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OMN: Simpooziyamii Afaan OROMOO ( Yunivarsiitii Amboo) March 11, 2019

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Brazil Adopts Yoruba as Official Language| The African Exponent Weekly October 14, 2018

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Brazil Adopts Yoruba as Official Language

Brazil Adopts Yoruba as Official Language

Yoruba to be taught in Brazilian Schools


The Brazilian government has introduced the compulsory study of African History and Yoruba Language into the primary and secondary schools curriculum; should this be a welcome development for Africa?

Oromia: Ethiopia must end its political, economic and social exclusion and marginalization of Afaan Oromo speakers from federal institutions and the Addis Ababa city administration August 26, 2018

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There is no law or policy that prohibits the Federal Government from conducting its business in Afaan Oromo!

Ethiopia must end its political, economic and social exclusion and marginalization of Afaan Oromo speakers from federal institutions and the Addis Ababa city administration claiming non-existing language laws and language policies as the basis of these exclusions.

Ethiopia never had formal language laws and language policy in its history to exclude the use of Afaan Oromo. The so-called language related provision in the federal constitution is not self-executing law. It needs language policy and language law for it to be legally enforced in the court of law or followed by any government institutions.

Alternatively, even if one claims that there is constitutional self-executing law, it does not bar the use of Afaan Oromo by federal institutions and Addis Ababa City Administration.

More importantly, Addis Ababa city administration does not need any federal authorization to adopt right away Afaan Oromo as its working language on equal footing with Amharic.

There are many Ethiopia’s own language use practices that will enable the federal government to adopt Afaan Oromo as its working language without needing any law or policy.

For instance, there is no law or language policy that says Ethiopia will use English in its international communication. Yet, the country is using English in its international communication in spite of the absence of language law or language policy.

Similarly, if we look at Ethiopia’s medium of instruction both at secondary and university levels, there is no language law or language policy issued to mandate Ethiopian academic institutions to teach in English.

If we look at the past practices of the Ministry of Education, there is no law that mandated the inclusion of Geez, a language used in church liturgy with zero living speakers, on Ethiopian School Leaving Certificate Exam(ESLCE) while willfully excluding Afaan Oromo or other languages with tens of millions of speakers from ESLCE.

If there is any legal basis for all these unregulated language uses, the only document one may find is the educational curriculum prepared by the Ethiopian Ministry of Education. That means, all these messes were done at the free will of unelected and unauthorized experts at the Ministry of Education whom the Ethiopian people have zero knowledge even about their existence.

Similarly, there is no clearly drawn language use policy that regulates the Ethiopian federal media outlets to broadcast in any given languages including in Afaan Oromo. It is pretty much the discretionary decision of these entities.

If unelected, unauthorized and obscure curriculum developing experts at the Ministry of Education or media companies were given so much power in deciding on what languages our educational system or media uses or not uses; we expect our elected, legally authorized and publically known officials including the Ethiopian federal parliament, the federal judicial and executive organs to use Afaan Oromo in conducting their business.

Afaan Oromo speakers who constitute more than 50% of the Ethiopian population cannot wait until the constitution is amended or language use laws or policies are issued to get services from the federal government and Addis Ababa city administration.

The degree of exclusion and marginalization of the Oromo people in Ethiopia is unbearable. The Oromo people cannot remain excluded from their own country. All cities, religious institutions, media outlets and federal government entities in Oromia, including in Addis Ababa, must serve the Oromo people in Afaan Oromo.

Furthermore, since both the federal government institutions and Addis Ababa City Administration are exclusively located in the Oromia National Regional Government where the working language is legally Afaan Oromo, there is no federal law or policy that prohibits the federal government and the Addis Ababa City Administration from conducting their Business in Afaan Oromo.

In fact, both the federal institutions and the Addis Ababa City Administration must use Afaan Oromo, the official working language in Oromia, to conduct their business in Oromia Region according to the Ethiopian federal constitution which recognizes the rights of regional governments to use the language of their choosing as their working language.

ጠ/ሚ ዶ/ር አብይ አህመድ በዛሬው መግለጫቸው የኦሮሞ ህዝብን ቅስም ሰብረውታል ::

በኦሮሞ ህዝብ ዘንድ አንደኛ ደረጃ የሚባለው የህዝብ ጥያቄ የቋንቋ ጥያቄ ነው :: ኦሮምኛ ቋንቋ የፌደራሉ የስራ ቋንቋ እስካልሆነ ድረስ የኦሮሞ ህዝብ በዕውቀት በኢኮኖሚ እና በማንኛውም የማህበራዊ ህይወቱ ዝቅተኛ ነው :: እንዲህ ያፈጠጠ የኦሮሞ ህዝብ ችግርን ጠ/ሚ ዶ/ር አብይ ኦሮምኛ ቋንቋ የፌደራል የስራ ቋንቋ አሁኑኑ ይሁን ማለት አግባብ አይደለም ማለታቸው ደሙን የገበረውን የኦሮሞን ህዝብ ቅስም የሰበረ ሆኖ አግኝቼዋለው :: ጠቅላይ ሚንስተሩ ኦሮምኛ ቋንቋ የፌደራሉ የስራ ቋንቋ አሁኑኑ ይሁን የሚለውን ጥያቄ አግባብ አይደለም ብለው ያስቀመጡበት ምክንያት የህግ ማሻሻያ የሚፈልግ ስለሆነ ብለዋል :: ነገር ግን ኦሮምኛ ቋንቋ የፌደራሉ የስራ ቋንቋ ለማድረግ የህግ ማሻሻያ ሳይሆን ተጨማሪ ህግ ብቻ ነው የሚያስፈልገው ::
በአጠቃላይ በመግለጫቸው ኦሮምኛ ቋንቋ የፌደራሉ የስራ ቋንቋ እንደማይሆን ነው እጅግ በጣም ያሳዝናል ::

ጠ/ሚ ዶ/ር አብይ አህመድ አሁንም የኦሮሞን ህዝብ ሊሰሙት እና ጥይቄዎቹን በአፋጣኝ ሊመልሱለት ይገባል ::

አሁንም ታስረናል

Brief and informative speech about the history of the development of Qubee Afaan Oromoo by the renowned scholar Dr. Gemechu Megersa, at Wollega University April 16, 2018

Posted by OromianEconomist in Afaan Oromoo, Gamachuu Magarsaa, Qubee Afaan Oromo, Uncategorized.
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Brief and informative speech about the history of Qubee Afaan Oromoo by the renowned  scholar Dr. Gemechu Megersa on the third international conference of Oromo language,culture,arts and customs organized by Wollega university, 13 April 2018.


QZ: We’d have a better chance of preserving Africa’s dying languages if we learned their history June 14, 2017

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We’d have a better chance of preserving Africa’s dying languages if we learned their history

By Abdi Latif Dahir, Quartz  Africa

‘Across the world, African languages are slowly taking the center stage and are being recognized for their importance. For instance, you can now learn Zulu on an app, read a growing list of articles in African languages on Wikipedia, and receive thousands of dollars in awards for your fictional Swahili piece or poem. And many universities from Ethiopia to South Africa are making African languages like Afan Oromo and isiXhosa a compulsory subject. But Africa still has some of the world’s highest concentration of at-risk languages. And that can be reversed by first understanding and studying the past history, present evolution, and future use of these languages.’  Click here to read the full article QZ.

UNPO: Oromo: Alterations of Afan Alphabet Raise Concerns About Community’s Cultural Rights June 10, 2017

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Oromo: Alterations of Afan Alphabet Raise Concerns About Community’s Cultural Rights

UNPO, 9 June 2017

Photo courtesy of USAID Ethiopia@flickr

Authorities in Oromia changed the order of the Roman alphabet used for the Afan Oromo language on the grounds that the old alphabet order is allegedly an obstacle to the reading skills of Oromo school children. According to Oromo intellectuals, however, this change is aiming at diminishing the cultural rights of the Oromo people who have been subject to a marginalisation process for years. This issue is occupying the center of Ethiopia’s political news cycle, even though this regulation had been silently carried out in 2016. Therefore, there are doubts as to whether the regime uses this debate to divert public attention from large-scale Oromo protests. In the past months, the Ethiopian government has been in the world’s spotlight due to massive human rights violations in the country.



This article has been published by Global Voices


Authorities in Oromia, Ethiopia’s largest state, have infuriated language experts and Oromo nationalists with their decision to re-arrange the order of the alphabet of the region’s language, Afan Oromo.

In multilingual and multiethnic Ethiopia, orthographic choices are complex linguistic and political decisions that have great socio-political consequences.

Among Ethiopia’s written languages, most write their language in either the Ge’ez or Ethiopic alphabet, known as “Fidel,” or the Roman alphabet. Afan Oromo officially adopted the Roman alphabet — in its usual order of ABCD and so on — after the current government come to power in 1991.

However, more than a quarter century later, the regional educational authorities of Oromia announced they were reshuffling the “Qubee Afan Oromo” (as the alphabet is called). The first seven letters are:

L A G I M Aa S


Justifying the change, authorities blamed the old alphabet order as the reason why reading skills among primary school children in Oromia remain poor. They even cited a research to back up their claim.

There is, however, a problem with their argument. It was based on a misrepresentation of the findings of the research. In fact, the research, which was funded by US Agency for International Development (USAID) in 2010, revealed a broader problem of reading skills not only among Afan Oromo-speaking primary school students, but also students whose mother tongue was Amharic, Hararigna, Sidaamu Afoo, Somali and Tigrinya.

In the study, pedagogic and logistical difficulties were identified as factors for poor reading skills in Ethiopia’s six major regions. However, the order of alphabet was not cited as a factor for the dismal reality. In a post on the citizen journalism site OPride.com, one blogger agreed with the findings of the research but questioned the connection it had to the alphabet order, writing:

There is little disagreement on the core problem here: The education quality crisis in Ethiopia needs fixing. The disagreement here though is on the proposed solutions. This is underscored by a key question that everyone is asking: JUST HOW DOES REORDERING THE AFAAN OROMO ALPHABET IMPROVE READING AND LEARNING OUTCOMES?

‘Yet another fraud perpetrated on the Oromo people’

The change actually took effect in 2016 and school textbooks already reflect the reshuffling, but it was done so quietly. So much so that the news of the letter order change only made it into Ethiopia’s political news cycle after government affiliate Oromia Broadcasting Service reported about it. Over last two years, a series of political events with far-reaching repercussions such as protests and internet outages has dominated the country’s news cycle.

As soon as the change was reported, concerned Oromo intellectuals started raising questions.

For them, this is the latest attempt in a series of steps intended to diminish the cultural rights of the Oromo people, who have historically been marginalized in Ethiopia. On Facebook Awol Kassim Allo, wrote:

“The casual change/disfiguring of the Alphabet of a language spoken by more than 40 million people without any debate and discussion is appalling. The excuse given to justify it – improving the ability of children to read at early stages of instruction – is lame and cannot stuck up to scrutiny. …This is yet another fraud perpetrated on the Oromo people and it must be rejected.”

The circumstance of the change also stoked another fear: that the decision to alter the order of the letters might be a plot by people who were disgruntled when the Oromos opted to adopt the Roman alphabet over the Ge’ez alphabet in 1991.

Prior to 1991, Afan Oromo was written in different alphabets. The first Oromo Bible was printed in Ge’ez letters in the 19th century. During the reign of emperor Haile Selassie (1930-1974), Afan Oromo was not a written language.

When Ethiopia’s military regime came to power in 1974, it decreed that all Ethiopian languages must be written exclusively in Ge’ez alphabet— a draconian policy intended to promote unity among Ethiopia’s diverse ethnic groups.

Parallel to the Ge’ez letters, however, Oromo language experts and Oromo nationalists were also using the Roman alphabet. Paul Baxter, a social anthropologist, wrote that the Roman alphabet was used to transcribe the Afan Oromo language among Kenyan Oromos in the 1940s.

Proponents of the Ge’ez alphabet believe that Ge’ez signifies the rich liturgic and literary tradition of Ethiopia. For them, preserving Ge’ez in the age of the Roman alphabet’s domination is a sign of resistance to cultural globalization and a symbol of identity. Responding to Awol Kassim Allo’s post on Facebook, Abeba Teshale wrote:

“Simple, structured, logical, Ethiopian, African, Amharic/Tigregna alphabet is there for any one interested to adopt. 26 vs 338 syllables! There is an alphabet for each sound and for the ones that don’t have one, we could crate a symbole. Just a thought”

For many Oromos, though, adopting the Roman alphabet is a matter of selecting an alphabet that best fits the Afan Oromo sound system.

According to academic Teferi Degeneh Bijiga, who wrote his doctoral dissertation on the topic of Afan Oromo writing system, complex historical, cultural and linguistic forces were at play when Oromo intellectuals decided to adopt the Roman alphabet in 1991.

Over the next few weeks, this issue will be front and center in Ethiopian politics, where the Ethiopian government is operating under a state of emergency because of the protests that began over land use as well as political and economic marginalization in Oromia in November 2015.

THE EAST AFRICAN JOURNAL: The Grand Afan Oromo Project on Star Television Network December 28, 2016

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Afaan Oromoo Dictionary Translation Project

Hiibboo Afaan Oromoo December 28, 2016

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Hiibboo Afaan Oromoo

1• Ari’anii hin qaban utaalanii hin dhaaban (Gaaddidduu)
2• Soba dhugaa fakkaatu (Abjuu)
3• Abbaan bokkuu marmaratee rafe (Boqqoolloo)
4• Fannisan fannoo hin qabduu teesisan teesson hin qabdu (killee)
5• Guyyaa bakka feete ooltee galgala hanxaxiin cufatti (ija)
6• Funyaan qabdii furrii hin baafattu (Baaqelaa)
7• Hojii waaqaa mukti buuphaa buuse (Jirbii)
8• Bixxilleen lamaan tabbatti hirkatte (gurra)
9• Hoolaan gurraachi abbaan koo naaf qale dhiiga hin qabu (mixii)
10• Ilmoon haadha keessaa baatee haadha dhiitti (kibriitii)
11• Funyaan qabdii hin haxxifattu (Shumburaa)
12• Qamadii garaa jalaa bokkaan hin tuqu (Harma sa’aa)
13• Bakka qottiyyoo diimaan ciise margi hin margu (ibidda)
14• Osoon kolfuun gubadhe (Akaayii/Akaawwii)
15• Loon baay’ee keessaa kormaa tokko qofa (Addeessa)
16• Shaa jettii shanbaa jettii harkaan nan tuqin jettii (Doobbii)
17• Ilkaan hin qabduu dheedhii nyaachuu hin dadhabdu (Hindaaqqoo)
18• Osoo boossuu kofaltii osoo haatuu mar’atti (Majii)
19• Gabaabaa qalbii dheeraa (Hindaaqqoo)
20• Dheeraa qalbii gabaabaa (Farda)
21• Mana hin qabduu nyaata hin dhabdu (Tafkii)
22• Loon hin qabduu ni elmiti (Silmii)
23• Hamma majii geessii biyya waliin geessi (Aduu)
24• Bifaan gurraattii amalaan giiftii (Eelee)
25• Hin dhiqattu hin dibattu ni bareeddi (Hiddii)
26• Ganama argee guyyaa dhabe (Fiixensa)
27• Lafarra kaattii saree fakkaatti (Sardiidoo)
28• Jiraa du’aa baatu du’aa jiraa baatu (Fardaafi kooraa)
29• Yoo bahu mana ilaalaa yoo galu ala ilaala (Gaafa re’ee)
30• Ani asin kaa’ee maaltu achirra sikaa’e (dabaaqula)
31• Ani silaalaa ati waaqa ilaalta (eegee re’ee)
32• Arraba hin qabuu daaraafi awwaara arraaba (Qilleensa)
33• Yoo nyaatu ni fayyaa yoo dhugu ni du’a (ibidda)
34• Balbala cufattee sirbiti (ittoo)
35• Sangaa gurraachi bosona keessa deema (injiraan)
36• Baala fakkaataa waaqarra kaata (Billaacha)
37• Foon diimaa mataatti baata ofii hin nyaatu namaaf hin laatu (Lukkuu kormaa)
38• Jaarsa gabaabaa bareedaa kan afaan areedaa (Boqqolloo)
39• Adii dhalaa gurraacha horsiifata diimaa guddifata (Barbaree)
40• Haati lafa dhiittii ilmoon haadha dhiitti (Mooyyee fi bolotaa)
41• Ilmoon ni deemna ni deemna jettii haati ni teenya jettii (dhagaa daakuu)
42• Gabaa hin dhaqxuu dhadhaa hin dhabdu (Boraatii)
43• Ganama hiyyeessaa galgala dureessa (Mooraa loonii)
44• Godoo gamaa balballi ishee lama (Funyaan)
45• Ani lafan si kaa’e maaltu waaqa irra si baase (Bishingaa)
46• Asuma taa’ee walitti qabe (Yaada)
47• Abbaas hin fakkaatu haadhas hin fakkaatu (Gaangee)
48• Akka ayyaana keenyaa halaala irra teenya (Harma)
49• Yoo ergan ni fagaatti yoo waaman ni dhiyaatti (Bilbila)
50• Lafee hin qabuu ija hin dhabu (Biddeena)

51• Karaarra teessee qullubbii qollaati (Gufuu)

52• Asii fiigee gunbii diige (Hantuuta)
53• Afur taatee boolla tokkotti fincoofti (Mucha sa’aa)
54• Abbaa garbee iyyaa darbe (Waraabessa)
55• Isuma tumuu isumaan qabuu (Sibiila)
56• Akaayyii ishee hin nyaatanii gaaddisa ishee hin taa’ani (Xaafii)
57• Bifaan wal fakkaatti hojiidhaan wal caalti (Kanniisa)
58• Tokko ganama jibba Tokko gagala jibba Tokko ganna jibba (kan ganama jibbu nama liqiin irra jiru, kan galgala jibbu nama niitiin qoccoltu, kan ganna jibbu nama manni dhimmisu)
59• Fuuldura mootii teessee fincoofti (Jabanaa)
60• Bisingaa gaara irraa gadi jige (Eegee sa’aa)
61• Uleen abbaan koo naaf kenne hin cabduus hin dabduus (Maqaa)
62• Ani ergaan dhaqaa ati eessa dhaqxa (Gaaddidduu)
63• Luka Afur qaba garuu laga hin cee’u (Siree/teessoo)
64• Kaballaan dhahee Albaase (Gingilchaa)
65• Ooyiruu guddaa baaqelaa facaase (Waaqaf urjii)
66• Bakka saani gurraachi ka’e adiin ciise (Daaraa)
67• Sabbata aayyoo maree mareen dadhabe (Karaa)
68• Yoo loo’u akka bofaa, yoo taa’u akka dhagaa (Dabaaqulaa)
69• Wajjumaan nyaannaa maaf huqqata (Fal’aana)
70• Abbaan gabaabaan lafa jala fiiga (Maarashaa)
71• Gamaanis gaara gamanaanis gaara keessi fardaan magaala (Marqaa)
72• Calaq calaqqisee meetii sodaachise (Bakakkaa)
73• Muree muree manarra tuule (Citaa)
74• Jabbii jabbii hootu (Furriifi quba harkaa)
75• Sangaan gaafa dalgee bookkisaa gadi darbe (Xiyyaara)
76• Qotiyyoon abbaa kiyyaa eegee qaban malee hin qottu (Maqasii)
77• Sulula qal’oo araddaa bal’oo (Qoonqoo)
78• Ejersa jigoo bo’oo kanniisaa (Numa du’e)
79• Namichi daboo kadhatee warri daboo deebi’ee, inni achumatti hafe (Reeffa)
80• Ulee awwaalarraa bareeddeef hin muratan (Obboleettii)
81• Obboleettii gabaabduu qaqqabdee hin dhungattu (irree)
82• Boollatti galti yaa shurrubbaa ishee (Xaddee)
83• Mucaan koo shaalee shaalee gara waaqaatti ol erge (Gaagura)
84• Fayyaan du’aa dhalaa du’aan fayyaa dhala (Lukkuu,buuphaa,cuucii)
85• Balluxee fi qalluxeen wal qabattee wal huute (Qacceefi muka)
86• Karaan gibee naannoo naannoo (Gundoo)
87• Fardeen laga wancii mudhii qaqallatti (Goondoo)
88• Dukkanni gumbii guute (Nuugii)
89• Bishaan Buutu xabuluq hin jettuu daggala seentu shokok hin jettu (Lilmoo)
90• Osoon kaadhuun wanta adii gatee darbe (Hancufa)
91• Shaa jedhe hin dhangala’u (Eegee fardaa)
92• Afaan banatee nama ilaala (Hubboo)
93• Ulee gantuu mataan gadi jedhe (Ookkoo)
94• Bakkalcha fakkaatti lapheerra kaatti (Amartii)
95• Ni deemaa ni deemaa hin dhaabbatu (bishaan)
96• Yoo tuqan ni boo’a (Adaamii)
97• Hiriyoonni lamaan wal fakkaatuu waliin deemu (kophee)
98• Kophaa deemtii hin sodaattu (Biiftuu)
99• Ganama luka afur, guyyaa luka lama, galgala luka sadi (Daa’ima,Dargaggeessa,Jaarsa)
100• Ija waliin dhalattee osoo hin laalin duute (Biddeena)
101• Laga bu’een ulee qajeelaa dhabe (Lafee cinaachaa)
102• Guutan hin ulfaattu (yeroo/sa’aatii)
103• Hamma fudhattu gadhiisaa deemti (Tarkaanfii miilaa)
104• Yoo haadduun murtees godaannisa hin qabu (Bishaan)
105• Kan ol-deemu tasa kan gadi hin deebifamne (umurii)
106• Gamana taa’ee gamatti waraane (ija)
107• Aayyoo baruxeen karaatti duute (Qaanqee)
108• Kittaa buufattee waajjira seentee (Muuzii)
109• Ani anuma hin nyaadhuu hin dhugu (suuraa)
110• Hinuman si dhiqa maaf daalachoofta (Qodaa bukoo)
111• Obboon bulukkoo uffatee rafe (Dibaa abiddaa)
112• Ejersa dabe falli hin deebisu (Gaafa hoolaa)
113• Mataa filattee gabaa baate (Suufii)
114• Lafa keessaa lafa abaaramaa (Boolla)
115• Re’een maraatte abdola afuufti (Buufaa tumtuu)
116• Morma qabdi mataa hin qabdu (Buqqee)
117• Hibakka bookkise dallaatti si rakkise (Bubbee)
118• Ulee qal’oo qabatee farda sadi yaabbate (Distii/Marqaa)
119• Haati nama ilaalti ilmoon nama nyaatti (Rasaasa)
120• Ganama kaatee lafa arraabdi (Hartuu)
121• Dura Diigamee booda ijaarama (kaarra loonii)
122• Abbaan eeboo dhibbaa laga keessaa sirba (Meexxii)
123• Galgala faca’u galgala dhabamu (Urjii)
124• Gaaraa gugatee daaraa uffate (Qoraan)
125• Ollaa walii ta’anii wal hin argan (Ija)
126• Kan bu’ee hin banne kan hattuun hin hanne (Beekumsa)
127• Fardeen gamaa dhuftu luugamni hin deebisu (Hoqqisaa)
128• Burqaa gaaraa balballi saddeeti (Mucha/Harma saree)
129• Muka diimaa diimate jedhanii bira hin darban (Harbuu)
130• Akka bofaa loo’aa addunyaa hundaa mo’aa (Hirriiba)
131• Tokko ni deemna jedha, Tokko ni dhaabbanna jedha, Tokko ni teenya jedha (Bishaan, Muka, Dhagaa) 132• Hiddi isaa lafa lixee ijji isaa nama fixe (Qaaraa)
133• Ninyaata hin dhugu (Daana’oo)
134• Gaara guddaa jala re’een adiin cicciiste (ilkaan)
135• Bixxilleen aayyoo jilbarratti hin cabu (Missira)
136• Mana ijaaree karaa isaa wallaale (Tuulaa midhaanii)
137• Maree sirra taa’e (Gogaa)
138• Damee qabdii hin yaabbatamtu ija qabdii hin nyaatamtu (Hiddii)

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Sidama Scholar Says It’s an Outrage Language Spoken by 40% Is Not Federal Language Yet; Proposes Making Afan Oromo the Language of Cultural Integration of Cushites in Ethiopia October 20, 2015

Posted by OromianEconomist in Uncategorized.
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???????????Dr. Wolassa Kumo, Sidama scholar

Cushitic people of East Africa

Source: Onkoloolessa/October 20, 2015 · Finfinne Tribune | Gadaa.com

Dr. Wolassa L. Kumo, a Sidama scholar, has proposed that Afan Oromo be the language of the cultural integration of Cushites in Ethiopia (by teaching it in schools throughout the regions and zones where Cushites live); he has also expressed his support for making Afan Oromo, the largest Cushitic language in the world, the Federal Language in Ethiopia. Dr. Wolassa L. Kumo wrote about the topic in September 2015 in an article entitled “Deepening Cultural Integration among the Cushitic Peoples in Ethiopia.” To quote from the article:

Introducing Afaan Oromoo as an additional language course in primary and secondary schools in Cushitic language speaking regions would not only ensure deeper cultural integration among the Cushites but also the entire country. It is an affront to our conscious that the language spoken by over 40% of the population in Ethiopia is not recognized as official and national language in the country. Adopting Afaan Oromo as a second official and national language would not only benefit the Oromo and other Cushitic peoples but the entire country. The Amhara and Tigray people would benefit by learning Afaan Oromoo and the undistorted history and culture of the Cushites. Regardless of the manner in which the Cushites learned the Amharic language, the knowledge of the Amharic language and the Amhara culture is beneficial to the Cushitic peoples.

History of human societies has shown that it is impossible to unite a country by a barrel of gun forever. That is why empires crumbled throughout human history. Nonetheless, it is possible to unite a country through the will of the people who live in it. That will can only be there when there is a level playing field for everyone to take part in the building of a particular territory. Today, in Africa, we have dozens of countries where more than two official and national languages have been adopted. In South Africa, all eleven languages in the country are official languages. Did South Africa disintegrate because it adopted eleven official languages? Far from it. One of the most celebrated achievements of South Africa’s democracy is the adoption of all the languages in the country as official languages. A country of eighty ethnic groups can learn a lesson or two from South Africa and many other African countries.

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