kan hin banne
Dilbii- Kuusaa kan hin dhumne
Seenaa boonsaa eenyummaa abdanne!

Gadaan gabbina Siiqqeen hareeroo
Gabbisi yaa waaq nurraa cabsi roorroo!

http://waaqeffannaa.org/iyya-siiqqee/

 

Oromo and Greek based Democracies

By Ibsaa Guutama

This article is for those who did not have the opportunity to know how democracy evolved in human society. Democracy is only one type of government supposedly based on the will of the masses. There had been other types of government like monarchy or aristocracy, dictatorship or autocracy and totalitarian. One can find overlapping characters in all these. So what ever form we may talk about we have to expect element of one in the other. For much, democracy is an ideal type of government but not all proclaimed democracies are fully pro-people. Here the writer is trying to introduce the essence of both Western and Oromo democracy in an easy way.  For those who are well versed in theory and practice of democracy this is an opportunity to enrich this work for the benefit of the youth. In particular the young generation that is showing pride in its historic past from oral tradition if armed with the facts may show more interest and start to inquire about it. To prepare the following information in addition to oral tradition and experience this writer was exposed to, the books: Gadaa and Oromo Demokrasii by Asmirom Laggasaa, The Oromo by De Salviac as translated by  Qannoon, Folk Litrature by Ceruuli, Aadaa Booranaa by Ton Leus, Ethiopia through Russian Eyes by Bulatovich and Wikiipedia from internet  were refered to.

Short note on Western Democracy 
Democracy is a term frequently heard from lips of everyone to express equality, justice and liberty in one word. There are no governments that do not claim to follow democratic principles in their governance. Even totalitarian states call themselves “democratic republics” (probably with exception of fascism) in spite of flagrant violation of their subjects’ rights. Just like true democrats they talk about the inviolability of people’s and human rights and respect for the rule of law and fair and free election.  They claim that it is to protect these rights on behalf of the masses when they take what are inhuman actions for others. Their founding documents are full of borrowed phrases from ideal democracies. Democratic governmental structures are adopted minus their functions from different countries.

Democratic models many emulate are American governmental structure with its system of separation of powers. The functions of legislature, executive and judiciary are separated into three branches in such a way that one can check on excesses of the other to maintain the balance of power. The executive or President and the legislative or members of Congress are elected directly by the people. Members of the Supreme Court are nominated by the president and endorsed by the legislature for life. The other models are Parliamentary Democracy where the executive is elected by the legislature. Those can be its members or non elected persons that are answerable to it. Britain and European governments fall under this. They have mainly different styles of organization. Still others are traditional rulers blended with modern jargons.

All these claim their objective to be safeguarding peoples’ democratic interests. The term democracy is a legacy of ancient Greek city state, Athens. It is derived from Greek demokratia which means government of the people (“demos”, people, and “kratos”, power).  In this aspect “people” for Athens includes only male citizens above 20 years of age. That does not include women, children under 20, those not born in the city state and slaves.

In the city state all those qualified had the right to be present at meetings and participate in deliberations directly. That is why it is now referred to as direct democracy. After many modifications it has reached the present level of modern Western democracy. Here people elect representatives that participate in deliberations on its behalf. The two methods of electing representatives are plurality and proportional voting systems. In the first one with the highest vote is elected even if one represents minority of voters. The second shares votes in proportion of the votes parties got in overall election. Those are the features of modern indirect democracy. In both not all electorates are represented.

Now in most cases men and women above certain age have the right to vote depending on the law of each democratic country. The right to vote for women was achieved, for example, for Switzerland in 1971 on federal level and 1990 at Canton levels. It took a long time and a relentless struggle to attain universal suffrage. Though all accept these basics of democracy the structure and function of elected offices are not yet standardized and methods of elections fall short of including every voter’s voices. For example if hundred people vote for three persons and two of them got thirty votes each and the third one gets forty he/she wins the whole thing. That leaves 60 persons unrepresented. Proportional representation may improve this but cannot totally correct it. Here seats are divided in proportion to votes parties got overall.

For African countries democracy was imposed on them by departing colonial masters that keep on insisting to this day not to abandon it even if it was a fake one. Africans did not participate to construct a government relevant to their culture and tradition. Even those who later wanted to introduce amendments tried to mix the various world systems instead of looking into their own history and tradition and make it reflect national personality or psyche.  As copy and eclectic as it is, it is understood only by elites who themselves are copies of colonial culture.

They rule the way they wanted, constitutions are only window dressings. On the other hand the West had modified the concept of democracy in such a way that it fits their particular national needs not as it was practiced by Athenians or any other pioneer democracies. Therefore there is no one common blueprint for it.

Had it not excluded a segment of the population Athenian democracy could have been an ideal one where the concern of every member is taken care of. Much has been tried to approximate that but the world did not yet achieve flawless democracy. Abraham Lincoln’s famous Gettysburg Address “Government of the people, by the people for the people shall not perish from the earth.” reflects that aspiration. The question to be answered is who are the people that influence decisions, are they really the people or oligarchs?  Though the ideal is not yet achieved there are those that had come nearer and worth emulating. Had Oromo democracy been able to answer that question?

Be as it may there are certain basics that underlie every governance of those that claim to be democratic. Principles like equality, freedom, fair and free election; rule of law and respect for people’s and individual rights run through all of them. Even dictators and totalitarian government claim to apply these principles in their own way.   Thus these are universally accepted principles of governance though malpractice is rampant in so many countries. Ethiopian rulers had tried to adopt constitutionalism under pressure against their established tradition.  The emperor had instituted a semblance of Westminster parliament without political parties. His successor (Darg) had one party state. The next (Wayyaanee) is a pseudo multiparty system but only its party is destined to win.

Be him the last emperor or the two dictators after him used democratic phraseology to cover up their core authoritarian values. Their inherited autocratic practices could not go away. The Habashaa in most part of their own history were ruled by forces that come through coup d’états violently or outlaws overthrowing the preceding government. That was so before they formed the empire and remained so even after it.  All the three came to power overthrowing their predecessors. The first two staged coup d’états the third was an outlaw.

It was not consensus but brut force that kept that highland kingdom together under one crown. Democracy assumes one man one vote in a fair and free election that should be carried out periodically. Democracy is the rule of majority. Who ever gets most of the votes comes to power. In numbers they are the minority in the empire and are scared of others outnumbering them at the ballot box. They have no confidence of winning an election by strength of their platform and performance. Therefore they believe that many opportunities would be at stake if they really change from the old ways bowing down for democratic principles. The situation makes the rulers greedy, self centered, chauvinistic and paranoid that they believe only in their own ways and wisdom and are not permeable to new possibilities.  They do not believe that even their own people would elect them in a democratic election.  That is why human right abuse became their trade mark.

Brief note on Gadaa Democracy 
When one discusses Gadaa it would be preposterous to claim understanding its depth and breadth. It was a highly complicated and sophisticated societal system to be attributed only to few generations. That it has a background of ancient civilizations can be deduced from organization of society, its legal system and patterns of knowledge it emanates. For this reason what this article presents is only a simplistic superficial aspect of it, which yet could give a clue to its democratic legacy. Leaving aside procedures, rituals and the regalia what interests us here is the legal and democratic principles enshrined in it. To discover the truth of it much effort is needed from nationals that so far considered it to be just one among the age grade initiation systems found in so many societies. They have to erase all they learned about the Oromo in colonial schools and start unraveling the truth about this so far neglected great African nation.

Gadaa was an all encompassing national system where by every male of all ages had roles to play in groups based on peerage.  Accordinglly all institutions in society were managed by elected bodies that decide in counsel. Though all activities in general fall under the Gadaa system, it was more visible in its political aspect.  Major divisions to be considered are the temporal and the spiritual institutions and within the temporal one the social and the political functions.  Gadaa is temporal while Qaalluu is spiritual. It is said that the Qaalluu office used to assist in Gadaa operations like elections. But sovereignty is vested in Gadaa Assembly. Therefore Qaalluu as an institution does not interfere in running political affairs of the country.  That means Gadaa was secular. Here we are more interested in Gadaa secular democracy. The social and political aspect of the spiritual institution may worth following for its historical and academic significance.  There are several Oromoo that follow traditional religion to this day.

Gadaa was practiced by the Oromo people from time immemorial. In social aspect male members of society are grouped into age grade “hiriyaa” (peer) system. To simplify, these were Dabbalee from 1-8 years, Foollee or Gaammee 9-24 and Qondaala or Kuusaa 25-33, Raaba didiqqaa 30-38, Raaba Doorii, 38-46 Luba 46-54 and Yuba 55-78 and gadamoojjii or jaarsa above 78 (taken from different regions practice for convenience). Each member of a society had rites to pass through. At each grade there were roles to be played and training to go through.

Activity of a hiriyaa group starts from cradle to calf herding, to different hurdles of fitness that include military training to ruling and counseling the country. It is from these hiriyaa groups that members of national leadership evolve and gradually become Luba, members of the Gadaa ruling group. These leaders in most cases had been leaders of hiriyaa group from the beginning. Women, non naturalized aliens (kan luba hin bahin) and artisans were not included in Gadaa power sharing process.

One Gadaa period is eight years. At the end of that period there used to be great feast. That ceremonial feast was called “Buttaa”. Buttaa also served as measurement of time. To know someone’s age one asks “how many Buttaa did you eat?”  All those who were born during the eight years tell the same age, one, two, three etc.  Buttaa. From that a wise man could tell to which hiriyaa group or Gadaa party one belonged. Five buttaa are slain in one Gadaa cycle of forty years. Those born into each Gadaa are hiriyaa (peers) irrespective of up to eight years possible differences. A boy born at the beginning of the eight years and one born on Buttaa day after eight years are considered to have eaten one Buttaa.

On the political side society is divided into Gadaa of five parties. Members in each Gadaa party were recruited from their own generational age grades. Each Gadaa has a role to play in the political life of the nation depending on the time and level in the Gadaa tier. The oldest group is the Yuba. It is composed of person whose members were in power in previous times. Next is Luba, the ruling party. Below that is the Itmakoo or Raba Doorii (these may have other names with different tribes) juniors that lead in defense and nation building. The next group follows the foot steps of their seniors and engages in different aspects of society appropriate for their ages. Each hiriyaa group maintains close relationship and prepare themselves for the next stage of partisan responsibility. They all elect their leaders. Those at the bottom of the ladder are the dabbalee to whose raising society gives much attention. It is there that the basis of Oromummaa is laid down and hunting for generational leaders start.

At any one period there are three Gadaa levels that engage is serious party work and has conventions or yaa’a. The bottom one is Raabaa Doorii a group that is preparing to take power after eight years (from), the middle one is the Gadaa in power Luba and the last one is the one that leaves office, Yuba. Each Gadaa comes to power after a cycle of forty years. Since there is a party in waiting to replace the other no party can stay in power for more than eight years. No crisis can be obstacle to transfer Baallii for there is a ready made leadership. To transfer Baallii means to transfer authority. As symbol of authority the old Abbaa Gada hands over to the incoming ostrich feather that was in his custody. Each Gadaa proclaims its own constitution and laws. Therefore there is no stagnation in waiting for cumbersome methods of amendments. Even if there is no article to be changed the past law is formally made null and void and proclaimed again as new. The five Gadaa had set names or are called after their leaders.

The highest Assembly of the nation is Caffee or Gumii. The Caffee sits under shade of an Odaa tree. The General Assembly includes all members of the ruling party and any such persons that want to attend it. In this way it is a representative indirect democracy with some elements of direct democracy. Living Abbaa Gadaas and the Yuba can also participate in the assembly. Abbaa Gadaa or Abbaa Bokkuu is the head of the Caffee and the chief executive as well. There is a case where their were two heads of Caffee, one ritual head called Abbaa Bokkuu and another elected head, Abbaa Gadaa. The Luba usually consults “raagaa” wise man or philosopher on the future or consequences of certain decisions. But the raagaa has no power to avert a decision.

In addition to mentioned institutions there are several others that should not escape our attention. For example the institution of clan elders which are hereditary have no place in the Gadaa structure but has important role in organizing and guiding the tribe. Members of Gadaa were recruited (nominated) from tribes they lead. They have ritual symbols and roles to play in cursing and blessing. When Gadaa is the national leadership these ones are tribal ones. It was from among these ones that the colonizers embraced and recruited as agents for all their grassroots activities. In tribal protocol the eldest of the clans is called or seated first. Since tribal structures have already been rendered obsolete it has no nationwide political relevance in modern setting. There is also the Siiqqee institution that gives women social and political authority to some degree. In principle this can be integrated into any modern adaptations.

For the Oromo rights like equality, freedom, fair and free election; rule of law and respect for people’s and individual rights, respect and protection for environment and wild life are inbuilt qualities of Gadaa democracy. All human beings are equal; no one is above the law; discrimination because of origin, color or economic status etc is unjust. Respect for human rights, freedom of expression that are not safuu or morally repulsive, freedom of movement and association are protected by law. Elected officials are loved and respected as long as they serve the people whole heartedly and with the highest morale standard.  An incompetent and corrupt official can be removed from office by the assembly before the expiry of his term of office. In meetings it was preferred if decisions were reached by consensus. Each member of a meeting or assembly has the right of veto to halt a discussion. Once decisions were reached all are required to acclaim and the law becomes sacred.
Gadaa Assembly combines executive, legislative and judiciary powers. Gadaa here is to mean the ruling class as well as the eight years of their rule. Leaders of current Gadaa are called Luba. The outgoing Gadaa which participates as advisors and judges are called Yuba. The Yuba group includes two previous Yuba. Though all powers and responsibility lie with the Luba, Yuba and all living Abbaa Gadaas had also roles to play in matters of law and checking on excesses of Luba and had great influence on all political matters. Full retirement comes three Gadaa after they leave office. From thence they are called gadamoojjii or jarsaa. Another hiriyaa group that is active during a Gadaa period is the Itmakoo or Raaba Doorii with defense as their major activity with their eye on the bokkuu when the time comes.

In Oromo society there was a tendency of the weak to form alliance against the strong. For example grandparents and grandchildren ally against parents. In the same way it is logical for Raabaa Doorii to ally against the strongest institution of the land, Luba. In that way power of Luba can be checked before it gets corrupted and become abusive.

The chief Luba is the Abbaa Bokkuu or Abbaa Gadaa (Hayyuu Fiixee). In places he has two deputies one having greater power than the other. The executive power is held by Salgee, the top nine Luba or six in some places. Those were elites elected by the people for eight years with Abbaa Gadaa as their leader. Committees were usually formed at different levels for different functions. Prerogatives of decision making at each level is known. There will always be consultation before decisions are taken. They were it is believed, those frequent meetings to make seera (law, legislation) that gave rise to Amaara legal term “seeraa” to mean conspiracy.

Abbaa Bokkuu implements what is decided by Salgee. Abbaa Bokkuu’s role as a chief is defined by law. Thus he has internal constraint imposed on him by peers and external ones by Yuba and Raaba Doorii and Caffee periodic assembly that is chaired by Abbaa Seera who is a well respected past Abbaa Gadaa.  The limitation of office term of only eight years for a party is by it self a reason not to get corrupted lest face humiliation with no chance of reelection. Thus Gadaa democratic system was a well balanced system with inbuilt checks and balance mechanism. The Abbaa Gadaa and Luba had assistances called makala (Makkala). Makala kan be compulsory service to Gadaa offices.

Military functions are assigned to Raaba Doorii by law and tradition. But Abbaa Gadaa was commander in chief and only Caffee can declare war. Commanders are appointed by Abbaa Gadaa for each engagement. After a campaign is over the person went back to his normal duties.

But lack of efficient communication and contingent law enforcement mechanism had given rise for Abbaa Duulaas to defy tradition starting in the course of the 16th century.

Some cardinal points of Gadaa system

  1. Gadaa is equal: There should be no one to be denied passing through Gadaa process, elect and be elected when ones turn comes. There should not be partiality or discrimination in services and protections Gadaa provides. Every member has the right to directly or through elected representative be heard in all affairs that affect people’s life; to be equally treated in matters of administration of justice. No one is above the law. No one may be prohibited to attend Gadaa deliberations.
  2. Odaa is equal: Odaa is a national symbol for people’s government, demokratia. It represents freedom of speech and expression, freedom of assembly, equality of all participants that meet there, freedom of worship, peace and araaraa (reconciliation) and liberty to rest for persons and animals under its shade without worry of being disturbed.
  3. Malkaa is equal: Ford or river crossing (confluence) is open to all for crossing; perform rituals; using water for drinking, washing etc for humans and animals. No one for any one reason can bar any one from using it. Malkaa is a symbol of transiting from status quo to something new.
  4. Market is equal: every one has equal rights to take ones produce to the market and exchange with goods and services that it provides. Every one is free to participate in such exchanges and any trade of ones liking that the market provides
  5. Road is equal: every one is entitled to the right of way; no one can be denied an access from his home to outer world or restricted from using of existing roads like all others; there will not be restriction to the right of travel; no one has the right to close an existing road for own use.

Is there any point that modern society discard from these? So far we have tried simplistic approach to uncover old Gadaa practice. Gadaa was more inclusive in its membership than Greek City state democracy. It involves every member of society to equally participate in all activity of the nation according to generations. All male nationals are grouped into generational hiriyaa and play roles society assigned for them. For this reason the Gadaa system involves all in the process of managing a society. Each division stays in the age grade for eight years before it is initiated into the next level. Probably except kids under nine all elect their leaders through electoral process. Gadaa was a representative democracy with some elements of direct democracy. Anyone that can travel to Caffee Assembly can participate in its deliberations and express ones opinion. That gives it semblance of direct democracy. Gadaa was practiced when Qaalluu institution had significant role in Oromo society and the nation was at a different level of economic and technological development than the present. Taking these variations into account let us see if there are principles that we could salvage for new democratic Oromiyaa.

  1. Societal development takes place on two lines. One is the social age grade system and the other is the party system. One follows the gradual mental and physical development of a child, while the other handles its political development. At stage of adult hood both overlap. In the political aspect society is grouped into five hiriyaa category and a party name is attached to them. Each party takes turn in governing every eight years. A party has to wait for forty years to reign again. All five parties exist at the same time with different roles to play.
  2. In Gadaa executive and legislative functions are combined. Bokkuu and Caffee (Gumii) are the highest authority of the land. Sovereignty lies with the people but expressed through Caffee and Bokkuu.
  3. Decisions are reached by consensus how ever long it may take. That means minority opinion is never neglected.
  4. Abbaa Bokkuu is the commander in chief of the fighting force. Caffee is the only power that can declare war. People love and respect the leaders because of their valor and uprightness not out of fear and threat.
  5. Yuba is the highest advisory body and also heads the supreme court of the land. Its head is the most respected among the living retired Abbaa Gadaas and usually taken as the Supreme Judge (Chief Justice).
  6. Itmakoo/Raaba Doorii is a power in waiting to replace the incumbent Luba. It is responsible for recruiting, training military personnel and conducting war.
  7. Qaalluu is the spiritual leader with some functions concerning elections but never interferes in secular affairs of the Gadaa. Gadaa was a temporal institution.
  8. Women were recognized as subjects of rights through Siiqqee institution. There were also rituals that cannot be performed without them. But full equality was not guaranteed.
  9. The top Gadaa counselors were nine ( Salgee) or Six
  10. The Luba are assisted by unelected official called makala (Aide de camp)
  11. Each Gadaa general assembly convenes at the beginning of its term to declare laws. Then it will assemble in its mid term to make progress report. Then members can be criticized, condemned or uprooted for wrong doings if any. That means electors had the right to recall their representatives for corruptions and abuses. Caffee meetings are open for citizens that can attend.
  12. Raagaa is a wise usually old man or philosopher that can advise on the future
  13. Hayyuu were notables (elites) that can give decisions and counseling on several issues. They were knowledgeable members of the society without any flaw in character.

To summarize, the people are sovereign; representative system mixed with direct democracy were practiced; rulers were elected for a limited term of only eight years; citizens had the right to elect and be elected according to their ages; no one was above the law; people can recall their representative; humans, animals and nature are protected by law; the welfare of children was concern of all members of society; their was majority rule but by making decision by consensus minority views were protected; all human being were equal, ill treatment was abhorred; right to assemble and freedom of expression were protected; right to engage in any trade was protected; right to travel were granted; right to worship was recognized and discrimination based on race, age, gender and economic status are forbidden. There was inbuilt check and balance system in the political process but not so spelled out.

Now, that we have seen a brief introduction to western and ancient Oromo Gadaa democracy, let us try if we can come out with a fitting system for reorganizing modern Oromiya. The system of dividing and managing society into generations is not different from modern world school systems. Children learn what is assigned them according to peerage, “preschool, kindergarten, primary, secondary, college”. This is not far from what they call “dabbalee, Foollee, Gaammee, Raaba etc.” Existing political parties recruit members from this school system. But the Oromo as different as they are, had something to add and their own outlook. Oromo see the system in interrelation with all other societal activities. To pass from one stage to the other are rights of all citizens not of particular classes.

Probably it would be essential to revise certain things and see how they may serve modern society better.  Instead of collectively saying Oromo youth association if one says association of Foollee, Gaammee, Raaba etc it will help to mobilize in unison generation that under stand each other better. It may also give better opportunity to develop future leadership for society. In the past stages in the Gadaa were seen from fathers’ point. For this reason the age at which one has to produce a child was determined. If one is born before that it was bad omen. Now all children should be treated equally and age has to be considered from childrens point. So, age should not be calculated by butta and father’s Gadaa grade, but the exact date of a child’s birth. All those excluded to participate in gadaa activities and elections must now be included to make true that all humanbeing are eqal. This is only the skeleton otherwise social functions require deeper research. During the period of Abbaa Gadaa there was only one Qaalluu, now they are numerous (in addition to those of other religions). In the past we go for pilgrimage only to Abbaa Muudaa now we crossed the sea and added Mecca and Jerusalem etc. After all, what do you think?  This is a big challenge for Oromoo intellectuals. It may require liberating ones mind from the shackles of foreign influences to appreciate what we had. Gadaa is never obsolete but may need refurbishing. Go and make research before responding.

Let us get prepared to be ourselves and show the world that Gadaa still dwells in our minds and body.  This will not be difficult for one who has pride in Oromummaa.

Honor and glory for the fallen heroines and heroes; liberty equality and freedom for the living and nagaa and araaraa for the Ayyaanaa of our fore parents!
Ibsaa Guutama
July  2011

http://gubirmans.com/Oromo%20and%20Greek%20based%20Democracies.html

…The presence of the aged, both men and women who attired in traditional costumes, and carrying ritual sticks—bokkuu and siiqqee—the symbols of power and justice of the gadaa system decorated the march which reflected the authentic Oromo tradition. This authenticity is articulated not only in the words spoken by the elders and sung by the artists but also expressed in the peacefulness of the gathering of millions of people. Oromo nationalism is reviving and thriving in the fertile soil of rich symbolic cultural resources that have come to the open since the 1990s. The array of national symbols such as the odaa tree which decorate the costumes worn by men, women and children, the siiqqee, the bokkuu and other pre-colonial pan-Oromo symbols carried by men and women at the festival represent and reinforce the pride of the nation and unite the multitude gathered for the festival through a common imagery of shared memories, myths and values—in other words the shared structures of feeling.

http://maddawalaabuupress.blogspot.co.uk/2012/11/oromo-freedom-from-what-and-for-what.html

 

Related Article:

Safuu, the Oromo moral value and doctrine

by Rundaasaa Asheetee Hundee 

is the principle of deep moral honor and accountability that was fostered by Waaqayyo fearing people of Oromia. “Yoon maqe, Waaqni na arga” is the principle rooted in each Oromo proven to be worthy of wholesomeness, to have virtue, and love other. These type of people have a desire to understand and live by traditional values.

Young Oromo children often spoke about the fundamental principle that telling the truth, respecting nature, being trustworthy, and standing for the right thing is natural to human beings. As an Oromo, we were taught these values and it made us women and men of such noble character.

Not only our characters were shaped by Safuu Oromo, even the process of Seera tumu (law making) was inspired by this principle and the Gadaa system was framed on the basis of Safuu. Basically then, Safuu is the principle of restoration of human dignity in a significant way. Because of Safuu, Birmadummaa and honesty is expected from each Oromo so that we all can live virtuous life of divine purposes.

When the Oromo people lived according to the Gadaa system, they dominated the horn of Africa and established their republic, and the Oromoo Foollee turned into statesmen and defended the norm of Gadaa governance. Because they believed in being honest, true, benevolent and virtuous in doing good to humanity, they demanded no money for their work and time. They worked on their farms but served their country as abbaa Seeraa, abbaa Alangaa, abbaa Caffee, abbaa Bokku and as Hadha sinqee etc..

Because of Safuu, the Oromos are inspired to respect nature and committed to deal justly with humankind! That’s why we are indebted to freedom-loving individuals everywhere who had the integrity necessary to build the foundations of human societies upon safuu’s fundamental moral values. Only in an atmosphere of freedom and trust could values like honesty and integrity truly flourish.

Safuu Oromo therefore is an expectation that people must rise above self-interest and act in the public interest with wisdom and courage both on the national and the local political scene.

One reason for the decline of Safuu in Oromia to day is that people invented new standards that constantly changes and undependable moral conduct. As a result, individuals define good and evil as being adjustable according to each situation but doing so is in direct contrast to the Safuu standard.

The vast majority of so called educated Oromos speak or think based on this mindset where right and wrong are calculated to either remain neutral or to be liked by others at the expenses of own value, the Safuu. In the process, our people lost their ancestral knowledge of what is right and what is wrong and went astray by longings for luxury and leisure that they think will be found in the western world style of living and thinking.

The devastation that comes from such fraudulent life style and self misrepresentation is immeasurable. It leads to a false belief that they can worship anything they want following the rules they set for themselves.

However, the continued survival of a free and open society is dependent upon a high degree of divinely inspired values and moral conduct (safuu), as stated by the Oromo Ayaantus. People must have trust in their institutions and in their leaders. Hence, a great need today is for leadership that exemplifies truth, honesty, and decency in both public and private life.

Honesty is not only the best policy, it is the only policy according to Safuu Oromo.
There are several things we can do to develop SAFUU.

Desire It (Fedhii Safuu horadhu)

Live honest life (hin Maqin)

Be Humble (Fayaalessa ta’i)

Study (Qu’adhu)

Search and ponder on ideas (Yaada xiinxali)
Love nature ( Umaa jaaladhu)

 

Read @ http://advocacy4oromia.org/home/safuu-the-oromo-moral-value-and-doctrine/

http://ayyaantuu.com/horn-of-africa-news/oromia/safuu-the-oromo-moral-value-and-doctrine/

 

 

Prof. Muhammad Shamsaddin Megalommatis: Ancient Oromo History October 27, 2014

Posted by OromianEconomist in Africa, Ancient African Direct Democracy, Gadaa System, Humanity and Social Civilization, Kemetic Ancient African Culture, Meroe, Meroetic Oromo, Oromiyaa, Oromo, Oromo Social System, Prof. Muhammad Shamsaddin Megalommatis, State of Oromia, The Oromo Democratic system, The Oromo Governance System, The Oromo Library.
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The Meroitic Ethiopian Origins of the Modern Oromo Nation

By Prof. Dr. Muhammad Shamsaddin Megalommatis

First published in: http://www.americanchronicle.com/articl … leID=21760

Subsequently published in: Oromo Studies Association, 2005 Conference Proceedings, Washington D.C., 2005, 10p
Online mention: http://oromostudies.org/Proceedings/OSA.Proceeding.2005.pdf

The present text has been slightly edited.

This paper deals, among others, with the development of Meroitic studies, the Meroitic civilization, the destruction of the city of Meroe, the dispersal of the Meroitic people after the collapse of their state, the Christianization of the post Meroitic states in Ethiopia (i.e. Northern Sudan / it is to be reminded that the modern state of Abyssinia is fallaciously, illegally and criminally rebaptized ‘Ethioipia’), the migration of the remnants of the Meroitic people in the direction of the Blue Nile, and their possible relation of ancestry with the modern Cushitic language speaking Oromo nation. It must be stated clearly at the outset that the issue of Meroitic ancestry of the Oromo nation has not yet been considered, much less published in an academic journal or scholarly books. The paper was first presented in an academic conference organized by the Oromo Studies Association. Footnotes have been added in view of the aforementioned publication (see Pdf).

1. The Development of the Meroitic Studies, the History of Kush and Meroe, and the Efforts to Decipher the Meroitic Writing

Interest in what was Ethiopia for the Ancient Greeks and Romans, i.e. the Northern territory of present day Sudan from Khartoum to the Egyptian border *1, led to the gradual development of the modern discipline of the Humanities that long stood in the shadow of Egyptology: the Meroitic Studies.

Considerable advances had been made in academic research and knowledge as the result of the exploratory trips of the Prussian pioneering Egyptologist Richard Lepsius *2 (1842 – 1844) that bestowed upon modern scholarship the voluminous ‘Denkmaeler aus Aegypten und Aethiopien’ (Monuments from Egypt and Ethiopia), and as the direct consequence of the series of excavations undertaken by E. A. Wallis Budge *3 and John Garstang *4 at Meroe (modern Bagrawiyah) in the first years of the twentieth century, by Francis Llewellyn Griffith *5 at Kawa (ancient Gematon, near modern Dongola, 1929 – 1931), by Fritz Hintze *6 at Musawwarat es Sufra, by Jean Leclant *7 at Sulb (Soleb), Sadinga (Sedeinga), and Djebel Barkal (ancient Napata, modern Karima) in the 1950s and the 1960s, by D. Wildung *8 at Naqah, and by Charles Bonnet at Kerma. The pertinent explorations and contributions of scholars like A. J. Arkell *9, P. L. Shinnie *10, and Laszlo Torok *11 that cover a span of 80 years reconstituted a large part of the greatness and splendor of this four millennia long African civilization.

Yet, due to the lack of direct access to original sources and genuine understanding of the ancient history of Sudan, the legendary and historical Ethiopia of the Greeks and Romans, which corresponds to what was ‘Kush’ for the Hebrews (mentioned many times in the Bible) and ultimately ‘Kas’ for the ancient Egyptians *12 (mentioned in thousands of hieroglyphic, hieratic and demotic texts), we face a serious problem of terminology when it comes to Ancient Sudan’s earlier historical periods.

We are confined to such terms as Period (or Group) A (3100 – 2700 BCE), *13 Period B *14 (2700 – 2300 BCE that starts with Pharaoh Snefru’s expedition, *15 which marks indeed the beginning of the time-honored and multi-faceted relationship between Kemet-Egypt and Kush), and Period C *16 (2300 – 2100 BCE), for one millennium of Ancient Sudanese (Ethiopian or Kushitic) History. For the said period, thanks to Ancient Egyptian texts, we have a plethora of ethnic names and state names referring to populations living in North Sudan’s territory (notably Wawat, Irtet, Setjiu,Yam, Zetjau, and Medjay *17); but we fail to correctly establish to whom these names exactly refer as ethno-linguistic groups (Kushitic? Nilo-Saharan? Western Hamitic?).

Subsequent periods of Ancient Sudanese History are also denoted in conventional manner, as this is highlighted by the term Period of Kerma *18 (2100 – 1500 BCE); this period is named after the modern city and archeological site, 500 km in the south of the present Sudanese – Egyptian border.

Slide7

What we know for sure is that, when the first Pharaohs of the New Empire invaded and colonized the entire area down to Kurgus *19 (more than 1000 km alongside the Nile, south of the present Sudanese – Egyptian border), they established two top Egyptian administrative positions, namely “Viceroy of Wawat” and “Viceroy of Kush/Kas”. Wawat is the area between Aswan and Abu Simbel or properly speaking, the area between the first and the second cataracts, whereas Kas is all the land that lies beyond. With the collapse of the Kerma culture, comes to end a first high-level culture and powerful state in the area of Kush.

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We employ the term ‘Kushitic Period’ *20 to refer to the subsequent periods:

a) the Egyptian annexation (1500 – 950 BCE), which involved a permanent effort to egyptianize Kush that triggered in turn ceaseless Kushitic revolutions against the Pharaohs,

Slide12

b) the Kushitic independence (950 – 800 BCE), when a separate state was formed around Napata *21, present day Karima, 750 km south of the Sudanese – Egyptian border,

Slide11

c) the Kushitic expansion and involvement in Egypt (800 – 670 BCE, which corresponds mostly to the XXVth – ‘Ethiopian’ (meaning literally Sudanese) according to Manetho *22 – dynasty of Egypt, when the Theban clergy of Amun made an alliance with the Kushitic ‘Qore’, i.e. the Kings of Napata, who ruled Kush and Upper Egypt based on their two capitals, Napata and Thebes *23, (the alliance was directed against the pact that the Heliopolitan clergy of Ra had made with the Libyan princes who thus strengthened the separate state of Lower Egypt),

Slide14

d) the Kushitic expulsion from Egypt, following the three successive invasions of Egypt by Emperors Assarhaddon *24 (in 671 BCE) and Assurbanipal *25 (in 669 BCE and 666 BCE) of Assyria, who made an alliance with the Heliopolitan *26 priesthood and the Libyan princes against the Theban clergy and the Kushitic kings, and

Slide15

e) the subsequent Kushitic state’s decline – period during which took place the successive invasions led by Psamtik/Psammetichus II of Egypt *27 (in 591 BCE) and by the Achaemenid *28 Persian Shah Kambudjiyah / Cambyses *29 (in 525 BCE).

Slide16

Slide17

The entire Kushitic period is considered as terminated with the completion of the transfer of the capital city at a much safer (and more distant from Egypt) location far in the south, namely at Meroe, in the area of present day Bagrawiyah beyond the point whereby Atbarah river unites with the Greater Nile. This event occurred at the end of the reign of Qore (King) Nastasen *30 between 335 and 315 BCE.

Slide2

We call ‘Meroitic’ the entire period that covers almost 700 years beginning around 260 BCE with the reign of the successors of Nastasen, notably Arkamaniqo / Ergamenes *31 (the most illustrious among the earliest ones and the first to be buried at Meroe / Bagrawiyah), and ending with the end of Meroe and the destruction of the Meroitic royal cities by the Axumite Abyssinian Negus Ezana *32 (ca. 370 CE). It is easily understood that the ‘Kushitic’ period antedates ‘Meroitic’ period, but both appellations are quite conventional.

The ancient people of Kush (or Ethiopia) entered into a period of cultural, intellectual, and scriptorial radiation and authenticity relatively late, around the third century BCE, which means that the development took place when Meroe replaced Napata as capital of the Kushites / Meroites. Before that moment, the ancient people of Kush (or Ethiopia) used Egyptian hieroglyphic writing for all their scriptorial purposes, be they administrative, economic, religious and/or monumental – royal. The introduction of the Meroitic alphabetic hieroglyphic writing spearheaded the development of a Meroitic cursive alphabetic scripture that was used for less magnificent purposes than palatial and sacred relief inscriptions. The first person to publish copies of Meroitic inscriptions (then unidentified) was the French architect Gau *33, who visited Northern Sudan as early as 1819. Quite unfortunately, almost two centuries after the discovery of the first Meroitic inscriptions, we are left in mysteries with regard to the greatest part of the contents of the epigraphic evidence collected in both scriptural systems.

The earliest dated Meroitic hieroglyphic inscriptions belong to the reign of the ruling queen Shanakdakheto *34 (about 177-155 BCE), but archaeologists believe that this scripture represents the later phase of a language spoken by Kushites / Meroites at least as far back as 750 BCE and possibly many centuries or even millennia before that (hinting therefore at a Kushitic / Ethiopian continuity from the earliest Kerma days at the end of the 3rd millennium BCE). The earliest examples of Meroitic cursive inscriptions, recently found by Charles Bonnet in Dukki Gel (REM 1377-78) *35, can also be dated in the early 2nd century BCE. The latest text is still probably the famous inscription from Kalabsha (Ancient Egyptian Talmis) mentioning King Kharamadoye (REM 0094) *36, which dates back to the beginning of the fifth century CE, although some funeral texts from Ballana *37 could be contemporary or even posterior.

Slide19

Despite the fact that F. L. Griffith identified the twenty three (23) Meroitic alphabetic writing signs already in 1909, not much progress has been made towards the ultimate decipherment of the Meroitic *38. Scarcity of epigraphic evidence plays a certain role in this regard, since as late as the year 2000 we were not able to accumulate more than 1278 texts in all types of Meroitic writing. If we now add to this fact the lack of lengthy texts, the lack of any bilingual text (not necessarily Egyptian /Meroitic, it could also be Ancient Greek / Meroitic, if we take into consideration that Arkamaniqo / Ergamenes *39 was personally well versed in Greek), and a certain lack of academic vision, we understand why the state of our knowledge about the history of the Ancient Meroites is still so limited.

Slide21

Linguistics and parallels from other languages have been repeatedly set in motion in order to help the academic research. Griffith and Haycock *40 tried to read Meroitic, through use of (modern) Nubian – quite unsuccessfully. K.H. Priese *41 tried to read the Meroitic texts, using Eastern Sudanese (Beja *42 or Hadendawa *43) languages – also unsuccessfully. On the other hand, F. Hintze *44, attempted to compare Meroitic with the Ural-Altaic group (Turko-Mongolian languages) to no avail. More recently, Siegbert Hummel *45, compared the “known” Meroitic words to words attested in languages of the Altaic family which he believed was a substrate language of Meroitic; as this hypothesis is totally wrong, no result came out of this effort. At times, scholars (like Clyde Winters *46) were driven to farfetched interpretations, attempting to equate Meroitic with Tokharian, after assuming a possible relationship between the names Kush and Kushan *47, the latter being the appellation of a sizeable Eastern Iranian state of the late Arsacid *48 (250 BCE – 224 CE) and early Sassanid *49 (224 – 651 CE) times. However, one has to conclude that the bulk of the researchers working on the Meroitic language never believed that the language of the Ancient Sudanese (Ethiopians) could ever be a member of the so-called Afro-Asiatic group of languages (the term itself being very wrong and quite fraudulent).

Slide22

So far, the only Meroitic words for which a solid translation had been given by Griffith and his successors are the following: man, woman, meat, bread, water, give, big, abundant, good, sister, brother, wife, mother, child, begotten, born, feet. The eventual equivalence between Egyptian and Meroitic texts was a strong motivation for any interpretational approach, recent or not. More recent, but still dubious, suggestions are the following: arohe- ‘protect’, hr- ‘eat’, pwrite ‘life’, yer ‘milk’, ar ‘boy’, are- or dm- ‘take, receive’, dime ‘cow’, hlbi ‘bull’, ns(e) ‘sacrifice’, sdk ‘journey’, tke- ‘love, revere’, we ‘dog’. It is clear that vocalization remains a real problem *50.

Slide23

Through the aforementioned we realize why collective works, like Fontes Historiae Nubiorum. Textual Sources for the History of the Middle Nile Region (vols. I – IV, edited by T. Eide, T. Haegg, R.H. Pierce, and L. Torok, University of Bergen, Bergen 1994, 1996. 1998 and 2000), are still seminal for our – unfortunately indirect, as based on Ancient Egyptian, Greek, Latin and Coptic texts – knowledge of Ancient Meroe.

Slide26

2. The End of Meroe

Amidst numerous unclear points of the Kushitic / Meroitic (Ancient Sudanese / Ethiopian) History, the end of Meroe and the consequences under which it happened still remain a most controversial point among scholars. Quite indicatively, we may mention here the main efforts of historical reconstitution.

Slide27

A. Arkell, Sayce and others asserted that Meroe was captured and destroyed, following one military expedition led by Ezana of Axum.

B. Reisner insisted that, after Ezana’s invasion and victory, Meroe remained a state under another dynasty tributary to Axum.

C. Monneret de Villard and Hintze affirmed that Meroe was totally destroyed already before Ezana’s invasion, due to another, earlier Axumite Abyssinian raid.

D. Torok, Shinnie, Kirwan, Haegg and others concluded that Meroe was defeated by a predecessor of Ezana, and continued existing as a vassal state.

E. Bechhaus-Gerst specified that Meroe was invaded prior to Ezana’s raid, and that the Axumite invasion did not reach further lands north of Meroe *51.

naqa-sudan

With two fragmentary inscriptions from Meroe, one from Axum, two graffitos from Kawa and Meroe, and one coin being all the evidence we have so far, we have little to properly reconstruct the details that led to the collapse of Meroe. One relevant source, the Inscription of Ezana (DAE 11, the ‘monotheistic’ inscription in vocalized Ge’ez), *52 remains a somewhat controversial historical source to be useful in this regard. The legendary Monumentum Adulitanum *53, lost but copied in a confused way by Cosmas Indicopleustes *54, may not shed light at all on this event. One point is sure, however: there was never a generalized massacre of the Meroitic inhabitants of the lands conquered by Ezana. The aforementioned DAE 11 inscription mentions just 758 Meroites killed by the Axumite forces.

map_of_sudan__new_

What is even more difficult to comprehend is the reason behind the scarcity of population attested on Meroitic lands in the aftermath of Ezana’s raid. The post-Meroitic and pre-Christian, transitional, phase of Sudan’s history is called X-Group *55 or Period, and also Ballana Period; this atypical appellation underscores the lack to historical insight that happens once more in the History of Ancient Sudan (Ethiopia).

Slide29

During the Ballana Period (X-Group) and contrarily to what happened for many centuries of Meroitic History, when the Meroitic South (the area between today’s Shendi *56 and Atbarah *57 in modern Sudan with the entire hinterland of Butana that was called Insula Meroe / Nesos Meroe, i.e. Island Meroe in the Antiquity) was overpopulated comparatively with the Meroitic North {the area between Napata / Karima and Abu Simbel *58 or further in the North, Aswan *59 (the area between Aswan and Abu Simbel was then called Triakontaschoinos *60 and politically, it was divided between Meroe and the Roman Empire)}, the previously under-populated area (i.e. the Meroitic North) gives us the impression of a more densely peopled region, if compared to the previous center of Meroitic power and population density (the Meroitic South). The new situation contradicts therefore the earlier descriptions and narrations by Dio Cassius *61 and Strabo *62.

Slide32

Furthermore, the name ‘Ballana period’ is quite indicative in this regard, because Ballana is located on Egyptian soil, whereas not far, south of the present Sudanese – Egyptian border, lies Karanog with its famous tumuli that bear evidence of Nubian (not Kushitic / Meroitic) upper hand in terms of social anthropology. The southernmost counterpart of Karanog culture can be found in Tangassi (nearby Karima, which represented the ‘North’ for what was the center of the earlier Meroitic power). This means that for the period immediately after the destruction of Meroe (ca. 370 CE), the Meroitic North offers the archaeological evidence that serves to name the entire period (Ballana Period), whereas the Meroitic South seems to have been totally uninhabited.

In addition, in terms of culture, X-Group heralds a total break with the Meroitic tradition, with the Nubians and the Blemmyes/Beja outnumbering the Meroitic remnants and imposing a completely different cultural and socio-anthropological milieu out of which would later emanate the first and single Nubian state in the World History: Nobatia.

Much confusion characterized modern scholars when referring to Kush or Meroe by using the modern term ‘Nubia’. By now, it is clear that the Nubians lived since times immemorial in both Egypt and the Sudan, being part of the history of these two lands. However, the Nubians are a Nilo-Saharan ethno-linguistic group different from the Hamitic Kushites / Meroites. At the times of X-Group and during the long centuries of Christian Sudan, we have the opportunity to attest the differences and the divergence between the Nubians and the Meroitic remnants.

Following the collapse of the Meroitic state, the epicenter of the Nubian land, i.e. the area between the first (Aswan) and the third (Kerma) cataracts, rose to independence and prominence first, with capital at Faras, nearby the present day Sudanese – Egyptian border, around 450 CE. Nobatia institutionalized Coptic as religious (Christian) and administrative language, and Nubian language remained an oral only means of communication. The Nobatian control in the areas south of the third cataract was vague, nominal and precarious. Nobatia was linked with the Coptic (‘Monophysitic’) Patriarchate of Alexandria.

Slide38

This means something very important for the Christian History of Sudan (Ethiopia); Christianization did not come from Abyssinia, and there was no cultural or religious impact exercised by Axum on (Ethiopia) Sudan. As in pre-Christian times, Ethiopia remained the absolute opposite of Abyssinia. In the true, historical Ethiopia (Sudan), Christianization came from the North (Egypt). Abyssinia (which cannot be called ‘Ethiopia’ and which has absolutely no right to the name of Ethiopia) was a marginal and isolated, tiny and mountainous state that basically controlled the land between Axum and Adulis (on the Red Sea shore). And King Ezana’s invasion and destruction of Meroe was an occasional and inconsequential event that did not bring forth any immediate major result.

The Meroitic remnants underscored their difference from the Nubians / Nobatians, and the depopulated central part of the defunct state of Meroe rose to independence only later, in the first decades of the sixth century. Its name, Makuria, is in this regard a linguistic reminiscence of the name ‘Meroe’, but we cannot know its real origin and meaning. The remnant of the Meroitic populations inhabited the northern circumference of Makuria more densely, and the gravitation center revolved around Old Dongola (580 km south of Wadi Halfa), capital of this Christian Orthodox state that extended from Kerma to Shendi (the area of the sixth cataract), so for more than 1000 km alongside the Nile. But beyond the area of Karima (750 km in the south of Wadi Halfa) and the nearby famous Makurian monastery at Al Ghazali we have very scarce evidence of Christian antiquities. The old African metropolis of Meroe remained at the periphery of both, the Kushitic Ethiopian states of Makuria and Alodia and the Semitic Abyssinian state of Axum.

Makurians highlighted their ideological – religious divergence from the Nubians, by adopting Greek, not Coptic, as religious language. They even introduced a new scripture for their Makurian language that seems to have been a later phase of Meroitic. Makurian was written in alphabetic Greek signs. Risen at a time of Christological disputes and theological conflicts that brought about a forceful polarization between the Greek Orthodox and the Coptic ‘Monophysitic’ Patriarchates of Alexandria, the state and the Christian church of Makuria sided with the Greek Patriarchate of Alexandria, in striking opposition to the Nobatian state and church that allied themselves with the Coptic Patriarchate of Alexandria.

Further in the South, Alodia has long been called by modern scholars as the ‘third Christian state’ of Sudan, but recent discoveries in Soba, its capital (15 km at the east of Khartoum), suggest that Alodia rose first to independence (around 500 CE) and later adhered to Christianity (around 580 – 600 CE), following evangelization efforts deployed by missionary Nobatian priests (possibly in a sort of anti-Makurian religious diplomacy). In general, we know little about Alodia (or Aluwah or Alwa), and we actually don’t know whether they used a particular Alodian writing system.

The later phases of the History of Christian Ethiopia (Sudan) encompass the Nobatian – Makkurian merge (around 1000 CE), which was necessary for the two Christian states to defend themselves against the Islamic pressure coming manly from the North (Egypt), the islamization of Makkuria in 1317, and finally, the late collapse of Christian Alodia in 1505.

The question remains unanswered until today:

– What happened to the bulk of the Meroitic population, i.e. the inhabitants of the Insula Meroe, the present day Butana? What occurred to the Meroites living between the fourth and the sixth cataracts after the presumably brief raid of Ezana of Axum, and the subsequent destruction of Meroe, Mussawarat es Sufra, Naqah, Wad ben Naqah, Basa and all the other important cities of the Meroitic heartland?

3. Reconstruction of the Post-Meroitic History of the Kushitic Oromo Nation

Certainly, the motives of Ezana’s raid have not yet been properly studied and assessed by modern scholarship. The reasons for the raid may vary from a simple nationalistic usurpation of the name of ‘Ethiopia’ (Kush), which would give a certain Christian eschatological legitimacy to the Axumite Abyssinian kingdom, to the needs of international politics (at the end of 4th c. CE) and the eventuality of an Iranian – Yemenite (Himyaritic) – Meroitic alliance at the times of Shapur II (310 – 379), aimed at outweighing the Eastern Roman – Abyssinian bond.

Yet, this Iranian – Sudanese political alliance may have been only the later phase of a time-honored Iranian infiltration that could have taken the form of an (easily assessable by both civilizations and nations, the Meroites and the Iranians) heliocentric theology and imperial ideology. No less than 300-350 years before Ezana’s raid and destruction of Meroe, the famous Jebel Qeili reliefs of Shorakaror mark an impressive penetration of Mithraic artistic and religious concepts and forms.

Slide45

Whatever the reasons of Ezana’s raid may have been, we can be quite sure, when it comes to the destruction of Meroe, about two determinant points that impose a fresh approach and interpretation of the historical development:

a) the absence of any large-scale massacre is evident, and

b) the impressive scarcity of population in the old, central Meroitic provinces is a fact for the period that follows Ezana’s raid and the destruction of Meroe.

The only plausible explanation is that the scarcity of population in the Meroitic mainland after Meroe’s destruction must be due to a large scale migration to safer areas far from the reach of the king of Axum.

The only explanation to match the historical facts and the archeological evidence is that, following Ezana’s raid, the Meroites in their outright majority (at least for the inhabitants of Meroe’s southern provinces) fled and migrated to areas where they would stay independent from the Semitic Abyssinian kingdom of Christian Axum. This explanation hinges on the best utilization and interpretation of the already existing historical – archaeological data.

From archeological evidence, it becomes clear that during X-Group phase and throughout the Makurian period (so for many long centuries) the former heartland of Meroe remained mostly uninhabited. The end of Meroe is definitely very abrupt, and this makes obvious that Meroe’s driving force had gone elsewhere. The correct question would then be ‘where to’?

There is no evidence of Meroites sailing the Nile downwards to the area of the 4th (Karima) and the 3rd (Kerma) cataracts, which was earlier the northern circumference of Meroe and remained totally untouched by Ezana. There is no textual evidence in Greek, Latin and/or Coptic to testify to such a migratory movement toward the North. Christian Roman Egypt would certainly be an incredible direction, but if this had been the case, the migration would have been recorded in some texts and monuments due to its importance. To the above, we have to add the impossibility of marching to the heartland of Abyssinia, because this must have been for the migrating Meroites the only direction to avoid, and again if it had occurred, it would have been mentioned in some historical sources, Ge’ez, Coptic, Syriac, Greek or Latin.

Having therefore excluded all the migration alternatives as per above, we can examine the remaining possibilities. The migrating Meroites could therefore have a) gone either to the vast areas of the Eastern and the Western deserts , b) entered the African jungle or c) ultimately searched for a possibly free land that, being arable and good for pasture, would keep them far from the sphere of the Christian Axumites.

It would be very erroneous and highly unlikely to expect settled people to move to the desert. Such an eventuality would be a unique oxymoron in the History of the Mankind. Nomadic peoples move from the steppes, the savannas and the deserts to other parts of the steppes, the savannas and the deserts or preferably to fertile lands and settle there, at times crossing really long distances. However, settled people, if under pressure, move to other fertile lands that offer them the possibility of cultivation and pasture. When dispersed by the invading Sea Peoples, the Hittites moved from Anatolia to Northwestern Mesopotamia, crossing long distances; they did not cross shorter distance to settle in the small part of Central Anatolia that happened to be desert. The few scholars, who may think that Meroitic continuity can be found among the present day Beja and Hadendawa, are oblivious to the aforementioned reality that was never contravened throughout World History. In addition, the Blemmyes had never been friendly to the Meroites. Every now and then, they had attacked parts of the Nile valley and the Meroites had had to repulse them thence. It would rather be inconceivable for the Meroitic population, after seeing Meroe sacked by Ezana, to move to a land where life would be far more difficult and, in addition, enemies would wait them!

At this point, we should briefly examine Meroe’s surrounding environment, how it is today, and how it was before 1650 years, at the times of king Ezana’s raid. Modern technologies help historians and archeologists better reconstruct the ancient world; paleo-botanists, geologists, geo-chemists, paleo-entomologists, and other specialized natural scientists are of great help in this regard. It is essential to stress here that the entire environmental milieu of Sudan was very different during the times of the Late Antiquity that we examine in our approach. Butana may look like a wasteland nowadays, and the Pyramids of Bagrawiyah may be sunk in the sand, whereas Mussawarat es Sufra and Naqah truly demand a real effort in crossing the desert. However, in the first centuries of Christian era, the entire landscape was dramatically different.

During the Meroitic and Christian times, the entire Butana region, delineated by the rivers Atbarah in the northeast, United Nile in the north-northwest, and Blue Nile in southwest, was not a desert, but a very fertile and extensively cultivated land. We have actually found remains of reservoirs, aqueducts, various hydraulic installations, irrigation systems, and canals in Meroe and elsewhere. Not far from Mussawarat es Sufra there must have been an enclosure where captive elephants were trained before being transported to Ptolemais Theron (present day Suakin, 50 km south of Port Sudan) and then further on to Alexandria. Desert was in the vicinity, certainly, but not that close.

We should not imagine that Ezana crossed desert areas, moving from the vicinities of Agordat, Tesseney (both cities being located in Eritrea), and Kessala (in Sudan) to Atbarah and Bagrawiyah, as we would do today. These lands were either forested or cultivated and used as pasturelands. For what the Meroitic Ethiopian state was in the middle – second half of the 4th c. CE, its capital was located quite close to the Abyssinian borders in the mountains beyond the modern Sudanese city of Kessala; the distance between the two capitals, Meroe and Axum, was much smaller than the distance between Meroe and its northern borders with the Christian Eastern Roman Empire.

In fact, the end of the Meroitic state is a historical irony; it was established with the transfer of capital from Napata to Meroe, ca. 750 years earlier, an act which was due to defense reasons and imposed only after the 6th c. BCE attacks that originated from the North (Egypt). By transferring their capital far to the southeast, the Ancient Kushites / Meroites of Ethiopia (Sudan) made it impregnable from the North; but by so doing, they exposed their capital to an attack from the southeast. However, one has to admit that, at the times of the Ethiopian – Kushitic capital transfer to the southeast (5th – 4th c. BCE), the presence of the Yemenite tribe of Habashat in the African coast land of Eritrea was insignificant and Axum did not exist.

Further expanding on the natural environment of the Ancient Meroites, we have to add that it would be highly unlikely for anyone to attempt to cross at that time the lands south of present day Khartoum, alongside the White Nile. In ancient times, impenetrable jungle started immediately in the south of Khartoum, and cities like El Obeid, Kosti, Sinnar, and Jabalayn are today located on deforested soil.

Contrarily to the aforementioned improbabilities (desert, jungle), the southernmost confines of the Meroitic state offered a certain possibility for migration, since pasturelands and arable land could be found alongside the Blue Nile Valley. Reaching that area, they would achieve safety from Axumite Abyssinia due to the greater distance.

Jungle signified death in the Antiquity, and even armies feared to cross forests and be forced to stay overnight there. We therefore have good reason to believe that, following Ezana’s raid, the Meroites, rejecting the perspective of forced christening, moved first southwestwards up to Khartoum. From there, they proceeded southeastwards alongside the Blue Nile in a direction that would keep them always safe and far from the Axumite Abyssinians whose state did not expand at those days as far in the south as Gondar and Tana Lake. Proceeding in this way and crossing successively areas of modern cities like Wad Madani, Sennar, Damazin, and Asosa, and from there on, they expanded in later times over the various parts of Biyya Oromo.

We do not imply that the migration was completed in the span of one lifetime; quite contrarily, we have reasons to believe that the establishment of Alodia (or Alwa) is rather due to the progressive waves of Meroitic migrants who settled first in the area of Khartoum that was out of the southwestern confines of the Meroitic state. Only when Christianization became a matter of concern for the evangelizing Nobatians, and the two Christian Sudanese states of Nobatia and Makuria were already strong, the chances of preserving the pre-Christian Meroitic cultural heritage in the area around Soba (capital of Alodia) became truly poor. Then, perhaps more than 100 years after the first migration, another wave of migration took place with the early Alodian Meroites proceeding as far in the southeast as Damazin and Asosa, areas that remained always beyond the southern border of Alodia (presumably between Khartoum and Wad Madani). Like this, the second migratory Meroitic Alodian) wave may have entered around 600 CE in the area where the Oromos, descendents of the migrated Meroites, still live today.

A great number of changes at the cultural – intellectual – behavioral levels are to be expected, when a settled people migrates to faraway lands. The Phoenicians had kings in Tyre, Byblos and their other cities – states in today’s Lebanese and Syrian coast lands, but they introduced a democratic system when they sailed faraway and colonized various parts of the Mediterranean. In their colonies, there were no more kings.

Ezana’s raid ended up with the extermination of some garrison and the Meroitic royal family. The collapse of the Meroitic royalty was an unprecedented event and a greater shock for the Nile valley. The Christian kingdoms of Nobatia, Makuria and Alodia were all ruled by kings whose power was to great extent conditioned and counterbalanced by that of the Christian clergy.

With the Meroitic royal family decimated by Ezana, it is quite possible that high priests of Apedemak and Amani (Amun) took much of the administrative responsibility in their hands, inciting people to migrate and establishing a form of collective and representative authority among the Meroitic – Alodian Elders who thus retained the sacerdotal heritage without a royal – palatial contextualization. They may even have preserved the royal title of Qore within completely different socio-anthropological context and thus made it known to the ancestors of today’s Somalis when the next waves of migration brought the two Kushitic nations close to one another; and the Somalis preserved the term a Boqor within their language until our times.

4. Call for Comparative Meroitic-Oromo Studies

How can this approach, interpretation, and conclusion be corroborated up to the point of becoming a generally accepted historical reconstitution at the academic level? On what axes should one group of researchers work to collect detailed documentation in support of the Meroitic ancestry of the Oromos?

Quite strangely, I would not give priority to the linguistic approach. The continuity of a language can prove many things, and at the same time, it can prove nothing. Today’s Bulgarians are of Uralo-Altaic Turco-Mongolian origin, but, after they settled in Eastern Balkans, they were linguistically slavicized. Most of the Greeks are Albanians, Slavs, and Vlachians, who were greecized linguistically. Most of the Turks in Turkey are Greeks and Anatolians, who were turkicized linguistically.

People can preserve their own language in various degrees and forms. For the case of languages preserved throughout millennia, we notice tremendous changes and differences. Within the context of Ancient Greece, Plato who lived in the 5th – 4th c. BCE could never understand the Achaean Greek dialect which was spoken 800 years earlier at Myceanae and written by means of what we call today ‘Linear B’ (a syllabic, not alphabetic, writing system).

Egyptian hieroglyphics as a Holy Language (the Ancient Egyptian name of this writing system was ‘medu netsher’ which meant ‘the words of the God’) and as a sacerdotal scripture favored a certain archaism and a constant linguistic purification. However, we can be sure that for later Pharaohs, like Taharqa the Kushite (the most illustrious ruler of the Kushitic – Sudanese / Ethiopian dynasty), Psamtik and Nechao (the rulers of the ‘Libyan’ dynasty), and Ptolemy II and Cleopatra VII (of the Macedonian Ptolemaic dynasty), a Pyramid text (that antedated them by 1700 to 2300 years) would almost be incomprehensible.

A. National diachronic continuity is better attested and more markedly noticed in terms of Culture, Religion and Philosophical – Behavioral system. The first circle of comparative research should encompass the world of the Kushitic / Meroitic and Oromo concepts, anything that relates to the Weltanschauung of the two cultural units/groups under study; this should involve a religious-historical comparison between the Ancient Kushitic / Meroitic religion and Waaqeffannaa. A common view of basic themes of life and a common perception of the world, same virtues and values, shared concepts and principles would bring a significant corroboration of the Meroitic ancestry of the Oromos. So, first it is a matter of history of religions, African philosophy, social anthropology, ethnography and culture history.

B. Archeological research can help tremendously too. At this point, one has to state that the critical area for the reconstruction of the suggested Meroitic migration did not attract the interest of Egyptologists, and of archaeologists specializing in Meroitic and Sudanese Antiquities. The area was indeed marginal to both civilizations, and to some extent it is normal that it did not attract scholars who could easily unearth other monumental sites elsewhere and have more spectacular results. The Blue Nile valley in Sudan and Abyssinia was never the subject of an archeological survey, and the same concerns the Oromo highlands. Certainly modern archeologists prefer something concrete that would lead them fast to a great discovery, being therefore very different from the pioneering 19th c. archeologists. An archeological surface survey would therefore be necessary in the Blue Nile valley and in the Oromo highlands in the years to come.

C. A linguistic – epigraphic approach may bring forth even more spectacular results. It could eventually end up with a complete decipherment of the Meroitic, and of the Makurian. An effort must be made to read the Meroitic texts, hieroglyphic and cursive, with the help of Oromo language. Meroitic personal names and toponymics must be studied in the light of a potential Oromo interpretation. Comparative linguistics may unveil affinities that will lead to reconsideration of the work done so far in the Meroitic decipherment.

D. Last but not least, another dimension would be added to the project with the initiation of comparative anthropological studies. Data extracted from findings in the Meroitic cemeteries must be compared with data provided by the anthropological study of present day Oromos. The research must encompass pictorial documentation from the various Meroitic temples’ bas-reliefs.

To all these I would add a better reassessment of the existing historical sources, but this is not a critical dimension of this research project.

I believe my call for Comparative Meroitic – Oromo Studies reached the correct audience that can truly evaluate the significance of the ultimate corroboration of the Meroitic Ancestry of the Oromos, as well as the magnificent consequences that such a corroboration would have in view of

a) the forthcoming Kushitic Palingenesia – or Renaissance if you want – across Africa,

b) the establishment of a Post -Colonial African Historiography, and – last but not least –

c) the Liberation of Oromia and the Representation of the Ancient Kushitic Nation in the United Nations.

Slide63

Notes

1. To those having the slightest doubt, trying for purely political reasons and evil speculation to include territories of the modern state of Abyssinia into what the Ancient Greeks and Romans called ‘Aethiopia’, the academically authoritative entry Aethiopia in Pauly-Wissowa, Realenzyklopadie der klassischen Altertumwissenschaft consists in the best and irrevocable answer.

2. http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/information … karl.html;http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Karl_Richard_Lepsius; parts of the Denkmaeler are already available online: http://edoc3.bibliothek.uni-halle.de/bo … start.html. Also:http://encyclopedia.jrank.org/LEO_LOB/L … 1884_.html. The fact that the farthermost point of ‘Ethiopia’ that he reached was Khartoum is of course quite telling.

3. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/E._A._Wallis_Budge; he wrote among the rest a book on his Meroe excavations’ results, The Egyptian Sudan: its History and Monuments (London, 1907).

4. Mythical figure of the British Orientalism, Garstang excavated in England, Turkey, Syria, Palestine, Egypt and the Sudan; Albright, William Foxwell: “John Garstang in Memoriam”, Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research, No. 144. (Dec., 1956), pp. 7-8; Garstang’s major articles on his Meroe excavations are the following: ‘Preliminary Note on an Expedition to Meroe in Ethiopia’, Annals of Archaeology and Anthropology 3 (1911 – a), ‘Second Interim Report on the Excavations at Meroe in Ethiopia, I. Excavations’, Annals of Archaeology and Anthropology 4 (1911 – b), ‘Third Interim Report on the Excavations at Meroe in Ethiopia’, Annals of Archaeology and Anthropology 5 (1912), ‘Forth Interim Report on the Excavations at Meroe in Ethiopia’, Annals of Archaeology and Anthropology 6 (1913), and ‘Fifth Interim Report on the Excavations at Meroe in Ethiopia’, Annals of Archaeology and Anthropology 7 (1914). His major contribution was published in the same year under the title ‘Meroe, the City of Ethiopians’ (Oxford). A leading Meroitologist, Laszlo Torok wrote an entire volume on Garstang’s excavations at Meroe: Meroe City, an Ancient African Capital: John Garstang’s Excavations in the Sudan.

5. Griffith was the epigraphist of Grastand and had already published the epigraphic evidence unearthed at Meroe in the chapter entitled ‘the Inscriptions from Meroe’ in Garstang’s ‘Meroe, the City of Ethiopians’. After many pioneering researches and excavations in various parts of Egypt and Northern Sudan, Faras, Karanog, Napata and Philae to name but a few, Griffith concentrated on Kerma: ‘Excavations at Kawa’, Sudan Notes and Records 14.

6. Basically: http://www.sag-online.de/pdf/mittsag9.5.pdf; among other contributions: Die Inschriften des Loewentempels von Musawwarat es Sufra, Berlin (1962); Vorbericht ueber die Ausgrabungen des Instituts fuer Aegyptologie der Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin in Musawwarat es Sufra, 1960-1961 (1962); ‘Musawwarat es Sufra – Preliminary Report on the Excavations of the Institute of Egyptology, Humboldt University, Berlin, 1961-1962 (Third Season)’, Kush 11 (1963); ‘Preliminary Note on the Epigraphic Expedition to Sudanese Nubia, 1962′, Kush 11 (1963); ‘Preliminary note on the Epigraphic Expedition to Sudanese Nubia, 1963′, Kush 13 (1965)

7. As regards my French professor’s publications about his excavations at Sudan: Soleb and Sedeinga in Lexikon der Aegyptologie 5, Wiesbaden 1984 (entries contributed by J. Leclant himself); also J. Leclant, Les reconnaissances archéologiques au Soudan, in: Etudes nubiennes I, 57-60.

8. His recent volume Sudan: Ancient Kingdoms of the Nile, Paris/New York (1997) contains earlier bibliography.

9. Some of his most authoritative publications: ‘A History of the Sudan from the Earliest Times to 1821′, 1961 (2nd Ed.), London; ”The Valley of the Nile’, in: The Dawn of African History, R. Oliver (ed.), London. Arkell is mostly renowned for his monumental ‘The Royal Cemeteries of Kush’ in many volumes.

10. Presentation of his ‘Ancient Nubia’ in: http://www.keganpaul.com/product_info.p … cts_id=33; for a non exhaustive list of Shinnie’s publications:http://www.arkamani.org/bibliography%20 … ia2.htm#S; see also a presentation of a volume on Meroe, edited by Shinnie et alii: http://www.harrassowitz-verlag.de/mcgi/ … 1163879905{haupt_harrassowitz= http://www.harrassowitz-verlag.de/acgi/a.cgi?alayout=489&ausgabe=detail&aref=353.

11. Many of his publications are listed here: http://www.arkamani.org/bibliography%20 … ia2.htm#S; also here: http://www.arkamani.org/bibliography%20 … ypt4.htm#T. In the Eighth International Conference for Meroitic Studies, L. Torok spoke about ‘The End of Meroe’; the speech will be included in the arkamani online project, here:http://www.arkamani.org/arkamani-librar … -meroe.htm

12. Useful reading: http://www.culturekiosque.com/art/exhib … souda.htm; also:http://www.nubianet.org/about/about_history4.html; see also the entry ‘Kush’ in Lexikon der Aegyptologie and the Encyclopedia Judaica. More specifically about the Egyptian Hieroglyphic and the Hebrew writings of the name of Kush:http://www.specialtyinterests.net/journey_to_nubia.html. For more recent bibliography:http://blackhistorypages.net/pages/kush.php. Also:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cush%2C_son_of_Ham.

13. Basic bibliography in: http://www.arkamani.org/bibliography%20 … y_a_b.htm;http://oi.uchicago.edu/OI/PROJ/NUB/NUBX … chure.html. More particularly on Qustul, and the local Group A Cemetery that was discovered in the 60s by Dr. Keith Seele:http://www.homestead.com/wysinger/qustul.html (by Bruce Beyer Williams). Quite interesting approach by Clyde Winters as regards an eventual use of Egyptian Hieroglyphics in Group A Nubia, 200 years before the system was introduced in Egypt:http://www.geocities.com/Tokyo/Bay/7051/anwrite.htm.

14. Brief info: http://www.nubianet.org/about/about_history3_1.html; see also:http://oi.uchicago.edu/OI/IS/RITNER/Nubia_2005.html; more recently several scholars consider Group B as an extension of Group A (GRATIEN, Brigitte, La Basse Nubie a l’ Ancien Empire: Egyptiens et autochtones, JEA 81 (1995), 43-56).

15.Readings:http://www.cartage.org.lb/en/themes/geoghist/histories/oldcivilization/Egyptology/Nubia/nubiad1.htm; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sneferu; ht … %20Snefrue),%201st%20King%20of%20Egypt’s%204th%20Dynasty.htm (with bibliography);http://www.narmer.pl/dyn/04en.htm; for the Palermo stone inscription where we have the Nubia expedition narrative: http://www.britannica.com/ebi/article-9332360;http://www.ancient-egypt.org/index.html (click on the Palermo Stone);http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Palermo_stone (with related bibliography).

16. Readings: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nubian_C-Group; (the title being however very wrong because this culture was not Nubian) http://www.numibia.net/nubia/c-group.htm;http://www.gustavianum.uu.se/sje/sjeexh.htm andhttp://www.hp.uab.edu/image_archive/ta/tae.html (with designs and pictures);http://www.ancientsudan.org/03_burials_02_early.htm (with focus on Group C burials and burial architecture); see also: http://www.ualberta.ca/~nlovell/nubia.htm;http://www.dignubia.org/maps/timeline/bce-2300a.htm

17. References in the Lexikon der Aegyptologie. See also:http://www.nigli.net/akhenaten/wawat_1.html; one of the related sources: The Story of an Egyptian Politician, published by T. G. Allen, in: American Journal of Semitic Languages and Literatures, Vol. 38, No. 1 (Oct., 1921), pp. 55-62; Texts relating to Egyptian expeditions in Yam and Irtet: http://www.osirisnet.net/tombes/assouan … rkouf.htm;http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Medjay; more in ‘Ancient Nubia: Egypt’s Rival in Africa’ (Paperback) by David O’ Connor, http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/092417 … 67-0196731.

18. Brief description: http://www.anth.ucsb.edu/faculty/stsmit … erma.html;http://www.spicey.demon.co.uk/Nubianpag … htm#French (with several interesting links);http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kingdom_of_Kerma (brief but with recent bibliography containing some of Bonnet’s publications)

19. Vivian Davies, ‘La frontiere meridionale de l’ Empire : Les Egyptiens a Kurgus, in: Bulletin de la Societe francaise d’ Egyptologie, 2003, no157, pp. 23-37 (http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=15281726); about the ongoing British excavations:http://www.sudarchrs.org.uk/page17.html; about the inscription of Thutmosis I:http://thutmosis_i.know-library.net; also: http://www.meritneith.de/politik_neuesreich.htm, andhttp://www.aegyptologie.com/forum/cgi-b … 0514112733.

20. In brief and with images: http://www.hp.uab.edu/image_archive/um/umj.html; also:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kush (with selected recent bibliography) andhttp://www.mfa.org/collections/search_a … kage=26155 (for art visualization). The period is also called Napatan, out of the Kushitic state capital’s name:http://www.homestead.com/wysinger/kingaspalta.html.

21. To start with: http://www.bartleby.com/67/99.html; http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9054804/Napata; http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/archaeology … apata.html (including references); most authoritative presentation by Timothy Kendall ‘Gebel Barkal and Ancient Napata’ in: http://www.arkamani.org/arkamani-librar … nubia.htm; also: ‘the Rise of the Kushitic kingdom’ by Brian Yare, in: http://www.yare.org/essays/kushite%20ki … Napata.htm. For Karima, notice the interesting itinerary: http://lts3.algonquincollege.com/africa … /sudan.htm, and http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Karima.

22. Introductory reading: http://www.ancient-egypt.org/index.html (click on Manetho);http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manetho (with selected bibliography). Among the aforementioned, the entries Manethon (Realenzyklopaedie) and Manetho (Lexikon der Aegyptologie) are essential.

23. For the Ethiopian dynasty, all the related entries in the Lexikon and the Realenzyklopaedie (Piankhi, Shabaka, Shabataka, Taharqa, Tanutamon) are the basic bibliography to start with; see also: http://www.ancientlibrary.com/smith-bio/3017.html; the last edition (1996) of Kenneth Kitchen’s ‘The Third Intermediate Period in Egypt (1100 – 650 BC)’, Warminster: Aris & Phillips Ltd, remains the best reassessment of the period and the related sources. Introductory information: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shabaka; http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shabataka;http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taharqa; and http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tantamani. Also:http://www.homestead.com/wysinger/mentuemhat.html; critical bibliography for understanding the perplex period is to be found in Jean Leclant’s lectureship thesis (these d’ Etat) ‘Montouemhat, Quatrieme Prophete d’Amon’, (1961)

24. Basics: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Assarhaddon; the edition of the Assyrian emperor’s annals by R. Borger (Die Inschriften Assarhaddons, Koenigs von Assyrien, AfO 9, Graz, 1956) remain our basic reference to formal sources. More recently, F. Reynolds shed light on private sources, publishing ‘The Babylonian correspondence of Esarhaddon, and letters to Assurbanipal and Sin-Sarru-Iskun from Northern and Central Babylonia’ (SAA 18, 2004).

25. For the Greater Emperor of the Oriental Antiquity:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ashurbanipal; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shamash-shum-ukin;http://web.utk.edu/~djones39/Assurbanipal.html; until today we have to rely mostly on the voluminous edition of Assurbanipal’s Annals by Maximilian Streck (Assurbanipal und die letzten assyrischen Koenige bis zum Untergang Niniveh, Leipzig,1916); see also M. W. Waters’ Te’umman in the neo-Assyrian correspondence (Journal of the American Oriental Society, 1999, vol. 119, no3, pp. 473-477)

26. Heliopolis (Iwnw in Egyptian Hieroglyphic, literally the place of the pillars; On in Hebrew and in Septuagint Greek) was the center of Egyptian monotheism, the holiest religious center throughout Ancient Egypt; it is from Heliopolis that emanated the two foremost Ancient Egyptian theological systems, namely the Isiac ideology and the Atum Ennead. Basic readings: the entry Heliopolis in Realenzyklopaedie and in Lexikon der Aegyptologie; more recently:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heliopolis_%28ancient%29.

27. Basic readings: http://www.digitalegypt.ucl.ac.uk/chron … tiki.html;http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Psammetichus_I; http://www.phouka.com/pharaoh/pharaoh/d … tik1.html; http://www.specialtyinterests.net/psamtek.html (with pictorial documentation). See also: http://www.nubianet.org/about/about_history6.html.

28. Hakhamaneshian is the first Persian dynasty; it got momentum when Cyrus II invaded successively Media and Babylon. Readings: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Achaemenid_dynasty(with selected bibliography); the 2nd volume of the Cambridge History of Iran is dedicated to Achaemenid history (contents: http://www.cambridge.org/uk/catalogue/c … 0521200911.

29. Readings: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cambyses_II_of_Persia (with bibliography and sources). Cambyses invaded Kush and destroyed Napata at the times of Amani-natake-lebte, but his embattled army was decimated according to the famous narratives of Herodotus that still need to be corroborated. What seems more plausible is that, having reached in an unfriendly milieu of the Saharan desert where they had no earlier experience, the Persians soldiers, at a distance of no less than 4000 km from their capital, faced guerilla undertaken by the Kushitic army remnants and their nomadic allies.

30. Nastasen was the last to be buried in Nuri, in the whereabouts of Napata. Contemporary with Alexander the Great, Nastasen fought against an invader originating from Egypt whose name was recorded as Kambasawden. This led many to confuse the invader with Cambyses, who ruled 200 years earlier (!). The small inscription on the Letti stela does not allow great speculation; was it an attempt of Alexander the Great to proceed to the south of which we never heard anything? Impossible to conclude; for photographical documentation:http://www.dignubia.org/bookshelf/ruler … 00017&ord=. Another interpretation:http://www.nubia2006.uw.edu.pl/nubia/ab … 94e6349d8b.

31. Arkamaniqo was the first to have his pyramid built at Meroe, not at Napata. See:http://www.dignubia.org/bookshelf/ruler … 0018&ord=;http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ergamenes. He inaugurated the architectural works at Dakka, the famous ancient Egyptian Pa Serqet, known in Greek literature as Pselkhis (http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/dakka.htm), in veneration of God Thot, an endeavour that brought the Ptolemies and the Meroites in alliance.

32. For Abyssinia’s conversion to Christianity: http://www.spiritualite2000.com/page.php?idpage=555, and http://www.rjliban.com/Saint-Frumentius.doc. The Wikipedia entry (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ezana_of_Axum) is written by ignorant and chauvinist people, and is full of mistakes, ascribing provocatively and irrelevantly to Ezana’s state the following territories (using modern names): ‘present-day Eritrea, northern Ethiopia, Yemen, southern Saudi Arabia, northern Somalia, Djibouti, northern Sudan, and southern Egypt’. This is just rubbish. All this shows how misleading this irrelevant ‘encyclopedia’ can at times be. Neither southern Egypt, nor northern Sudan, nor northern Somalia, nor Djibouti, nor Yemen, nor southern Saudi Arabia ever belonged to Ezana’s small kingdom that extended from Adulis to Axum. It is only after that king’s victory over Meroe that his kingdom included also a tiny portion of modern Sudan’s territories, namely the region between Kessala, Atbara and Bagrawiyah where the site of Ancient Meroe is located. But this was quite precarious and soon the Abyssinian control over that part of Ethiopia (: Sudan) ended.

33. Richard A. Lobban, ‘The Nubian Dynasty of Kush and Egypt: Continuing Research on Dynasty XXV’: http://209.85.129.104/search?q=cache:4F … clnk&cd=2; these inscriptions were published as early as 1821: E. F. Gau, Nubische Denkmaeler (Stuttgart). Other early publications on Meroitic antiquities: E. Riippell, Reisen in Nubien, Kordofan, & c. (Frankfort a. M., 1829); F. Caillaud, Voyage a Meroe (Paris, 1826); J. L. Burckhardt, Travels in Nubia, e5fc. (London, 1819); G. Waddington and B. Hanbury, Journal of a Visit to some parts of Ethiopia (London, 1822); L. Reinisch, Die Nuba-Sprache (Vienna, 1879); Memoirs of the Societe khediviale de Geographic, Cairo.

34. Readings: http://www.homestead.com/wysinger/candace.html;http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shanakdakhete; more analytically:http://www.arkamani.org/arkamani-librar … graphy.htm. The only inscription giving her name comes from Temple F in Naga (REM 0039A-B). The name appears in Meroitic hieroglyphics in the middle of an Egyptian text. See also: Laszlo Torok, in: Fontes Historiae Nubiorum, Vol. II, Bergen 1996, 660-662. The first attempts to render full Meroitic phrases into hieroglyphs (not only personal names, as it was common earlier) can be dated from the turn of the 3rd / 2nd century BCE, but they reflect the earlier stage of the development.

35. C. Rilly, ‘Les graffiti archaiques de Doukki Gel et l’apparition de l’ ecriture meroitique’. Meroitic Newsletter, 2003, No 30: 41-55, pl. IX-XIII (fig. 41-48).

36. Michael H. Zach, ‘Aksum and the end of Meroe’, in: http://www.arkamani.org/arkamani-librar … s/Zach.htm. See also: http://www.soas.ac.uk/lingfiles/working … rowan2.pdf. Also: Clyde A. Winters, ‘Meroitic evidence for a Blemmy empire in the Dodekaschoinos’ in:http://www.arkamani.org/arkamani-librar … labsha.htm. Kharamadoye was a Blemmyan / Beja king who lived around the year 330 CE, and his inscription was curved on the Nubian/Blemmyan temple at Kalabsha (ancient Talmis) in the south of Aswan; more: M. S. Megalommatis, ‘Sudan’s Beja / Blemmyes, and their Right to Freedom and Statehood’, in:http://www.buzzle.com/editorials/8-16-2006-105657.asp, and in:http://www.sudaneseonline.com/en/article_929.shtml. More general:http://www.touregypt.net/kalabsha.htm.

37. For Ballana: http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ballana; http://www.numibia.net/nubia/sites_salv… p_Numb=13; http://www.dignubia.org/maps/timeline/ce-0400.htm;http://www.hp.uab.edu/image_archive/fne … ndex.html; for the excavations carried out there: Farid Shafiq, ‘Excavations at Ballana, 1958-1959′, Cairo, 1963:http://www.archaeologia.com/details.asp?id=647.

38. His publications encompass the following: ‘Karanog: the Meroitic Inscriptions of Karanog and Shablul’, (The Eckley B. Coxe Junior Expedition to Nubia VI), Philadelphia, 1911; ‘Meroitic Inscriptions, I, Soba to Dangul, Oxford, 1911; ‘Meroitic Inscriptions part II, Napata to Philae and Miscellaneous’, Egypt Exploration Society, Archaeological Survey of Egypt, Memoirs, London, 1912; ‘Meroitic Studies II’, in: Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, vol. 3 (1916).

39. Readings: http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ergamenes; http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arqamani; list of sources concerning Ergamenes II: Laszlo Torok, ‘Fontes Historiae Nubiorum’, vol. II, Bergen 1996, S. 566-567; further: http://www.chs.harvard.edu/publications … tei.xml_1;http://www.ancientworlds.net/aw/Article/813603; an insightful view: Laszlo Torok, ‘Amasis and Ergamenes’, in: The Intellectual Heritage of Egypt. Studies Presented to Laszlo Kakosy, 555-561. An English translation of Diodorus’ text on Ergamenes (III. 6) is here:http://www.homestead.com/wysinger/diodorus.html.

40. B. G. Haycock, ‘The Problem of the Meroitic Language’, Occasional Papers in Linguistics and Language Learning, no.5 (1978), p. 50-81; see also: http://www.arkamani.org/arkamani-librar … nology.htm. Another significant contribution: B. G. Haycock, ‘Towards a Data for King Ergamenes’, Kush 13 (1965)

41. See: K. H. Priese, ‘Die Statue des napatanischen Koenigs Aramatelqo (Amtelqa) Berlin, Aegyptisches Museum Inv.-Nr. 2249 in: Festschrift zum 150 jaehrigen Bestehen des Berliner Aegyptischen Museums, Berlin; of the same author, ‘Matrilineare Erbfolge im Reich von Napata’, Zeitschrift fuer Aegyptische Sprache und Altertumskunde, 108 (1981).

42. Readings: http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/ … /beja.htm; http://bejacongress.com;

43. Basic reading: Egeimi, Omer Abdalla, ‘From Adaptation to Marginalization: The Political Ecology of Subsistence Crisis among the Hadendawa Pastoralists of Sudan’, in: Managing Scarcity: Human Adaptation in East African Drylands, edited by Abdel Ghaffar M. Ahmed and Hassan Abdel Ati, 30-49. Proceedings of a regional workshop, Addis Ababa, 24-26 August 1995. Addis Ababa: OSSREA, 1996 (http://www.africa.upenn.edu/ossrea/ossreabiblio.html).

44. F. Hintze, ‘Some problems of Meroitic philology’, in: Studies in Ancient Languages of the Sudan, pp. 73-78; see discussions: http://www.geocities.com/Tokyo/Bay/7051/mero.htm andhttp://www.soas.ac.uk/lingfiles/working … rowan2.pdf

45. In various publications; see indicatively: ‘Die meroitische Sprache und das protoaltaische Sprachsubstrat als Medium zu ihrer Deutung (I): Mit aequivalenten von grammatikalischen Partikeln und Wortgleichungen’, Ulm/Donau (1992).

46. See: http://www.geocities.com/athens/academy … ersc2.html (with extensive list of publications).

47. Readings: http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/kush/hd_kush.htm (with further bibliography); http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kushan_Empire; http://www.kushan.org; (with pictorial documentation) http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/kush/hd_kush.htm;http://www.asianart.com/articles/jaya/index.html (with references)

48. Readings: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arsacid_Dynasty; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parthia; authoritative presentation in Cambridge History of Iran

49. Readings: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sassanid_Empire (with further bibliography); authoritative presentation in Cambridge History of Iran.

50. See: http://arkamani.org/meroitic_studies/li … oitic.htm; http://arkamani.org/arkamani-library/me … rilly.htm; http://arkamani.org/arkamani-library/me … graphy.htm

51. http://arkamani.org/arkamani-library/me … s/Zach.htm (with reference to epigraphic sources)

52. More recently: R.Voigt, The Royal Inscriptions of King Ezana, in the Second International Littmann Conference: Aksum 7-11 January 2006 (see:http://www.oidmg.org/Beirut/downloads/L … Report.pdf); also:http://users.vnet.net/alight/aksum/mhak4.html; http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=37430160. Read also: Manfred Kropp, Die traditionellen Aethiopischen Koenigslisten und ihre Quellen, in: http://www2.rz.hu-berlin.de/nilus/net-p … listen.pdf (with bibliography).

53. Readings: http://www.telemaco.unibo.it/epigr/testi05.htm;http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monumentum_Adulitanum;http://www.shabait.com/staging/publish/ … 3290.html;http://www.homestead.com/wysinger/aksum.html; http://www.arikah.net/encyclopedia/Adulis; further: Yuzo Shitomi, ‘A New Interpretation of the Monumentum Adulitanum’, in: Memoirs of the Research Department of the Toyo Bunko, 55 (1997). French translation is available online here: http://www.clio.fr/BIBLIOTHEQUE/les_gre … hiopie.asp.

54. Readings: http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/04404a.htm;http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cosmas_Indicopleustes; text and translation can be found online:http://ccat.sas.upenn.edu/awiesner/cosmas.html (with bibliography and earlier text/translation publications; http://www.tertullian.org/fathers/#Cosm … opleustes; andhttp://www.ccel.org/ccel/pearse/more … copleustes Also: http://www.henry-davis.com/MAPS/EMwebpages/202.html; http://davidburnet.com/EarlyFathers-Oth … eintro.htm.

55. Readings: http://library.thinkquest.org/22845/kus … oyalty.pdf

56. See: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shendi; N. I. Nooter, The Gates of Shendi, Los Angeles, 1999 (http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=1565561)

57. See: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atbarah; http://www.country-studies.com/sudan/th … ples.html; http://www.sudan.net/tourism/cities.html.

58. Readings: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abu_Simbel;http://www.bibleplaces.com/abusimbel.htm; http://lexicorient.com/e.o/abu_simbel.htm

59. Syene (Aswan): see the entries of Realenzyklopaedie and Lexikon der Aegyptologie; also:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aswan; http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/14367a.htm

60. http://www.numibia.net/nubia/ptolemies.htm; http://rmcisadu.let.uniroma1.it/nubiaco … zymski.doc. Dodekaschoinos was the northern part of Triakontaschoinos; the area was essential for Roman border security: http://poj.peeters-leuven.be/content.ph … al_code=AS. More recently: http://dissertations.ub.rug.nl/facultie … f.dijkstra

61. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dio_Cassius; see details of the early Roman rule over Egypt here: Timo Stickler, ‘Cornelius Gallus and the Beginnings of the Augustan Rule in Egypt’

62. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Strabo (particularly in his 17th book); English translation available here: http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/R … 17A1*.html

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Qaallu Institution: A theme in the ancient rock-paintings of Hararqee—implications for social semiosis and history of the Oromo (#Oromia) September 11, 2014

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Qaallu Institution: A theme in the ancient rock-paintings
of Hararqee—implications for social semiosis and
history of Ethiopia

Dereje Tadesse Birbirso (PhD)*

International Journal of Archaeology Cultural Studies Vol. 1 (1), pp. 001-018, September, 2013. Available online at http://www.internationalscholarsjournals.org © International Scholars Journals
This article critically analysed some of the ancient rock paintings of Hararqee of Eastern Oromia/Ethiopia with the intention to understand and explain the social epistemological and rhetorical structures that underlie beneath these social ‘texts’. It did so through using sub-themes in the ancient Qaallu Institution of the Oromo as analytical devices. Multi-disciplinary approach that combined concepts from various disciples was adopted as a guiding theoretical framework, while the Eurocentric approach that de-Ethiopinizes these historic heritages was rejected. Field data was collected from various sites of ancient rock paintings in Hararqee. Archival data
were also collected. Two informants expert with wisdom literature were selected in order to consolidate the multi-disciplinary approach adopted with the interpretive framework of the traditional, local social epistemology. The results of the analysis revealed both substantive and methodological insights. Substantively, it suggests that the Oromo Qaallu Institution fundamentally underlies the social semiotic, linguistic and epistemological structures communicated by means of the rock painting signs or motifs. Some of these are the Oromo pre-Christian belief in Black Sky-God, pastoral festival in the praise of the cattle and the
fecundity divinity and genealogico-politico-identification structures. Methodologically, the unique Oromo social semiotical and stylystical rhetorics which could be referred as ‘metaplasmic witticism’ and the role of Qaallu Institution sub-themes as sensitizing devices and the emergent directions for future research are all presented in this report.

 

INTRODUCTION

Hararqee, the vast land in Eastern Ethiopia, is where over 50% of Ethiopia’s (possibly including Horn of Africa)
rock paintings are found (Bravo 2007:137). Among these is the famous Laga Oda Site “dating to at least 16,000
BP” (Shaw and Jameson 1999:349) and comprising depictions of bovines and many different types of  animals. This vast land of Hararqee is settled by the Oromo, the largest tribe of the Cushitic stock, and hence it is part of the Oromia National State. The Oromo people, one of the richest in ancient (oral) cosmogonal- social history , literature and especial owners of the unique socio-philosophico-political institution known as Gada or Gada System, consistently insist that theirs as well as human being’s origin is in the Horn of Africa specifically a place known as Horra βalabu/Ŵolabu ‘the Place of Spring-Water of Genesis of Humanity’ (Dahl and Megerssa 1990).

This and a plethora of Oromo social epistemology has been studied by the plausible Oromo historians (Gidada 2006, Hassen 1990, to mention a few) and non-biased European theologico-ethnologists (Krapf 1842; De Abbadie 1880; De Salviac 1980, Bartels 1983, to mention a few). Similarly, social semiosis is not new to the Oromo. Although Eurocentric archaeologists rarely acknowledge, “the identification of cultural themes and symbolic interpretation has revealed affinities between contemporary Oromo practices and those of other East African culture groups, both ancient and modern (Grant 2000: np.).In like manner, the Classical Greek philosophers wrote that the Ancient Ethiopians were “inventors of worship, of festivals, of solemn assemblies, of sacrifice, and of every religious practice” (Bekerie, 2004:114). The oral history of the Oromo states that it was Makko Billii, whom Antonio De Abbadie, one of the early European scholars who studied and lived with the Oromo, described as “African Lycurgus” (Werner 1914b: 263; Triulzi and Triulzi  1990:319; De Abbadie 1880) and son of the primogenitor  of the Oromo nation (Raya or Raâ), who hammered out the antique, generation-based social philosophy known as Gada System (Legesse 1973, 2006; Bartels 1983; Gidada 2006). A key ingredient in Gada system is the  For Oromo, the first Qaallu “Hereditary ritual officiant” and “high priest” was of “divine origin” and, as the myth tells us, “‘fell from the sky itself’…with the first black cow” and he was the “‘eldest son of Ilma Orma’” (Hassen 1990:6; Baxter, Hultin and Triulzi 1996:6). In its “dual[ity] nature”, Waaqa, the black Sky-God “controlled fertility, peace, and lifegiving rains… [hence] prayers for peace, fertility, and rain” are the core recursive themes in Oromo religion (Hassen 1990:7). Hence, the concept/word Qaallu refers at large to “Divinity’s fount of blessings in the world” (Baxter, Hultin and Triulzi 1996: 1996: 21). As De Salviac (2005 [1901]: 285) explicated “The Oromo are not fetishists. They believe in Waaqa took, a unique universal creator and master. They see His manifestations in great forces of nature, without mistaking for Him.” As a result of  this ‘pre-historic’, Spinozaean like social epistemology, but unlike Martin Heideggerean “ancients” who never  dared questioning or confronting ontology but endorsed only veneering it, for the Oromo social semiosis has never been new since time immemorial. Despite all these antique history and tradition, it is  unfortunatel, the so-far few studies made on the  Ethiopian ancient rock paintings and rock arts never consider—sometimes apparently deliberately isolate–the  social history, tradition, culture or language of the Oromo people as a possible explanatory device. What the  available few studies usually do is only positivist  description of the paintings (types, size and/or number of  the signs) rather than inquiry into and explanation of the  social origin and the underlying social meaning, praxis or  worldview. Partly, the reason is the studies are totally  dominated by Eurocentric paradigms that de-Africanize and extrude the native people and their language,  religion, social structure, material cultures and, in general, their interpretive worldview. Besides, some of  the native researchers are no different since they have unconditionally accepted this Eurocentric, hegemonic epistemology (Bekerie 1997; Smith 1997; Gusarova 2009; Vaughan 2003). As a result, we can neither  understand the social origin of these amazing ‘texts’ nor  can we explain the underlying social semiosis.. Equally, under this kind of mystification or possible distortion of  human (past) knowledge, we miss the golden opportunities that these ancient documents offer for  evolutionary, comparative and interdisciplinary social science research and knowledge. Above all, the old Eurocentric view narrowed down the sphere of semiotics  (archaeological, social) to only ‘the sign’, extruding the  human agents or agency and the social context.

The aim of this paper is to use the ancient Qaallu Institution of Oromo as analytical ‘devices’ in order to  understand and explain the underlying social  epistemological, semiotical and rhetorical structures, i.e., expressed in all forms of linguistic and non-linguistic structures. In sharp contrast to the aforementioned  positivist, narrow, colonial semiotics, in this analysis,
Theo van Leeuwen’s postmodern and advanced approach to social semiotics is adopted. Primarily, Van  Leeuwen (2005: 3) expands “semiotic resource” as  involving “the actions and artefacts we use to communicate, whether they are produced physiologically – with our vocal apparatus…muscles…facial expressions  and gestures, etc. – or by means of technologies – with pen, ink and paper…computer hardware and software…with fabrics, scissors and sewing machines.”
Van Leeuven (2005: xi) introduces the changing  semiosphere of social semiotics:

 Just as in linguistics the focus changed from the ‘sentence’ to the ‘text’ and its ‘context’, and from
‘grammar’ to ‘discourse’, so in social semiotics the focus changed from the ‘sign’ to the way people use semiotic
‘resources’ both to produce communicative artefacts and  events and to interpret them;

 Rather than constructing separate accounts of  the various semiotic modes – the ‘semiotics of the  image’, the ‘semiotics of music’, and so on – social semiotics compares and contrasts semiotic modes, exploring what they have in common as well as how they differ, and investigating how they can be integrated in multimodal artefacts and events.

Indeed, the Classical Western dualism which separates the linguistic from the non-linguistic, the literary from the
non-literary, the painting from the engraved, the notional from the artefactual must be eschewed, especially when
we build evolutionary  perspective to analyzing pre-historic arts.

CLEARING SOME CONFUSIONS

Scholars have already explicated and explained away the old de-Ethiopianization historiographies in social sciences
(Bekerie 1997; Smith 1997; Gusarova 2009; Vaughan 2003), humanities (Ehret 1979) and archaeology
(Finneran 2007). Therefore, there is no need to repeat this here. But, it is necessary to briefly show disclose some

veils pertaining to Hararqee pre-historic paintings. As  usual, the ‘social’ origin of ‘pre-historic’, Classical or Medieval era Hararqee rock paintings is either mystified or hailed as agentry “Harla” or “Arla” (Cervicek and  Braukämper 1975:49), an imaginary community:
According to popular beliefs Harla generally refers to a mysterious, wealthy and mighty people, (frequently even
imagined as giants!), who had once occupied large  stretches of the Harar Province before they were  destroyed by the supernatural powers through natural  catastrophies as punishment for their inordinate pride. This occurred prior to the Galla (Oromo) incursions into  these areas during the 16th and 17th centuries” (Cervicek  and Braukämper 1975: 49; emphasis added).

In footnote, Cervicek and Braukämper (1975:49) quote Huntingford (1965:74) to on the identity of the Harla: “The
name “Harla” is first mentioned, as far as we know, in the  chronicle of the Ethiopian Emperor ‘Amda Seyon in the
14th century (Huntingford 1965:74).” It is clear that this mystification prefigures in the usual  gesture of de-Africanizing civilization of Black Africans to justify the so-called Hamitic myths, as explained well in  the works of the aforementioned post-modern scholars. Thanks to Professor Claude Sumner (Sumner 1996: 26), today we know the fact of the matter, that it was not Huntingford who composed about the imaginary “Harla”. It was the French Catholic missionaries by the name
François Azais and Roger Chambard who reconstructed to fit it to their interest the imaginary ‘Harla’ (spelling it
rather as “Arla”) from an oral history told to them by an Oromo old man from Alla clan of Barentuu.The story itself
is about a “wealthy” Oromo man called “Barento” who was “very rich but very proud farmer” (Sumner 1996: 26).
For it is both vital and complex (in its ironic message, which cannot however be analyzed here) we have to
quote it in full:

There was in the Guirri country, at Tchenassen [Č’enāssan], an Oromo, a very rich but very proud farmer called Barento. A cloth merchant, an Arab who was also very rich, lived a short distance from there at Derbiga. The merchant’s daughter went one day to see the farmer and told him: “I would like to marry your son.”—“Very well, I shall give him to you,” he answered. The merchant in turn, gave his daughter and made under her daughter’s steps a road of cloth, from Derbiga to Tchenassen, residence of the rich farmer. The tailor replied to this act by making a road of dourah and maize under his son’s steps, from Tchenassen to Derbiga. But God was incensed by this double pride and to punish him, shaked Tchenassen Mountain and brought down a rain of stones which destroyed men and houses; it was then that the race of Arla [Alla] was destroyed (Sumner 1996: 26). Confirming the antiquity and unity of this story and the Oromo, similar story is found in Western Oromo as far closer to the Southern Sudan: “in interpreting certain of their [Oromo] myths about the beginning of things, it was because of man’s taking cultivation and pro-creation toomuch into his own hands, that Waqa[Waaqa] withdrew from him–a withdrawal resulting in a diminution of life on earth in all its forms” (Bartels 1975:512). As a part of the general social semiotics adopted in this study, onomasiology (the scientific analysis of toponyms, anthroponyms,ethnonyms as well as of semiotic metalanguages) is considered as important component for evolutionary social semiosis, particularly for any researcher on Oromo since these are coded or they code social epestemes, are cyclical, based on the principles of  Gada System’s name-giving tradition, and, hence, are resistant to change (for detail on this see Legesse 1973). For instance, Cervicek and Braukamper (1965:74) described the Laga Gafra area and its population as: “The area of the site is part of the Gafra Golla Ḍofa village, and the indigenous Ala [Oromo] call it Gada Ba’la (“large shelter”)”, but appropriately, Baalli Gada. Here, let us only remember that Alla and Itťu clans are two of the Hararqee Oromo self-identificating by Afran Qalloo

(literally the Quadruplets, from ancient sub-moiety) who “provide[d] a basis for…construct[ing] models for
prehistoric land and resource use” (Clark and Williams:

Social semiosis, language and reality in the ancient ‘texts’ Social semiosis might be considered as old as homo
sapiens sapiens. But, for our analytical purpose, it is logical to begin from the Ancient Black Africans that some
19th century European missionaries and researchers  referred to as ‘Ancient Egyptians’ (although still others
refer to them by Ancient Cushites, Ancient Ethiopians, Ancient Nubians or Meroes), who are the originators of
the first writing systems known as ‘hieroglyphics’. Chiekh Anta Diop (Diop 2000), Geral Massey (Massey 1907)
and other scholars have illuminated to us a lot about  hieroglyphics. Initially, hieroglyphics was pictogram or semagram. That is, pictures of real world were ‘painted’ to communicate a  sememe or motif, the smallest meaningful structure or concept, for instance, a picture of sitting man for their  word equivalent to the English ‘sit’; a picture of man stretching his/her arms to the sky for ‘pray’; a lion for ‘great man’, etc., all or some of which is determined by
the lexical structures (phonological, syllabic, semantic, imagery they arise, etc) of their respective words. Based
on their social philosophy/paradigm, literary/figurative  symbolism, and/or their word’s/language’s phonology/syntax, for instance, equivalent to the English ‘woman’, they might have also depicted a picture of a pigeon, or an owl or a cow. This zoomorphic mode of representation as the ‘Sign-Language of Totemism and Mythology’ was the first and early writing system in human history. The Ancient Egyptians used the principles of, among others, sound-meaning association, semantic and ontologic (what something/somebody can cause) similarization, physical resemblance, grouping (duplication or triplication of the same pictograms to represent meaning), aggregation (pictograms are combined in or around a spot or a pictogram is duplicated as many as necessary and congregated in or around a spot), sequencing vertically or horizontally (representing lexico-grammatic, syntactic, semotactic or stylistic structure) and so forth.

Some of these or similar principles or ‘stylistic features’ are observed, particularly, in the Laga Oda painting styles. Cervicek (1971:132-133 122-123), for instance, observed in Laga Oda paintings such stylized ‘discourse’ as ‘group of horseshoe-like headless bovine motifs’, ‘paired ‘soles of feet’ from Bake Khallo [Bakkee Qaallu ‘Sacred Place for Qaallu Ritual]’, ‘oval symbo accompanied as a rule by a stroke on their left side’, sun-like symbol, in the centre with animal and anthropomorphic representations grouped around it’, paired ‘soles of feet’, carefully profiled styles (overhead, side, back point-of-view of bovines), zooming (large  versus small size of bovine motifs), headless versus headed bovines, H-shaped anthropomorphic
representations with raised hands’, superimposition and so forth. Any interpretation that renders these as isolated
case, arbitrary or pointless marks can be rejected outright. Some of these ‘early spelling’ are found not only across the whole Horn of Africa but also in Ancient Meroitic-Egyptian rock paintings, hieroglyphics and, generally, organized social semiosis.By the same token, Oromo social semiotical ‘texts’, like any ancient texts, textures “intimate link…between form,
content and concrete situation in life” (Sumner 1996:17-18). Professor Claude Sumner, who produced three volume analysis of Oromo wisdom literature (Sumner 1995, 1996, 1997), sees that like any “ancient texts”, in Oromo wisdom literature, “a same unit of formal characters, namely of expressions, of syntactic forms, of vocabulary, of metaphors, etc., which recur over and over again, and finally a vital situation…that is a same original function in the life of [the people]” (Sumner 1996:19). An elderly Oromo skilled in Oromo wisdom speaks, to use the appropriate Marxian term, ‘historical materialism’, or he speaks “in ritual language, as it was used in old times at the proclamation of the law” (Bartels 1983:309).
Moreover, he speaks in rhythmatic verses, full of “sound parallelism” (Cerulli 1922), “parallelism of sounds” or
“image” or “vocalic harmony” (Bartels 1975: 898ff). Even Gada Laws used to be “issued in verse” (Cotter 1990:
70), in “the long string of rhyme, which consists of  repeating the same verse at the end of each couplet” or  “series of short sententious phrases” that are “disposed  to help memory” (De Salviac 2005 [1901]: 285). The  highly experienced researchers on the ancient Oromo system of thought, which is now kept intact mainly by the Booran Gada System, emphasize that “‘the philosophical concepts that underlie the gadaa system’…utilize a  symbolic code much of which is common to all Oromo” (Baxter, Hultin and Triulzi 1996: 21). Long ago, one scholar emphatically stated, this is a feature “surely has developed within the [Oromo] language” and “is also only imaginable in a sonorous language such as Oromo” which “as a prerequisite, [has] a formally highly developed poetical technique” (Littmann 1925:25 cited in Bartels 1975:899).

Claude Sumner formulates a “double analogy” tactic as prototypical feature of Oromo wisdom literature, i.e., “vertical” and “horizontal” parallelism style (Sumner 1996:25), known for the most part to linguists, respectively, as ‘paradigmatic’ (‘content’ or ‘material’) and ‘syntagmatic’ (‘form’ or ‘substance’) relations or in both literature and linguistics, as contextual-diachronic and textual-synchronic, relations. Oromo social epistemological concepts/words/signs offers important data for historical and evolutionary social sciences for they recycle and, consequently, are resistant to change  both in form and meaning (Legesse 1973). In the same way, in this analysis of the ancient rock paintings of Hararqee, an evolutionary and multidisciplinary analysis of the interrelationship among the traditional ‘semiotic triangle’—the sign (sound or phonon, word or lexon, symbol or image), the signified (the social meaning, ‘semon’, episteme or theme) and the referent (cultural-historical objects and ritual-symbolic actions)——and among the metonymic complex (referring here to layers and clusters of semiotic triangles in their social-natural contexts) is assumed as vital meta-theoretical framework.

METHODS AND THE SEMIOTIC RESOURCES

For this analysis, both archival and field data or semiotic resources are collected. In 2012 visits were made to the
some of the popular (in literature) ancient rock painting sites in Hararqee (Laga Oda, Goda Agawa, Ganda Biiftu,
etc.; comprehensive list of Ethiopian rock painting sites is presented by Bravo 2007). Also, field visits were made to
less known (in literature) ancient to medieval era painting sites were made in the same year (e.g., Goda Rorris,
Huursoo, Goda K’arree Ǧalɖeessa, Goda Ummataa, Goda Daassa, etc). Huge audiovisual data (still and
motion) of both paintings and engravings were collected, only very few of which are used in this paper. On the one
hand, the previously captured data (as photos, sketches or traces) from some of the popular sites, for instance
Laga Oda and Laga Gafra (as in Cervicek 1971; Cervicek and Braukamper 1975), are sometimes found to be
preferably clearer due to wear-off or other factors. On the other hand, from the same sites, some previously
unrevealed or undetected motifs (painted or engraved) were collected. Therefore, both field and archival data are
equally important for this analysis. However, since the Qaallu Institution , and its sub-themes, is used as sensitizing device or a means rather than end— hence is capitalization upon social semiotic and linguistic aspects–there is an inevitable risk of undermining these complex philosophical notions. Yet, for the pertinent (to Qaallu Institution) anthropological-ethnological archivals used as additional secondary data or, to use Theo van Leeuwen’s term, as “semiotic resource”, original and influential references are indicated for further reading. More importantly, two old men skilled in Oromo social epistemology, customarily referred to as ‘walking libraries’, are used as informants. Taaddasaa Birbirsoo Mootii, 87, from Wallagga, Western Oromia (Ethiopia) and Said Soddom Muummee, 85, from Hararqee Eastern Oromia (Ethiopia). Mootii, Addoo Catholic Church Priest (‘Catechist’ is the word they use), was one of the infor- mants and personal colleagues of Father Lambert Bartels, who studied in-depth and wrote widely on Oromo religion, rituals and social philosophy. His scholarly and
comparative (with Biblical) analysis of Oromo religion and world view, child birth custom, praise song for the cow,
Qaallu Institution, Gada system geneaological-social hierarchy are among his seminal works. Although Bartels
only indicated Mootii as “one priest”, he and his colleague Shagirdi Boko (one of the Jaarsa Mana Sagadaa ‘Old
Men of Church’) were among his informant colleagues. Muummee, is not only well seasoned wiseman, but he
still celebrates and identify himself as Waaqeeffata—believer, observer and practitioner of the pre-Christian
Oromo religion founded on Waaqa, the Black Sky-God.

ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION

Qaallu Institution and the praise to the cattle Above, under Introduction section, we briefly touched upon the mythical-social origin of the Qaallu Institution and its relation with genesis and cow-milk. Qaallu comes from the gerundive qull (qul’qullu, intensive) ‘pure, holy, sacred, blameless; being black, pretty, neat’, pointing to the color and quality of Waaqa (see Bartels 1983; Hassen 1990 for detail).. The “ancient” Qaallu Institution of Oromo (Baxter 1987: 168 quoted and elaborated in Gidada 2005: 146-147) had been widely practiced in Eastern, Hararqee Oromo until the first half of the 20th century. It is as much cosmogonal, cosmological and ideological (identificational) as it is theo-political to the Oromo nation, in particular, and, at large, the pre-colonial (pre-Christian, pre-Islam) Cushite who uniformly believed in Water, as a source of life and on which life is unilaterally dependent, and in Waaqa–a concept/word that means, on the one hand, the abstract ‘Supreme Being, God, Devine, Heave’ and, on the other, the ‘concrete’ ‘Sky, Divinely Water (rain)’. For Oromo, the first Qaallu “a high priest”, the “spiritual leader” was of “divine origin”, as the myth tells us, “ ‘fell from the sky itself’…with the first black cow” and he was the “‘eldest son of Ilma Orma’” and in its “dual nature”, Waaqa, the black Sky-God “controlled fertility, peace, and lifegiving rains…[hence] prayers for peace, fertility, and rain” are the core recursive themes in Oromo religion (Hassen 1990: 6-7). For more on Oromo genealogical tree and history, see Gidada (2006), Bartels (1983), BATO (1998), to mention a few.

The Booran Oromo, who still retains the Qaallu
Institution ‘unspoiled’:

The Booran view of cosmology, ecology and ontology is  one of a flow of life emanating from God. For them, the benignancy of divinity is expressed in rain and other conditions necessary for pastoralism. The stream of life flows through the sprouting grass and the mineral waters [hoora] of the wells, into the fecund wombs and generous udders of the cows [ɢurrʔ
ú]. The milk from the latter then promotes human satisfaction and fertility (Dahl and Megerssa 1990: 26).

In this worldview, the giant bull (hanɡafa, hancaffa) is a symbol of angaftitti “seniority of moieties: stratification
and imbalance” (Legesse 2000: 134). Hence, the separation of the most senior or ancient moieties or the cradle land imitates hariera ‘lumbar and sacral vertebrae’ (other meaning ‘queue, line, suture’) or horroo ‘cervical vertebrae’ of the bull.

The primogenitors (horroo) of the Oromo nations (mainly known as Horroo, Raya, Booro) set the first ßala ‘moiety, split (from baɮ ‘to flame, impel, fly; to split, have bilateral symmetry’) or Ẃalaßu ‘freedom, bailing, springing’. The formation of moieties, sub-sub-moieties grew into baɭbaɭa‘sub-sub-sub-etc…lineages’ (also means ‘door, gate’; the reduplication showing repetitiveness). Jan Hultin, an influential anthropologist and writer on Oromo, states “Among the Oromo, descent is a cultural construct by which people conceive of their relations to each other and to livestock and land; it is an
ideology for representing property relations” (Hultin 1995: 168-169). The left hand and right hand of the bovine always represent, in rituals, the “sub-sections of the phratry” (Kassam 2005:105). That is, as the tradition sustains,
when the ancient matrilineal-patrilineal moieties sowed, dissevered (fač’á) from the original East (Boora), the
Booreettúma (designating matrilineality, feminine soul) took or went towards the left hand side, while the Hoorroo
(also for unclear reason βooroo, designating patrilineality, masculine soul) took the right hand side. Both correspond, respectively, to the directions of sunrise and sunset, which configure in the way house is constructed: Baa, Bor ‘the front door’ (literally ‘Origin, Beam, morning twilight’) always faces east, while the back wall (Hooroo) towards west (also Hooroo means ‘Horus, evening twilight’). This still governs the praxis that the backwall “is the place of the marriage negotiations and of the first sexual intercourse of sons and their bride [i.e., behind the stage]” (Bartels 1983: 296). For this reason, Qaallu Institution has had a special Law of the Bovine as well as Holiday of the Cattle/Bovine, Ǧaarrii Looni (Legesse 1973:96; Dahl and Megerssa 1990). On Ǧaarrii Loonii, cattle pen are renovated and embellished, and festivities and dances with praise songs to cattle was chanted (for more, Bartels 1975; Wako 2011; Kassam 2005). An excerpt from the praise song ‘talks’ about them with admiration (See also Bartels 1975: 911):

Chorus: Ahee-ee
Soloist: Sawa, sawilee koo–Cows, o my cows,
Bira watilee koo–and also you, my calves.
Ǧeɗ’e malee maali–Could I say otherwise?
Yá saa, yá saa—o cattle, o cattle!
saa Humbikooti–cattle of my Humbiland,
Saa eessa ǧibbu?–What part of cattle is useless?
Saa qeensa qičču–Our cattle with soft hoofs,
koṱṱeen šínii ta’e—from their hoofs, we make coffee-cups
gogaan wallu ta’e—from their skins, we make wallu
[leather cloth]
gaafi wanč’a ta’ee, — from their horns, we make wáɳč’a
[large beer cup]

faɭ
ʔ
anas ta’a!—as well as spoons! [See Fig.1A, B, C, D,
E]

Chorus: Ahee-ee

Lambert Bartels, a Catholic Father and scholar lived with  the Oromo, writes “When they bless, they say: ɡurrači
ɡaraa ǧ’abbii siif ha kenu ‘May the dark one [God] with hail under his abdomen give you all (good things)’
(Bartels 1983:90-91). Cervicek (1971:124 Fig.10) wonders about the unexplained but recurrent “oval
representations… painted black [and] white-dotted” and consistently painted “below” the cow udder (see Fig.2B).
This can be compared with wáɳč’a ‘drinking horn-cup’ or č’óč’oo, č’iič’oo ‘milking (horn-)cup’ (see Fig.1D). On
Irreečča ritual of Thanking Waaqa the Black Sky-God, a line of the doxology mentions, among others, “Waaqa

č’iič’oo gurraattii” ‘God of the dark č’iič’oo milking-cup’ (Sabaa 2006:312). The deadjectival č’óč’orree means ‘white dotted (black background); turkey or similar white dotted bird’, while Waaɳč’ee is a proper name for white-dotted cow.

Qaallu as ecotheological concept

Qaallu is also an ontological concept referring to the spirit that resides in sacred realities, the mountain hills, seas, river
beds, pasture land, etc. As an important place for ritual place for immortalizing (primogenitors, ancestors), blessing
(children, the young), initiations (to Gada classes, power take-over), praying (for fertility, abundance, fortune, rain),
and praising (God, nature, cattle), the sacred land of spirituality must be mountain foot (goda) where there must
be, naturally, laga ‘lagoon, river’, č’affee ‘marshy area with green grasses’ (symbol of the parliamentary assembly),
χaɭoo ‘pasture land’, and the evergreen oɖaa fig sycamores. Oɖaa serves not only as “a depiction of a political power”,
but “is also a centre of social and economic activities” and “symbolizes the entire corpus of their activities, history,
culture and tradition” (Gutamaa 1997:14). Five Qaallu centres are known in Booran sub-moiety: (1) Qaallu Odiituu, (2) Qaallu Karrayyuu, (3) Qaallu Matťarii, (4) Qaallu Karaar, (5) Qaallu Kuukuu, (10) Qaallu Arsii (Nicolas 2010). These centers are like cities of (con-)federal states and simultaneously are (sub-)clan names. These names are codes and decoders of not only genealogical and landscapes, but also of ancient (sub)-moieties and settlement patterns. Since they are cyclical, based on the principles of Gada System’s name-giving principle, they are widespread across Oromia and resistant to change. Werner (1915:2) observed that in Booran Oromo, “every clan has its own mark for cattle, usually a brand (ɢuʋa [ɡuƀá ], which is the name of the instrument used, is an iron spike fixed into a wooden handle)”, a fact which is
significated in other parts of Oromia with different signifiers, for instance, pattern of settlement, which is determined by a
korma karbaʑaa ‘bull that bulldozes jungles’ or korma qallaččaa ‘kindling bull’ (Gidada 2006: 99-100) or bull’s
anatomy (BATO 1998). For instance, quoting Makko Billii, the ancient Gada System law maker, the Wallaga Oromo
recite their settlement pattern in the anatomy of Korma the virile ‘buffalo-bull’ or ‘macho man’: Sibuun garaača. Haruu č’inaacha, Leeqaan dirra sangaati, ‘The Sibuu [Sabboo] clan is the abdomen, the Haruu [Hooroo] is the ribs, and Leeqaa is the chuck of the bull’ (BATO 1998:164).

Qallačča bull as a kindler is related defined qallačča “a white patch between the horns of a cow running back down the
two sides of the neck; a charm” (Foot 1913:33). See Fig.2 A, B, C and D . It is the symbol of a Qaallu’s qallačča, here
meaning, an inherited, from ancestors, spiritual and intellectual grace or sublimity. This is quite related to of
book’a ‘a black cow or bull or ram that has a white mark upon the forehead’ (Tutschek 1844:135-136), a natural
phenomenon considered as a good omen. Adda isá book’aa qaba ‘his forehead has a blaze’ is an idiom appropriately
meaning the person has the natural capacity, inherited from ancestors, to prophesize, foreknow. For this reason, “white-headedness” or wearing white turban is a symbol of (passage to) seniority or superordinate moiety (Kassam 1999). As usual, there is “intimate link…between form, content and concrete situation in life” (Sumner 1996:17-18).

Qallačča as a mysterious metal

Qallačča is a key concept in Qaallu Institution. One instantiation of this complex concept is that it is a mysterious
sacred material culture (Fig.3). Informants tell us that true. qallačča worn on the forehead by the Qaallu was made of

iron that fell from sky as qorsa (comet, metorite); it was only  recovered after pouring milk of a black cow on the specific
spot it dropped. For some ethnologists/anthropologists, it is a “white metal horn which is worn on the forehead” and is
“horn-symbolism” for “every man is a bull”, a symbol of virility (Bartels 1983: 146). For others it is just a ‘white
metal horn’ which is a symbol of fertility or just is “phallic ornament” (Haberland 1963:51 quoted in Bartels
1983:146). These argumentations share the root qaɾa ‘horn (sharp and tall), acute; graining fruit, granulate,
shoot’ and the inavariable qaɾ-ɳî ‘sex (characteristics)’. The very Oromo word for ‘sex (intercourse)’, namely
saala, also designates ‘horn, oryx, penis; awe, honor, esteem; shame, shameful’. But, these notions are only
part of the polysemantic and complex concept of qallačča. Amborn (2009: 401) might be wrong when he completely
rejects the “phallisphication” of qallačča by “some anthropologists”. He is right that qallačča is also a symbol
of “socio-religious mediator which is able to bundle positive and negative “cosmic” (for want of a better word)
energies” and rather “symbolizes a link between the human and the supernatural world; its function is to open
up this connection between different spheres.” Knutsson (1967:88-90 quoted in Bartels 1983:145) describes
qallačča as “a conically formed ‘lump’ of black iron…brought from the heaven by the lightening.” Plowman (1918:114), who took a sketch of qallačča (Fig.3 D), described it as “emblem” of the Qaallu “Chief  Priest” or of the retired Abba Gadaa ‘the president’. Plowman fleshes out the components of qallačča: (1) “seven bosses superimposed on a raised rim running
round the emblem”; (2) “upright portion made of polished lead”; (3) “circular base of white polished shell-like substance resembling ivory”; (4) “leather straps for  fastening emblem to forehead of weaver” (Plowman 1918:114). This mysterious cultural object has multifunction. Taaddasa Birbirsso Mootii, who is not only an informant, but, in the expression of the locals, ‘a man who has sipped mouthful’ (of Oromo traditional wisdom) explains the social epistemological structure underlying qallačča: During the time of Gada System, government by the people’s justice, the Waaqeeffataa used to pour out milk of black cow on Dibayyuu ritual and discover/see their qallačča [truth and abundance]. For it is a sacred object,
qallačča never moved [transported, communicated] withoutsacrificial blood of bulls. It must be smeared on
the forehead [See Fig.3A and P7B on the forehead]. How can urine/semen without water, child without blood, milk
without udder/teats be discovered [gotten]? In the aftermath of lengthy drought, too, they used to take
qallačča to depression/ford and hill-top to pray with one stomach [unanimously] to God with Qaallu the Spiritual
Father. Immediately, qallačča [God’s riposte] reconciled streaming milk from the sky [rains]. Hence, qallačča was
used for collective welfare. Qallačča is God’s qali ‘alethic truth, promise’. Note that from Laga Oda Cave, archaeologists (Brandt 1984:177) have found “‘sickle sheen’ gloss and polish”, which helped archaeologists to recover “possible
indications of intensive harvesting of wild grasses as early as 15, 000 B. P.”; “one awl”, “one endscraper” and
“one curved-backed flake” all “dated 1560 B.C.”; and, “a few microliths that show evidence of mastic adhering
close to the backed edges” which “strongly suggests” that by “1560 B.C…stone tools were being used (probably as components of knives and sickles).”

Qallačča and Gadaa—the generation-age-based
sociopolitical system

Baxter (1979:73, 80) calls it “phallic” or “ritual paraphernalia”, which is worn on the head “by men at crucial stage in the gaada [gadaa] cycle of rituals”. Informants make distinction between two types of qallačča: qallačča laafa (of the soft, acuminous), which is worn by the Qaallu or Abba Gadaa; and qallačča korma  (of the virile man or bull, macho). Viterbo (1892) defines “kallaéccia”, qallačča as ‘disciple, pupil’, which cuts para-llel with the anthropologist Baxter (1979: 82-84) who
states that, in Oromo Gada System, a young man’s grown tuft (ɡuuɗuu; see Fig.3D; we shall come back to Fig.3A in the final part of the discussion) is “associated symbolically with an erect penis” and discourses that he is “guutu diira”, which means a “successful warrior”, the one who has reached a class of “member of political adulthood”, for he has “become responsible for the nation”. At this age, Baxter adds, “each of its members puts up a phallic Kalaacha”, a “symbol of firm but
responsible manliness.” The feminine counterpart to  ɡuuɗuu hairstyle is “ɡuɖeya” (Werner 1914a: 141), guʈʈiya (literally go-away bird or its tonsure) or qarré ‘tonsure’ (literally, ‘kite’ or similar bird of prey) (Bartels 1983:262), while of the masculine qallačča head-gear is the feminine qárma (literally ‘sharpened, civilized’). In Gada System, this age-class is called Gaammee  Gúɖ’ɡuɖá (reduplication ɡuɖá ‘big’) ‘Senior Gamme III’, the age of at which the boys elect their six leaders to
practice political leadership (Legesse 2006:124-125).

Bokkuu: Insignia of power, balance and light of
freedom

Hassen (1990:15) discusses that bokkuu has “two meanings”. One is “the wooden scepter kept by the Abba
Gada in his belt during all the assembly meetings”, an “emblem of authority…the independence of a tribe,
and…a symbol of unity, common law and common government” (Fig.4). De Salviac describes it “has the
shape of a voluminous aspergillum (a container with a handle that is used for sprinkling holy water) or of a mace
of gold of the speaker of the English parliament, but in iron and at the early beginning in hard wood” (De Salviac
2005 [1901]: 216). Legesse (2006: 104) describes it as “a specially curved baton”, which shows that there are two
types in use. The second meaning of bokkuu is, “it refers to the keeper of the bokkuu—Abba Bokkuu” (Hassen
1990:15), or in plural Warra Bokku “people of the scepter” (Legesse 2006: 104). Hence, after serving for full eight year, Abba Bokkuu must celebrate Bokkuu Walira Fuud’a (literally to exchange the scepter bokkuu), a Gada system concept
that refers to two socio-political “events as a single act of “exchange”” (Legesse 1973:81): (1) the event of power
“take over ceremony”, i.e., the symbolic act of “the incoming class” and (2) the event of power “handover
ceremony”, i.e., the symbolic act of “the outgoing class”. This power-exchange ceremony is also called Baalli
Walira Fud’a “Power Exchange” or “transfer of ostrich feathers” (Legesse 1973: 81-82; 2006: 125). Here, baalli
refers not only ‘power, authority, responsibility’ (Stegman 2011: 5, 68), but also ‘ostrich feather’ and ‘twig
(leaved)’, both of which are used as symbolic object on the Baalli power transfer ceremony. De Salviac (2005 [1901]: 216) witnessed “the power is transferred to the successor by remittance of the scepter or bokkuu.” After power exchange ceremony, the ‘neophyte’ Abba Bokkuu: “falls in his knees and raising in his hands the scepter towards the sky, he exclaims, with a majestic and soft voice: Yaa Waaq, Yaa Waaq [Behold! O, God!] Be on my side…make me rule over the
Doorii…over the Qaallu…make me form the morals of the youth!!!…” (De Salviac 2005 [1901]: 213). See Fig.4B.
Then, the new Abba Bokkuu takes possession of the seat and “immolates a sacrifice and recites prayers to obtain
the assistance of On-High in the government of his people….The entire tribe assembled there, out of breath
from emotion and from faith” (De Salviac 2005 [1901]: 212). Above we raised that two symmetrical acts/concepts are
enfolded “as a single act [or word] of “exchange”” is performed by exchanging the Bokkuu scepter during
Baalli ceremony (Legesse 1973:81). That is, when the scepter is the one with bokkuu ‘knobs’ on each edge, it
suffices to enfold it ‘Bokkuu Baalli’ since the symmetricality principle of the act of reciprocal remittance
or power exchange is as adequately abstracted in the phrase as in the iconicity of the balanced bokkuu. Besides, the horooroo stick with a knob (bokkuu) on one side and a v-/y-shape (baalli) on the other side is a semagram and semotactic for the same concept of symmetricality principle, i.e., Bokkuu Baalli.

Ateetee in Qaallu Institution: Fertility symbolism

Cerulli (1922:15, 126-127) “Atētê …the goddess of fecundity, worshipped by the Oromo” and adds that “the
greatest holiday of the [Oromo] pagans is the feast of Atetê”; she is “venerated” by “even the Mussulmen”; she
is referred to “in the songs ayô, ‘the mother,’ often with the diminutive ayoliê, ‘the little mother’”. Women sing

“songs asking the goddess to grant them fecundity and lamenting the woes which are caused by sterility.” Long
before Cerulli, Harris (1844:50) wrote as follow: “when sacrificing to Ateti, the goddess of fecundity, exclaiming
frequently, “Lady, we commit ourselves unto thee; stay thou with us always”.”
The symbolic material cultures pertaining to Aɖeetee are important for our purpose in this paper. Bompiani
(1891:78) saw the Oromo on their “long journeys to visit  Abba Múdā” who, “as a sign of peace they make a sheep
go before them on entering the village… and instead of a lance carry a stick, upon the top of which is fixed the horn
of an antelope” (this is well known Ancient Egyptian hieroglyph). Indeed, sheep (ḫooɭaa), common in ancient
rock paintings of Hararqee, is also the favorite for sacrificial animal for Qaallu institution of “peacemaking
and reconciliation”, particularly black sheep, “a sheep of peace” (hoolaa araaraa)” (Gidada 2001: 103). In fact, the
word ḫooɭaa for ‘sheep’ and rêeé, re’ee for ‘goat’ (re’oṱa, rooɖa, plural) have meronymic relationship. The semantic

structure underlying both is ‘high fertility rate’ (arareessá, from ɾaɾí ‘ball, matrix; pool, rivulet’). The “antelope” that Bompaini names is in fact the beautifully speckled ʂiiqqee ‘klipspringer’ (Stegman 2011:45, 35), common in Laga Oda and other paintings along with ‘fat-tailed’ sheep. At the same time, ʂiiqqee (literally, ‘splendid, lustrous, graceful’) is, according to the
Aṱeetee Institution, a sacred, usually tall and speckled, “stick signifying the honor of Oromo women…a blessing… a ceremonial marriage stick given to a girl…a religious stick Oromo women used for prayer” (Kumsaa 1997:118). Kumsa observed that “the very old, the very young and all women, in the Gadaa system, are considered innocent and peace-loving” and quoted the renowned anthropologist Gemetchu Megerssa who expressed that in Oromo Gada tradition women “were also regarded as muka laaftuu (soft wood–a depiction of their liminality) and the law for those categorized as such
protected them” (Kumsa 1997:119). Concentric or circular or ‘sun-burst’ geometric motifs are as abundant as ‘udder chaos’ in the Hararqee and Horn of African ancient rock paintings (Fig.5C from Qunnii or Goda Ummataa; A and B Goda Roorris traditionally known as ‘Errer Kimiet’; G from Goda K’arree Ğaldeesaa or Weybar in Č’elenqoo; E Laga Oda from Cervicek
1971). Bartels (1983) studied well about another symbolic object in Aɖeetee Institution, namely ɡuɳɖo, a grass-plate, made from highly propagative grasses, plaited in a series of concentric-circles (see Fig.5D). It is used to keep bîddeena ‘pizza-like circular bread’ and fruits. Bartels (1983: 261) documented that, on her wedding day: [T]he girl has with her a grass-plate (gundo), which she made herself. This gundo is a symbol of her womb [ɡaɖāmeʑa]. Since…she is expected to be a virgin
[ɡuɳɖúɖa],  nothing should have been put in in this grass plate beforehand. Gundo are plaited [with an awl] from
outside inwards, leaving a little hole in the centre [ɡuɖé, qaa]…this little hole is not filled in by the girls themselves,
but they ask a mother of a child to do it for them. If they do it themselves, they fear they will close their womb to
child-bearing (Square brackets added).While, ɡuɳɖó stands for a woman’s gadameʑa ‘womb’ (from gadá ‘temple; generation, time-in-flow), the concentricity of the plaits (marsaa, massaraa, metathesis) is a symbol of the ‘recyclers’ of generations, namely mûssirró ‘the bride-woman’ and marii ‘bride-man’ (marii also means ‘cycle, inwrap, plait’). A bigger
cylindrical ɡuɳɖó with cover called suuba is particularly given as hooda ‘a regard’ to the couples (on their good
ethos, virginity) and is a symbol of súboo ‘the newly married gentlemen, the prudential gentlemen’. Father Lambert Bartels (Bartels 1983: 268) wrote that a buffalo-killer would bring a special gift for his mother or wife from the wilderness: namely, elellee (elellaan, plural) from his buffalo skin” Elellee and č’aačč’u refer to a string of cowries (of snail shells, obsidian rocks or fruits of certain plant called illilii) and festooned to a sinew cut from a sacrificial animal (Fig.5F). They are worn only by
women on the breastplate or forehead or worn to č’ooč’oo, č’iič’oo milk-pots, symbol of “a woman’s sexual and reproductive organ” (Østebø 2009: 1053). See also Fig.5F and G.
We need to add here a praise song to a beauty of woman, which symbolizes her by élé ‘circular cooking pot or oven made of clay’ and bede smaller than élé (Sumner  1996: 68): Admiration is for you, o <ele>… <But> I take out of <bede>…
Admiration is for you, moon shaped beauty. Rightly, Sumner (1996:68) states élé symbolizes “the mother, of woman” while bedé symbolizes “daughters” or the “moon [báṱí] shaped beauty”, i.e., her virginity (ɡuɳɖuɖa), uncorruptedness (baʤí) combined with ethos of chastity (aɖeetee). Woman is expressed arkiftu idda mačč’araa literally ‘puller of the root of one-body/-person’,a paraonomastic way to say circulator, recycler or propagator of the genealogy of Oromo moieties, namely
Mačč’a and Raya/Raã. Here, it is fascinating to observe the unique social semiosis at work—selecting and stitching (qora) the language and world according to the semblance and image the reality (world) offers as a cognitive possibility to operate upon. cowries of “giant snail shells…kept with a string made.

Spear piercing coffee bean

According to the Aṱeetee tradition, on her wedding ritual, the bride “hands her gundo to her mother-in-law who puts
some sprouting barley-grains in it. They are (a symbol of) the children Waqa will give her if he will’’ (Bartels 1983:
261). The mother-in-law will, according to the long tradition, adds some coffee-beans (coffee-beans and
cowries are look-alike, Fig.5 F from Cervicek 1971 and H); “coffee-beans are a symbol of the vagina,
representing the girl to be a potential mother. The beans are children in the shell at this moment, protected and
inaccessible as a virgin’s vagina” (Bartels 1983:261). Later on during the ritual, the elderly bless her: “May
Waqa cause the womb [gundo] sprouts children [grains]! Let it sprout girls and boys!” Amid the ceremony, the
bride “gives the gundo to her groom’s mother. She herself now takes his [bridegroom’s] spear and his stool.
She carries the stool with her left hand, holding it against her breast. In her right hand she grasps the spear….”
The spear, a representation of the male organ, is expressed in the Girl’s Song:

O sheath [qollaa] of a spear,
Handsome daughter,
Sister of the qaɽɽee [us colleagues of marriage-age]

Let us weep for your sake
The buna qalaa ‘slaughtering of coffee fruit’, which reflexes, in direct translation, the ‘slaughtering’ (qaɭa) the
virgin is “a symbol of procreation” (Bartels 1975: 901). The bride “puts the coffee-fruits from the gundo in butter
together with others and put them over the fire” (Bartels  1983: 263). Butter (ɗ’aɗ’á) is a symbol of fecundity
(ṯaɗ’āma) while the floor of the fire, or hearth (baɗ’ā) is a  symbol of the nuclear family that is taking shape
(Legesse 1973:39). While, all this was captured by Bartels in the late 20th century in Wallagga, Werner (1914
b: 282) captured similar events a thousand or so kilometers away at Northern Kenya with the Booran:
On the wedding morning, a woman (some friend of the  bride’s mother) hangs a chicho [č’iič’oo, č’ooč’oo] full of
milk over the girl’s shoulder….The bridegroom, carrying  his spear and wearing a new cloth and a red turban, goes
in at the western gate of the cattle-kraal and out at the  eastern, and then walks in a slow and stately way to the
hut of his mother-in-law, where the bride is waiting for him. They sit down side by side just within the door; after
a time they proceed to the cattle-kraal, where his friends are seated. She hands him the chicho and he drinks
some milk, and then passes it on to his friends, who all drink in turn.

In general, matrix-shape, milk-pots, sprouting beans all  symbolizes feminineness quality, the natural power to
‘reproductive faculty’ (ʂaɲɲí), a capacity to generate many that, yet, keep alikeness or identity (ʂaɲɲí).

Woman and a cow and infant and a calf

Cows are “a symbolic representation of women” (Sumner 1997: 193; Bartels 1975: 912) because both are equally
haaɗ’a manaa ‘the flex of the home/house’:
Sawayi, ya sawayi—o my cow, o my cow [too high
hypocorism]
ʼnīṱī abbaan gorsatu–a wise man’s wife/a wife of wisest
counselor husband
amali inmulattu–her virtues are hidden;/is virtuous and
has integrity;
saa abbaan tiqsatu–o careful owner’s cow/ similarly, cow
that the owner himself
shepherds/feeds
č’inaači inmuľaṱu–her ribs are hidden/her hook bone is
invisible (full and swollen).
Saa, saa, ya saa–cattle, cattle, o cow,
ya saa marī koo–o cow, my advisor/darling
ţiqē marartu koo–good in the eyes of your herdsman/am
overseeing you spitefully.
(Bartels, 1975: 912)
Likewise, an infant and a young calf are not only congruous, but also sung a lullaby to comfort them:
Sleep, sleep!
My little man slobbers over his breast.

The skin clothes are short.
The groin is dirty
The waist is like the waist of a young wasp
The shepherd with the stick!
Sleep, sleep!
He who milks with the ropes!
Sleep, sleep!
He who takes the milk with the pot!
Sleep, sleep!
The cows of Abba Bone,
The cows of Dad’i Golge:
They’ve gone out and made the grass crack;
They’ve [come home] again and made the pot.
(Sumner 1997: 181)

Basically, there is no difference between a newborn calf  and an infant; no need of separate lexisboth is élmee—
diminutive-denominative from elma ‘to milk’. Young calves or children are worn kolliʥa ‘collar’, ǧallattii
‘diadem, crown, tiara’ or č’allee ‘jewelry’ wrapping around their necks, all of whose semiotic significance is to
express ǧalla, ǧallačča ‘love’ and protection from ɡaaɖiɗú ‘evil spirit’ that bewitches not only infants and young of
animals, etc (Bartels 1983: 284-285, 196-197). The first meaning of ɡaaɖiɗú, gádíṱú is ‘silhouette’ or ‘human
shadow’ (see also Tutschek 1844: 54), but, in this context it refers to an evil spirit that accompanies or inhabits a
person. The evil spirit comes in a form of shadow and watches with evil-eye, hence it is also called, in some areas, ɮaltu, ilaltu ‘watcher (wicked)’. All these concepts are common motifs in Hararqee rock paintings (Cervicek 197). See
Fig.6 especially the silhouette-like background and in C an evil-eye motif is seen watching from above.
In accordance with the Qaallu Institution, the Qaallu (or Qaalličča, particulative) receives and embraces new
born children, giving them blessings, buttering their  heads and ɡubbisaa ‘giving them names’, literally,
‘incubating’ from ɡubba ‘to be above, over’ or ɡuƀa ‘to brand, heat’ (Knustsson 1967). Women call this process of entrusting children to the Qallu ‘aɖɖaraa ol kaa’, literally ‘Putting/Lifting up oath/children to the topmost (related to the prayer epithet Áɖɖaraa ‘Pray! I beseech you!’). Or, they call it Ők’ubaa ɢalča, literally ‘entering/submitting the Őq’ubaa’, which refers to “the act of kneeling down and raising one’s hands with open fingers towards the sky (Waaqa) and thus submitting oneself to Waaqa” (Gidada 2006:163), from the prayer epithet: Őq’uba ‘Pray!, Prayer!’, literally,
‘Take my fingers!’ A “perfect attitude at prayers in the Oromo’s eyes is to lift the hands towards heaven”
(Bartels 1983: 350). An unfortunate Oromo father/mother has to but say élmee koo ana ǧalaa du’e, literally ‘my offspring/child died from under/underside me’ while an unfortunate child would say abbo/ayyo koo ana’irraa du’e ‘my dear dad/mum died from above/over me’. Some lines from a song for a hero illustrate caressing and kissing the belly of his mother (Cerulli 1922: 48):

The belly which has brought you forth,
How much gold has it brought forth?
Who is the mother who has given birth to you?
If I had seen her with my eyes,
I would have kissed her navel.

These symbolic-actional rhetorical organizations are most probably the underlying ‘grammar’ of the recurrent
anthropomorphic signs, along with a newborn calves, ‘embracing’ the belly, navel of a cow (Fig.6CandD from
Cervicek 1971). Culturally, cows are given as an invaluable gift to an adoptee child, so that she/he never
sleeps a night without a cup of milk. The gift-cow is addressed by hypocoristic aɳɖ’úree ‘navel, umbilical cord’
(aɖɖ’oolee, plural, by play on word ‘good parous ones, the gray/old ones’), which means ‘dear foster-mama’
symbolizing cordiality, wish to long-life and strong bond, protection of the child (see also Hassen 1990: 21).
Earlier in this paper, we saw how matrilineal-patrilineal and moiety phratry are represented partly by bovine
anatomy. As recorded by the Catholic Father Lambert Bartels and others, Waaqa ‘Devine, God, Sky’
symbolizes Abbá, Patriarchic-side of the cosmos or Father or Husband “who goes away” while, Daččee
‘Earth’ symbolizes, the Matriarchic-side, Mother or Wife who “is always with us” (Bartels 1983: 108-111) and
“originally, Heaven and Earth were standing one next to the other on equal terms” (Haberland 1963: 563 quoted in
Bartels 1983: 111). As we observe the Laga Odaa pictures (see Fig.5A), we consistently also find another
interesting analogy–bulls are consistently drawn above the cows. In Oromo worldview, a bull represent ßoo
‘sacred domain of the male’ (vocative form of bâ ‘man, subject, being, masculine 4th person pronoun’), while a
cow (saa, sa’a) represent çâé, îssi ‘sacred domain of the female’ (also ‘feminine 4th person pronoun’) (Kassam
1999:494). From this worldview comes Oromo concept of Ḿootumma ‘rule, government, state, kingdom’:[Ḿootumma comes] from moo’a, autobenefactive: moo’ď/ʈ, is a cattle image. For example, Kormi sun him moo’a, “that bull is in heat” and sa’a sun iti moo’a ‘he is mounting that cow’. With reference to human beings, the implication is not necessarily sexual, but can denote superiority or dominance in general. An moo’a, an mooti is a formula of self praise by a new Abba Gada during his inauguration (Shongolo 1996: 273).

Qallačča and Qaallu: A jigsaw motif
In this last section of this analysis, we must consider the  symbolic significance of what an old man skilled in
Oromo oral history says is tremendously important: The Qaallu did this. For the daughter/girl of Ǧillee
[eponymous clan name] he took a heifer; for the daughter/girl of Elellee [eponymous clan name] he also
took a heifer. Then, for the Elellee girl he erected the  heifer of Elellee in such a way that her (the heifer’s) head
is faced upwards. For the Ǧillee girl, he erected the heifer of Ǧillee in such a way that her (the heifer’s) is faced
downwards. The girl of Ǧillee too siiqqee stick and hit the Mormor River; then, the Mormor River split into two
(BATO 1998:75; My translation).

This story offers us a tremendously important insight.It corresponds with the amazing critical observation and re-interpretation of my informant Muummee. Muummee rotated 90oCW Cervicek’s (1971) Laga Oda Figure 47 (=
Fig.7 A) and got Fig.7B after rotating. In this motif, the Qaallu , with his qallačča headgear, is at the centre. We
can observe one heifer above the Qaallu (perhaps Ǧillee heifer) her head inverted, serving as qallačča headgear,
and behind him to the right handside, two heifers (cattle, one headless), both of whose heads are facing
downwards but in between them and the qallačča cattle is one anthropomorphic motif, unlike on the lefthand
where there are many, possibly a chorus in praise of the sublime black cow and of the reverenced Qaallu. We also
observe, a heifer (cow?) whose head is faced upwards (possibly Elellee heifer).

As usual, it is likely also that this  style is as much for  associal-epistemological as is it for grammatical- semotactical reason.  The downward-faced heifer or Ǧillee (hypocoristic-diminutive from ǧiɭa ‘ritual ceremony, pilgrimage’), which is equivalent to qallačča headgear of the Qaallu anthropomorphic, is a signification of the semantic of ɡaɮa ‘to safely travel away and come home (or ɢaɮma ‘the Sacred Temple of Qaallu’)’ by the help of the Qallačča the providence of God. Thus, the collocation
forming gaɮa-gaɮča gives the polysemous metonymic senses: (1) to invert, make upside down, (2) one who causes safe home-come i.e., Qallačča. The same ‘play on word’ is true of Elellee: (1) reduplication (emphasis) of ēɮ, éla ‘spring up; well (water)’, and (2) őɮ literally ‘go up; upwards; spare the day peacefully, prevail’. “Őɮa!” is a farewell formula for ‘Good day!’ (literally ‘Be upward! Be above! Prevail!’).Yet, the most interesting aspect lies beyond the lexico-syntactic or semotactic motives. If we look carefully at this motif, the head of the Qaallu and the foreparts of the downwards (ɡaɗi) Ǧillee heifer merge, which makes the latter headless (ɡaɗooma). The Elellee heifer apparently with only one horn but full nape (bok’uu)
appears to be another jigsaw making a thorax (ɡûɗeɫča) of the Qaallu, possibly because in the “Barietuma” Gada
System, the Qaallu are “central”, i.e., “occupy a special position, and their members act as “witnesses” (Galech)
on the occasion of weddings or other important transaction” (Werner 1915:17, 1914a: 140; See also Legesse 2006: 104, 182, for “Gada Triumvirate System”). This is not arbitrary, but is stylized so that the notions of seniority are textured simultaneously, in caput mortuum. Pertaining to the “seven bosses” of the qallačča (Plowman 1918:114) ) is possibly equivalent to Cervicek’s (1971:192) description of this same motif: “Seven animal representations, painting of a symbol ((cen-tre) and pictures of H-shaped anthropomorphic figures…Painted in graphite grey, the big cattle picture a
little darker, the smaller one beneath it in caput mortuum red.” While we can consider, following Dr. Gemetchu Megerssa, anthropology professor, that the seven bosses might stand for the seven holes of human body (above the neck) which still stand for some mythical concepts we cannot discuss here, it is also possible to consider the (related) socio-political structure of the democratic Gada System. They must stand for what Legesse (1973: 82, 107) calls “torban baalli” “the seven
assistants” of Abba Gada in “power” (his in-powerness is makes him Abba Bokkuu, ‘Proprietor/Holder of the
Scepter’). Long before Legesse’s critical and erudite study of Gada System, Phillipson (1916) wrote:

The petty chiefs act in conjunction with the king. These  are, however, appointed by election of officers called Toib
[Tor b] or Toibi (= seven councilors or ministers). These are men of standing and character…. They are governed
by, and work in unison with, the head. These officers are appointed by the king, and each of the seven has an
alternative, so that the number is unbroken. Their office is to sit in council with the king, hear cases, administer
justice, and in the king’s absence they can pass sentence  in minor cases; but all they do is done by his authority.
For all that, this may act as a check if the king inclines to  despotism. There is no such thing as favoritism; the Toibi
stands in the order elected: 1, 2, and c (Phillipson 1916:180). These seven high ranking officials (aɡaoɗa) are
purposely represented by forepart of bovine body (agooda), because this is the strongest and most
powerful part. Ól, literally ‘up, upwards, upper’ is a metaphoric expression for those “On-High in the
government of his [Abba Bokkuu] people” (De Salviac 2005 [1901]: 212). Cervicek (1971:130) is accurate when he theorized “anthropomorphic representations do not seem to have been painted for their own sake but in connection with the cattle and symbolic representations only.” Despite the guttural sounds dissimilarization, as in the expression
ɢaɮčaan naaf ɡalé ‘I understood it by profiling. i.e., symbolically (i.e., from the gerundive ɢaɮču, kalču ‘profiling, aligning, allying’, or kaɬaṯṯi ‘perspective, façade’, or the base kala, χala ‘to construct, design’; see Stegman
2011:2, 17), the very word qallača itself is a metasemiotic language, meaning ‘symbolic interpretation’.

*Dereje Tadesse Birbirso (PhD) is Assistant Professor, School of Foreign Language, College of Social Science and Humanities, Haramaya University

Read full article @ http://internationalscholarsjournals.org/download.php?id=275978303829134960.pdf&type=application/pdf&op=1

Waaqeffannaa (Amantii Oromoo):The traditional faith system of the Oromo people August 10, 2014

Posted by OromianEconomist in Ancient Egyptian, Ateetee (Siiqqee Institution), Black History, Chiekh Anta Diop, Culture, Development & Change, Finfinnee, Gadaa System, Irreecha, Kemetic Ancient African Culture, Language and Development, Macha & Tulama Association, Meroe, Meroetic Oromo, Nubia, Oromia, Oromiyaa, Oromo, Oromo Culture, Oromo First, Oromo Identity, Oromo Social System, Oromummaa, Prof. Muhammad Shamsaddin Megalommatis, Safuu: the Oromo moral value and doctrine, State of Oromia, The Oldest Living Person Known to Mankind, The Oromo Democratic system, The Oromo Library, Wisdom.
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Waaqeffannaa (Amantii Oromoo), the traditional faith system of the Oromo people, is one version of the monotheistic African Traditional Religion (ATR), where the followers of this faith system do believe in only one Supreme Being. African traditional religion is a term referring to a variety of religious practices of the only ONE African religion, which Oromo believers call Waaqeffannaa (believe in Waaqa, the supreme Being), an indigenous faith system to the continent of Africa. Even though there are different ways of practicing this religion with varieties of rituals, in truth, the different versions of the African religion have got the following commonalities:

 

– Believe in and celebrate a Supreme Being, or a Creator, which is referred to by a myriad of names in various languages as Waaqeffataa Oromo do often say: Waaqa maqaa dhibbaa = God with hundreds of names and Waaqa Afaan dhibbaa = God with hundreds of languages; thus in Afaan Oromoo (in Oromo language) the name of God is Waaqa/Rabbii or Waaqa tokkicha (one god) or Waaqa guraachaa (black God, where black is the symbol for holiness and for the unknown) = the holy God = the black universe (the unknown), whom we should celebrate and love with all our concentration and energy

 

– No written scripture (ATR’s holy texts are mostly oral), but now some people are trying to compose the written scripture based on the Africans’ oral literature.

 

– Living according to the will of the Supreme Being and love also those who do have their own way of surviving by following other belief systems, which are different from that of the Waaqeffannaa. It includes keeping both safuu (virtues) and laguu (vices); i.e. to love safuu as well as to hate and abhor cubbuu (sin).

 

– Correspondence with the Supreme Being in times of a great need (i.e. in times of natural calamities, unexplained deaths) and try to walk always on the karaa nagaa (on the way of peace = on the way of righteousness, on the road of truth).

 

– Having a devout connection with ancestors; in case of Oromo, the ancestors are all ways blessed and celebrated for the good inheritance we got from them, but not worshiped as some people want to mis understand.

 

The word “culture” is most commonly defined as the set of shared attitudes, values, goals, and practices that characterizes an institution, organization or group; different cultures are the distinct ways that classified people living in different parts of the world, that represented their experiences and acted creatively. African peoples have got our own culture, which distinguish us from other parts of the world, of course also having our own sub-cultures among ourselves. Aadaa Oromoo (Oromo culture) being one part of the Cush culture is one of the sub-cultures within the common African culture, which consists also the faith system of Waaqeffannaa as part and parcel of the Oromo/African culture.

 

Waaqeffannaa’s interaction with other religions

According to the expert opinions written up to now, the concept of monotheism is the whole mark of African Traditional Religion including the faith system of the Cush nations. It seems that this concept of monotheism have moved from Cushitic black Africans (including the Oromo) first to ancient Egypt, secondly, further to Israel of the Bible and lastly to the Arab world of Koran. The experts tell us that Moses was not the first monotheist, but Akhenaten was the first revolutionary monotheist; they even claim that Moses might have been black. It is also argued that Moses was an Egyptian Pharaoh known as Akhenaten before the exodus. Additionally, they do argue that Akhenaten’s monotheism revolution in Egypt was not inspired from inside, but induced from outside by the Cushites, i.e. Akhenaten might have derived his monotheism concept from Africa’s/Oromo’s concept of Waaqa tokkicha in a form of “Waaq humna malee bifa hin qabu (God has no physical form, but power).” This concept may have been misinterpreted so that the other religions later started to talk about God with a physical form.

 

It is also interesting to observe many similarities between some old Egyptian words and Afaan Oromo words; for instance, the similarities of the ancient Egyptian words “Anii and Matii” with the Oromo words of “Ana (Ani) and Maatii.” Anii of Egyptians, which means I (I am who I am), that is equivalent to God is similar to the Oromo word Ani, which also means I and refers to the first person singular (the actor = the main character of GOD). Matii being the designation of God’s congregation and the Oromo word Maatii for the family which is the “congregation” of ani (first person = God) are surprisingly the same. This is only one of many similarities between Oromo and Egypt registered by experts till now. It is not my intention to talk about this historical relationship here, but just to show the relation between Oromo’s traditional religion and the three Abraham religions, even though Judaism is not part of the current religions practiced by the Oromo. It means the new acceptance of both Christianity and Islam by Africans is the coming back of the same belief in Waaqa tokkicha to Africa in different forms.

 

This historical relation between Amantii Oromoo and the two big religions of the world suggests that Waaqeffannaa is the older version of monotheism and humanism. Waaqeffannaa as a faith system and Irreechaa as a major national celebration were part and parcel of Oromo public life. Now, some Oromo nationals prefer the name Amantii Oromo/Amantii Africa to Waaqeffannaa. It is important if we all can agree to call the Oromo traditional religion as Amantii Oromo/Amantii Africa, just like we agreed on calling our language Afaan Oromo and our country Biyya Oromo. So in short, we can say: Our land is Biyya Oromo, our language is Afaan Oromo and our religion is Amantii Oromo. It is known that some people may argue by saying “how can we call it Amantii Oromo, when we do see that more than half of the Oromo nowadays have Christianity and Islam as their religion?” Are Oromo with other first language rather than Afaan Oromo not Oromo, despite their lost Afaan Oromo? Should we say just because of these Oromo, who nowadays speak only English, German, Amharic, etc., that Oromo language is not Afaan Oromo? The same way, it is not logical not to call Oromo religion as Amantii Oromo because of the Oromo who overtook other religions. Actually, the designation Waaqqeffannaa (believing in and living with Waaqa) can also be applied to Christian Oromo and Islam Oromo even though most of the Islam Oromo prefer the name Rabbii to the name Waaqa. They all are believers in Waaqa = God = Allah = Rabbii. Amantii Oromo differs only because of its specificity for it is the older Oromo faith embedded in only Oromo/African culture without any influence from alien culture.

 

The fact to be accepted here is that God is universal even though we call HIM Waaqa, Rabbii or Allah. But, Amantii Oromo is the way how our forefathers believed in this universal Waaqa of humankind. We don’t have God or Waaqa, who is specific only to Oromo/Africa and doesn’t care for other nations. Waaqa is the God of nations. But, we Oromo do have a specific way and culture regarding how we do practice our belief in Waaqa. This way of practicing our faith is what we call Amantii Oromo. Amantii Oromo is simply the Oromo way of practicing the faith in the universal Waaqa. It is part of the Oromo way of dealing with the problems of life (it is part of Aadaa Oromo). Accordingly, aadaa (culture) can also be defined as the way, in which a certain collective or group of people deals with its own life problem.

 

The difference between this Amantii Oromo and the other two big religions practiced by Oromo is that the other two got not only the faith in one God, but also the elements of cultures from the people in which they first emerged. We can see here the Arabs accepted the concept of Waaqa tokkicha while still keeping pre-Mohammad Arab culture in Islam, which is far different from Oromo/from African culture, but Islam practiced by Oromo in Oromia is colored by Arab culture for it is adopted from there. Interestingly, this is the difference between Islam Arab and Islam Oromo; Islam Arabs adopted only the concept of Waaqa tokkicha from Cush of Africa/Egypt/Israel, but don’t seem to exercise alien culture from these areas, whereas Islam Oromo tend to adopt both the faith and the culture from Arabs. Egyptians and Israelis, who accepted the concept of the same Waaqa tokkicha, also do practice their faith being colored by their own previous culture; they don’t seem to practice Cush culture; but again Christianity practiced in Oromia is mostly colored by the culture of the Israelis, the Habeshas as well as by that of the Western world for Christian Oromo tend to adopt not only the faith, but also the alien culture.

 

That is why it is not actually bad that some Oromo nationals accept and believe in the two monotheist religions (Christianity and Islam) per se, but not good is giving more value to the culture of the nations from which the religions come to us, at the cost of the very valuable Aadaa Oromo. Of course, good elements of foreign cultures can be accommodated without damaging the good elements of our own. For instance, the similarity between dibbee Qaallu (Qaallu’s drum) and the beat of Tigrinya music shows how Tegarus have inherited and kept some elements of Oromo’s culture. This can verify that the suggestion of Donald Levine, who in his book called Greater Ethiopia wrote that “Tegarus are part of the Cushites of the Old Testament who denied their identity”, may be true. After all, why do they call their mother Aadde? Where does the name Barentu in Eritrea come from? Are they only inheritance of names or were they part of the lost Oromo/Cush? Anyways, it is good to follow the advice given once by Luba Shamsadin. He said (paraphrased here), when we try to accept religions from other nations, we have to identify and separate “the bone of the fish from the meat”; i.e. we need to identify and leave the unnecessary cultural elements of other nations, which are usually mixed with their religions we Oromo do tend to accept and adopt.

 

So as it is put here in short,

Waaqeffannaa (believe in one Waaqa of the universe) is practiced not only among the Cush nations, but also among almost all African nations. This faith system of Africans including Waaqeffannaa has been devalued as something “paganism, barbarism, religionlessness, uncivilization, Godlessness, animism, primitivism, etc”. The black color, which is the symbol of holiness in Waaqeffannaa was/is demonized as a symbol for Satan. All the blessing ceremonies of Waaqeffannaa and the utensil used for the blessings are condemned as a service, an instrument and worshiping of demons/Satan. Despite this denigration, the current revival of Waaqeffannaa and the celebration of Irreechaa in Oromia can be a good example-setting for the other African nations to revive their hitherto devalued and almost lost culture and religion.

 

To serve this purpose of revival, the right way of Waaqeffannaa (believing in, celebrating of and living with Waaqa) must be cleaned from alien non-constructive elements as well as from non-productive practices and rituals like that of “qaalichaa” (infiltrating idolatry), which are not serving the purpose of Waaqa in our personal or national life. That means, we have to differentiate Waaqeffachuu (realizing God’s purpose in our life) from waaqessuu (serving alien gods). Waaqeffachuu is applying Waaqa’s goodwill in our practical life, whereas waaqessuu is making someone or something be our Waaqa, i.e. practicing idolatry. The Oromo people in general have never had an idol to worship, but always had only one Waaqa to believe in and to celebrate. Of course, there are very few Oromo individuals nowadays tending to practice waaqessuu. Such purification of the African faith system from unimportant and useless elements must be done in all versions of the practices and rituals among all African nations.

 

Concept of God in Waaqeffannaa

To make Waaqeffannaa a little bit clear, here is a short narration about this faith system in practice. Oromo nationals practicing this faith do talk about Waaqa tokkicha, which is one of the evidences for the faith to be monotheism, just as the Christianity and Islam are. The concept of God among these believers is summarized by their usual saying: “Waaq humna malee bifa hin qabu.” These believers do not misinterpret Waaqa tokkicha as an expression of physical form for even the whole nature as a physical form is also an expression of his power. The believers and the Qaalluu or Qaallitti (local spiritual leader) are usually very lovely; specially the leaders are simply like a love in person. All their followers are selfless people full of good deeds and love; they do talk about Waaqa, calling him as abbaa koo (my father), and they usually do pray for children saying: “akka ijoollee keenyaa eebbisuuf abba keenya gaafanna (let’s ask our father to bless our children),” they usually don’t say “abba keenya kadhanna (let’s beg our father).”

 

Whenever they are challenged by life problems, they do assert by saying: “Waaq abbaan keenya eessa dhaqeetu (our God is not far away)”, denoting that Waaqa is always ready to help his children. They some times also talk as prophets in a way: “Abbaan keenya akkas jedha, ani sin wajjin jira, ani nan sin gargaara (our father says, I am with you and I will help you)”. According to them, the spiritual father is Waaqa garaa gurraachaa, i.e. Waaqa with holy heart, symbolized with black color, most of whose holiness is unknown to humans. Knowledgeable believers do tell that the concept “Waaqa gurracha garaa garba (black God with heart like ocean)” actually refers to the unknown future. What Waaqa may bring in the future is unknown, and that is signified by black color. Here, garaa garba is also about the unknown. One couldn’t know what is inside the body of water from afar. This point of view seems to be the reason for the color black in the Oromo tricolor to signify the unknown future.

 

In some regions of Oromia, there are a lot of congregations visited by Oromo at some big houses called gimbi (galma) which have got different names: gimbii diloo, maram, abbaa jama, hiike, etc; the spiritual practices done there include the following: dalaguu (dancing), irreenssa kennu (green leaf as a gift), wareeguu (offerings), hammachiisaa (blessing babies), gashaa (delicious food brought to gimbi), etc. Actually, people go to such gimbi regularly carrying green leaves of Irreensaa. In this culture, green grass or green leaf is a powerful symbol for life and prosperity, and it is an element present in all public rituals of Waaqeffataa Oromo, including funerals and prayers of remembrance, during which grass is spread on the ground or grave. The above listed different names of gimbi are Oromo spiritual holy places and palaces, which are equivalent to temple, church and mosque. In all the places mentioned, everyone prays to Waaqa. The practices mentioned above are just variations of spiritual practice to Waaqa.

 

It is also to be observed among the practicing Waaqeffattaa how balanced is their way of discussion and relationship. During sorts of discussions, they often discuss very wisely. For example, when they give comments, here is a sample of how they do: “Ilaa, kanaa fi sana waan gaarii jette. Haa ta’u malee, kunimmoo otoo akkana ta’e wayya (here and there you said good, but it is better if this one be so and so)”. They do not denigrate the opinion of the other side, but tell the better alternative to the opinion they do disagree with. They do tolerate the mistake of others and just tell the consequence of the mistake. As far as they are concerned, there is always cubbuu (sin) in their consciousness, but no concept for hell or condemnation after death. This simply implies that we all do experience the consequence of our trespasses regarding the safuu (virtues) and laguu (vices) expected from us during our life time.

 

Not to suffer such consequences of cubbuu, Waaqeffattaa Oromo have got a lot of very well said prayers in their practical life activities. The following are very few of the impressive prayers in the day to day life of the Oromo, which need to be presented here as examples. They are usually heard from the believers of Amantii Oromo, and they are almost similar to what the believers in Christianity and Islam do pray, let alone the similarity of the greatly formulated prayers we do hear during Irreechaa celebration with what the Christian Qesis and the Islam Sheiks usually do pray:

 

– Yaa Waaq kan dubbatee nu dubbachiisu fi kan hamaa nutti yaadu nurraa qabbi (God keep us from those who speak evil and make us speak the same).

 

– Yaa Waaq mirga nu oolch (help us to walk on the right way); hamaa nurraa qabi (protect us from evil).

 

– Yaa Rabbii, ilmi ga’e haa fuudhu (Oh God, let the young man be married), dubarri geesse haa heerumtu (let the young woman be married), this prayer shows howimportant family building for human blessing is.

 

– Yaa Waaq, ani galee, kan galee hin rafne narraa qabi; ani rafee kan rafee hin bulle narra qabi (I am now at home to sleep, save me from the evil ones who didn’t yet be at their home and didn’t sleep).

 

– Yaa Waaq galgala koo hin balleessiin (let my old age not be cursed), this is related with the conse -quence of cubbuu. The believers are asking Waaqa to help them stay away from cubbuu so that their “galgala (late age)” will not be bad/painful. Here we see something similar with the native American’s culture. They say: “when you came to this world, you cried and everybody else laughed; live your life so that when you leave this world, you laugh and everyone else cries”; i.e. to say live your life free from cubbuu and its conse -quence (suffering), the life style which leads you to the blessing in your old age.

 

This prayers indicate the fact on the ground how Oromo look at Waaqa and at the human-being. Waaqa is conceived as a holy father with whom we can correspond during our day to day life problems or when ever we face calamities or difficulties for his will is always good, whereas human-beings can be with either bad or good intention in relation to each other. Both Gadaa and Qaalluu institutions look at all individuals as human with equal rights in front of Waaqa; that is why there is no a “respect form” of addressing human-being or God in Afaan Oromo, just as there is non in English language. After losing our sovereignty, the Oromo people had to learn how to “respect” authority figures. For there is no such option in Afaan Oromo, we had to use plural verbs to address the authority figures. Even Abbaa Gadaa (chief of the government) and Abbaa Mudaa (the spiritual leader) were addressed as “ati = you in a singular form,” not as “isin = you in a plural form.” Today, we have to address our fellow human being with certain authority as “isin” to show “respect.” It is not bad if such addressing would have been mutual/symmetrical as for instance it is in German language. But such “respect,” which we are now applying is asymmetrical (only the authority figure is addressed with the “respect” form, whereas the authority figure can address the other person without using the “respect” form. Where it is the reality that we don’t use the “respect” form during addressing our Waaqa, as seen in the above prayers, why should we bother to use it in addressing our fellow human being? It would be better if we leave this culture, which we adopted from others with authoritarian culture in contrast to our own egalitarian one. Our concept of Waaqa doesn’t allow us to behave so submissively to any human being, who is equal to us.

 

Virtues and Vices of Waaqeffannaa

Here in short, safuu (virtue) can be defined as the “to do list” in order to serve Waaqa and to achieve his kaayyoo/goal in our personal and national earthly life; whereas laguu (vice) is the “not to do list” or the taboo, so that we can refrain from doing such activities diverting us from the kaayyoo Waaqa for our life. Cubbuu (sin) then in short includes both not doing the safuu and doing the laguu. Just as an example, if we take bilisummaa (national freedom) as Waaqa’s kaayyoo for the Oromo nation, what are the safuu and the laguu to be respected? If the kaayyoo of Waaqeffannaa is individual healing from any sort of illness, what are the safuu and the laguu, which both the healer and the sick person should respect?

 

In order to look at the virtues and vices of the traditional Oromo/African belief system for our earthly life, let us now try to describe Waaqeffannaa as we experienced it and knew it. Note that all the descriptions and notions we try to put here on paper are based on our own argaa-dhageetti (based on our own perception), which may differ from that of the other Oromo nationals. For instance, we could observe that Oromo is a nation filled with celebrations of eebba (blessing), who do have different celebrations for almost everything and everybody related to our life. For instance, taaboree as a blessing ceremony for young boys; ingiccaa for blessing young girls; ayyaana abbaa for blessing the ancestors for the good inheritance we got from them; ateetee for blessing our women; borantichaa for blessing adult men; jaarii looni for blessing our useful animals; jaarii qe’e or jaarii kosii for blessing our residence area; jaarii midhaani to bless our farms; garanfasa mucucoo as a celebration of the rainy season and, of course, gubaa and irreechaa for celebration of the coming birraa (the coming spring season) etc. We hope that Oromo students of anthropology, sociology and theology will make a scientific research on these blessing ceremonies and tell us the constructive and non-constructive elements of the activities in them.

 

But, let us mention few of the virtues (positive aspects) of Waaqeffannaa in our earthly life time. Here the reference point to judge certain elements as negative or positive is the position of the purpose, which Waaqa do have for our personal and national life, i.e. based on the kaayyoo (goal) our Waaqayyoo do have for us. To elaborate this relationship between kaayyoo and Waaqayyoo, we can ask: is Waaq-aayyoo our ka-ayyoo / is our ka-ayyoo the Waaq-ayyoo? It is about knowing what purpose we do serve in our daily life both cognitively and behaviorally, as individuals or as a nation. Be it that we do think and walk at political, religious or private level, we do try to serve certain purpose in life. In order to identify that purpose, we only need to be conscious about it, reflect on it and ask our selves: whom do we privately or collectively serve in our endeavors? Do we serve Waaqa’s purpose for us or that of the others’? Simply put, which purpose should we serve? Fortunately the hitherto cumulative knowledge and wisdom of different societies in general and that of the Oromo society in particular tell us what we ought to serve: i.e. to serve Waaqa’s purpose which is good for us as an individual and as a collective. This good purpose is given a sacred name and it seems to be what people call the will of Waaqa.

 

As a support for this assertion, we can look at an example written in the Bible of Christians, that states : “God is my objective”. Is this to be understood also as: “my objective is God”? Can we say that our good personal or political purpose is the will of Waaqa, whom we ought to serve? To comprehend this, it is no where clearly written other than in Afaan Oromo. Surprisingly the words kaayyoo and Waaqayyoo in our language do indicate to have the same source. As we know, the short word KA is the name given by our Cushitic ancestors to God and the word aayyoo is, of course, the name given to a mother, who does wish all good things for her children and does plan and try to fulfill it. So KA can be defined as the Supreme Being, which has good purpose for ayyoo’s children. This purpose is the “Goodness” for her children. So KA-ayyoo is God’s will (his good objective to her beloved children). The term Waaqayyo is the short form of waan-KA-ayyoo (what is planned from KA for aayyoo and for her children). So we can see that the good end, we have to serve, can be called kaayyoo from Waaqa. So the will of Waaqa is simply to be defined as the good end we should choose to serve as part of the balanced universe created by HIM.

 

To fulfill this service to the good end, fortunately the best thing we do observe among Waaqeffataa Oromo is the work-ethics they do have to achieve the purpose of Waaqa in their earthly life, specially in the life areas of career and family. They do love to be the best in both life areas; they love their family and most of them are very enthusiastic to be successful in their profession. They usually say “Waaq taa’i taa’i namaan hin jedhin (let HE not make us idle);” simply put, diligence is part of safuu and to be idle and lazy is part of laguu. We know that there are certain contamination from other cultures to be practiced as rituals contradicting this virtue and which are not serving the purpose of Waaqa for us. That is why we do recommend not only the revival of this marvelous belief system, which was the creation of our forefathers, but also we do suggest a necessary reformation to make the faith system to be fit, so that it can help us to cope with the 21st century challenge and situation. Waaqa’s creation and his keeping the balance of the universe is still going on, so that HE demands also a dynamic creative work from his creature, from the human being. Another impressive virtue of Waaqeffannaa necessary to be mentioned is its relation with nature and its persuasion to help us keep the environment healthy; it is the faith system which is simply through and through green.

 

Waaqeffannaa’s position on the life after death

According to this belief system, we all will live further after death as ekeraa (in a form of soul/spirit) with our father, with Waaqa, without any possibility of punishment in hell. We recently read Martial De Salviac’s translated book, in which he wrote “Oromo invariably believe that they will go to heaven.” So, the consequence of our cubbuu is not losing eternal life, but suffering in our earthly life. To Waaqeffataa Oromo, Waaqa is the one who wants us not to do a collective cubbuu, but expects us to protect the balanced nature, in which HIS power is manifested. The wisdom that guides Waaqeffataa Oromo in fulfilling this mission seems to be our arga-dhagetti (believe and act on a principle of reality, i.e. based on what we see and hear).

 

According to argaa-dhageetti, the concepts like “cubbuun ni qabdi (sin has got consequence), cubbuun ni sirriqxi (the consequence of sin can be inherited), cubbu abbaatu eeggata or cubbuu irra abbaatu uf eega (everyone should keep him-/herself from committing sin and everybody is responsible for the consequences of the sin he/she commit)” are nice and practical. What we liked most from the principles of Waaqeffannaa is this concept of cubbuu. The consequences of cubbuu are only to be seen here on this earth, not in the coming life after death. There is no hell that Waaqayyoo has prepared to punish the people with cuubbu. This is hilarious and very healing for those who always have to live with the fear of hell or punishment after death.

 

Another interesting aspect of Waaqeffannaa is that we never heard from the practicing believers that they are believing in the presence of an evil spiritual power in the form of Satan, which acts and lives against the almighty power of Waaqa. Accordingly, there is only one sovereign power doing and undoing all things in a universe, that is Waaqa. Unfortunately, the concept Satan is now already spread among the whole Oromo population as a contamination taken from other religions. Waaqeffataa Oromo do believe that the evil things we do experience in life are due to the imbalance of nature as a result of the unwise or wicked deeds of humans as collective, i.e. it is a human cubbuu with its consequences on the earth. That is why they usually ask their Waaqa for wisdom to keep the balance of nature and that HE lead them to only those with good intention and protect them from those with bad intention, for example, in a prayer like: “yaa Waaq tolaa nutti qabi, hamaa irraa nu eegi (God lead who is good to us and keep away who is evil from us). Here it seems that good is someone, who works to keep the balance of nature; and evil is the contrary.

 

According to the faith system of Waaqeffannaa, there is nothing we have to do now to earn eternal life after death; life after death is simply a free gift we got from our father, Waaqayyoo, whom we just need to celebrate and thank as we do daily and during the yearly celebrations like Irreechaa. We also don’t need a savior, who has to suffer and die for us, so that we can get life after death. The only area where we have to work on is trying to live the quality life (the character of the eternal life) according to the will of Waaqa here on earth. To live this quality life, we need to activate our potentials given to us from Waaqa and then walk on the karaa nagaa towards the kaayyoo Waaqa for our life, being free from cubbuu by keeping both safuu and laguu.

 

Further recommendation

The very important aspect of Waaqeffannaa as part of Oromo/African culture is its principle of argaa-dhaggeetti (it is relatively an evidence based faith system, possibly trying to be free from superstition). This principle is about reading the real situations at hand and finding the appropriate solutions for the situations. Waaqeffannaa teaches that only Waaqa is not prone to change for HE is perfect, but all his creature and all the situations are changing with time; that is why his creative action is still going on and that we also need to be in a position to find new solutions for the changed situations. In short, we need to be situation oriented, time oriented and live accordingly. That means, it is good to know the past version of aadaa and Amantii Oromo/Africa; but better is to live and practice the present version of aadaa and Amantii Oromo; of course the best is to create the most beneficial version of aadaa and Amantii Oromo as well as to inherit it to our coming generation. So let’s learn from the past version, live the present version and love to create the future verion of aadaa Oromo in general, and Amantii Oromo in particular.

 

This article is of course coloured by subjective perceptions, so that Oromo nationals are welcome to complement or contradict it. All the sub-titles given in this article need a further meticulous research and study. Through scientific studies, it can be possible to cleanse Waaqeffa -nnaa from certain meaningless rituals adopted from the other sub-cultures, e.g rituals like that of “qaalichaa” (idolatry), xinqolaa (sorcery), etc, where the practitioners are actually making business in the name of the religion. Waaqeffannaa needs not only revival, but also reformation as part and parcel of the ongoing liberation from such sensless practices. Elements, which are against the will of Waaqa for all human-being in general and for African nations in particular must be removed, so that we can say Waaqa bless Oromia/Africa and then live accordingly. Adopting good elements, which serve the will of Waaqa for us, from other cultures and faiths is not bad as it is usually said: “waan gaariin bade hundi kan Oromo ti” (every good thing lost belongs to Oromo). Again, good and bad is defined from the position of the will of Waaqa for our life, i.e. from the position of his kaayyoo in our life, which is always a good purpose.

 

So, only celebrating the holidays and reviving the religion are not enough, if we want to be fit for the present 21st century situation and for the situation in which our future generation will live. Our forefathers created a faith system as part of the solution to their situation; we also need to do the same. So let’s not try to use the same key used by our forefathers in the past to open doors with totally different keyholes at the present and the future or we don’t need to ride a donkey at this age of driving a limousine; in short we need a right solution for the present and the future situations. Our next generation need to inherit from us the latest and modern model/edition/version of our faith system, Waaqeffannaa, which they also can reform, edit and secure for their children and grand children, so that we human-being continue to be as creative as our father, Waaqa.

 

Let’s give a simple suggestion as an example in the required reforming: why can’t we use bundle of flowers for Irreechaa, instead of only grass used by our forefathers? Why don’t we use water or oil, instead of butter to anoint others during the blessing ceremonies just for the sake of hygiene? Why don’t we use candle light or the modern beautifully colored electric light decorations instead of bonfire during wa-maraa (demera)? etc. Now it is a time to have Waaqeffannaa free from non-productive and untimely elements, so that it will be a faith system, which will be accepted and believed by the enlightened and informed Oromo in particular as well as by Africans in general (so that it will be a faith system serving the will of Waaqa for Oromia in particular, and for Africa in general).

 

Last but not least, Waaqeffataa Oromo need to be creative in realizing the will of Waaqa in our life, which is the only way to “evangelize” and convert others to the “karaa nagaa (to the right way) HE wants us to walk. We need to learn from the past (the known part of life, which is symbolized by white color), live the present (the challenging part of life symblized by red color) and love to know the future (the unknown part of life symbolized by black color). The karaa nagaa at this particular era/time includes the virtue of a passinate struggle in life both individually and collectively, not an attitude of the pacifistic stoicism. Waaqeffannaa doesn’t persuade us to do things to secure life after death, but it tells us that our effort and enthusiasm are part of the safuu we have to keep and implement in order to make our life here on earth the excellent success story.

Read the full article from original source @http://gihonpostsite.wordpress.com/2014/08/07/waaqeffannaa-the-african-traditional-faith-system/

 

 

Meroe, Oromo and Old Nubian: Solving the Mystery of Meroitic Language July 23, 2014

Posted by OromianEconomist in Afaan Publication, Ancient African Direct Democracy, Ancient Egyptian, Ateetee (Siiqqee Institution), Black History, Chiekh Anta Diop, Cushtic, Gadaa System, Irreecha, Kemetic Ancient African Culture, Language and Development, Meroe, Meroetic Oromo, Oromia, Oromo Culture, Oromo Identity, Oromo Nation, Oromummaa, Prof. Muhammad Shamsaddin Megalommatis, Sidama, State of Oromia, The Goddess of Fecundity, The Oromo Democratic system, The Oromo Governance System.
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Meroe, Oromo and Old Nubian: Solving the Mystery of Meroitic Language
By Dereje Tadesse Birbirso (PhD),  College of Social Science and HumanitiesHaramaya University, Ethiopia
Abstract
 
 Meroitic language is one of the most controversial ancient languages but one of the few having advanced writing systems. Some classify it Asian, European, non-African, Semitic,or ‘unclassified’. This paper contends Meroe, similar to their Cushitic friends, are left victims of preconceived ideas based on an entirely argument from silence, an hegemonic epistemology that elevates a single perspective and silences other(s). This paper, thus,comparatively analyzes Meroitic and Old Nubian lexical and grammatical items with corresponding Oromo, a Cushitic family which, 
a Cushitic family which,vocabulary possibly the Ancientlanguage of the Nile Valley and/or Horn of Africa. Meroitic and Old Nubian lexical, grammatical and epigraphic data were collected from secondary sources by Meroitic researchers. Oromo corpora are obtained both from classical and modern descriptions and native-speakers. Results indicate Oromo lexemes show significant level of cognates with not only Meroitic and Old Nubian, but also with the Ancient Egyptian to their northern part.
Keywords:  Oromo, Meroe, Nubian, Ancient Egyptian, Cushitic, Chiekh Anta Diop
 Related Reference:
The Meroitic Ethiopian Origins of the Modern Oromo NationBy Prof. Dr. Muhammad Shamsaddin Megalommatis

This paper deals, among others, with the development of Meroitic studies, the Meroitic civilization, the destruction of the city of Meroe, the dispersal of the Meroitic people after the collapse of their state, the Christianization of the post Meroitic states, the migration of the remnants of the Meroitic people in the direction of the Blue Nile and their possible relation of ancestry with the modern Cushitic language speaking Oromo nation. It must be stated clearly at the outset that the issue of Meroitic ancestry of the Oromo nation has not been considered, much less published in an academic journal or scholarly books. The paper was first presented in an academic conference organized by the Oromo Studies Association. Footnotes have been added recently.

1. The Development of the Meroitic Studies, the History of Kush and Meroe, and the Efforts to Decipher the Meroitic Scripture

Interest in what was Ethiopia for the Ancient Greeks and Romans, i.e. the Northern territory of present day Sudan from Khartoum to the Egyptian border1, led to the gradual development of the modern discipline of the Humanities that long stood in the shadow of

Egyptology: the Meroitic Studies.

Considerable advances had been made in academic research and knowledge as the result of the exploratory trips of the Prussian pioneering Egyptologist Richard Lepsius2 (1842 – 1844) that bestowed upon modern scholarship the voluminous ‘Denkmäler aus Aegypten und Aethiopien’ (Monuments from Egypt and Ethiopia), and the series of excavations by E. A. Wallis Budge3 and John Garstang4 at Meroe (modern Bagrawiyah) in the first years of the twentieth century, Francis Llewellyn Griffith5 at Kawa (ancient Gematon, near modern Dongola, 1929 – 1931), Fritz Hintze6 at Musawwarat es Sufra, Jean Leclant7 at Sulb (Soleb), Sadinga (Sedeinga), and Djebel Barkal (ancient Napata, modern Karima) in the 1950s and the 1960s, D. Wildung8 at Naqah, and Charles Bonnet at Kerma. . The pertinent explorations and contributions of scholars like A. J. Arkell9, P. L. Shinnie10 and Laszlo Torok11 that cover a span of 80 years reconstituted a large part of the greatness and splendor of this four-millennia long African civilization.

Yet, due to the lack of direct access to original sources and genuine understanding of the ancient history of Sudan, the legendary Ethiopia of the Greeks and Romans, which also corresponds to what was ‘Kush’ of the Hebrews Bible and ultimately ‘Kas’ of the ancient Egyptians12, we face a serious problem of terminology. We are confined to such terms as Period (or Group) A (3100 – 2700 BCE),13 Period B14 (2700 – 2300 BCE that starts with Pharaoh Snefru’s expedition,15 and the beginning of time-honored enmity between Egypt and Kush), Period C16 (2300 – 2100 BCE, when we have no idea to what specific ethnic or state structures the various Egyptian names Wawat, Irtet, Setjiu,Yam, Zetjau, and Medjay refer)17, Period Kerma18 (2100 – 1500 BCE, named after the modern city and archeological site, 500 km in the south of the present Sudanese – Egyptian border). What we know for sure is that, when the first Pharaohs of the New Empire invaded and colonized the entire area down to Kurgus19 (more than 1000 km alongside the Nile in the south of the present Sudanese – Egyptian border), they established two top Egyptian administrative positions, namely ‘Viceroy of Wawat’ and ‘Viceroy of Kush/Kas’. Wawat is the area between Aswan and Abu Simbel or properly speaking, the area between the first and the second cataracts whereas Kas is all the land that lies beyond. With the collapse of the Kerma culture comes to end a first high-level culture and state in the area of Kush.

We employ the term ‘Kushitic Period’20 to refer to the subsequent period: a) the Egyptian annexation (1500 – 950 BCE) that was followed by a permanent effort to egyptianize Kush and the ceaseless Kushitic revolutions against the Pharaohs;

b) the Kushitic independence (950 – 800 BCE, when a state is formed around Napata21, present day Karima, 750 km in the south of the Sudanese – Egyptian border);

c) the Kushitic expansion and involvement in Egypt (800 – 670 BCE, which corresponds mostly to the XXVth – ‘Ethiopian’ according to Manetho22 – dynasty of Egypt, when the Theban clergy of Amun made an alliance with the Kushitic ‘Qore’ – Kings of Napata, who had two capitals, Napata and Thebes);23 and d) the Kushitic expulsion from Egypt (following the three successive invasions of Egypt by Emperors Assarhaddon24 in 671 BCE, and Assurbanipal25in 669 and 666 BCE, and of Assyria, who made an alliance with the Heliopolitan26 priesthood and Libyan princes against the Theban clergy and the Kushitic kings), and gradual decline (following the invasions by Psamtik/Psammetichus II27 in 591 BCE, and the Achaemedian28 Persian Shah Kambudjiyah/Cambyses29 in 525 BCE) until the transfer of the capital far in the south at Meroe, at the area of present day Bagrawiyah (at the end of the reign of Qore Nastasen30between335 and 315 BCE).

We call ‘Meroitic’ the entire period that covers almost 700 years beginning around 260 BCE with the reign of the successors of Nastasen (Arkamaniqo / Ergamenes31 (the most illustrious among the earliest ones and the first to be buried at Meroe / Bagrawiyah), down to the end of Meroe and the destruction of the Meroitic royal cities by the Axumite Abyssinian Negus Ezana32 (370 CE). It is easily understood that ‘Kushitic’ antedates ‘Meroitic’, but the appellations are quite conventional.

The Ancient people of Kush (or Ethiopia) entered into a period of cultural and scriptural radiation and authenticity relatively late, around the third century BCE, which means that the development took place when Meroe replaced Napata as capital of the Kushites / Meroites. Before that moment, they used Egyptian Hieroglyphic scripture for all purposes of writing, administrative, economic, religious and/or royal. The introduction of the Meroitic alphabetic hieroglyphic writing spearheaded the development of a Meroitic cursive alphabetic scripture that was used for less magnificent purposes than palatial and sacred relief inscriptions. The first person to publish Meroitic inscriptions was the French architect Gau33, who visited Northern Sudan in 1819. Quite unfortunately, almost two centuries after the discovery, we risk being left in mysteries with regard to the contents of the epigraphic evidence collected in both scriptural systems.

The earliest dated Meroitic hieroglyphic inscriptions belong to the reign of the ruling queen Shanakdakheto34 (about 177-155 BCE), but archaeologists believe that this scripture represents the later phase of a language spoken by Kushites / Meroites at least as far back as 750 BCE and possibly many centuries before that (hinting at a Kushitic continuity from the earliest Kerma days). The earliest examples of Meroitic cursive inscriptions, recently found by Charles Bonnet in Dukki Gel (REM 1377-78)35, can be dated from the early second century BCE. The latest text is still probably the famous inscription from Kalabsha mentioning King Kharamadoye (REM 0094)36 and dated from the beginning of the fifth century AD, although some funeral texts from Ballana37 could be contemporary if not posterior.

Despite the fact that F. L. Griffith has identified the 23 Meroitic alphabetic scripture’s signs already in 1909, not much progress has been made towards an ultimate decipherment of the Meroitic38. Scarcity of epigraphic evidence plays a certain role in this regard, since as late as the year 2000 we were not able to accumulate more than 1278 texts. If we now add to that the lack of lengthy texts, the lack of any bilingual text (not necessarily Egyptian /Meroitic, it could be Ancient Greek / Meroitic, if we take into consideration that Arkamaniqo / Ergamenes39 was well versed in Greek), and a certain lack of academic vision, we understand why the state of our knowledge about the history of the Meroites is still so limited.

Linguistics and parallels from other languages have been repeatedly set in motion in order to help the academic research. Griffith and Haycock40 tried to read Meroitic using (modern) Nubian. K.H. Priese41 tried to read the Meroitic text using Eastern Sudanese (Beja42 or Hadendawa43); and F. Hintze44, attempted to compare Meroitic with the Ural-Altaic group. Recently Siegbert Hummel45, compared the “known” Meroitic words to words in the Altaic family which he believed was a substrate language of Meroitic. At times, scholars (like Clyde Winters46) were driven to farfetched interpretations, attempting to equate Meroitic with Tokharian, after assuming a possible relationship between the name Kush and the name Kushan47 of an Eastern Iranian state (of the late Arsacid48, 250 BCE – 224 CE, and early Sassanid49, 224 – 651 CE, times)! However, one must state that the bulk of the researchers working on the Meroitic language do not believe that it was a member of the Afro-Asiatic group.

So far, the only Meroitic words for which a solid translation had been given by Griffith and his successors are the following: man, woman, meat, bread, water, give, big, abundant, good, sister, brother, wife, mother, child, begotten, born, feet. The eventual equivalence between Egyptian and Meroitic texts was a strong motivation for any interpretational approach, recent or not. More recent, but still dubious, suggestions are the following: arohe- «protect», hr- «eat», pwrite «life», yer «milk», ar «boy», are- or dm- «take, receive», dime «cow», hlbi «bull», ns(e) «sacrifice, sdk «journey», tke- «love, revere», we «dog». It is clear that vocalization remains a real problem50.

Through the aforementioned we realize why collective works, like Fontes Historiae Nubiorum. Textual Sources for the History of the Middle Nile Region (vols. I – IV, edited by T. Eide, T. Hägg, R.H. Pierce, and L. Török, University of Bergen, Bergen 1994, 1996. 1998 and 2000), are still seminal for our – unfortunately indirect, as based on Ancient Egyptian, Greek, Latin and Coptic texts – knowledge of Meroe.

2. The End of Meroe

Amidst numerous unclear points of the Kushitic / Meroitic history, the end of Meroe, and the consequences of this event remain a most controversial point among scholars. Quite indicatively, we may mention here the main efforts of historical reconstitution.

A. Arkell, Sayce and others asserted that Meroe was captured and destroyed, following one military expedition led by Ezana of Axum.

B. Reisner insisted that, after Ezana’s invasion and victory, Meroe remained a state with another dynasty tributary to Axum.

C. Monneret de Villard and Hintze affirmed that Meroe was totally destroyed before Ezana’s invasion, due to an earlier Axumite Abyssinian raid.

D. Torok, Shinnie, Kirwan, Haegg and others concluded that Meroe was defeated by a predecessor of Ezana, and continued existing as a vassal state.

E. Bechhaus- Gerst specified that Meroe was invaded prior to Ezana’s raid, and that the Axumite invasion did not reach lands further in the north of Meroe51

With two fragmentary inscriptions from Meroe, one from Axum, two graffitos from Kawa and Meroe, and one coin being all the evidence we have so far, , we have little to reconstruct the details that led to the collapse of Meroe. One relevant source, the Inscription of Ezana (DAE 11, the ‘monotheistic’ inscription in vocalized Ge’eze),52 remains a somewhat controversial historical source to be useful in this regard. The legendary Monumentum Adulitanum53, lost but copied in a confused way by Cosmas Indicopleustes54, may not shed light at all on this event. One point is sure, however: there was never a generalized massacre of the Meroitic inhabitants of the lands conquered by Ezana. The aforementioned DAE 11 inscription mentions just 758 Meroites killed by the Axumite forces.

What is even more difficult to comprehend is the reason behind the scarcity of population attested on Meroitic lands in the aftermath of Ezana’s raid. The post-Meroitic and pre-Christian, transitional phase of Sudan’s history is called X-Group55 or period, or Ballana Period and this is again due to lack to historical insight. Contrary to what happened for many centuries of Meroitic history, when the Meroitic South (the area between Shendi56 and Atbara57 in modern Sudan with the entire hinterland of Butana that was called Insula Meroe / Nesos Meroe, i.e. Island Meroe in the Antiquity) was overpopulated, compared to the Meroitic North (from Napata / Karima to the area between Aswan58 and Abu Simbel59, which was called Triakontaschoinos60 and was divided between Meroe and the Roman Empire), during the X-Group times, the previously under-populated area gives us the impression of a more densely peopled region, if compared to the previous center of Meroitic power and population density. The new situation contradicts earlier descriptions and narrations by Dio Cassius 61 and Strabo.62

Furthermore, the name ‘Ballana period’ is quite indicative in this regard, Ballana being on Egyptian soil, whereas not far in the south of the present Sudanese – Egyptian border lies Karanog with its famous tumuli that bear evidence of Nubian upper hand in terms of social anthropology. The southernmost counterpart of Karanog culture can be found in Tangassi (nearby Karima, which represented the ‘North’ for what was the center of earlier Meroitic power gravitation)

In addition, in terms of culture, X-Group heralds a total break with the Meroitic tradition, with the Nubians and the Blemmyes/Beja outnumbering the Meroitic remnants and imposing a completely different cultural and socio-anthropological milieu out of which would later emanate the first and single Nubian state in the World History: Nobatia.

Much confusion characterized modern scholars when referring to Kush or Meroe by using the modern term ‘Nubia’. By now it is clear that the Nubians lived since times immemorial in both Egypt and the Sudan, being part of the history of these two lands. But Nubians are a Nilo-Saharan ethnic / linguistic group different from the Khammitic Kushites / Meroites. At the times of X-Group and during the long centuries of Christian Sudan, we have the opportunity to attest the differences and divergence between the Nubians and the Meroitic remnants. The epicenter of Nubian center, the area between the first (Aswan) and the third (Kerma) cataracts, rose to independence and prominence first, with capital at Faras, nearby the present day Sudanese – Egyptian border, around 450 CE. Nobatia institutionalized Coptic as religious (Christian) and administrative language, and Nubian language remained an oral only vehicle of communication. The Nobatian control in the south of the third cataract was vague, nominal and precarious. Nobatia was linked with the Coptic – Monophysitic Patriarchate of Alexandria.

The Meroitic remnants underscored their difference from the Nubians / Nobatians, and the depopulated central part of the defunct state of Meroe rose to independence in the first decades of the sixth century. Its name, Makkuria, is in this regard a linguistic resemblance of the name ‘Meroe’ but we know nothing more. The Meroitic remnants inhabited the northern circumference of Makkuria more densely, and the gravitation center turned around Old Dongola (580 km in the south of Wadi Halfa), capital of this Christian Orthodox state that extended from Kerma to Shendi (the area of the sixth cataract), so for more than 1000 km alongside the Nile. But beyond the area of Karima (750 km in the south of Wadi Halfa) and the nearby famous Al Ghazali monastery we have very scarce evidence of Christian antiquities. The old African metropolis Meroe remained at the periphery of Makkuria, Alodia and Axumite Abyssinia.

Makkurians highlighted their ideological – religious divergence from the Nubians, by adopting Greek as religious language. They even introduced a new scripture for their Makkurian language that seems to be a later phase of Meroitic. Makkurian was written in alphabetic Greek signs, and the Makkurians preferred to attach themselves to Christian Orthodoxy, and more particularly to the Greek Patriarchate of Alexandria.

Alodia has long been called the ‘third Christian state’ in Sudan, but recent discoveries in Soba, its capital (15 km at the east of Khartoum), suggest that Alodia rose first to independence (around 500 CE) and later adhered to Christianity (around 580 – 600 CE) following evangelization efforts deployed by missionary Nobatian priests (possibly in a sort of anti-Makkurian religious diplomacy). We know nothing of an Alodian scripture so far.

The later phases of the Christian history of Sudan encompass the Nobatian – Makkurian merge (around 1000 CE), the islamization of Makkuria in 1317, and finally the late collapse of Christian Alodia in 1505. The question remains unanswered until today:

What happened to the bulk of the Meroitic population, i.e. the inhabitants of the Insula Meroe, the present day Butana? What occurred to the Meroites living between the fourth and the sixth cataracts after the presumably brief raid of Ezana of Axum, and the subsequent destruction of Meroe, Mussawarat es Sufra, Naqah, Wad ben Naqah and Basa?

3. Reconstruction of the Post-Meroitic History of the Kushitic Oromo Nation

Certainly, the motives of Ezana’s raid have not yet been properly studied and assessed by modern scholarship. The reasons for the raid may vary from a simple nationalistic usurpation of the name of ‘Ethiopia’ (Kush), which would give Christian eschatological legitimacy to the Axumite Abyssinian kingdom, to the needs of international politics (at the end of 4th century) and the eventuality of an Iranian – Meroitic alliance at the times of Shapur II (310 – 379), aimed at outweighing the Roman – Abyssinian bond. Yet, this alliance could have been the later phase of a time honored Meroitic diplomatic tradition (diffusion of Mithraism as attested on the Jebel Qeili reliefs of Shorakaror). What we can be sure of are the absence of a large-scale massacre, and the characteristic scarcity of population in the central Meroitic provinces during the period that follows Ezana’s raid and the destruction of Meroe.

The only plausible explanation is that the scarcity of population in Meroe mainland after Meroe’s destruction was due to the fact that the Meroites in their outright majority (at least for the inhabitants of Meroe’s southern provinces) fled and migrated to areas where they would stay independent from the Semitic Christian kingdom of Axumite Abyssinia. This explanation may sound quite fresh in approach, but it actually is not, since it constitutes the best utilization of the already existing historical data.

From archeological evidence, it becomes clear that during X-Group phase and throughout the Makkurian period the former heartland of Meroe remained mostly uninhabited. The end of Meroe is definitely abrupt, and it is obvious that Meroe’s driving force had gone elsewhere. The correct question would be “where to?”

There is no evidence of Meroites sailing the Nile downwards to the area of the 4th (Karima) and the 3rd (Kerma) cataracts, which was earlier the northern circumference of Meroe and remained untouched by Ezana. There is no textual evidence in Greek, Latin and/or Coptic to testify to such a migratory movement or to hint at an even more incredible direction, i.e. Christian Roman Egypt. If we add to this the impossibility of marching to the heartland of the invading Axumites (an act that would mean a new war), we reduce the options to relatively few.

The migrating Meroites could go either to the vast areas of the Eastern and the Western deserts or enter the African jungle or ultimately search a possibly free land that, being arable and good for pasture, would keep them far from the sphere of the Christian Axumites. It would be very erroneous to expect settled people to move to the desert. Such an eventuality would be a unique oxymoron in the history of the mankind. Nomadic peoples move from the steppes, the savannas and the deserts to fertile lands, and they settle there, or cross long distances through steppes and deserts. However, settled people, if under pressure, move to other fertile lands that offer them the possibility of cultivation and pasture. When dispersed by the invading Sea Peoples, the Hittites moved from Anatolia to Northwestern Mesopotamia; they did not cross and stay in the small part of Anatolia that is desert. The few scholars who think that Meroitic continuity could be found among the present day Beja and Hadendawa are oblivious to the aforementioned reality of the world history that was never contravened. In addition, the Blemmyes were never friendly to the Meroites. Every now and then, they had attacked parts of the Nile valley and the Meroites had had to repulse them thence. It would rather be inconceivable for the Meroitic population, after seeing Meroe sacked by Ezana, to move to a land where life would be difficult and enemies would wait them!

Modern technologies help historians and archeologists reconstruct better the ancient world; paleo-botanists, geologists, geo-chemists, paleoentomologists, and other specialized natural scientists are of great help in this regard. It is essential to stress here that the entire environmental milieu of Sudan was very different during the times of the Late Antiquity we examine in our approach. Butana may look like a wasteland nowadays, and the Pyramids of Bagrawiyah may be sunk in the sand, whereas Mussawarat es Sufra and Naqah demand a real effort in crossing the desert. But in the first centuries of Christian era, the entire landscape was dramatically different.

The Butana was not a desert but a fertile cultivated land; we have actually found remains of reservoirs, aqueducts, various hydraulic installations, irrigation systems and canals in Meroe and elsewhere. Not far from Mussawarat es Sufra there must have been an enclosure where captive elephants were trained before being transported to Ptolemais Theron (present day Suakin, 50 km in the south of Port Sudan) and then further on to Alexandria. Desert was in the vicinity, certainly, but not that close.

We should not imagine that Ezana crossed desert areas, moving from the whereabouts (vicinities?) of Agordat, Tesseney and Kessala to Atbarah and Bagrawiyah, as we would do today. And we should not imagine the lands in the south of present day Khartoum, alongside the White Nile, were easy to cross in the antiquity. In ancient times, impenetrable jungle started immediately in the south of Khartoum, and cities like Kosti and Jabalayn lie today on deforested soil. At the southernmost confines of the Meroitic state, pasturelands and arable land could be found alongside the Blue Nile Valley.

Since jungle signified death in the antiquity, and even armies feared to stay overnight in a forest or even more so in the thick African forest, we have good reason to believe that, following the Ezana’s raid, the Meroites, rejecting the perspective of forced christening, migrated southwestwards up to Khartoum. From there, they proceeded southeastwards alongside the Blue Nile in a direction that would keep them safe and far from the Axumite Abyssinians whose state did not expand as far in the south as Gondar and Tana lake. Proceeding in this way and crossing successively areas of modern cities, such as Wad Madani, Sennar, Damazin, and Asosa, and from there on, they expanded in later times over the various parts of Biyya Oromo.

We do not imply that the migration was completed in the span of one lifetime; quite contrarily, we have reasons to believe that the establishment of Alodia (or Alwa) is due to the progressive waves of Meroitic migrants who settled first in the area of Khartoum that was out of the westernmost confines of the Meroitic state. Only when Christianization became a matter of concern for the evangelizing Nobatians, and the two Christian Sudanese states were already strong, the chances of preserving the pre-Christian Meroitic cultural heritage in the area around Soba (capital of Alodia) were truly poor; then another wave of migrations took place, with early Alodian Meroites proceeding as far in the south as Damazin and Asosa, areas that remained always beyond the southern border of Alodia (presumably around Sennar). Like this, the second migratory Meroitic (Makkurian) wave may have entered around 600 CE in the area where the Oromos, descendents of the migrated Meroites, still live today.

A great number of changes at the cultural – behavioral levels are to be expected, when a settled people migrates to faraway lands. The Phoenicians had kings in Tyre, Byblos and their other cities – states, but introduced a democratic system when they sailed faraway and colonized various parts of the Mediterranean. The collapse of the Meroitic royalty was a shock for the Nile valley; the Christian kingdoms of Nobatia, Makkuria and Alodia were ruled by kings whose power was to great extent counterbalanced by that of the Christian clergy. With the Meroitic royal family decimated by Ezana, it is quite possible that high priests of Apedemak and Amani (Amun) took much of the administrative responsibility in their hands, inciting people to migrate and establishing a form of collective and representative authority among the Meroitic Elders. They may even have preserved the royal title of Qore within completely different socio-anthropological context.

4. Call for Comparative Meroitic-Oromo Studies

How can this approach, interpretation, and conclusion be corroborated up to the point of becoming a generally accepted historical reconstitution at the academic level? On what axes should one group of researchers work to collect detailed documentation in support of the Meroitic ancestry of the Oromos?

Quite strangely, I would not give priority to the linguistic approach. The continuity of a language can prove many things and can prove nothing. The Bulgarians are of Uralo-Altaic Turco-Mongolian origin, but, after they settled in Eastern Balkans, they were linguistically slavicized. Most of the Greeks are Albanians, Slavs, and Vlachians, who were hellenized linguistically. Most of the Turks in Turkey are Greeks and Anatolians, who were turkicized linguistically. A people can preserve its own language in various degrees and forms. For the case of languages preserved throughout millennia, we notice tremendous changes and differences. If you had picked up Plato and ‘transferred’ him at the times of Linear B (that was written in Mycenae 800 years before the Greek philosopher lived), you should be sure that Plato would not have understood the language of his ancestors with the exception of some words. Egyptian hieroglyphics was a scripture that favored archaism and linguistic puritanism. But we can be sure that for later Pharaohs, like Taharqa the Kushite (the most illustrious ruler of the ‘Ethiopian’ dynasty), Psamtik, Nechao, Ptolemy II and Cleopatra VII, a Pyramid text (that antedated them by 1700 to 2300 years) would almost be incomprehensible.

A. National diachronic continuity is better attested and more markedly noticed in terms of Culture, Religion and Philosophical – Behavioral system. The first circle of comparative research would encompass the world of the Kushitic – Meroitic and Oromo concepts, anything that relates to the Weltanschauung of the two cultural units/groups under study. A common view of basic themes of life and a common perception of the world would bring a significant corroboration of the Meroitic ancestry of the Oromos. So, first it is a matter of history of religions, African philosophy, social anthropology, ethnography and culture history.

B. Archeological research can help tremendously too. At this point one has to stress the reality that the critical area for the reconstruction suggested has been totally indifferent for Egyptologists, Meroitic and Axumite archeologists so far. The Blue Nile valley in Sudan and Abyssinia was never the subject of an archeological survey, and the same concerns the Oromo highlands. Certainly modern archeologists prefer something concrete that would lead them to a great discovery, being therefore very different from the pioneering nineteenth century archeologists. An archeological study would be necessary in the Blue Nile valley and the Oromo highlands in the years to come.

C. A linguistic – epigraphic approach may bring forth even more spectacular results. It could eventually end up with a complete decipherment of the Meroitic and the Makkurian. An effort must be made to read the Meroitic texts, hieroglyphic and cursive, with the help of Oromo language. Meroitic personal names and toponymics must be studied in the light of a potential Oromo interpretation. Comparative linguistics may unveil affinities that will lead to reconsideration of the work done so far in the Meroitic decipherment.

D. Last but not least, another dimension would be added to the project with the initiation of comparative anthropological studies. Data extracted from findings in the Meroitic cemeteries must be compared with data provided by the anthropological study of present day Oromos. The research must encompass pictorial documentation from the various Meroitic temples’ bas-reliefs.

To all these I would add a better reassessment of the existing historical sources, but this is not a critical dimension of this research project.

I believe my call for Comparative Meroitic – Oromo Studies reached the correct audience that can truly evaluate the significance of the ultimate corroboration of the Meroitic Ancestry of the Oromos, as well as the magnificent consequences such corroboration would have in view of

a) the forthcoming Kushitic Palingenesia – Renaissance if you want – in Africa,

b) the establishment of a Post – Colonial African Historiography, and – last but not least –

c) the Question of the Most Genuine and Authoritative Representation of Africa in the United Nations Security Council.

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NOTES

1. To those having the slightest doubt, trying purely for political reasons and speculation to include territories of the modern state of Abyssinia into what they Ancient Greeks and Romans called “Aethiopia”, the entry Aethiopia in Pauly-Wissowa, Realenzyklopadie der klassischen Altertumwissenschaft consists in the best and irrevocable answer.

2. http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/information … karl.html; http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Karl_Richard_Lepsius; parts of the Denkmaeler are already available online: http://edoc3.bibliothek.uni-halle.de/bo … start.html. Also: http://encyclopedia.jrank.org/LEO_LOB/L … 1884_.html. The fact that the furthermost point of ‘Ethiopia’ he reached was Khartoum is of course quite telling.

3. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/E._A._Wallis_Budge; he wrote among the rest a book on his Meroe excavations’ results, The Egyptian Sudan: its History and Monuments (London, 1907).

4. Mythical figure of the British Orientalism, Garstang excavated in England, Turkey, Syria, Palestine, Egypt and the Sudan; Albright, William Foxwell: “John Garstang in Memoriam”, Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research, No. 144. (Dec., 1956), pp. 7–8. Garstang’s major articles on his Meroe excavations are the following: ‘Preliminary Note on an Expedition to Meroë in Ethiopia’, Annals of Archaeology and Anthropology 3 (1911 – a), ‘Second Interim Report on the Excavations at Meroë in Ethiopia, I. Excavations’, Annals of Archaeology and Anthropology 4 (1911 – b), ‘Third Interim Report on the Excavations at Meroë in Ethiopia’, Annals of Archaeology and Anthropology 5 (1912), ‘Forth Interim Report on the Excavations at Meroë in Ethiopia’, Annals of Archaeology and Anthropology 6 (1913), and ‘Fifth Interim Report on the Excavations at Meroë in Ethiopia’, Annals of Archaeology and Anthropology 7 (1914). His major contribution was published in the same year under the title ‘Meroë, the City of Ethiopians’ (Oxford). A leading Meroitologist, Laszlo Torok wrote an entire volume on Garstang’s excavations at Meroe: Meroe City, an Ancient African Capital: John Garstang’s Excavations in the Sudan.

5. Griffith was the epigraphist of Grastand and had already published the epigraphic evidence unearthed at Meroe in the chapter entitled ‘the Inscriptions from Meroë’ in Garstang’s ‘Meroë, the City of Ethiopians’. After many pioneering researches and excavations in various parts of Egypt and Northern Sudan, Faras, Karanog, Napata and Philae to name a few, he concentrated on Kerma: ‘Excavations at Kawa’, Sudan Notes and Records 14.

6. Basically: www.sag-online.de/pdf/mittsag9.5.pdf; among other contributions: Die Inschriften des Löwentempels von Musawwarat es Sufra, Berlin (1962); Vorbericht über die Ausgrabungen des Instituts für Ägyptologie der Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin in Musawwarat es Sufra, 1960-1961 (1962); ‘Musawwarat es Sufra. Preliminary Report on the Excavations of the Institute of Egyptology, Humboldt University, Berlin, 1961-1962(Third Season)’, Kush 11 (1963); ‘Preliminary Note on the Epigraphic Expedition to Sudanese Nubia, 1962’, Kush 11 (1963); ‘Preliminary note on the Epigraphic Expedition to Sudanese Nubia, 1963’, Kush 13 (1965).

7. As regards my French professor’s publications focused on his excavations at Sudan: Soleb and Sedeinga in Lexikon der Ägyptologie 5, Wiesbaden 1984 (entries contributed by J. Leclant himself); also J. Leclant, Les reconnaissances archéologiques au Soudan, in: Études nubiennes I, 57-60.

8. His recent volume Sudan: Ancient Kingdoms of the Nile, Paris/New York (1997) contains earlier bibliography.

9. Some of his most authoritative publications: ‘A History of the Sudan from the Earliest Times to 1821’, 1961 (2nd Ed.), London; ‘’The Valley of the Nile’, in: The Dawn of African History, R. Oliver (ed.), London. Arkell is mostly renowned for his monumental ‘The Royal Cemeteries of Kush’ in many volumes.

10. Presentation of his ‘Ancient Nubia’ in:

http://www.keganpaul.com/product_info.p … cts_id=33; for a non exhaustive list of Shinnie’s publications:http://www.arkamani.org/bibliography%20 … ia2.htm#S; see also a presentation of a volume on Meroe, edited by Shinnie et alii:http://www.harrassowitz-verlag.de/mcgi/ … 1163879905{haupt_harrassowitz=http://www.harrassowitz-verlag.de/acgi/a.cgi?alayout=489&ausgabe=detail&aref=353.

11. Many of his publications are listed here:

http://www.arkamani.org/bibliography%20 … ia2.htm#S; also here: http://www.arkamani.org/bibliography%20 … ypt4.htm#T. In the Eighth International Conference for Meroitic Studies, Torok spoke about ‘The End of Meroe’; the speech will be included in the arkamani online project, here:

http://www.arkamani.org/arkamani-librar … -meroe.htm.

12. Useful reading: http://www.culturekiosque.com/art/exhib … souda.htm; also: http://www.nubianet.org/about/about_history4.html; see also the entry ‘Kush’ in Lexikon der Aegyptologie and the Encyclopedia Judaica. More specifically bout the Egyptian Hieroglyphic and the Hebrew writings of the name of Kush: http://www.specialtyinterests.net/journey_to_nubia.html. For more recent bibliography:http://blackhistorypages.net/pages/kush.php. Also: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cush%2C_son_of_Ham.

13. Basic bibliography in:

http://www.arkamani.org/bibliography%20 … y_a_b.htm; http://oi.uchicago.edu/OI/PROJ/NUB/NUBX … chure.html.

More particularly on Qustul, and the local Group A Cemetery that was discovered in the 60s by Dr. Keith Seele:http://www.homestead.com/wysinger/qustul.html (by Bruce Beyer Williams). Quite interesting approach by Clyde Winters as regards an eventual use of Egyptian Hieroglyphics in Group A Nubia, 200 years before the system was introduced in… Egypt:http://www.geocities.com/Tokyo/Bay/7051/anwrite.htm.

14. Brief info: http://www.nubianet.org/about/about_history3_1.html; see also: http://oi.uchicago.edu/OI/IS/RITNER/Nubia_2005.html; more recently several scholars consider Group B as an extension of Group A (GRATIEN, Brigitte, La Basse Nubie à l’Ancien Empire: Égyptiens et autochtones, JEA 81 (1995), 43-56).

15.Readings:http://www.cartage.org.lb/en/themes/geoghist/histories/oldcivilization/Egyptology/Nubia/nubiad1.htm;http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sneferu;ht … %20Snefrue),%201st%20King%20of%20Egypt’s%204th%20Dynasty.htm (with bibliography);http://www.narmer.pl/dyn/04en.htm; for the Palermo stone inscription where we have the Nubia expedition narrative:http://www.britannica.com/ebi/article-9332360; http://www.ancient-egypt.org/index.html (click on the Palermo Stone);http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Palermo_stone (with related bibliography).

16. Readings: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/C-Group; http://www.numibia.net/nubia/c-group.htm; http://www.gustavianum.uu.se/sje/sjeexh.htmand http://www.hp.uab.edu/image_archive/ta/tae.html (with designs and pictures); http://www.ancientsudan.org/03_burials_02_early.htm(with focus on Group C burials and burial architecture). See also: http://www.ualberta.ca/~nlovell/nubia.htm;http://www.dignubia.org/maps/timeline/bce-2300a.htm;

17. References in the Lexikon der Aegyptologie. See also: http://www.nigli.net/akhenaten/wawat_1.html; one of the related sources: The Story of an Egyptian Politician, published by T. G. Allen, in: American Journal of Semitic Languages and Literatures, Vol. 38, No. 1 (Oct., 1921), pp. 55-62; Texts relating to Egyptian expeditions in Yam and Irtet: http://www.osirisnet.net/tombes/assouan … rkouf.htm;http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Medjay; more in ‘Ancient Nubia: Egypt’s Rival in Africa’(Paperback) by David O’ Connor,http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/092417 … 67-0196731.

18. Brief description: http://www.anth.ucsb.edu/faculty/stsmit … erma.html; http://www.spicey.demon.co.uk/Nubianpag … htm#French (with several interesting links); http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kingdom_of_Kerma (brief but with recent bibliography containing some of Bonnet’s publications).

19. Vivian Davies, ‘La frontière méridionale de l’Empire : Les Egyptiens à Kurgus,’ Bulletin de la Société française d’égyptologie, 2003, no157, pp. 23-37 (http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=15281726); about the ongoing British excavations:http://www.sudarchrs.org.uk/page17.html; about the inscription of Thutmosis I: http://thutmosis_i.know-library.net; also:http://www.meritneith.de/politik_neuesreich.htm, and http://www.aegyptologie.com/forum/cgi-b … 0514112733.

20. In brief and with images: http://www.hp.uab.edu/image_archive/um/umj.html; also: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kush (with selected recent bibliography) and http://www.mfa.org/collections/search_a … kage=26155 (for art visualization). The period is also called Napatan, out of the Kushitic state capital’s name: http://www.homestead.com/wysinger/kingaspalta.html.

21. To start with: http://www.bartleby.com/67/99.html; http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9054804/Napata;http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/archaeology … apata.html (including references); most authoritative presentation by Timothy Kendall ‘Gebel Barkal and Ancient Napata’ in: http://www.arkamani.org/arkamani-librar … nubia.htm; also: ‘the Rise of the Kushitic kingdom’ by Brian Yare, in: http://www.yare.org/essays/kushite%20ki … Napata.htm. For Karima, notice the interesting itinerary:http://lts3.algonquincollege.com/africa … /sudan.htm, and http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Karima.

22. Introductory reading: http://www.ancient-egypt.org/index.html (click on Manetho); http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manetho (with selected bibliography). Among the aforementioned, the entries Manethon (Realenzyklopaedie) and Manetho (Lexikon der Aegyptologie) are essential.

23. For the Ethiopian dynasty, all the related entries in the Lexikon and the Realenzyklopaedie (Piankhi, Shabaka, Shabataka, Taharqa, Tanutamon) are the basic bibliography; see also: http://www.ancientlibrary.com/smith-bio/3017.html; the last edition (1996) of Kenneth Kitchen’s ‘The Third Intermediate Period in Egypt (1100–650 BC)’, Warminster: Aris & Phillips Ltd, remains the best reassessment of the period and the related sources. Introductory information: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shabaka; http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shabataka;http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taharqa; and http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tantamani. Also:http://www.homestead.com/wysinger/mentuemhat.html; critical bibliography for understanding the perplex period is J. Leclant lectureship thesis (these d’ Etat) ‘Montouemhat, Quatrieme Prophete D’Amon, (1961)

24. Basics: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Assarhaddon; the edition of the Assyrian emperor’s annals by R. Borger (Die Inschriften Assarhaddons, Königs von Assyrien, AfO 9, Graz, 1956) remain our basic reference to formal sources. More recently, F. Reynolds shed light on private sources, publishing ‘The Babylonian correspondence of Esarhaddon, and letters to Assurbanipal and Sin-Sarru-Iskun from Northern and Central Babylonia’ (SAA 18, 2004).

25. For the Greater Emperor of the Oriental Antiquity: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ashurbanipal; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shamash-shum-ukin; http://web.utk.edu/~djones39/Assurbanipal.html; until today we have to rely mostly on the voluminous edition of Assurbanipal’s Annals by Maximilian Streck (Assurbanipal und die letzten assyrischen. Könige bis zum Untergang Niniveh, Leipzig,1916); see also M. W. Waters’ Te’umman in the neo-Assyrian correspondence (Journal of the American Oriental Society, 1999, vol. 119, no3, pp. 473-477)

26. Heliopolis (Iwnw in Egyptian Hieroglyphic – literally the place of the pillars –, On in Hebrew and in Septuaginta Greek) was the center of Egyptian monotheism, the holiest religious center throughout Ancient Egypt; it is from Heliopolis that emanated the Isiac ideology and the Atum Ennead. Basic readings: the entry Heliopolis in Realenzyklopaedie and in Lexikon der Aegyptologie; more recently:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heliopolis_%28ancient%29.

27. Basic readings: http://www.digitalegypt.ucl.ac.uk/chron … tiki.html; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Psammetichus_I;http://www.phouka.com/pharaoh/pharaoh/d … tik1.html; http://www.specialtyinterests.net/psamtek.html (with pictorial documentation). See also: http://www.nubianet.org/about/about_history6.html.

28. Hakhamaneshian is the first Persian dynasty; it got momentum whenCyrus II invaded successively Media and Babylon. Readings:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Achaemenid_dynasty (with selected bibliography); the 2nd volume of the Cambridge History of Iran is dedicated to Achaemenid history (contents: http://www.cambridge.org/uk/catalogue/c … 0521200911.

29. Readings: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cambyses_II_of_Persia (with bibliographya nd sources). Cambyses invaded Kush and destroyed Napata at the times of Amani-natake-lebte, and his embattled army was decimated according to the famous narratives of Herodotus that still need to be corroborated. What seems more plausible is that, having reached in an unfriendly milieu of the Saharan desert where they had no earlier experience, the Persians soldiers, at a distance of no less than 4000 km from their capital, faced guerilla undertaken by the Kushitic army remnants and their nomadic allies.

30. Nastasen was the last to be buried in Nuri, in the whereabouts of Napata. Contemporary with Alexander the Great, Nastasen fought against an invader originating from Egypt whose name was recorded as Kambasawden. This led many to confuse the invader with Cambyses, who ruled 200 years earlier (!). The small inscription on the Letti stela does not allow great speculation; was it an attempt of Alexander the Great to proceed to the south of which we never heard anything? Impossible to conclude. For photographical documentation:http://www.dignubia.org/bookshelf/ruler … 00017&ord=. Another interpretation: http://www.nubia2006.uw.edu.pl/nubia/ab … 94e6349d8b.

31. Arkamaniqo was the first to have his pyramid built at Meroe, not at Napata. See: http://www.dignubia.org/bookshelf/ruler … 0018&ord=;http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ergamenes, He inaugurated the architectural works at Dakka, the famous ancient Egyptian Pa Serqet, known in Greek literature as Pselkhis (http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/dakka.htm), in veneration of God Thot, an endeavour that brought the Ptolemies and the Meroites in alliance.

32. For Abyssinia’s conversion to Christianity: http://www.spiritualite2000.com/page.php?idpage=555, and http://www.rjliban.com/Saint-Frumentius.doc. The Wikipedia entry (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ezana_of_Axum) is written by ignorant and chauvinist people, and is full of mistakes, ascribing provocatively and irrelevantly to Ezanas following territories (using modern names): “present-day Eritrea, northern Ethiopia, Yemen, southern Saudi Arabia, northern Somalia, Djibouti, northern Sudan, and southern Egypt”. All this shows how misleading this encyclopedia can be. Neither southern Egypt, northern Sudan, northern Somalia and Djibouti nor Yemen and southern Saudi Arabia ever belonged to Ezana’s small kingdom that extended from Adulis to Axum, and following the king’s victory over Meroe, it included modern Sudan’s territories between Kessala and Atbara. Nothing more!

33. Richard A. Lobban, ‘The Nubian Dynasty of Kush and Egypt: Continuing Research on Dynasty XXV’: http://209.85.129.104/search?q=cache:4F … clnk&cd=2; these inscriptions were published as early as 1821: E. F. Gau, Nubische Denkmaeler (Stuttgart). Other early publications on Meroitic antiquities: E. Riippell, Reisen in Nubien, Kordofan, &c. (Frankfort a. M., 1829); F. Caillaud, Voyage a Me’roe (Paris, 1826); J. L. Burckhardt, Travels in Nubia, e5fc. (London, 1819); G. Waddington and B. Hanbury, Journal of a Visit to some ‘parts of Ethiopia (London, 1822); L. Reinisch, Die Nuba-Sprache (Vienna, 1879); Memoirs of the Societe khediviale de Geographic, Cairo.

34. Readings: http://www.homestead.com/wysinger/candace.html; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shanakdakhete; more analytically:http://www.arkamani.org/arkamani-librar … graphy.htm. The only inscription giving her name comes from Temple F in Naga (REM 0039A-B). The name appears in Meroitic hieroglyphics in the middle of an Egyptian text. See also: Laszlo Török, in: Fontes Historiae Nubiorum, Vol. II, Bergen 1996, 660-662. The first attempts to render full Meroitic phrases into hieroglyphs (not only personal names, as it was common earlier) can be dated from the turn of the 3rd / 2nd century BCE, but they reflect the earlier stage of the development.

35. C. Rilly, ‘Les graffiti archaïques de Doukki Gel et l’apparition de l’écriture méroïtique’. Meroitic Newsletter, 2003, No 30 : 41-55, pl. IX-XIII (fig. 41-48).

36. Michael H. Zach, ‘Aksum and the end of Meroe’, in: http://www.arkamani.org/arkamani-librar … s/Zach.htm. See also:http://www.soas.ac.uk/lingfiles/working … rowan2.pdf. Also: Clyde A. Winters, ‘Meroitic evidence for a Blemmy empire in the Dodekaschoins’ in: http://www.arkamani.org/arkamani-librar … labsha.htm. Kharamadoye was a Blemmyan / Beja king who lived around the year 330 CE, and his inscription was curved on the Nubian/Blemmyan temple at Kalabsha (ancient Talmis) in the south of Aswan; more: M. S. Megalommatis, ‘Sudan’s Beja / Blemmyes, and their Right to Freedom and Statehood’, in: http://www.buzzle.com/editorials/8-16-2006-105657.asp, and in: http://www.sudaneseonline.com/en/article_929.shtml. More general: http://www.touregypt.net/kalabsha.htm.

37. For Ballana: http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ballana; http://www.numibia.net/nubia/sites_salv … p_Numb=13;http://www.dignubia.org/maps/timeline/ce-0400.htm; http://www.hp.uab.edu/image_archive/fne … ndex.html; for the excavations carried out there: Farid Shafiq, ‘Excavations at Ballana, 1958-1959’, Cairo, 1963: http://www.archaeologia.com/details.asp?id=647.

38. His publications encompass the following:

‘Karanog: the Meroitic Inscriptions of Karanog and Shablul’, (The Eckley B. Coxe Junior Expedition to Nubia VI), Philadelphia, 1911; ‘Meroitic Inscriptions, I, Sôbâ Dangûl’, Oxford, 1911; ‘Meroitic Inscriptions part II, Napata to Philae and Miscellaneous’, Egypt Exploration Society, Archaeological Survey of Egypt, Memoirs, London, 1912; ‘Meroitic Studies II’, in: Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, vol. 3 (1916).

39. Readings: http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ergamenes; http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arqamani; list of sources concerning Ergamenes II: Laszlo Török, ’Fontes Historiae Nubiorum’, vol. II, Bergen 1996, S. 566-567; further: http://www.chs.harvard.edu/publications … tei.xml_1;http://www.ancientworlds.net/aw/Article/813603; an insightful view: Laszlo Torok, ‘Amasis and Ergamenes’, in: The Intellectual Heritage of Egypt. Studies Kákosy, 555-561. An English translation of Diodorus’ text on Ergamenes (III. 6) is here:http://www.homestead.com/wysinger/diodorus.html.

40. B. G. Haycock, ‘The Problem of the Meroitic Language’, Occasional Papers in Linguistics and Language Learning, no.5 (1978), p. 50-81; see also: http://www.arkamani.org/arkamani-librar … nology.htm. Another significant contribution by B.G.Haycock, ‘Towards a Data for King Ergamenes’, Kush 13 (1965).41. See: K.H.Priese, ‘Die Statue des napatanischen Königs Aramatelqo (Amtelqa) Berlin, Ägyptisches Museum Inv.-Nr. 2249’ in: Festschrift zum 150 jährigen Bestehen des Berliner Ägyptischen Museums, Berlin; of the same author, ’Matrilineare Erbfolge im Reich von Napata’, Zeitschrift für ägyptische Sprache und Altertumskunde, 108 (1981).

42. Readings: http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/ … /beja.htm; http://bejacongress.com;

43. Basic reading: Egeimi, Omer Abdalla, ‘From Adaptation to Marginalization: The Political Ecology of Subsistence Crisis among the Hadendawa Pastoralists of Sudan’, in: Managing Scarcity: Human Adaptation in East African Drylands, edited by Abdel Ghaffar M. Ahmed and Hassan Abdel Ati, 30-49. Proceedings of a regional workshop, Addis Ababa, 24-26 August 1995. Addis Ababa: OSSREA, 1996 (http://www.africa.upenn.edu/ossrea/ossreabiblio.html).

44. F. Hintze, ‘Some problems of Meroitic philology”, in: Studies in

Ancient Languages of the Sudan, pp. 73-78; see discussions: http://www.geocities.com/Tokyo/Bay/7051/mero.htm, andhttp://www.soas.ac.uk/lingfiles/working … rowan2.pdf.

45. In various publications; see indicatively: ‘Die meroitische Sprache und das protoaltaische Sprachsubstrat als Medium zu ihrer Deutung (I): Mit _quivalenten von grammatikalischen Partikeln und Wortgleichungen’, Ulm/Donau (1992).

46. See: http://www.geocities.com/athens/academy … ersc2.html (with extensive list of publications).

47. Readings: http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/kush/hd_kush.htm (with further bibliography); http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kushan_Empire;http://www.kushan.org; (with pictorial documentation) http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/kush/hd_kush.htm;http://www.asianart.com/articles/jaya/index.html (with references).

48. Readings: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arsacid_Dynasty; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parthia; authoritative presentation in Cambridge History of Iran.

49. Readings: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sassanid_Empire (with further bibliography); authoritative presentation in Cambridge History of Iran.

50. See: http://arkamani.org/meroitic_studies/li … oitic.htm; http://arkamani.org/arkamani-library/me … rilly.htm;

http://arkamani.org/arkamani-library/me … graphy.htm.

51. http://arkamani.org/arkamani-library/me … s/Zach.htm (with reference to epigraphic sources).

52. More recently: R.Voigt, The Royal Inscriptions of King Ezana, in the Second International Littmann Conference: Aksum 7-11 January 2006 (see: http://www.oidmg.org/Beirut/downloads/L … Report.pdf); also: http://users.vnet.net/alight/aksum/mhak4.html;http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=37430160. Read also: Manfred Kropp, Die traditionellen äthiopischen Königslisten und ihre Quellen, in:http://www2.rz.hu-berlin.de/nilus/net-p … listen.pdf (with bibliography).

53. Readings: http://www.telemaco.unibo.it/epigr/testi05.htm; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monumentum_Adulitanum;http://www.shabait.com/staging/publish/ … 3290.html; http://www.homestead.com/wysinger/aksum.html;http://www.arikah.net/encyclopedia/Adulis; further: Yuzo Shitomi, ‘A New Interpretation of the Monumentum Adulitanum’, in: Memoirs of the Research Department of the Toyo Bunko, 55 (1997). French translation is available online here: http://www.clio.fr/BIBLIOTHEQUE/les_gre … hiopie.asp.

54. Readings: http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/04404a.htm; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cosmas_Indicopleustes; text and translation can be found online: http://ccat.sas.upenn.edu/awiesner/cosmas.html (with bibliography and earlier text/translation publications;http://www.tertullian.org/fathers/#Cosm … opleustes; andhttp://www.ccel.org/ccel/pearse/more … copleustes. Also: http://www.henry-davis.com/MAPS/EMwebpages/202.html; http://davidburnet.com/EarlyFathers-Oth … eintro.htm.

55. Readings: http://library.thinkquest.org/22845/kus … oyalty.pdf

56. See: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shendi; N. I. Nooter, The Gates of Shendi, Los Angeles, 1999 (http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=1565561).

57. See: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atbarah; http://www.country-studies.com/sudan/th … ples.html;http://www.sudan.net/tourism/cities.html.

58. Syene (Aswan): see the entries of Realenzyklopaedie and Lexikon der Aegyptologie; also: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aswan;http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/14367a.htm.

59. Readings: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abu_Simbel; http://www.bibleplaces.com/abusimbel.htm; http://lexicorient.com/e.o/abu_simbel.htm.

60. http://www.numibia.net/nubia/ptolemies.htm; http://rmcisadu.let.uniroma1.it/nubiaco … zymski.doc. Dodekaschoinos was the northern part of Triakontaschoinos; the area was essential for Roman border security: http://poj.peeters-leuven.be/content.ph … al_code=AS. More recently: http://dissertations.ub.rug.nl/facultie … f.dijkstra.

61. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dio_Cassius; see details of the early Roman rule over Egypt here: Timo Stickler, ‘Cornelius Gallus and the Beginnings of the Augustan Rule in Egypt’,

62. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Strabo (particularly in his 17th book); English translation available here:http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/R … 17A1*.html.

Archaeological Sites of the Island of Meroe

The Quest for Oromo’s Indigenous Knowledge and Institutions April 3, 2014

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By Iddoosaa Ejjetaa, Ph.D.*

 

The classical definition of knowledge was given by Plato as “justified true belief.” There are many philosophical theories to explain knowledge. The online Oxford dictionaries define knowledge as a theoretical or practical understanding of a subject [online]. The same source explain knowledge that can be implicit (as with practical skill or expertise) or explicit (as with the theoretical understanding of a subject); it can be more or less formal or systematic. According to Stanley Cavell, “Knowing and Acknowledging” the “knowledge acquisition involves complex cognitive processes: perception, communication, association and reasoning; while knowledge is also said to be related to the capacity of acknowledgment in human beings.” I am not here to write the theory of knowledge, but trying to bring the human society acknowledgement and recognition for the Oromoo nation’s indigenous knowledge.

The Oromoo Gadaa System (OGS) is an indigenous knowledge reserve institution of the Oromoo nation. It is an organic system, which is self-refining every eight years (in two four-year terms) to meet the needs of the society. The OGS is a well-structured and organized indigenous knowledge reserve that encompasses social, political, economic and military institutions that operate mainly based on self-reliance principles while Oromummaa is an act of embracing these institutions and applying the indigenous knowledge to manifest an authentic Oromoo’s cultural and national identity.

The essence of scientific education is to understand Mother Nature, daachee haadha marggoo, and human experience in relation to Mother Nature. Through scientific education we can ask questions and try to investigate or do research to find out the facts and report the new knowledge about the subject. For example, who is responsible for the creation of human being, other living and non-living things as a part of the whole nature? What if I told you that the answer to the question is Mother Nature? I guess, you would not be satisfied with the answer because it leads to another subsequent philosophical questions such as who is responsible for the creation of the Mother Nature. Again, what if I told you the answer is a God? This time, probably you would be settled and agree with me. But how do you know for sure that it is a God who is responsible for the creation of nature?

I have thought deeply about these questions and tried to find the best possible answers. I would like to share the final answer with you later on if you continue the journey with me through reading and thinking about the perplexities of human life experience.

The purpose of this paper is to share my points of view with you and highlight that the Oromoo Gadaa System is the prima source of Oromo indigenous knowledge reserve that every Oromoo person should safeguard it and reclaim it as a shared-value that can be manifested through applied Oromoo knowledge and life experience, which is often called Oromummaa. Hence, the Oromoo Qubee generation are highly encouraged to embark their scientific studies and discoveries on our forefathers’ indigenous knowledge and bring it to light to show the world that our forefathers had made significant contribution to human society and civilization by creating and developing a comprehensive and complex democratic system: the Oromoo Gadaa System and its Institutions. For the qubee Oromoo generation, I would say they have a gold mining opportunity on their own backyards and they have to go for it.

Oromoo’s Indigenous Knowledge

Indigenous knowledge is local by nature. It is primarily based on social skills and production techniques. Both social skills and production techniques employ indigenous knowledge that in turn involves the process of life-long learning and teaching. The Oromoo Gadaa System provides such indigenous knowledge reserve so as to enable the new generation to learn from and teach the generations to come. For example, Oromummaa is a social skill. The Oromoo children learn social skills: respect, love, sympathy, empathy, ethics (Safuu), sharing, helping others, communications, etc from their parents and through well-organized Gadaa institutions such as the Age group (Hiriyyaa) and Qalluu.

Like every society, the Oromoo Gadaa Society had engaged in production of goods and services for long time or millenniums. They have millennium years of farming and animal husbandry experience and knowledge. The Oromoo farmers were the first people who domesticated barley as cereal crop in the region and a coffee plant and used the coffee beans in the world. This means the Oromoo farmers had possessed a primary indigenous knowledge about these crops. This indigenous knowledge reserve, however, needs a substantial effort in the field of scientific research and documentation for learning and teaching purposes by present and future Oromoo generations.

The lack of self-ruling political right in Ethiopian Empire and the decline of the Oromoo Gadaa System of Self-governance lead to the deterioration of the Indigenous knowledge and Institutions. In addition, the absence of curiosities from the Oromoo educated class for long time and self-inflicted prejudices against Oromoo indigenous knowledge had played a significant role on its underdevelopment. The educated class is the first social group who run away from their villages and turn their back to their culture and traditional ways of life. Consequently they find themselves in the garrison cities where almost everything is imitation of modernity that has no root in the local culture or traditions. Moreover, the educated elites had been played an agent role to introduce exogenous values including foreign religion, culture of conspicuous consumption and other copy-cut life styles from the West, and Middle-East world.

As I mentioned above, because of the lack of basic human right the Oromoo as a nation has no formal indigenous institutions yet. Instead, the institutions are maintained by the Oromoo Gadaa fathers and mothers who have been serving as Oromo indigenous knowledge reserve as institution. . This means the Qubee generation scientific research and discoveries are highly dependent on the existence of Gadaa Oromoo fathers and mothers (abbootii Gadaa Oromoo) and time because if they die the institutions and knowledge will die with them. For many of them, a biological time is about running out now. One day they will leave us for good. So it is responsibilities and sacred duties of this generation to secure and backup these precious indigenous “documents” that had been inherited form the previous generations.

As JF Kennedy said, the purpose of education is to advance human knowledge and dissemination of truth. However, contrary he said, the education system in Ethiopia has been harboring ignorance, distortion and denial of the truth that effectively disabled the process of learning, thinking and bringing positive changes to our society. So I suggest to the new generation regardless of their ethnic and cultural background to use the best three doses of pills/prescription for ignorance, distortion and denial of history. They are: genuine education, genuine education, and genuine education (3-GE). Through genuine education one can learn the true essence of love (jaalala), which is unselfishness, the creator, and creatures, uumaa fi uumammaa.

Generally, indigenous knowledge (IK) are the outcome of true and genuine collective human experience. It could be knowledge about culture, tradition, history, philosophy, belief system, art, farming, biodiversity, medicine, family, economic distribution, etc. The Oromoo Gadaa System is one of such collective human experience that need to be learned as universal value to human society and pass down to the next generations.

The Predicaments of Indigenous Knowledge in Ethiopia Politically speaking, Ethiopia as a nation had never been colonized and maintained its independence while all African countries had been colonized by European states. To some extent, this is true. Practically, however, the Ethiopian Empire State had been constructed and maintained by European states and continued to operate under indirect-colonialism of Anglo-American and European States. Like all African Republics or States, the Ethiopia’s government structure, military structure, religious institutions, political and social, educational, and legal systems are highly influenced mainly by Anglo-American and European institutions including British, France, Italian, Germany, American, Japan, China, etc. Consequently, indigenous knowledge had been systematically marginalized and ignored, unfairly criticized as primitive, static and simple idea by semi-literate domestic elites or agents of exogenous institutions.

These exogenous institutions such as the Orthodox Coptic Church officials (clergy/priests) and collusion of feudal neftenyaa and self-serving local balabats in Ethiopia, for instance, had played a key role in dismantling indigenous institutions, discrediting and condemning indigenous knowledge and even blessing Menelik’s genocidal and unjust war against our people and indigenous people of the south. Here one must note that the local Oromoo balabats had played a primary role in sponsoring, defending and assigning a commanding site Oromoland to the Orthodox Churches in Oromiyaa today. In addition to the neftenyaa system, these social class is accountable historically for the decline of the Oromoo Gadaa System and underdevelopment of its Institutions. Beside this, at present the decedent of these social class still maintained their loyalty to the Orthodox Church and Ethiopia’s empire state. Some individuals even have been involving in the Oromoo liberation struggle by dressing a sheep skin to saboteur the genuine aspiration of Oromians for freedom and independence. This author suspect that this very social class had contributed to the weakness of Oromia liberation camp.

The Impacts of Church Education on Indigenous knowledge

The Orthodox Coptic church jealously dominated the education system in Ethiopia. The Orthodox Coptic Church in Ethiopia had provided training in reading and writing in Ge’ez and Amarigna (Amharic) at primary school level to limited areas and people of the country. To summarize the church education in Ethiopia: elementary pupils had to learn to read, write, and recite the Dawit Medgem (Psalms of David). There are 15 sections, called negus (kings), which normally took two years to master. Next they learned to sing kum zema (church hymns), which took four years, and msaewait zema (advanced singing), which took an additional year to learn. Liturgical dancing and systrum holding required three years. Qine (poetry) and law required five years to learn. The interpretation of the Old and New Testaments, as well as the Apostles’ Creed, took four years on average, while the interpretation of the works of learned monks and priests took three years. When a student knew the psalms by heart, he had mastered the “house of reading” and was now considered an elementary school graduate. As one can see there is no a single grain of indigenous knowledge or belief system had been taught by the Orthodox Church.

The Orthodox Coptic Tewahido Church is considered by government as indigenous institution, when it is imported and imposed on native culture. Both religions Christian and Islam were imported and imposed on native population, such as the early Christianized ethnic Tigray and Amhara and then ethnic Oromoo, Sidama, and other people of the south, by few clergies and foreign religious crusaders. These institutions had replaced the indigenous belief system, institutions and knowledge over time. As a result, the majority, if not the entire population, ethnic Tigray and Amhara believe that Bible is the source of their history and culture. As one can easily understand, the people of Tigray and Amhara have lived far more years than the bible does, which is two thousand years. As people who residing in East Africa, the Tigray and Amhara people must have had indigenous culture and knowledge. What are they?

Despite the claim of three thousand years history of civilization, Ethiopians exposed to non-church education or modern education in 1920s. The ministry of education established in 1930s. Secondary schools established in 1940s, and higher education, Addis Ababa University, established in 1960s. In similar way, the modern education system had also failed in teaching and conducting research on indigenous knowledge so as to integrate it into the modern education. As a result, creativity, inventions and innovations have seen as odd culture to our society. On the contrary, receiving aid, economic migration, conspicuous consumption of imported goods including education and dependency on Western advanced societies or institutions have become a culture.

Therefore, it is up to the Habesha (Tigre and Amhara), the Oromoo and other ethnic groups of the new generation to dig deep down to find out their respective indigenous knowledge that deep rooted in their culture and traditions and pass down from one generation to other generations by their native ancestors if any and re-evaluate the existing very controversial written history, which is biased and by large based on fiction history. The cycle of self-discrimination must end by the new generation. By doing this they can find shared human values that would allow them to live in peace without disrespecting one another as good neighbors and citizens of their respective nation. So one must understand that no one would agree on imported history that was written by the followers and supporters of Christianity crusaders, war lords, kings, dictators and agents of the Western discriminatory and racist institutions of the time as shared human value and history of our respective people in our time. The time and world have changed forever.

The present suspicion, political conflicts and all forms of problems in our region will not be solved without recognizing and applying indigenous knowledge. The lasting resolutions for the problems can be achieved if every member of our society or nation adults learn and teach their younger generation good social skills, which are critical to successfully functioning society. Basic social skills enable adults and children to know what to say, how to make good choices, and how to behave in adverse situations. The extent to which young people possess good social skills can influence their adult behavior in decision making, conflict management and problem solving. Social skills are also linked to the quality of the school environment. The Church and modern education in Ethiopia, unfortunately, had been denying members of our society these good basic skills such as respect, appreciation, empathy, apology, truthfulness, positive attitude about others, etc. Instead, the system allowed social ignorance such disrespect, occupational despise, ethnic chauvinism, fear, the divine right of the kings and honor for ruling class. As a result, the Ethiopian empire has produced highly educated class like Dr. Getachew Haile without basic and good social skills; it seems that he passed through poor socialization as one can understand the meaning of his name, ‘lord of …power’, which is false-self has given to him by his parents
and trying his best to make them proud by being discourteous and rude to the Oromoo people. Dr. Getachew Haile, be nice!

The black people or African descents are subject to institutional discrimination and racism more than any other races in the world including the holy land- Israel and Saud Arabia. Do you know why? The reasons can be many, but one of the reasons is imitation of ideas. The black people are the most imitating of other societies’ idea. They did not protect and develop their own indigenous institutions (political, religious, cultural and socio-economic institutions) to shape their lifestyle and influence others. No other nations are imitating Africans’ culture, religion, lifestyles but the Africans tend to imitate others about everything that life needs. Some African or extremists trying to be more imitator and more knowledgeable about the culture, religion and ideology than the original inventor or creator of the idea. It is understandable that human being has ability to imitate and all cultures imitate ideas from original culture. The question I would like ask the readers is why the changes are in one direction only. Why African descents imitate ideas of the other culture when the other culture do not imitate the African idea or world view?

For example, black Africans including Ethiopians has been pretending as if they have better known about the Jesus of Nazareth more than the Israelis and Prophet Muhammad more than the Arabs; Marxism and Leninism or communism more than Russians; democracy more than Americans and Western societies. These blind optimists about other’s idea are cynical at the same time about their own indigenous knowledge; they are willing to abuse, jail, torture and murder their own innocent people for the authenticity of imported ideas, religious and political ideology. In the case of Ethiopia, the king Menelik II and Yohanness II – holy war and wildish conquests were a case in point. They had imitated from the history of European middle-age idea of religious crusaders and empire builders. The Abyssinian kings had been acted as proxy war lords of European colonial powers and committed incalculable atrocity against the Oromo people and other black people in East Africa. In addition, these Abyssinian kingdom were one of the worst Africa’s kingdoms who sold Africans, their own race, to British, Arabs and other European white race for the exchange of European firearms to conquer the land of other nations and subjugate the people and build the empirical institutions based on European ideas and political model. What most disgracing is when people like Dr. Getachew Haile and his like trying to keep the truth elusive and misrepresent the history of the black people and glorifying the history of the White colonial proxy war lords like Menelik II as great black king, who was cowardly cut women’s breast, mutilate men’s hand and embarrassingly sold his own black race to the European white race.

In conclusion, the quest for truth shall continue by present and future Oromo generations. The root cause for conflicts in Africa is an imported knowledge and imitation of ideas. In many cases, imitation represent a false-self or an act to hiding a true-self. Discriminatory and racist attitude against black people had been partly brought up by European’s colonial power proxy war lords in Africa such as Menelik II of Abyssinia/Ethiopia kingdom. Although most black people tend to cherish and assimilate their cultural identity into the Middle-Eastern and Western cultural identity and ways of life, the very culture of the societies they imitating have been reciprocating or holding discrimination against them based on race, stereotypes and historical disadvantages. Institutional racism still exist and there are also significant number of individuals who think that Africans have not yet acquired culture and civilization. The imitation of others’ ideas, belief system and political institutions by Africans including my fellow Oromoo has kept the racist believes alive. It is suffice to mention the 2013 incidents against African immigrants in Saud Arabia and recently in Israel. The majority of Africans believed that embracing Christianity and Islam would lead to heaven via holy land. Unfortunately, it turned out differently; they end up in hell in the holy land. So, the lasting solution would be revitalizing indigenous knowledge and institutions that demands for real efforts, courage and sacrifices. As to the Oromo’s quest for indigenous knowledge and institutions, revitalization of the Gadaa Republic of Oromia and its institutions would be the lasting solution for century old colonial extraction, subjugation and embarrassment.
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* About the author: Iddoosaa Ejjetaa, Ph.D., native to Oromiyaa, Ethiopia. Independent and Naturalist Thinker; An activist and advocator for the revitalization of Authentic Oromummaa, Oromoo Indigenous knowledge and institutions, and for the formation of Biyyaa Abbaa Gadaa,Oromiyaa-The Gadaa Republic of Oromia.

Read more @
http://ayyaantuu.com/horn-of-africa-news/oromia/the-quest-for-oromos-indigenous-knowledge-and-institutions/

Oromia Media Network Launch — Live! March 27, 2014

Posted by OromianEconomist in Africa, Africa Rising, African Beat, African Music, Ancient African Direct Democracy, Dictatorship, Ethnic Cleansing, Finfinnee, Gadaa System, Hadiya and the Omo Valley, Human Rights, Human Traffickings, Humanity and Social Civilization, Ideas, Kemetic Ancient African Culture, Knowledge and the Colonizing Structure., Language and Development, Nubia, Ogaden, OMN, Omo, Omo Valley, Oromia, Oromiyaa, Oromo, Oromo Artists, Oromo Culture, Oromo First, Oromo Identity, Oromo Media Network, Oromo Music, Oromo Nation, Oromo Social System, Oromo Sport, Oromo the Largest Nation of Africa. Human Rights violations and Genocide against the Oromo people in Ethiopia, Oromummaa, Poverty, Qubee Afaan Oromo, Self determination, Sidama, Sirna Gadaa, Slavery, State of Oromia, The Colonizing Structure & The Development Problems of Oromia, The Oromo Democratic system, The Oromo Governance System, The Oromo Library, The Tyranny of Ethiopia, Theory of Development, Uncategorized, Wisdom, Youth Unemployment.
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???????????Oromia Media Network

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Oromia Media Network Launch — Live! 1st March 2014

Millions of Oromos now have the chance to enjoy quality media focusing on the needs and aspirations of the Oromo people.

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https://www.oromiamedia.org/donorship/

“The Oromia Media Network (OMN) is an independent, nonpartisan and nonprofit news enterprise whose mission is to produce original and citizen-driven reporting on Oromia, the largest and most populous state in Ethiopia. OMN seeks to offer thought-provoking, contextual, and nuanced coverage of critical public interest issues thereby bringing much needed attention to under-reported stories in the region. Our goal is to create a strong and sustainable multilingual newsroom that will serve as a reliable source of information about the Oromo people, the Ethiopian state, and the greater Horn of Africa region. ” – http://www.oromiamedia.org/

Copyright © OromianEconomist 2014 and Oromia Quarterly 1997-2014. All rights reserved. Disclaimer.

The Oromo are the second largest indigenous population in Africa March 11, 2014

Posted by OromianEconomist in Aannolee and Calanqo, Afaan Publication, Africa, African Beat, Ancient African Direct Democracy, Colonizing Structure, Development, Dictatorship, Ethnic Cleansing, Facebook and Africa, Fatuma Roba, Finfinnee, Gadaa System, Haacaaluu Hundeessaa, Human Rights, Human Traffickings, Humanity and Social Civilization, Irreecha, Janjaweed Style Liyu Police of Ethiopia, Kemetic Ancient African Culture, Knowledge and the Colonizing Structure., Language and Development, Nubia, OMN, Oromia, Oromia Support Group, Oromiyaa, Oromo, Oromo Artists, Oromo Culture, Oromo First, Oromo Identity, Oromo Media Network, Oromo Music, Oromo Nation, Oromo Social System, Oromo Sport, Oromo the Largest Nation of Africa. Human Rights violations and Genocide against the Oromo people in Ethiopia, Oromummaa, Poverty, Qubee Afaan Oromo, Saudi Arabia, Self determination, Sidama, Sirna Gadaa, Slavery, State of Oromia, The Colonizing Structure & The Development Problems of Oromia, The Oldest Living Person Known to Mankind, The Oromo Democratic system, The Oromo Governance System, The Oromo Library, The Tyranny of Ethiopia, Theory of Development, Uncategorized.
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Hard roads to freedom: The Oromo fight for recognition in their new home
refugeeweek

 

‘We have to tell people we are the second largest indigenous population in Africa
because nobody knows about us.’O

refugeeweekhttp://ayyaantuu.com/horn-of-africa-news/oromia/hard-roads-to-freedom-the-oromo-fight-for-recognition-in-their-new-home/

 

http://advocacy4oromia.files.wordpress.com/2013/05/oromo-fight-for-recognition-in-their-new-home.pdf

 

Afaan Oromo After 100 Years of Disincentives: Toltu Tufa of the Afaan Publications on radio with Jon Faine on the Conversation Hour at ABC Studios Melbourne February 19, 2014

Posted by OromianEconomist in Afaan Publication, Africa, Humanity and Social Civilization, Kemetic Ancient African Culture, Language and Development, Oromia, Oromiyaa, Oromo, Oromo Artists, Oromo Culture, Oromo First, Oromo Identity, Oromo Social System, Oromummaa, Qubee Afaan Oromo, Self determination, Sirna Gadaa, The Colonizing Structure & The Development Problems of Oromia, The Oromo Democratic system, The Oromo Governance System, The Oromo Library, Toltu Tufa, Uncategorized.
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‘EVERY CHILD HAS THE RIGHT TO LEARN THEIR MOTHER TONGUE.’

Related:

http://ayyaantuu.com/horn-of-africa-news/oromia/toltu-tufa-oprides-oromo-person-2013/

http://afaan.com.au/

AFAAN Publication: Commemorating UNESCO’s International Mother Language Day on Feb. 21, 2014; Highlighting Past Achievements; and Laying out Plans for 2014

February 21 is UNESCO’s International Mother Language Day. AFAAN Publications’ successful campaign to raise funds to produce children books in Afaan Oromo is the highlight of 2013. The Oromo language, Afaan Oromo, is Africa’s 4th most widelyspoken language, which was banned for 100 years until 1991. AFAAN Publications is based in Melbourne.

AFAAN Publication recounts the 2013 successfulfundraising campaign by recognizing some of the international cities which supported the Melbourne’s drive to create children’s books in Afaan Oromo, and AFAAN Publications was also featured last week on 774 Radio ABC Melbourne.

The communications team is available for comments and interview via telephone. Enquiries can be made via email on connect@afaan.com.au

AFAAN Publication: Commemorating UNESCO’s International Mother Language Day on Feb. 21, 2014; Highlighting Past Achievements; and Laying out Plans for 2014.

Copyright © OromianEconomist 2014 & Oromia Quarterly 1997-2014, all rights are reserved. Disclaimer.

Music of Africa:Oromo Recording Artists Abbush Zallaqaa and Haacaaluu Hundessaa at Voice of America (VOA), African Beat February 16, 2014

Posted by OromianEconomist in Abbush Zallaqaa, Africa, African Beat, African Music, Development, Finfinnee, Haacaaluu Hundeessaa, Humanity and Social Civilization, Language and Development, Oromiyaa, Oromo, Oromo Artists, Oromo Culture, Oromo First, Oromo Music, Oromo Social System, Oromummaa, Self determination, State of Oromia, The Oromo Democratic system, The Oromo Governance System, Uncategorized.
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Oromia: OSGA Invited to the UN to report on human rights abuses February 13, 2014

Posted by OromianEconomist in Africa, Environment, Ethnic Cleansing, Finfinnee, Human Rights, Human Traffickings, Land Grabs in Africa, Nubia, Ogaden, Omo, Oromia, Oromia Support Group, Oromia Support Group Australia, Oromiyaa, Oromo, Oromo Identity, Oromo Nation, Oromo Social System, Oromo the Largest Nation of Africa. Human Rights violations and Genocide against the Oromo people in Ethiopia, Oromummaa, Self determination, Sirna Gadaa, The Colonizing Structure & The Development Problems of Oromia, The Oromo Democratic system, Uncategorized.
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HCH is working in conjunction with the Oromia Support Group of Australia (OSGA), one of our long standing community partners, to raise urgently required funds toward a unique opportunity to
present serious allegations of human rights abuses in Ethiopia, at the highest level; the United Nations Universal Periodic Review (UPR).

Human rights organisations have long been reporting human rights abuses committed by the Ethiopian government, which include rape, torture, arbitrary detention and kidnapping. OSGA is an Australian based organisation that was established in 2008 to report on and raise awareness of these violations.

They have recently been offered a significant opportunity to send a delegate to the 19th session of the UN Human Rights Council’s UPR in April, 2014. There they will present a first-hand account of human rights abuses committed by the Ethiopian government.

This opportunity, to report first-hand accounts of torture, arbitrary imprisonment and rape to senior UN officials, will enable them to forward these concerns to the Ethiopian government during the official UPR process. This process will require the Ethiopian government to answer the accusations.

OSGA is raising urgently needed funds to send a representative from the Ethiopian community in Australia. The estimated total cost is approximately $5,000. If you can help, OSGA can provide a receipt, and will also report on the acquisition of any funds. Any contribution would greatly assist this effort.

If you can contribute, please contact info@osgaustralia

http://crisishub.org.au/osga-invited-un-report-human-rights-abuses?utm_source=hootsuite&utm_campaign=hootsuite

Oromia: The Gadaa System – Why Denied Recognition to Be a World Heritage? February 9, 2014

Posted by OromianEconomist in Africa, Culture, Development, Dhaqaba Ebba, Economics: Development Theory and Policy applications, Environment, Gadaa System, Humanity and Social Civilization, Ideas, Irreecha, Kemetic Ancient African Culture, Nelson Mandela, Nubia, Omo, Oral Historian, Oromia, Oromiyaa, Oromo, Oromo Culture, Oromo First, Oromo Identity, Oromo Nation, Oromo Social System, Oromo Sport, Oromummaa, Qubee Afaan Oromo, Self determination, Sirna Gadaa, The Oromo Democratic system, The Oromo Governance System, The Oromo Library, Theory of Development, Uncategorized, Wisdom.
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Odaa Oromoo

‘It is quite long overdue to register Gadaa as a world heritage… ‘If it is inscribed as UNESCO’s world heritage it will be the source of historical pride not only for the Oromo people but also for all peoples of Ethiopia, Africa and the whole world at large. It will also be a center of attraction to the world tourists who would come to see and enjoy the Gadaa system’s tangible and intangible values. Tangible heritages are the age old Gadaa centers like; Hora Arsadi, Oda Nabe, Oda Bulluqi, Oda Bultum, Oda Makoo Billi, Gumii Gayyoo in Borana and many others in western, central, eastern and southern #Oromia. It also includes reverences and ornaments of rituals, the Bokku, the Caaccu and Kalacha. Intangible heritages are ideas, thoughts and the worldview of Abba Gadaa elders, women, men and the youth as members of the Gadaa system.’ Read @http://allafrica.com/stories/201209210569.html?page=3

Oromummaa Jabeessaa Isii Dhugaa Isii Uumaa Kaleessaa:Iinterview With Artist Umar Suleyman February 2, 2014

Posted by OromianEconomist in Oral Historian, Oromia, Oromiyaa, Oromo, Oromo Culture, Oromo First, Oromo Identity, Oromo Nation, Oromo Social System, Oromo the Largest Nation of Africa. Human Rights violations and Genocide against the Oromo people in Ethiopia, Oromummaa, Self determination, Sirna Gadaa, The Oromo Democratic system, The Oromo Governance System, The Oromo Library, Uncategorized, Wisdom.
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???????????Oromo are one of the very ancient African people. Oromo culture (aada). Oromo Social system is Gadaa (ancient democratic system). Oromia. Africa

Nubia and Oromia January 4, 2014

Posted by OromianEconomist in Africa, Colonizing Structure, Corruption, Culture, Development, Human Rights, Humanity and Social Civilization, Nubia, Oromia, Oromiyaa, Oromo, Oromo Culture, Oromo Identity, Oromo Social System, Oromo the Largest Nation of Africa. Human Rights violations and Genocide against the Oromo people in Ethiopia, Oromummaa, Self determination, The Colonizing Structure & The Development Problems of Oromia, The Oromo Democratic system, Tyranny, Uncategorized.
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Brownie: Spending an evening with Oromos

Today was such a pleseant day, i was invited to the Oromo community celebration of the beginning of the new Georgian year 2013. Oromo are the Koshian people of the State of Ethiopia. they are part of the Koshian civilization which Nubians belong to. So they are my cousins.
I have been introduced to the Oromo struggle in 2009, through my work in refugees’ issue in Egypt. One of my colleagues is a great man and he is from Oromo. He taught me about the struggle of his people against the central State in Ethiopia, actually they are sharing some problems with us, as Nubians, the suppression, neglection from the central government and cultural war to omit their deep rooted culture.

Oromo like many ethincities in Africa suffered specially after the colonization, because the colonizers built a wicked conflict in the African context which is the supremacy of a certain people or culture on the rest of the inhabitants of each country, after drawing unnatural borders.That was the case of Rwanda for example and that what lead to the genocide.
This wicked idea was entrenched through all means, political, social, economic and developmental.
Being in the trench of the unprivileged part means suffering by all means, no education, no health care, no development, complicated economic situation and for sure political prosecution if you dared to talk about your people suffering.
It is very problematic that the newly established states in Africa had hard time with the notion of nationalism, that they tried to embrace just one identity, and by that they completely deviated from the African tradition of respecting multiplicity. Africans suffered from the unnatural borders which cut some ethicities into pieces like the Nubian comminty when British cut Nubia into two part by the line of 22 north, which made some Nubians Sudanese and other Egyptians. even in the same states, some governments adopted very selective attitude in applying the notion of nationality, they made a check list and if you do not fit, you will suffer.
and Oromo do not fit, they are simply different.

That what happened to my Oromo-ian friend, he left the homeland, and he is a refugee here in Egypt, suffering from hardship of being a refugee in unwelcoming state like Egypt. but when you see him talking about his struggle you will only see the pride, that black pride which never vanishes.

Oromo people are struggling hard to be recognized and to have their human rights respected.
the Ethiopian state must stop its suppression to the Oromo people.

Respecting different people is essential, multiculturalism and persevering multiplicity is the pillar of any state.
Finally sometimes it is important to see Adhoc, this is a video showing how Oromo raised their flag in the last African cup for football:

Know more about the Oromo struggle  (http://www.oromoliberationfront.org/index.htm)
See the details at original source:
http://atbrownies.blogspot.co.uk/2014/01/spending-evening-with-oromos.html
By Fatma Emam: http://www.blogger.com/profile/17426809504085760083

Copyright © OromianEconomist 2014 & Oromia Quarterly 1997-2014, all rights are reserved. Disclaimer.

Freedom Is Sweet December 27, 2013

Posted by OromianEconomist in Culture, Human Rights, Humanity and Social Civilization, Kemetic Ancient African Culture, Knowledge and the Colonizing Structure. African Heritage. The Genocide Against Oromo Nation, Language and Development, Oromia, Oromiyaa, Oromo, Oromo Culture, Oromo Identity, Oromo Nation, Oromo Social System, Oromo the Largest Nation of Africa. Human Rights violations and Genocide against the Oromo people in Ethiopia, Oromummaa, Self determination, Sirna Gadaa, The Colonizing Structure & The Development Problems of Oromia, The Oromo Democratic system, The Oromo Governance System, The Oromo Library, Theory of Development, Uncategorized.
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“Freedom is Sweet” is taken from the speech made by Inga Peulich MLC , Parliamentary Secretary for Education at Oromia @ Federation Square, Melbourne Australia on 22nd of December 2013. The festival aims to bring Oromo people together, irrespective of age, gender and belief, to help promote self-empowerment. It also seek to educate the public on the lifestyle, culture and ethics of members of the Australian Oromo community. Furthermore, it’s a time to celebrate and commemorate the beauty of Australian Oromo culture and to promote both multiculturalism and diversity across Australia.
The celebration of Oromia at Federation Square marks the beginning of yet another exciting year of events that aim to bring the case of the Oromo cause.

Oromo Are The Single Largest And Indigenous National Group In East Africa November 14, 2013

Posted by OromianEconomist in Human Rights, Humanity and Social Civilization, Kemetic Ancient African Culture, Oromia, Oromiyaa, Oromo, Oromo Culture, Oromo Social System, Oromo the Largest Nation of Africa. Human Rights violations and Genocide against the Oromo people in Ethiopia, The Oromo Democratic system, The Oromo Governance System, Uncategorized.
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Oromia map (green)

Oromia map (green)

i am oromo first

Independent nation before 1887

Mini Documentary by Seenaa Jimjimo

‘The Oromo Community Association in Chicago was featured on Chicago Public Radio’s Worldviewprogram on Wednesday, October 20, 2010. Listen below the full segment of the program on the Oromo people, the Oromo Community Association in Chicago, and the benefit jazz concert that the Association will hold on October 24, 2010.From the Chicago Public RadioThere are an estimated 40 million Oromo in Ethiopia, which makes them the nation’s largest ethnic group. Their numbers extend into Kenya and Somalia as well. Yet, despite their wide influence in the Horn of Africa, many people have never heard of the Oromo. Seenna Jimjimo of Chicago’s Oromo Community Association and Kadiro Elemo talk with Jerome about the Oromo culture, the struggle for independence and the local Oromo community in Chicago.’  Source: Gadaa.com

Listen:

http://gadaa.com/oduu/6380/2010/10/20/oromia-the-oromo-community-of-chicago-featured-on-chicago-public-radio/

Related references:

From slavery to freedom:the Oromo slave children of Lovedale, prosopography and profiles
Sandra Carolyn Teresa Rowoldt Shell
Student number: RWLSAN002
A dissertation submitted in fulfilment of the requirements for the award of the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Historical Studies
Faculty of the Humanities
University of Cape Town
2013
https://www.academia.edu/3760219/From_slavery_to_freedom_the_Oromo_slave_children_of_Lovedale_prosopography_and_profiles

https://oromianeconomist.wordpress.com/?s=twisted&searchbutton=go%21

Irreecha: The Oromo National And Cultural Holiday Has Been Celebrated With Over 3 million Oromians In The Blessing Festival October 13, 2013

Posted by OromianEconomist in Africa, Culture, Development, Humanity and Social Civilization, Irreecha, Kemetic Ancient African Culture, Oromia, Oromiyaa, Oromo, Oromo Culture, Oromo Identity, Oromo Nation, Oromo Social System, Oromummaa, Self determination, Sirna Gadaa, The Oromo Democratic system, The Oromo Governance System, Theory of Development, Wisdom.
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Irreecha Oromo 2013 at Hora Harsadi, Bishoftuu, Oromia

Oromo culture from ancient to present, Irrechaa  time

Oromo culture from ancient to present, Irrechaa time

Irreecha Oromo 2013 at  Hora Harsadi, Bishoftu town in state of Oromia, East Africa

Irreecha Oromo 2013 at Hora Harsadi

Baga ganna nagaan baatanii booqaa birraa argitan. Good that the rainy season is over for you and that you came to see the spot of the sunny flowering season. The expression signifies the end of one season and the beginning of another season, which incidentally is the beginning of a new year according to Oromo time reckoning. This is not the only expression in Irreecha festival as the event is characterized by vast and varieties of expressions, stories and sequences of cultural displays.  Irreecha is the biggest and very beautiful public displays of ancient culture  that Africa has performed and continue to perform. Holding the green grass and yellow flower (umama), it is the celebration of the season of blessing and love Oromians experience as Thanksgivings to God (Waaqa) the creator (Uumaa).

Irreecha celebration at Malkaa Ateetee, Burayyuu, Oromia,  6th October 2013

Irreecha is one of the most colorful and beautiful Oromo national cultural events that has been celebrated through out since the last week of August and the entire September  and also in October in Oromia and globally where Oromians have been residing (Africa, Australia, Europe and North America). The main Irreecha day was celebrated at Lake Hora Harsadii, Bishoftu, Central Oromia, nearer to the capital Finfinnee on 29th September 2013. According to local news sources from Bishoftuu, over 3 million people attended this year’s Irreecha Malka celebration at Hora Harsadii. “Traditionally, the Oromo practiced Irreecha ritual as a thanksgiving celebration twice a year (in autumn and spring) to praise Waaqa (God) for peace, health, fertility and abundance they were given with regards to the people, livestock, harvest and the entire Oromo land. Irreecha is celebrated as a sign of reciprocating Waaqa in the form of providing praise for what they got in the past, and is also a forum ofprayer for the future. In such rituals, the Oromo gather in places with symbolic meanings, such as hilltops, river side and shades of big sacred trees. …These physical landscapes are chosen for their representations in the Oromo worldview, for example, green is symbolized with fertility, peace, abundance and rain. In Oromia, the core center of Irreecha celebration has been around Hora Arsadi in Bishoftu town, some 25kms to the south of Finfinne, the capital city. Annually, particularly during the Irreecha birraa (the Autumn Irreecha) in September or October, the Oromo from different parts of the country come together and celebrate the ritual. In the past few decades, Irreecha celebrations have been expanded both in content as well as geographical and demographic representations. This short commentary deals with such historical trajectories by contextualizing the changes within political discourses in Ethiopia vis-à-vis Oromo nationalism.”http://gadaa.com/oduu/21320/2013/08/24/irreecha-from-thanksgiving-ritual-to-strong-symbol-of-oromo-identity/

http://gadaa.com/Irreechaa.html

http://ireport.cnn.com/docs/DOC-1046052?fb_action_ids=664189850266075&fb_action_types=cnn-social%3Aupload&fb_ref=og_ireport&fb_source=feed_opengraph&action_object_map=%7B%22664189850266075%22%3A227964664036552%7D&action_type_map=%7B%22664189850266075%22%3A%22cnn-social%3Aupload%22%7D&action_ref_map=%7B%22664189850266075%22%3A%22og_ireport%22%7D

Aadaa fi Duudhaa sirna Waaqeffannaa keessaa inni tokko Ayyaana irreeffannaa ykn irreechati. Sirni Duudhaa irreechaa gosa hedduutti qoodama. Kunis, Irreessa Malkaa, Irreessa Tulluu, Irreessa Galmaa / Gimbii, Irreessa Ujubaa, Irreessa Dakkii, Irreessa Jilaa fi Irreessa Eebbaa ykn Galataa fi kkf. Akkaa fi akkaataan irreeffannaas akkuma sirna isaatti addaa adda. Ammatti kan bal’inaan irraa dubbannu Irreecha yeroo ammaatti biyya keessaa fi alatti beekamee fi kabajamaa jiru, Irreecha Malkaati. Irreechi Malkaa kan kabajamu, ganni yeroon rakkinaa fi dukkanaa dabree birraan yeroo bari’u, sirni Gubaa erga raawwatee booda, ummanni gamtaan Malkaa bu’uun irreeffatee Waaqa galateeffata. Ammaaf Irreecha Malkaa isa biyya keessaa fi alatti bal’inaan beekamaa fi kabajamaa jiru irraa hanga tokko waa addeessuu yaalla. Ayyaanni irreechaa osoo hin gahiin dura waanti raawwataman hedduutu jiran. Kunis seera yayyaba shananii hordofuudhan torban shan dura eegala jechuudha. Ji’a hagayyaa torban sadaffaa keessa birraan bari’uu ykn seenuu isaa kan ibsu, sirna Muka ( korma) dhaabaa kan jedhamutu raawwata. Bakki mukti dhaabaa kun dhaabatu Mijirii jedhama. Mijiriin kun bakka Gubaan itti gubamu ykn bakka ayyaanni ibsaa gubaa raawwatudha. Mukti dhaabbatu 9 ykn 5 ta’an. Kunis hiika mataa ofii qaba. Guyyaa muka dhaabaa irraa eegalee hanga gaafa Gubaatti torban torbaniin waanti godhamu ni jira. Gaafa torban shanaffaa ykn Fulbaana ji’aa dhumaa yeroo ta’u sirna Gubaatu raawwata. Masqala jechuudha. Ayyaana masqalaa kana warri amantii Ortodoksii gara amantii isaaniitti harkisuuf haa yaalan malee gochaa fi seenaan wanti isaan deeggaru hin jiru. aadaa Oromoo fudhatan. Guyyaa gubaa kana ollaan maatii waliin walitti dhufee bakka Mijirii sanatti erga ibsaa gubee dhibaafatee, eebbifateen booda dubartoonni Qunnii (Ingiccaa) guban, dargaggoonni sirba ” Hiyyooko ykn Ya habaab yaa daree ko” jedhamu sirbaa ollaarra naannawanii kennaa fudhatan. Torban isaatti ammoo sirna Ayyaana Irreechaatu raawwata. Gubaan kan dhuunfaa fi ollaati. Irreechi ammoo ayyaana ummanni gamtaan Malkaa bu’ee, dukkana gannaa keessaa gara Booqaa Birraatti nagaan cehuu isaaf kan galateeffatu Guyyaa Galatoo ( Thanksgivings day) jechuudha. Sirni gamtaan Irreeffannaa kun osoo dhiibbaa amantii fi sirna bulchiinsa alagaatiin hin dhorkamiin dura Oromoon naannoo qubatee jiru maratti ni irreeffata ture. Keessumattuu bara mootummaa Dargii sana aadaa ” duubatti hafaa” jedhamee Galma Qaalluu gubuu fi waan Oromoon aadaadhaan raawwatu mara dhorkuun dhabamsiisuuf yaalan. Sababa kanaa fi babal’ina amantii Isilaamaa fi Protestantiin walqabatee bakka hedduutti sirni irreeffannaa fi amantiin Waaqeffannaa ni dhorkame. Dhiibbaa kana irraa damdamtee kan hafe keessaa tokko Ayyaana Irreechaa Hora Arsadii Magaalaa Bishooftuutti kabajamudha. Ayyaanni Irreecha Hora Arsadee qindoominaa fi hirmaannaa ummata bal’aan kabajamuu kan eegale bara 1997 irraa kaaseetu. Isa dura ummatuma naannoo sanaa fi keessattuu warra aadaa Waaqeffannaa hordofaniin ture. Bara 1997 keessa koreen tokko maqaa Guddinaa fi Dagaagina Aadaa Oromoo jedhuun WMT jalatti ijaaramtee Ayyaana Irreecha Bishooftuu kana ummata beeksisuu, barsiisuu fi qindoominaan guyyaa ayyaana kanaa bakka sanatti argamuun qalbii namaa harkisuu jalqabde. Ergasii waggaa waggaan achitti argamuun barumsaa fi dammaqiinsa kennameen sadarkaa har’a ummanni kumaa fi kitilaan kan herreegamu irratti argamee kabaju irraan gahe. Kana malees Oromiyaa gara dhihaatti bakka hedduutti akka kabajamuu fi babal’atuuf karaa saaqe. Baroota hedduu dura jalqabee ammoo biyya alatti walduraa duubaan, USA, Germany, Norway, Canada, Australia, Keenya, Uganda fi Ertriatti kabajamuu jalqabe. Guddinni fi babal’inni kabajaa Ayyaana Irreechaa kun qaama duula Oromoon Aadaa, Eenyumaa fi Oromummaa isaa guddisuuf gochaa jiru keessaa isa tokkoo fi guddicha ta’uu mal’isa. Fuula durallee daran akka guddatuu fi babal’atu Waaqa wajjin abdii qabna.Kabajaa ayyaana irreechaa biyya keessaa fi alatti raawwate ilaalchisee kanaan dura marsaa adda addaatti bahaa turuun ni yaadatama. Dabalataan yaadachiisuu fi bal’inaan kan hin gabaafamiin dabalatee akka armaan gadiitti kan biyyaa keessaa fi biyya alaa bakka adda addaatti kabajamaa ture laalla.”http://waaqeffannaa.org/irreecha/

Photo: Kabaja ayyaana irreecha ..bishooftuu oromiyaa irratti gaggeefame Photo: Shamarraan dursanii gara malkaatti nu yaasani.   Photo

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SONY DSC

http://oromoassociationvic.org/2013/10/03/oromians-seek-blessings-and-love-at-annual-oromo-festival/

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Irreecha Oromo 2013 Celebration, in Sydney, Australia

Irreecha Oromo, event in London,  12 October 2013

Gubaa fi Irreecha @Galma Calalaqii, Miidaaqenyii

Related references:

https://oromianeconomist.wordpress.com/?s=twisted&searchbutton=go%21

Oromo: The Kushitic People of Africa

http://kwekudee-tripdownmemorylane.blogspot.co.uk/2013/07/oromo-people-powerful-kushitic-africans.html

ErechaThe story of Erecha – the celebration of the first harvest of the Ethiopian Spring in September – is a story better told by who else but the late Poet Laureate himself, Blattten Geta Tsegaye G/Medhin.

“….12,000 years ago, ASRA the God of sun and sky of KUSH PHARAOH begotten SETE, the older son ORA the younger of the first and daughter named as ASIS (ATETORADBAR). The older SETE killed his younger brother ORA, and ASIS (ATET OR ADBAR) planted a tree (ODA) for the memorial of her deceased brother ORA at the bank of Nile, Egypt where the murder had taken place, and requested her father who was the god of Sun to make peace among the families of SETE and ORA. Them rain was come and the tree (ODA) got grown. It symbolizes that taken place. Later, at the Stone Age, the tree that had been planted for the memorial of the killed, ORA was substituted by statue of stone that was erected 8000 years ago.

This festival has been celebrated in September of every year and when Nile is flow full in NUBLA and BLACK EGYPT. In Ethiopia during the AXUMITE and PRE-AXUMITE period a great festival has been held around the sun’s statue that planted by ASIS (ATET OR ADBAR) the sister of ORA for the memorial of the later, ORA the son of god of sun, who waked up from death (ORA OMO or OR OMO) for the purpost of celebrating the peace made between the two brothers, the great herald, in thanking the good of sun and the sky with CHIBO.

Then EYO KA ABEBAYE (the traditional and popular song performed at DEMERA events and new year in Ethiopia) has been started being performed since then. “KA” is the first name of God. The name of God that our KUSH Fathers have inherited to us before the old period, Christianity, and Islam is “KA”. Since then, therefore, especially the OROMO, GURAGIE and the SOUTHERN people of Ethiopia have been calling God as “WAKA or WAQA”. “or WAQA”. WAKA” or WAQA” God When we song EYOKA or EYOHA in New Year, we are praising “KA” of God.

“GEDA” or KA ADA” is the law or rule of God. “GEDA” (KA ADA) is the festival by which the laws and orders of God are executed Japan, China, and India are now reached to the current civilization through making the basic traditions and cultures they received from their forefathers (HINDU, SHINTO and MAHIBERATA) be kept and receiving Islam, Christianity, and others especially Democracy and free believes. They are not here through undermining the culture and tradition of their forefathers.

Culture is the collection of many CHIBOs or DEMERA. “ERCHA” or “ERESA” one of the part and parcel of GEDA (KA ADA) system is the comer stone and turning point to the new year for which ASIS (ATET OR ADBAR) has put up the dead body of her brother, ORA who was killed by his older brother like ABEL from the place he died at the river bank of NILE on and planted statue“.

The Oromo people of beautiful Ethiopia believe in one God since time memorial. Their religion is called “WAKEFENA” which means believing in one God that is the creator of the whole universe. ERECHA means a celebration where people get together and perform their prayers and thanking God.

WAKEFENA, the faith being in the GEDA SYSTEM is a religions ceremony that is free from any thing. The fathers of Oromo religion and the people, keeping fresh grass and flowers, perform their prayers and thank their God going to mountains, the sea or a river bank.

They move to the top of mountains or bank of seas or rivers not to worship the mountains or rivers and seas; rather to distract themselves from any noise and to worship their God (WAQA) with concentration. And they go to sea and rivers because they believe that green is holy and peaceful where the spirit of God is found.

In the Oromo culture, the rainy season is considered as the symbol of darkness. At the beginning of September, the darkness is gone, rivers run shallower and cleaner, and the mud is gone. As sunshine rules the land, the OROMO people of Ethiopia go out to celebrate this great natural cycle with the spirit of worshiping God (WAQA).

http://www.ethiopians.com/photoessay/Photo_Essay_Eretcha_06.htm

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Gadaa Oromo Democracy: Three Approaches to the Study of African Society September 27, 2012

Posted by OromianEconomist in Africa, Ancient African Direct Democracy, Culture, Finfinnee, Gadaa System, Humanity and Social Civilization, Irreecha, Kemetic Ancient African Culture, Oromo, Oromo Culture, Oromo First, Oromo Identity, Oromo Nation, Oromo Social System, Oromummaa, Self determination, Sirna Gadaa, State of Oromia, The Oromo Democratic system, The Oromo Governance System, Uncategorized.
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These closely related books reveal the many creative solutions an African society found for problems that people encounter when they try to establish a democratic system of governing their affairs. In much of what has been written about Africa, the common image is that of people governed by primitive customs and practices, in which only feudal roles of elders, kings, chiefs, sultans, and emirs have been acknowledged by Western observers. Little is ever shown of indigenous African democratic systems, under which there is distribution of authority and responsibility across various strata of society, and where warriors are subordinated to deliberative assemblies, customary laws are revised periodically by a national convention, and elected leaders are limited to a single eight-year terms of office and subjected to public review in the middle of their term. All these ideals and more are enshrined in the five-century old constitution of the Oromo of Ethiopia, which is the subject matter of these books.

In these books, Legesse brings into sharp focus the polycephalous or “multi-headed” system of government of the Oromo, which is based on clearly defined division of labor and checks and balances between different institutions. Revealing the inherent dynamism and sophistication of this indigenous African political system, Legasse also shows in clear and lucid language that the system has had a long and distinguished history, during which the institutions changed by deliberate legislation, and evolved and adapted with time.’ Amazon Books &

 — At Finfinnee, Oromian Young Generations Literally Collections.
http://gadaa.com/OromoStudies/wp-content/uploads/2013/02/HistoricalSignificancesOfOdaaWithSpecialReferenceToWalaabuu2013

Review of ‘Oromo Democracy: An Indigenous African Political System.’ By Asmarom Legesse

Oromo Democracy: An Indigenous African Political System. By Asmarom Legesse.  Trenton, NJ: Red Sea Press, 2006, 296p, 10 figures, 8 pictures. $ 29.95 paperback. ISBN 1-56902-139-2. 
Introduction

http://oromopress.blogspot.co.uk/2011/12/review-of-oromo-democracy-indigenous.html?m=1

http://www.readperiodicals.com/201203/2672718591.html

Copyright © Oromianeconomist 2012 and Oromia Quarterly 1997-2012. All rights reserved. Disclaimer.