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Oromia: Untwist the Twisted History December 28, 2014

Posted by OromianEconomist in Africa, Development, Gadaa System, Humanity and Social Civilization, Ideas, Language and Development, Oromia, Oromo, Oromo Identity, Oromo Nation, Oromo Social System, Qubee Afaan Oromo, Sirna Gadaa, The Oromo Governance System, The Oromo Library, Theory of Development, Wisdom.
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Sof Omer Bale

Sof  Umar Wall, Bale Oromia (Ancient and magnificent past and present)

 

Oromo women necklaces1

Oromo women necklaces2

Parts of ancient kemetic (Kushitic), Egyptian, material culture (fashion accessories), courtesy of British Museum sources

Traditionally, Oromo women wear necklaces with telsum amulets, triangular and crescent shaped pendants protect from the evil eye and attract the power of the moon or to improve fertility.

PhotoPhoto

Farming in past and present Oromo (Oromia, modern kemet)Farming in ancient kemetic (Ancient Egypt)

Oromia: The continuity of farming in Oromo society from ancient Kemetic (Kushitic) to present Oromia

Ancient Oromo culture, Irreechaa from the time before the  Pyramid

 

As some indeed suspect, that the science which we see at the dawn of recorded history, was not science at its dawn, but represents the remnants of the science of some great and as yet untraced civilisation. Where, however, is the seat of that civilisation to be located? (J. W. S. Sewell, 1942)

Conquest and dominations are social phenomenon as are dying elsewhere will die in Oromia (Author’s Remark).

 

JEL: O5, D2

Oromia: Untwist the Twisted History

The topic is about Oromia’s location   in space and allocation in humanity and society.  It is concerned with Oromia’s physical position in terms of geography and relational to issues of economic conditions, social justices, cultural values, political history and destiny. Civilisation, Colonisation and Underdevelopment are presented in historical and geo-political perspectives.  They capture both the space and time perceptions. They are also representing the economic and social conditions and positions. The portrayal we procure the present of the Oromo nation, the core of the Cush (Cushite/ Kemet)/Ham (Hamite), the children of Noah, in North & East Africa in past age from the phantom of the Solomonic dynasty, the history thought in Abyssinian high schools, their text books and elsewhere in the invaders’ literature, abusive literary and oral discourses is that they   were savages and that, though Abyssinians and Europeans overrun their lands and have made mere subjects of them, they have been in a way, bestowing  a great  favour on them, since they have  brought  to them the benisons of Christian Enlightenment. With objective analysis, however, this paper obliterates and unmakes that inaccurate illustration, wanton falsifications, immorality, intellectual swindle, sham, mischievous tales, the bent and the parable of human reductionism. Hence, it is the step to delineate an authentic portrait of a human heritage, which is infinitely rich, beautiful, colourful, and varied in the retrograde of orthodox misconceptions.  The paper is not only a disinclination itself but also a call for and a provocation of the new generation of historians to critically scrutinise and reinvestigate the orthodox approaches to the Oromo history and then to expose a large number of abusive scholarship authorities on the Oromo and Cushitic studies and it detects that they do not really know the intensity and profoundness of the history of these black African people and nations and the performance these Africans registered in the process of creating, making and shaping  the prime civilisations of  human societies. The study acknowledges and advances a strict contest to an orthodox scholarship’s rendition of Egypt as a white civilisation, which arose during the nineteenth century to fortify and intensify European imperialism and racism. Depending on massive evidences from concerned intellectual works from linguistic to archaeology, from history to philosophy, the study authenticates that   Egypt was a Cushitic civilisation and that Cushite civilisation was the authentic offspring of the splendid Upper Nile/ Oromian legacy. The Greek civilisation, which has been long unveiled as the birthplace of Western philosophy and thought, owes its roots to the Cushites thoughts and achievements.  The original works of Asfaw Beyene (1992) and F. Demie (in Oromia Quarterly, 1998 & 2000) are giving motivations and also greatly acknowledged. The study also expresses that radical thinkers and multi-genius African historians such as Diop (1991) have not given due attention to the epic centre of Cushitic civilisation, Oromia, the land after and Eastern and South Eastern to Nubia, pre-Aksum central Cush, Aksumite Cush and Cushites civilisation southern to Aksum, etc. The method of enquiry is qualitative and the eclectics of formal and the informal sources, rigorous, casual and careful scholarship argument. Oral history and written documents on history, economy, sociology, archaeology, geography, cosmology and anthropology are based on as references. The paper studies the Oromo history and civilisation in horizontal approach and challenges the reductionist and Ethiopianist (colonialist, racist) vertical approach (topsy-turvy, cookkoo). It goes beyond the Oromo Oral sources (burqaa mit-katabbii) and Africanist recorded studies and western civilisational studies. The approach is to magnify, illuminate and clarify the originality of humanity and civilisation to this magnificent Cushitic (African) beauty. The Origin of Humanity When and where did human life first surface on our cosmos? Who contrived the original and prime human culture and civilisation? Ancient Egyptians contended that it was in their homeland, the oldest in the world, the God modelled the first of all human beings out of a handful of ooze soddened by the vivacity of the life giving sanctified and blessed water, the Nile  (see, Jackson, 1995). “The ancient Egyptians called the river Ar or Aur (Coptic: Iaro), “Black,” in allusion to the colour of the sediments carried by the river when it is in flood. Nile mud is black enough to have given the land itself its oldest name, Kem or Kemi, which also means “black” and signifies darkness. In The Odyssey, the epic poem written by the Greek poet Homer (7th century bce), Aigyptos is the name of the Nile (masculine) as well as the country of Egypt (feminine) through which it flows. The Nile in Egypt and Sudan is now called Al-Nīl, Al-Baḥr, and Baḥr Al-Nīl or Nahr Al-Nīl.”http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/415347/Nile-River Ar or Aur (Coptic: Iaro)  is Booruu in modern Afaan Oromo which means turbid in English translations. Lagdi Nayili jedhamee amma waamamu maqaan kun kan akkanatti moggaasameefi, bowwaa jechuudha. Warri kushii, warri biyyaa, waarri durii laga isaanii Aur (Ooruu) jedhanii waamu. Afaan Oromoo amma uni dubbannuutti booruu jechuudha. Booruu (turbid) jechuuni gurri’aacha (Kami) jechuu miti. Booruu (Ooruu, Aur) jechuun kan taliila hin taane kan hin calaliini jechuudha. Dameen laga kanaa kan Moromor (dhidheessa) irraa maddu galaana biroo itti burqan dabalatee biyyoo loolan haramaniin waan booraweef. kaartumitti yoo damee isa (isa taliila) garba Viktooriyaati karaa Ugaanda dhufutti makamu kanasi booressee misiriitti godaana. Dameen Garba Viktooriyaati dhufu iyyuu adii (white) jedhamee mogga’uuni irra hin turre. Bishaani adiini hin jiru. Bishaani hin boora’iini bishaan taliila. Bishaani taliilatu bishaan guri’aacha. Inni ‘Blue’ jedhanisi ‘Blue’ mitti. Bishaan taliilatu, gurri’aacha ‘Blue’ dha. ‘Blue Nile’ jechuu irra ‘Brown’ Nile (Mormor Booruu, Ar, Aur) yoo jedhani ille itti dhiyaata.

The word (Africa) Afrika itself  derived from kemetic (Oromo) language. In Oromo, one of the ancient black people (kemet), Afur means four. Ka (Qa, Waqa) means god. Afrika Means the four children of god. It describes the four sub groups of kemet people. Such type of naming system is very common in Oromo even today  such as Afran Qallo, Shanan Gibee, Salgan Boorana, Macca Shan, Jimma Afur, Sadan Soddoo, etc. For other theories in this topic please refer to   http://atlantablackstar.com/2014/09/23/9-theories-africa-got-name/

One of the oldest Cushites histories to account for the origin and early development of man and his culture survives in a Greek version of the thesis advanced by the ancient Cushites, Oromians and the rest. This marvellous people paraded in golden times in the region called Kush (Punt) in the Hebrew Scriptures and stamped on the present-day upper Nile Oromia (see, Jackson, 1995). Diodorus Siculus, wrote that the Cushites were of the opinion that their country was not only the birthplace of human race and the cradle land of the world’s earliest civilisation, but, indeed, the primal Eden where living things first appeared on Earth, as reported by the Scriptures. Thus, Diodorus was the first European to focus attention on the Cushites asseveration that Upper Nile (Oromia) is the cradle land of world’s earliest civilisation, the original Eden of the human race. Whether by almighty (God) or nature/ evolution (Darwin’s natural selection and survival of the fittest), Oromia was not only the birth place of man himself (e.g., Lucy) but also for many hundred years thereafter is in the vanguard of all world progress (see Diop, 1991 in his African Civilisation; Martin Bernal, 1987). These are also authenticated by the present archaeological inferences in Oromo tropical fields and rivers valleys. The original natives of Egypt, both in old and in the latter ages of development, were Cushite and there is every raison d’être for the discourse that the earliest settlers came from upper Nile Oromia. The original homeland of the Oromians and other Cushites including Chadic, Berber, Egyptian, Beja, Central Cushitic, East Cushitic, South Cushitic, Omotic and Nilotic was the present day upper Nile Oromia. It was from the original Oromo (Madda Walaabu) that the rest of humanity descended diffused to other parts of the world.  This can be understood in the analogue of the diffusion of two Oromo families (Borana and Barentuma). While those who expanded to other regions latter taken new family names like Macha, Tulama, Karayyu, etc and those who stayed in original place kept the original name such as Borana. In terms of linguistic, like most scholars, we believe that it is impossible to judge between the theories of monogenesis and polygenesis for human, though the inclination is towards the former.  On the other hand, recent work by a small but increasing number of scholars has convinced us that there is a genetic relationship between European, Asian, and African and Cushite languages. A language family originates from a single dialect, proto Cushitic/ Oromo. From such language and culture that must have broken up into Africa, Asiatic, and European and within them a very long time a go. Professor Bernal (1987, in Black Athena, p. 11) confirmed that the unchallenged originality of Oromians and other Cushites nativity to the region and put forward that the latest possibility for initial language break up would be the Mousterian period, 50- 30,000 years Before the Present (BP), however, it may well have much earlier. He further observed that the expansion and proliferation of Cushitic and other Afroasiatic as the promulgation of a culture long pioneered in the East African Rift valley (South Eastern Oromian) at the end of the last Ice Age in the 10th and 9th millennia BC. According to Bernal (1987, p.11) the polar ice caps caged the water within itself, which was during the Ice ages, thus water was significantly less than it is nowadays. He reports that the Sahara and Arabian deserts were even bigger and more inhospitable then than they are presently. In the centuries that ensued, with the rise of heat and increase in the rainfall, greatly the regions became savannah, into which adjoining peoples voyaged. The most successful of these were, the speakers of Proto-Afroasiatic from upper Nile Oromia.  Bernal further confirmed that these people not only possessed flourishing and effective   skills and techniques of hippopotamus hunting with harpoons but also had domesticated cattle and food crops. The following is quoted from Black Athena: ‘Going through the savannah, the Chadic speakers renched lake Chad, the Berbers, the Maghreb, and the Proto-Egyptians, upper Egypt…. With long-term desiccation of the Sahara during the 7th and 6th millennia BC, there were movements into the Egyptian Nile Valley from the west and east as well as from the Sudan. … A similar migration took place from the Arabian savannah into lower Mesopotamia ‘(Bernal, pp.11-12).

The Origin of Civilisation

There are many things in the manners and   customs and religions of the historic Egyptians that suggest that the original home of their human ancestors was in the Upper Nile region and the biblical land of Punt/ Kush (Cush) Or Oromia which include the present day of Cushitic North and East of Africa. Hence, historical records showed that the antiquity of   upper Nile Cushitic Oromian civilisation had a direct link with the civilisation of ancient Egypt, Babylonian and Greece. Hence, the Egyptian and Babylonian civilisations are part and parcel of the entire Cushite civilisation. As it is described above, there is wide understanding that Cushites = Egyptians + Babylon + Oromo+ Agau + Somalis + Afars + Sidama + Neolithic Cush + other Cush. There is also an understanding that all the Cushites are branched out (descended) from their original father Oromo which can be described as Oromo = Noah=Ham= Cush= Egyptian + Bablyon+ Agau + Somali + Afar + Sidama + Neolithic Cush + other Cush. Boran and Barentuma, the two senior children and brothers were not the only children of the Oromo. Sidama, Somali, Agau, Afar and the others were children of the big family. Wolayita and the Nilotics were among the extended family and generations of the Cushite. As a hydro-tower of Africa, the present Oromia is naturally gifted and the source of Great African rivers and hosts the bank and valleys of the greatest and oldest civilisations such as Nile (Abbaya), Baro (Sobat), Gibe, Wabe, Dhidhesa, Ganale, Wabi-shebele, Omo, and Awash among others. Oromian tropical land, equatorial forest and Savannah have been the most hospitable ecology on the earth and conducive environment to life and all forms of human economic and social practices. According to Clarke (1995), many of the leading antiquarians of the time, based largely on the strength of what the classical authors, particularly Diodorus Siculus and Stephanus of Nabatea (Byzantium after Roman colonisation and Christianisation), had to say on the matter, were exponents of the vista that the Cushite, the ancient race in Africa, the Near East and the Middle East, or at any rate, the black people of remote antiquity were the earliest of all civilised peoples and that the first civilised inhabitants of ancient Egypt were members of what is referred to as  the black,  Cushite race who had  entered the land as they expanded in  their geographical space from the their birthplace in upper Nile Oromia, the surrounding Cushite river valleys and tropical fields. It was among these ancient people of Africa and Asia that classical technology advanced, old world science and cosmology originated, international trade and commerce was first developed, which was the by-product of   international contacts, exchange of ideas and cultural practices that laid the foundations of the prime civilisations of the ancient world. Cushite  Africa and also of the Middle East and West Asia was the key and most responsible to ancient civilisations and African history. It must also be known that there were no such geographical names, demarcations and continental classification at that time.  As a whole, Cushite occupied this region; there was the kernel and the centre of the globe, the planet earth, and the universe. African history is out of stratum until ancient Cushites looked up on as a distinct African/ Asian nations.  The Nile river, it tributes, Awash, Baro and Shebele or Juba, etc., played a major role in the relationship of Cushite to the nations in North, South and East Africa. The outer land Savannah, Nile, other Oromian rivers with it Adenian ecology were great cultural highways on which elements of civilisation came into and out of inner North East Africa. After expansions, there was also an offshoot, a graft, differentiation, branching out, internal separation, semi-independence and again interactions, interdependence and co-existence of the common folks.  Cushites from the original home made their relationships with the people of their descendants in the South, the North, East and the West, which was as both good, and bad, depending on the period and the regime in power they formed and put in place in the autonomous regions. Cushite Egypt first became an organised autonomous nation in about 6000 B.C. In the Third Dynasty (5345-5307 B.C.) when Egypt had an earnest pharaoh named Zoser and Zoser, in turn, had for his chief counsellor and minister, an effulgent grand named Imhotep (whose name means ‘he who cometh in peace”). Imhotep constructed the famous step pyramid of Sakkarah near Memphis. The building techniques used in the facilitation of this pyramid revolutionised the architecture of the ancient world (Clarke, 1995). Of course, Independent Egypt was not the original home of these ancient technology. However, it was an extension, expansion, advancement and the technological cycle of the Upper Nile Oromia, Nubia, Beja, Agau and other Cushites.  Ideas, systems, technologies and products were invented, tested and proved in upper Nile then expanded and adopted elsewhere in the entire Cush regions and beyond. . Bernal (1987, pp. 14-15) has identified strict cultural and linguistic similarities among all the people around   the Mediterranean. He further attests that it was south of the Mediterranean and west to the Red Sea’s classical civilisation that give way to the respective north and east. Cushite African agriculture of the upper Nile expanded in the 9th and 8th century millennia BC and pioneering the 8th and 7th of the Indo-Hittite. Egyptian civilisation is Cushite and is clearly based on the rich pre-dynastic cultures of Upper Egypt, Nubia and upper Nile, whose Cushite African and Oromian origin is uncontested and obvious. Of course, Cushite Egypt gave the world some of the greatest personalities in the history of mankind. In this regard, Imhotep was extraordinary discernible. In ancient history of Egypt, no individual left a downright and deeper indentation than Imhotep. He was possibly the world’s first mult-genuis.  He was the real originator of new medicine at the time.  He revolutionised an architect of the stone building, after which the Pyramids were modelled. He became a deity and later a universal God of Medicine, whose images charmed the Temple of Imhotep, humanity’s earliest hospital. To it came sufferers from the entire world for prayer, peace, and restorative. Imhotep lived and established his eminence as a curative at the court of King Zoser of the Third Dynasty about 5345-5307 B.C. (Duncan, 1932). When the Cushite civilisation through Egypt afar crossed the Mediterranean to become the foundation of what we think of as Greek culture, the teachings of Imhotep were absorbed along with the axioms of other great Cushite African teachers.  When Greek civilisation became consequential in the Mediterranean area, the Greeks coveted the world to ponder they were the originators of everything in its totality. They terminated to acknowledge   their liability to Imhotep and other great Cushites. Imhotep was forgotten for thousands of years, and Hippocrates, a mythical posture of two thousand years latter, became known as the father of medicine. Regarding to Imhotep’s influence in Rome, Gerald Massey, noted poet, archaeologist, and philologist, says that the early Christians cherished him as one with Christ (Massey, 1907). It should be understood that, while the achievements of Cushite Egypt were one of the best, these are not the only achievements that Cushite Africans can claim. The Nubians, upper Nile, central and eastern Cushites (the Oromo, Agau, Somalia, Afar, etc) were continue to develop many aspects of civilisation independent of Cushite Egyptian interactions.  These nations and states gave as much to Egypt as Egypt give to them in terms of trade, ideas and technology as well. There was also a considerable Cushite dominion on what later became Europe in the period preceding Christian era. Cushites played a major role in formative development of both Christianity and Islam. Both the Holly Bible and the Holly Quran moral texts are originated from the Oromo and other Cushite oral and moral principles, beliefs, creeds and teachings. There is a common believe and understanding that Abraham, a seminal prophet, believer and recipient of a single and eternal God was from Central Cush of present Upper Nile Oromia.  The Oromos believed in a single and eternal God, Black God (Waaqa Guri’acha) also Blue God according to some scholars who translated the oral history.  Waaqa also Ka. While the Oromian faith, social structure and policies were the prime and the origins of all, Judaism, Christianity, and Islam were all the derivatives and originated from the Black God. Waaqayyoo in Oromo is the original, the single, the omnipotent, the prime and the greatest of all the great religions. All aspects of the present day Christian churches were developed in Cushites. One of the more notable of Cushite contributions to the early church was monasticism. Monasticism, in essence, is organised life in common, especially for religious purposes. The home of a monastic society is called a monastery or a convent.  Christian monasticism probably began with the hermits of Cushite Egypt and Palestine about the time when Christianity was established as a licit religion (Clarke, 1995). Oral tradition and Arabian records confirm that Bilal, a tall, gaunt, black, bushy-haired, Oromo, was the first High Priest and treasurer of the Mohammedan empire.  After Mohamet himself, the great religion, which today numbers upwards of half a billion souls, may be said to have began with Bilal.  He was honoured to be the Prophet’s first neophyte. Bilal was one of the many Cushites who concurred in the founding of Islam and later made proud names for themselves in the Islamic nations and expansions. Europe was sluggishing in her Dark Ages at a time when Cushite Africa and Asia were relishing a Golden Age.  In this non-European world of Africa and Asian, Cushites built and enjoyed an age of advancement in technology before a period of internal withdrawal and isolation that favoured the Europeans to move a head of them. For more than a thousand years the Cushites were in the ‘Age of Grandeur’ but the second rise of Europe, internal strife, slave trade and colonialism brought the age of catastrophic tragedy, abase and declivity. The early Cushites made spears to hunt with, stone knives to cut with, the bola, with which to catch birds and animals, the blow-gun, the hammer, the stone axe, canoes and paddles, bags and buckets, poles for carrying things, bows and arrows. The bola, stone knives, paddles, spears, harpoons, bows and arrows, bow-guns, the hammer and the axe- all of them invented first by Cushites – were the start of man’s use of power. The present’s cannon, long-range missiles, ship propellers, automatic hammers, gas engines, and even meat cleavers and upholstery tack hammers have the roots of their development in the early Cushite use of (Clarke, 1995). Cushite offered humans the earliest machine. It was the fire stick. With it, man could have fire any time.  With it, a campfire could be set up almost any place.  With it, the early Africans could roast food. Every time we light a match, every time we take a bath in water heated by gas, every time we cook a meal in a gas-heated oven, our use of fire simply continues a process started by early Cushites: the control of fire. Of course, those early Cushite was the first to invent how to make a thatched hut. They had to be the first because for hundreds of thousand of years they were the only people on earth. They discovered coarse basket making and weaving and how to make a watertight pot of clay hardened in a fire. In the cold weather, they found that the skins of   beasts they had killed would keep them warm. They even skin covers for their feet. It was from their first effort much later clothing and shoes developed.  Humanity owes the early Cushites much and even much more (Clarke, 1995). The Cushites dociled animals.  They used digging sticks to obtain plant roots that could be consumed. They discovered grain as a food, how to store it and prepare it.  They learnt about the fermentation of certain foods and liquids left in containers. Thus, all mankind owes to Cushites including the dog that gives companionship and protection, the cereals we eat at break-fast-time, the fermented liquids that many people drink, the woven articles of clothing we wear and the blankets that keep us warm at night, the pottery in which we bake or boil food, and even the very process  (now so simple) of boiling water- a process we use every time we boil an egg, or make spaghetti, or cook corned beef. Canoes made it possible for man to travel further and farther from his early home. Over many centuries, canoes went down Baro, the Nile and the Congo and up many smaller rivers and streams. It was in this pattern that the early   Cushite civilisation was advanced. From the blowgun of antiquated Cushite, there come next, in later ages, many gadget based on its standard. Some of these are: the bellows, bamboo air pumps, the rifle, the pistol, the revolver, the automatic, the machine gun- and even those industrial guns that puff grains.  Modern Scientists certain that by about 3000 B.C., the Cushite farmers in the Nile Valley were growing wheat and barely, cultivating millet, sorghum, and yams.  Around 1500 B.C.  new crops farming were developed: – banana, sugar cane, and coconut trees and later coffee.   The cultivation of bananas and coffees in particular spread rapidly which are suited to tropical forest conditions. Cushites had also domesticated pigs, donkeys, horses, chickens, ducks, and geese, etc.  (Greenblatt, 1992). The agricultural revolution brought about a gradual increase in population. Then another development helped expand population still more. The technique of smelting iron innovated by Cushites. Iron working start and then advanced in the Nile valley and then started to spread to other parts of Africa and from who, by way of Egypt and Asian Minor, this art made its way into Europe and the rest of Old World. Iron greatly improved the efficiency of tools and weapons. Iron tools and weapons are much stronger and last longer than those made of stone or wood. Iron axes made it easier to chop tropical trees and clear land for farming. Iron sickles made harvest easier. Iron hoes and other farm tools helped farmers cultivate land more easily. Iron-tipped spears meant more meat. The new technologies boosted the Cushite economy; they increased food production that enabled more people to survive. In addition, iron objects became valuable items in Cushite trade and commercial activities. With his simple bellows and a charcoal fire the Cushite blacksmith reduced the ore that is found in many parts of the region and forged implements of great usefulness and beauty. In general, the Iron technology was instrumental in auguring the rise and expansion of Cushite civilisation (Greenblatt, 1992). Cushite hunters many times cut up game.  There still exists for evidences, drawings of animal bones, hearts and other organs. Those early drawings as a part of man’s early beginnings in the field of Anatomy. The family, the clan, the tribe, the nation, the kingdom, the state, humanity and charity all developed first in this region of the cradle of mankind. The family relationships, which we have today, were fully developed and understood then.  The clan and the tribe gave group unity and strength. The nation, the common whole was first developed here. It was by this people that early religious life, beliefs, and the belief in one God, the almighty started and expanded. The first formal education of arts, science, astronomy, times and numbers (mathematics) were visual, oral and spoken tradition given in the family, during social and religious ceremonies. Parents, Medicine men, religious leaders, etc were the education heads.  Ceremonial Cushite ritual dances laid the basis for many later forms of the dance. Music existed in early Cushite Among instruments used were: reed pipes, single-stringed instruments, drum, goured rattles, blocks of wood and hollow logs. Many very good Cushite artists brought paintings and sculpture into the common culture.  The early Cushites made a careful study of animal life and plant life.  From knowledge of animals, mankind was able to take a long step forward to cattle rising. From the knowledge of plants and how they propagate, it was possible to take a still longer step forward to agriculture. Today, science has ways of dating events of long a go. The new methods indicate that mankind has lived in Cushite Africa over two million years. In that long, long time, Cushites and people of their descent settled in other parts of Africa and the rest. Direct descents of early Cushites went Asia Minor, Arabia, India, China, Japan and East Indies. Cushites and people of Cushite descents went to Turkey, Palestine, Greece and other countries in Europe. From Gibraltar, they went into Spain, Portugal, France, England, Wales and Ireland (Clarke, 1995). Considering this information, the pre-Colombian presence of Cushite African mariners and merchants in the New World is highly conceivable and somewhat sounds. In this context, the first Africans to be brought to the New World were not in servitude and slavery, which contrary to popular creed. Tormenting references in the Spanish chronicles and other growing body of historical studies advocate that Cushites were the founders, the pioneers and first permanent settlers of   America. Commanding authentication as in Bennett (1993, p. 85) cited by Leo Veiner in his work Africa and the discovery of America suggests that African traders founded Mexico long before Columbus. Hence, the Africans influences were extended from Canada in the North to the Maya, Aztec, and Inca civilisation in the South America. The Cushite civilisation is therefore the basis of Indian civilisation. Unlike the western Sudan and in Egypt, the people and nations of upper Nile had lost written records of their ancient times and medieval history. These were destroyed and burned during war of conquests. The early travellers to these areas are also mostly not yet known. Notable kingdoms, republics and states did rise in this part of Africa and did achieve a high degree of civilisation of their time.  Scholarly undertakings show that Cushite Africans such as Oromos were the first in human history to invent and implement democratic institutions (e.g. Gada system  or Gadaa system), democratic forms of government, elections and unwritten constitution. Democracy was first invented in upper Nile Oromia then to Athens, Greek and to the rest. It was not the other way round. Gada, an accomplishment of Oromian social genius in socio-political organisation is one of the most complex, the world wonder   and by far superior to so far other humanity’s social and political imagination and civilisation. Gada in its vector of values constitutes, political institution, the power structure, governing constitution, the ideology, the religion, the moral authority, the economic and the whole way of life of the public, the collective, the social and the private individual.  Gada is the social civilization of the Oromo in the Nile civilization. Gada is an atonishing and complex social evolution in human social transformation and an Oromo social perfection. In old Egyptian (Cushite, oromo) dialect it means Ka Adaa. Ka means God. Adaa (law). It means the law of  God, the law of  waaqa (God). It also symbolizes the dawn of not only civilization  but also human freedom as civilazation. ‘Gadaa bilisummaa saaqaa.’ Orthodox historians and some archaeologists believe that the civilisation of Egypt is the oldest in the world, while others give that priority to western Asia or India.  It has also been suggested that, since all these cultures possess certain points of similarity, all of them may evolve from an older common civilisation. Men of eminent scholarship have acknowledged this possibility. In this regard, Sir E.A. Wallis Budge  (1934) indicated: “It would be wrong to say that the Egyptians borrowed from the Sumerians or Sumerians from Egyptians, but it may be submitted that the literati of both peoples borrowed their theological systems from common but exceedingly ancient source… This similarity between the two companies of gods is too close to being accidental.” A pioneer American Egyptologist, Breasted (1936) advanced the following views: “In both Babylonian and Egypt the convenient and basic number  (360), of fundamental importance in the division of the circle, and therefore in geography, astronomy and time-measurement, had its origin in the number of days in the year in the earliest known form of the calendar. While its use seems to be older in Egypt than in Babylonian, there is no way to determine with certainty that we owe it exclusively to either of these two countries.  A common origin older than either of is possible.” Sewell (1942) said that the science, which we see at the dawn of recorded history, was not science at its dawn, but represents the remnants of the science of some great and as yet untraced civilisation. Where, however, is the seat of that civilisation to be located?” A number of scholars, both ancient and modern, have come to the conclusion that the world’s first civilisation was created by the people known as Cushite (Oromian) and also known by Greeks as Punt (Burnt Faces). The Greeks argued that these people developed their dark colouration since they were adjacent to the sun than were the fairer natives of Europe. In terms of the sources of well-informed modern authority, Herodotus describes the Cushites as in Lugard (1964) as: “ The tallest, most beautiful and long-lived of the human races,’ and before Herodotus, Homer, in even more flattering language, described them as  ‘ the most just of men; the favourites of gods.’ The annals of all the great early nations of Asia Minor are full of them. The Mosaic records allude to them frequently; but while they are described as the most powerful, the most just, and the most beautiful of the human race, they are constantly spoken of as black, and there seems to be no other conclusion to be drawn, than that remote period of history the leading race of the western world was the black race.” Alexander Bulatovich (2000, p.53) of Russia in his 1896-1898 travels in Oromia described the Oromo, which is akin to Herodotus’s description as fallows: “The [Oromo] physical type is very beautiful. The men are very tall, with statuesque, lean, with oblong face and a somewhat flattened skull. The features of the face are regular and beautiful…. The mouth is moderate. The lips are not thick. They have excellent even teeth; large and in some cases oblong eyes and curly hair. Their arm bones are of moderate length, shorter than the bones of Europeans, but longer than among the Amhara tribes. The feet are moderate and not turned in. The women are shorter than the men and very beautifully built. In general, they are stouter than the men, and not as lean as they. Among them one sometimes encounters very beautiful women. And their beauty does not fade as among the Abyssinians. The skin color of both men and women ranges from dark to light brown. I did not see any completely black [Oromo].” According to Homer and Herodotus, the Cushites were inhabited in the Sudan, Egypt, Arabia, Palestine, present Ethiopia, Western Asia and India. In his essay of historical analysis of ancient East Africa and ancient Middle East, roughly in the years between 500BC and 500AD. Jesse Benjamin (2001), brought to our attention that  the importance of research focus on global formations, multi- and bi-directional and cultural relations, geopolitical  associations, archaeology, linguistics, sociology, cosmology, production, commerce and consumption patterns of these regions.  Benjamin (2001) indicates that historiographers have acknowledged and documented that the adored spices, cinnamon (qarafaa in modern Afaan  Oromo)  and cassia of the Mediterranean sphere produced and come from ‘Cinnamon land.’ The latter is also known in different names as  ‘ The other Barbaria,’ ‘Trogodytica,’ Cush, Kush,  Upper Nile. or ‘Punt’ but persistently representing the whole environs identified nowadays as the ‘Horn of African’ or that part of Oromia. These show the presence of production, consumption and commercial interactions in the regions. In line with Miller (1969),  Wilding (1988), Benjamin (2001) included the Oromian pastoralism, pottery, cosmology and culture in the antiquity and old world civilisation. The identification of the Cushite Oromian civilisation with the present Abyssinia Amhara-Tigre under the name of Ethiopia made by the post civilisation Abyssinian priests translators of the Abyssinian version of the Bible in the 5th and 6th century or some other time, has been a cheating and misrepresentation of true human history.  Those Abyssinians who were stealing the history were relatively recent migrant (conquerors) of the region. They occupied the present day Northern Ethiopia (central Cushitic of Agau and Oromo) long after the first human civilisation already originated and advanced in the area and spread to the rest of the world including to Arabia and Mediterranean Europe. The native residents of the region are the Cushite African people (Oromo, Agau, Somali, Sidama, Afar, Beja, Saho, etc). Ethiopian Jews (Falashas) are also Cushite Oromo and Agau who accepted Jews religion. Abyssinian tribes have fabricated their own myth and false history to claim legitimacy to the region and then established a regime truth through continuos fable story, phantom, indoctrination and falsification of the real Cushite history.  Semitic immigrants did not found Aksum but the Abyssinians resettled among the Cushites cities and commercial centres in which Aksum was one and latter dominated the ruling power in this very centre of the civilisation of the central Cush. Ge’ez was invented as a language of the centre and latter used as the official language of the church and the colonising Abyssinian ruling class. Ge’ez was initially developed from the mixture of Cushitic and Greek elements that was facilitated by the Cushite trade links to the Greek world. There was also Greek resettlement in Aksum and the surrounding central Cush commercial towns with primary contacts with endogenous Cushite. The earlier rulers of Aksum and Christian converts including Ezana were Cushites.  Though Ezana was the first convert from the above (the ruling class) to Christianity, he did not give up his belief in one God (Waqa) (Cushite/ black God). He was also not the first Cushite to be a Christian. In their linkages with a wider world, it is also highly likely and very logical and possible that there were Christians among the civilian Cushite trading communities who had already disseminated their new faith, as so many Oromo merchants were to do latter in the expansion of Islam. The splendid Stella, towers of solid masonry, with non-functional doors and windows at Aksum was not the earliest materialisation but it was the continuity in the manifestation of major indigenous Cushite tradition of monumental architecture in stone, which also later found expression in the rock-hewn churches of the Cushite Agau kings (see also Isichei, 1997 for some of the opinions). Abyssinians were the rulers. They were not the engineers and the builders of the stone monuments. It was the original product and brainchild of Cushite technologist. Of course, their advancement was thwarted with the unfortunate coming of the Abyssinians. Almost all of the original studies of the origin of Cushite civilisation could not penetrate far deep into regions south east to Nubia (Mereo) and could not dig out the other side of the twin, the close link and vast primary sources in present day Oromia. Though the British Museum has collected vast sources on Nubian, it has not kept on or linked any to the sister and more or less identical to the civilisation of the Oromo. For me, as native Oromo with knowledge of oral history and culture, as I observed the Nubian collection in British Museum, what they say Nubian collection is almost identical to Oromia, but in a less variety and quantity.  I can say that Nubian and other Cushite civilisations were extensions (grafts) of the vast products of Oromo. I may also be enthused to the inference that the people whose manners and customs have been so thoroughly capitulated by Herodotus, Diodorus, Strabo Pliny and other were not Abyssinians and other Black people at all, but the natives of Upper Nile, Oromos, Agau, Somalis, Afar and the rest of Cushitic people of the present Horn of Africa. Sir Henry Rawlinson in his essay on the early History of Babylonian describes Oromos as the purest modern specimens of the Kushite. Thus, Oromo is Kush and Kush is Oromo. Seignobos (1910), in his scholarly works on the history of Ancient Civilisation reasoned that the first civilised natives of the Nile and Tigiris-Euphrates Valleys were a dark skinned people with short hair and prominent lips, they were called Cushites by some scholars and Hamites by others.  So Cushite (Hamite) is generally recognised as the original home of human civilisation and culture both beyond and across the Red Sea. They are the original source of both the African and Asiatic (Cushitic Arabian) civilisation. Higgins in 1965 scholarly undertaking discusses: “I shall, in the course of this work, produce a number of   extraordinary facts, which will be quite sufficient to prove, that a black race, in a very   early times, had more influence   of the affairs of the world than has been lately suspected; and I think I shall show, by some very striking circumstances yet existing, that the effects of this influence have not entirely passed away.” Baldwin in his 1869 study of Arab history expressed in his own words the following: “At the present time Arabia is inhabited by two distinct races, namely descendants of the old Adite, Kushite, …known under various appellations, and dwelling chiefly at the south, the east, and in the central parts of the country, but formerly supreme throughout the whole peninsula, and the Semitic Arabians- Mahomete’s race- found chiefly in the Hejaz and at the north. In some districts of the country these races are more or less mixed, and since the rise of Mahometanism the language of Semites, known as to us Arabic, has almost wholly suppressed the old  … Kushite tongue; but the two races are very unlike in many respects, and the distinction has always been recognised by writers on Arabian ethnology. To the Kushite race belongs the purest Arabian blood, and also that great and very ancient civilisation whose ruins abound in almost every district of the country.” Poole (in Haddon, 1934) says, “Assyrians themselves are shown to have been of a very pure type of Semites, but in the Babylonians there is a sign of Kushite blood.  … There is one portrait of an Elmite king on a vase found at Susa; he is painted black and thus belongs to the Kushite race.” The myths, legends, and traditions of the Sumerians point to the African Cushite as the original home of these people (see. Perry, 1923, pp. 60-61).  They were also the makers of the first great civilisation in the Indus valley. Hincks, Oppert, unearthed the first Sumerian remains and Rawlinson called these people Kushites. Rawlinson in his essay on the early history of Babylonian presents that without pretending to trace up these early Babylonians to their original ethnic sources, there are certainly strong reasons for supposing them to have passed from Cushite Africa to the valley of the Euphrates shortly before the opening of the historic period:  He is based on the following strong points: The system of writing, which they brought up with them, has the closest semblance with that of Egypt; in many cases in deed the two alphabets are absolutely identical. In the Biblical genealogies, while Kush and Mizrain  (Egypt) are brothers, from Kush Nimrod (Babylonian) sprang. With respect to the language of ancient Babylonians, the vocabulary is absolutely Kushite, belonging to that stock of tongues, which in postscript were everywhere more or less, mixed up with Semitic languages, but of which we have with doubtless the purest existing specimens in the Mahra of Southern Arabia and the Oromo.

kemetic alphabet (Qubee)

qubee durii fi ammaa

The Greek alphabet, the script of English today, is based on the Kemetic alphabet of Ancient Egypt/Kemet and the Upper Nile Valley of Ancient Africa. Ancient Egyptians called their words MDW NTR, or ‘Metu Neter,” which means divine speech. The Greeks called it, ‘hieroglyphics”- a Greek word. The etymology of hieroglyphics is sacred (hieros) carvings (glyph). The Oromos (the Kemet of modern age) called it Qubee.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zMUazEr3BSU&NR=1

Without OROMO, NO Amhara Culture & NO Amharic! – My Beta Israel & Zagwe Roots pt1 Ras Iadonis

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9gLJnxgXs0Q&feature=share

http://gadaa.com/oduu/11117/2011/09/28/gubaa-%e2%80%93-the-oromo-thanksgiving-bonfire/#.ToQw3A0t84E.facebook

http://gadaa.com/oduu/797/2009/09/30/ethiopia-the-story-of-oromos-irreechaa-happy-thanksgiving/

http://www.creative8studios.com/oromia/

http://bilisummaa.com/index.php?mod=article&cat=Waaqeeyfataa&article=446

http://www.africa.kyoto-u.ac.jp/kiroku/asm_normal/abstracts/pdf/25-3/25-3-1.pdf

http://www.americanchronicle.com/articles/view/166451

http://www.gadaa.com/culture.html

http://www.gadaa.com/Irreechaa.html http://waaqeffannaa.org/?page_id=167

http://gadaa.com/oduu/10920/2011/09/10/irreechaa-a-thanksgiving-day-in-oromia-cushitic-ethiopia-and-africa/

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/West_Central_Oromo_language http://www.gadaa.com/language.html

http://www.voicefinfinne.org/English/Column/Galma_EOC.htm

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hamitic#Rwanda_and_Burundii

http://www.stumbleupon.com/su/1TM1ye/listverse.com/2008/08/29/15-fascinating-facts-about-ancient-egypt/

https://encrypted.google.com/search?q=old+egyptian+language&hl=en&sa=X&rls=com.microsoft:en-gb:IE-Address&rlz=1I7TSEA_en-GBGB333&tbm=isch&tbs=simg:CAESEgliBpRYQ9V-mSHFuQO6grmBWQ&iact=hc&vpx=662&vpy=231&dur=16406&hovh=128&hovw=216&tx=43&ty=214&ei=tnRJTsLpLIqXhQeyi7HCBg&page=9&tbnh=128&tbnw=186&ved=1t:722,r:10,s:166&biw=1280&bih=599

http://oromocentre.org/oromian-story/special-report-on-the-long-history-of-north-east-africa/

African Philosophy in Ethiopia. Ethiopian Philosophical Studies II with A Memorial of Claude Sumner http://www.crvp.org/book/Series02/master-ethiopia.pdf

http://thetemplesofluxorandkarnak.wordpress.com/category/africa/

https://www.facebook.com/notes/abdi-muleta/the-story-of-irreechaa/257191284319586

CHALTU AS HELEN: AN EVERYDAY STORY OF OROMOS TRAUMATIC IDENTITY CHANGE

http://oromoland.wordpress.com/2013/10/20/chaltu-as-helen-an-everyday-story-of-oromos-traumatic-identity-change/

http://www.opride.com/oromsis/news/horn-of-africa/3718-chaltu-as-helen-an-everyday-story-of-oromos-traumatic-identity-change

“Chaltu as Helen”, which is based on a novelized story of Chaltu Midhaksa, a young Oromo girl from Ada’aa Barga district, also in central Oromia.

Born to a farming family in Koftu, a small village south of Addis Ababa near Akaki, Chaltu led an exuberant childhood. Raised by her grandmother’s sister Gode, a traditional storyteller who lived over 100 years, the impressionable Chaltu mastered the history and tradition of Tulama Oromos at a very young age.

Chaltu’s captivating and fairytale like story, as retold by Tesfaye, begins when she was awarded a horse named Gurraacha as a prize for winning a Tulama history contest. Though she maybe the first and only female contestant, Chaltu won the competition by resoundingly answering eleven of the twelve questions she was asked.

Guraacha, her pride and constant companion, became Chaltu’s best friend and she took a good care of him. Gurraacha was a strong horse; his jumps were high, and Chaltu understood his pace and style.

A masterful rider and an envy to even her male contemporaries, Chaltu soon distinguished herself as bold, confident, outspoken, assertive, and courageous. For this, she quickly became a household name among the Oromo from Wajitu to Walmara, Sera to Dawara, Bacho to Cuqala, and Dire to Gimbichu, according to Tesfaye.

Chaltu traces her lineage to the Galan, one of the six clans of Tulama Oromo tribe. At the height of her fame, admirers – young and old – addressed her out of respect as “Caaltuu Warra Galaan!” – Chaltu of the Galan, and “Caaltuu Haadha Gurraacha!” – Chaltu the mother of Gurraacha.

Chaltu’s disarming beauty, elegance, charisma, and intelligence coupled with her witty personality added to her popularity. Chaltu’s tattoos from her chin to her chest, easily noticeable from her light skin, made her look like of a “Red Indian descent” (Tesfaye’s words).

As per Tesfaye’s account, there wasn’t a parent among the well-to-do Oromos of the area who did not wish Chaltu betrothed to their son. At 14, Chaltu escaped a bride-kidnapping attempt by outracing her abductors.

Chaltu’s grandfather Banti Daamo, a well-known warrior and respected elder, had a big family. Growing up in Koftu, Chaltu enjoyed being surrounded by a large network of extended family, although she was the only child for her parents.

Recognizing Chaltu’s potential, her relatives suggested that she goes to school, which was not available in the area at the time. However, fearing that she would be abducted, Chaltu’s father arranged her marriage to a man of Ada’aa family from Dire when she turned 15.

Locals likened Chaltu’s mannerism to her grandfather Banti Daamo, earning her yet another nickname as “Caaltuu warra Bantii Daamo” – Chaltu of Banti Daamo. She embraced the namesake because many saw her as an heir to Banti Daamo’s legacy, a role usually preserved for the oldest male in the family. Well-wishers blessed her: prosper like your grandparents. She embraced and proudly boasted about continuing her grandfather’s heritage calling herself Chaltu Banti Daamo.

Others began to call her Akkoo [sic] Xinnoo, drawing a comparison between Chaltu and a legendary Karrayu Oromo woman leader after whom Ankobar was named.

Chaltu’s eccentric life took on a different trajectory soon after her marriage. She could not be a good wife as the local tradition and custom demanded; she could not get along with an alcoholic husband who came home drunk and abused her.

When Chaltu threatened to dissolve the marriage, as per Oromo culture, elders intervened and advised her to tolerate and reconcile with her husband. Rebellious and nonconformist by nature, Chaltu, who’s known for challenging old biases and practices, protested “an alcoholic cannot be a husband for Banti Daamo’s daughter!”

Soon she left her husband and moved to Addis Ababa, Ethiopia’s capital, to attend formal education and start a new chapter in life.

Trouble ensues.

In Addis Ababa, her aunt Mulumebet’s family welcomed Chaltu. Like Chaltu, Mulumebet grew up in Koftu but later moved to Addis Ababa, and changed her given name from Gadise in order to ‘fit’ into the city life.

Subsequently, Mulumebet sat down with Chaltu to provide guidance and advice on urban [Amhara] ways.

“Learning the Amharic language is mandatory for your future life,” Mulumebet told Chaltu. “If you want to go to school, first you have to speak the language; in order to learn Amharic, you must stop speaking Afaan Oromo immediately; besides, your name Chaltu Midhaksa doesn’t match your beauty and elegance.”

“I wish they did not mess you up with these tattoos,” Mulumebet continued, “but there is nothing I could do about that…however, we have to give you a new name.”

Just like that, on her second day in Addis, Caaltuu warra Galaan became Helen Getachew.

Chaltu understood little of the dramatic twists in her life. She wished the conversation with her aunt were a dream. First, her name Chaltu means the better one, her tattoos beauty marks.

She quietly wondered, “what is wrong with my name and my tattoos? How can I be better off with a new name that I don’t even know what it means?”

Of course she had no answers for these perennial questions. Most of all, her new last name Getachew discomforted her. But she was given no option.

The indomitable Chaltu had a lot to learn.

A new name, new language, new family, and a whole new way of life, the way of civilized Amhara people. Chaltu mastered Amharic in a matter of weeks. Learning math was no problem either, because Chaltu grew up solving math problems through oral Oromo folktale and children’s games like Takkeen Takkitumaa.

Chaltu’s quick mastery amazed Dr. Getachew, Mulumebet’s husband. This also made her aunt proud and she decided to enroll Chaltu in an evening school. The school matched Chaltu, who’s never set foot in school, for fourth grade. In a year, she skipped a grade and was placed in sixth grade. That year Chaltu passed the national exit exam, given to all sixth graders in the country, with distinction.

But her achievements in school were clouded by a life filled with disappointments, questions, and loss of identity. Much of her troubles came from Mulumebet packaged as life advice.

“Helen darling, all our neighbors love and admire you a lot,” Mulumebet told Chaltu one Sunday morning as they made their way into the local Orthodox Church. “There is not a single person on this block who is not mesmerized by your beauty…you have a bright future ahead of you as long as you work on your Amharic and get rid of your Oromo accent…once you do that, we will find you a rich and educated husband.”

Chaltu knew Mulumebet had her best interest at heart. And as a result never questioned her counsel. But her unsolicited advises centered mostly on erasing Chaltu’s fond childhood memories and making her lose touch with Oromummaa – and essentially become an Amhara.

Chaltu spent most of her free time babysitting Mulumebet’s children, aged 6 and 8. She took care of them and the kids loved her. One day, while the parents were away, lost in her own thoughts, Chaltu repeatedly sang her favorite Atetee – Oromo women’s song of fertility – in front of the kids.

That night, to Chaltu’s wild surprise, the boys performed the song for their parents at the dinner table. Stunned by the revelation, Mulumebet went ballistic and shouted, “Are you teaching my children witchcraft?”

Mulumebet continued, “Don’t you ever dare do such a thing in this house again. I told you to forget everything you do not need. Helen, let me tell you for the last time, everything you knew from Koftu is now erased…forget it all! No Irreechaa, no Waaree, no Okolee, no Ibsaa, No Atetee, and no Wadaajaa.”

Amused by his wife’s dramatic reaction, Getachew inquired, “what does the song mean, Helen?” Chaltu told him she could not explain it in Amharic. He added, “If it is indeed about witchcraft, we do not need a devil in this house…Helen, praise Jesus and his mother, Mary, from now on.”

“Wait,” Getachew continued, “did you ever go to church when you were in Koftu? What do they teach you there?”

Chaltu acknowledged that she’s been to a church but never understood the sermons, conducted in Amharic, a language foreign to her until now. “Getachew couldn’t believe his ears,” writes Tesfaye. But Getachew maintained his cool and assured Chaltu that her mistake would be forgiven.

Chaltu knew Atetee was not a witchcraft but a women’s spiritual song of fertility and safety. All Oromo women had their own Atetee.

Now in her third year since moving to Addis, Chaltu spoke fluent Amharic. But at school, in the market, and around the neighborhood, children bullied her daily. It was as if they were all given the same course on how to disgrace, intimidate, and humiliate her.

“You would have been beautiful if your name was not Chaltu,” strangers and classmates, even those who knew her only as Helen, would tell her. Others would say to Chaltu, as if in compliment, “if you were not Geja (an Amharic for uncivilized), you would actually win a beauty pageant…they messed you up with these tattoos, damn Gallas!”

Her adopted name and mastery of Amharic did not save Chaltu from discrimination, blatant racism, hate speech, and ethnic slurs. As if the loss of self was not enough, seventh grade was painfully challenging for Chaltu. One day when the students returned from recess to their assigned classes, to her classmate’s collective amusement, there was a drawing of a girl with long tattooed neck on the blackboard with a caption: Helen Nikise Gala – Helen, the tattooed Gala. Gala is a disparaging term akin to a Nigger used in reference to Oromos. As Chaltu sobbed quietly, their English teacher Tsige walked in and the students’ laughter came to a sudden halt. Tsige asked the classroom monitor to identity the insulting graffiti’s artist. No one answered. He turned to Chaltu and asked, “Helen, tell me who drew this picture?”

She replied, “I don’t know teacher, but Samson always called me Nikise Gala.”

Tsige was furious. Samson initially denied but eventually admitted fearing corporal punishment. Tsige gave Samson a lesson of a lifetime: “Helen speaks two language: her native Afaan Oromo and your language Amharic, and of course she is learning the third one. She is one of the top three students in the class. You speak one language and you ranked 41 out of 53 students. I have to speak to your parents tomorrow.”

Athletic and well-mannered, Chaltu was one of the best students in the entire school. But she could not fathom why people gossiped about her and hurled insults at her.

Banned from speaking Afaan Oromo, Chaltu could not fully express feelings like sorrow, regrets, fear and happiness in Amharic. To the extent that Mulumebet wished Chaltu would stop thinking in Oromo, in one instance, she asked Chaltu to go into her bedroom to lament the death of a relative by singing honorific praise as per Oromo custom. Chaltu’s break came one afternoon when the sport teacher began speaking to her in Afaan Oromo, for the first time in three years. She sobbed from a deep sense of loss as she uttered the words: “I am from Koftu, the daughter of Banti Daamo.” Saying those words alone, which were once a source of her pride, filled Chaltu with joy, even if for that moment.

Chaltu anxiously looked forward to her summer vacation and a much-needed visit to Koftu. But before she left, Mulumebet warned Chaltu not to speak Afaan Oromo during her stay in Koftu. Mulumebet told Chaltu, “Tell them that you forgot how to speak Afaan Oromo. If they talk to you in Oromo, respond only in Amharic. Also, tell them that you are no longer Chaltu. Your name is Helen.”

Getachew disagreed with his wife. But Chaltu knew she has to oblige. On her way to Koftu, Chaltu thought about her once golden life; the time she won Gurracha in what was only a boys’ competition, and how the entire village of Koftu sang her praises.

Her short stay in Koftu was dismal. Gurraacha was sold for 700 birr and she did not get to see him again. Chaltu’s parents were dismayed that her name was changed and that she no longer spoke their language.

A disgruntled and traumatized Chaltu returns to Addis Ababa and enrolls in 9th grade. She then marries a government official and move away from her aunt’s protective shield. The marriage ends shortly thereafter when Chaltu’s husband got caught up in a political crosshair following Derg’s downfall in 1991. Chaltu was in financial crisis. She refused an advice from acquintances to work as a prostitute.

At 24, the once vibrant Chaltu looked frail and exhausted. The regime change brought some welcome news. Chaltu was fascinated and surprised to watch TV programs in Afaan Oromo or hear concepts like “Oromo people’s liberation, the right to speak one’s own language, and that Amharas were feudalists.”

Chaltu did not fully grasp the systematic violence for which was very much a victim. She detested how she lost her values and ways. She despised Helen and what it was meant to represent. But it was also too late to get back to being Chaltu. She felt empty. She was neither Helen nor Chaltu.

She eventually left Addis for Koftu and asked her parents for forgiveness. She lived a few months hiding in her parent’s home. She avoided going to the market and public squares.

In a rare sign of recovery from her trauma, Chaltu briefly dated a college student who was in Koftu for a winter vacation. When he left, Chaltu lapsed back into her self-imposed loneliness and state of depression. She barely ate and refused interacting with or talking to anyone except her mother.

One afternoon, the once celebrated Chaltu warra Galaan took a nap after a coffee break and never woke up. She was 25.

The bottom line: Fictionalized or not, Chaltu’s is a truly Oromo story. Chaltu is a single character in Tesfaye’s book but lest we forget, in imperial Ethiopia, generations of Chaltu’s had to change their names and identity in order to fit in and be “genuine Ethiopians.” Until recently, one has to wear an Amhara mask in order to be beautiful, or gain access to educational and employment opportunities.

Likewise, in the Ethiopia of today’s “freedom of expression advocates” – who allegedly sought to censor Tesfaye – it appears that a story, even a work of fiction, is fit to print only when it conforms to the much-romanticized Ethiopianist storyline.

So much has changed since Chaltu’s tragic death a little over a decade ago, yet, clearly, much remains the same in Ethiopia. Honor and glory to Oromo martyrs, whose selfless sacrifices had allowed for me to transcribe this story, the Oromo today – a whole generation of Caaltuus – are ready to own, reclaim, and tell their stories.

Try, as they might, the ever-vibrant Qubee generation will never be silenced, again.

Origins of the Afrocomb: Exhibition: Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge, UK; 2nd July - 3rd November

Origins of the Afro Comb: 6,000 years of culture, politics and identity

http://www.gatewayforafrica.org/event/origins-afro-comb-6000-years-culture-politics-and-identity?__utma=1.1154313457.1380212922.1382522461.1382771276.8&__utmb=1.217.9.1382772351901&__utmc=1&__utmx=-&__utmz=1.1382771276.8.5.utmcsr=royalafricansociety.us2.list-manage.com|utmccn=(referral)|utmcmd=referral|utmcct=/subscribe/confirm&__utmv=-&__utmk=134257777&utm_content=buffer9ca97&utm_source=buffer&utm_medium=facebook&utm_campaign=Buffer

Even today, a significant number of mainstream Egyptologists, anthropologists, historians and Hollywood moviemakers continue to deny African people’s role in humankind’s first and greatest civilization in ancient Egypt. This whitewashing of history negatively impacts Black people and our image in the world. There remains a vital need to correct the misinformation of our achievements in antiquity.

Senegalese scholar Dr. Cheikh Anta Diop (1923-1986) dedicated his life to scientifically challenging Eurocentric and Arab-centric views of precolonial African culture, specifically those that suggested the ancient civilization of Egypt did not have its origins in Black Africa.

Since some people continue to ignore the overwhelming evidence that indicates ancient Egypt was built, ruled, and populated by dark-skinned African people, Atlanta Blackstar will highlight 10 of the ways Diop proved the ancient Egyptians were Black.

Physical Anthropology Evidence
Based on his review of scientific literature, Diop concluded that most of the skeletons and skulls of the ancient Egyptians clearly indicate they were Negroid people with features very similar to those of modern Black Nubians and other people of the Upper Nile and East Africa. He called attention to studies that included examinations of  skulls from the predynastic period (6000 B.C.) that showed a greater percentage of Black characteristics than any other type.

From this information, Diop reasoned that a Black race existed in Egypt at that time and did not migrate at a later stage as some previous theories had suggested.

http://atlantablackstar.com/2013/10/25/10-arguments-that-proves-ancient-egyptians-were-black/

”’ኦሮሞና ኦሮሚያ”’

የኦሮሞ ሕዝብ መሠረተ አመጣጥ ከኩሽ ቤተሰብ የሚመደብ ነዉ። በቆዳ ቀለሙና በአካላዊ አቋሙ ከሃሜቲክ እስከ ናይሎቲክ ያጣቀሰ ዝርያ ያለዉ ሕዝብ መሆኑ ታሪክ አረጋግጦታል። በሰሜን ምሥራቅ አፍሪካ ከሚኖሩ ህዝቦች ጋር በብዙ መልኩ ተመሳሳይነት ያለዉ ነዉ። በዚህ ክልል የሚኖሩ ሕዝቦች ታሪክ መመዝገብ ከጀመረበት ጊዜ አንስቶ የኩሽ ቋንቋ ተናጋሪ መሆናቸዉ ተረጋግጧል።

ኦሮሞ የኩሽ ቋንቋ ተናጋሪ ብቻ አይደለም። ይልቁንም ይህ ሕዝብ በአህጉረ- አፍሪካ ቀደሚ ዜጋ ሆነዉ ከኖሩት ሕዝቦች መካከል የመጀመሪያ መሆኑ ይታወቃል። በዚህ የረጅም ዘመናት ታሪኩ ውስጥ ለሥልጣኔዉ የሚሆኑ ባህሎችን እስከማዳበር ደርሷል። ሊንች እና ሮቢንስ የሚባሉ ሁለት የዉጭ ምሁራን ሰሜናዊ ኬኒያ በተገኘዉ ጥንታዊ አምድ ላይ ከትጻፈዉ መረጃ በመነሳት ኦሮሞዎች በ3000 ዓመተ-ዓለም አካባቢ የራሳቸዉ የሆነ የቀን መቁጠሪያ እንደነበራቸዉ አረጋግጠዋል። ይህም ሕዝቡ በዚሁ ክልል ለመኖሩ አንዱ ተጨባጭ ማስረጃ ነው።

ከሊንች እና ሮቢንሰም ሌላ ፕራዉቲ እና ሮሴንፊልድ የተባሉ የታሪክ ሊቃዉንት “Historical Dictionary of Ethiopia” ኢንዲሁም ባትስ : “The Abyssinian Difficulty” በተባሉ ሥራዎቻቸው ; <<ኦሮሞ ጥንታዊ ዝርያና አንጋፋ; ምናልባትም ለበርካታዎቹ የምስራቅ አፍርካ ሕዝቦች የዘር ግንድ ነው>> በማለት ይገልጻሉ።

የኦሮሞ ሕዝብ የምስራቅ አፍርካ (የአፍርካ ቀንድ) ቀዳሚ ቤተኛ ስለመሆኑ አያሌ ማስረጃዎች ኣሉ። ስለዚሁ ጉዳይ ታሪካዊ ሰናዶች በብዛት ይገኛሉ። አባ ባህሬይ የተባሉ የአማራ ብሄር ተወላጅ የጋላ ታሪክ ብለው በሲዳሞና ከፋ ዉስጥ በመዘዋዋር ስላ ኦሮሞ በፃፉት መጽሃፍ በጥላቻ የተሞሉና ትክክል ያል ሆኑ ታሪኮችን ለማሳተም በቅተዋል። ክራፍ በ 1842 ፥ ፍት በ1913 በክልሉ በመዘዋወር ኦሮሞ በምስራቅ አፍርካ ከሁሉም የላቀ ስፍት ያለዉ ሀገር ባለቤት መሆኑን አረጋግጠዋል ።

ከ1850 በፊት ዲ. አባደ ቤክ፥ እስንባርገር ኢንዲሁም ክራፍ የተባሉ አዉሮፓዊያን ዘጎች የኦሮሞን ሕዝብ ፖለቲካዊ ፥ ባህላዊና ማህበራዊ አኗኗር ሥራዓት በማጥናት ለዉጭዉ ዓለም አስተዋዉቀወል። ከዚያም ወዲህ በተለይ ከ 18ኛው መቶ ክፍለ ዘመንና በኋላም ኦሮሚያ በአፄ ምንልክ ተወርራ የኢኮኖሚና የፖለቲካ ሥራዓቷን ከመነጠቋ በፊት ሲቺ የተባለ ኢጣሊያዊ እንዲሁም በሬሊ ; እና ሶሌይሌት የተባሉ የፈረንሳይ ዜጎች በኦሮሚያ ህዝብ ፖለቲኮ-ባህላዊ; ኢኮኖሚያዊና ማህበራዊ ታሪኮች ላይ ያተኮሩ ሥራዎችን አዘጋጅተዉ ለአንባቢያን አቅርበዋል።

ታሪካዊ ጥናቶች አንደሚያረጋግጡት ኦሮሞና ኢትዮጵያ ከ16ኛዉ እስከ 19ኛው መቶ ክፍለ ዘመን አንዱም ሌላዉን አሸንፎ በ ቁጥጥሩ ሥር ሳያደርግ ጎን ለጎን ሆነው ሲዋጉ መቆየታቸው ሆሎኮምብ እና ሲሳይ ኢብሳ በ 1900፥ ፕሮ. መሐመድ ሐሰን በ 1990፥ ፕሮ. አሰፋ ጃላታ በ 1990፥ መሐመድ አሊ በ 1989፥ ሌቪን በ 1965 ፥ ገዳ መልባ በ 1978… ሥራዎቻቸዉ ዉስጥ በስፋት አቅርበዋል። እንዲሁም ጄስማን የተባሉ ጸሐፊ ከ50 ዓመታት በፊት ባሳተሙት መጽሓፍ ከአፄ ምንልክ የደቡብ ወረራ በፊት የነበረችዉ ኢትዮጵያ በሰሜን ከፍታዎች አካባቢ መሆኑን ከመግለጻቸዉም በላይ ማአከሏም በሰሜን ትግራይ ፥ በጌምድር ፥ ላስታና ወሎ ፥ በመሃል ጉራጌ ፥ በ ደቡብ ሸዋ ነው ያሉት ከላይ የተጠቀሱ ምሁራን ያ ቀረቡኣቸዉን ቁም ነገሮች በተጨባጭ መልክኣ ምድራዊ ገጽታ የሚያረጋግጥ ሆኗል።

ጥንታዊቷ አበሲኒያ ቀደም ብሎ በተጠቀሱት ክልሎች ላይ ብቻ የተወሰንች ለመሆኗ አፄ ቴዎድሮስ ኢየሩሳሌም ሳሙኤል ጎባ ለተባሉ የእንግሊዝ ጳጳስ በጻፉት ድብዳቤ ውስጥ ከጠቀሱትም ቁም ነገር መገንዘብ ይቻላል። እችሳቸውም:-

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https://www.facebook.com/notes/abdi-muleta/the-story-of-irreechaa/257191284319586

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Comments»

1. Gaachana - June 20, 2011

Thanks who ever author and posted here this untold history to the world however, there are still untold realities left behind and needs more discoveries.

2. Krithinidhi Mistry - October 5, 2012

I love your blog.. very nice colors & theme.
Did you make this website yourself or did you hire someone
to do it for you? Plz answer back as I’m looking to design my own blog and would like to know where u got this from. thanks a lot

oromianeconomist - October 11, 2012

Thanks,
Self made. most of it is customized from word press templates and the plant picture is mine.

3. Solomon - October 9, 2012

SHEIKH HUSSEIN MERIDIAN http://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sheikh_Hussein
Psalms 48:2 Amos 5:8 Job 9:9; 38:31
Namoratunga II, Kenya 35. 83 E 3.49 N “Borana calendar “, Jerusalem (36/37 E ) ,
Gondar 37. 4667E

Adam’s calendar , south Africa (31E ),
Giza pyramid (31E )

Mecca 39.8261E,
Sof Omar 40.45E,Sheikh Hussein 7. 45 N 40. 42E,
Harar 42. 45E
360degree *72 elders = 5 degree. 350year*72elders=25200year
350year*5degree=70year
63. 571=2450B.C./4450 *70
31+64=95degree Burma from Giza pyramid.
Burma Meridian ?

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9. oromoland - July 5, 2013

Reblogged this on Oromo Land and commented:
thanks to oromianeconomist blog page this is a compiled version of the untold story of the oromo. thank you very much

10. Google - August 30, 2013

Wonderful story, reckoned we could combine a few unrelated information, nonetheless really really worth taking a look, whoa did one particular learn about Mid East has got more problerms also.

11. oromianeconomist - September 2, 2013
12. Afaan Oromo: Documentary Afaanif Guddicha Saba Kush | OromianEconomist - April 9, 2015
13. OromianEconomist - June 17, 2015

SEENAA UMMATA OROMOO

14. OromianEconomist - June 17, 2015

Oromia: An Awesome Intro about Oromo & the Oromo Gadaa Civilization by Young African-American Scholar at Afric Network
https://oromianeconomist.wordpress.com/2015/06/16/oromia-an-awesome-intro-about-oromo-the-oromo-gadaa-civilization-by-young-african-american-scholar-at-afric-network/

15. OromianEconomist - June 26, 2015
16. OromianEconomist - June 26, 2015
17. OromianEconomist - September 9, 2015
18. OromianEconomist - October 19, 2015
19. OromianEconomist - April 10, 2016
20. OromianEconomist - December 25, 2016

‘[T]here are two scientific findings about Oromo ancestors from disinterested researchers. First, genetic research traced Oromo ancestors to a group that inhabited the present day region some sixty thousand years ago when few Africans first migrated to all continents. Second, twenty thousand years ago when the global climate changed and Africans gathered in the Nile Valley and then wet Sahara, these Oromo ancestors moved to southern Egypt and left a genetic material there which subsequently spread to Europe. This same gene is also discovered in the Boorana mirroring their return trip. These scientific findings confirmed an ancient Oromo saying about their present homeland: the Waataa are the first, the Oromo the second in the region. The Waataa or Twa /San were the first Africans trekking out of eastern Africa to populate the globe.’ Book Review: ‘True Origin of the Oromo and Amhara’
Daniel Ayana (Professor)

21. OromianEconomist - March 28, 2017

የኦሮሞ ህዝብ
Must Read
የታሪክ ምሁራን እንደሚያወሱት አስከቅርብ ጊዜ ድረስ በኢትዮጵያ ውስጥ ታሪካቸውና ባህላቸው በውጉ ካልተጠናላቸው ሕዝቦች መካከል የኦሮሞ ብሔር አንዱ ነው። ለዚህም ዋንኛ ምክንያት ተብሎ የሚታመነው በማንነቱ ላይ በገዥው መደብ ይደርስበት የነበረ ጭቆናና ግልፅ ተጽእኖ ሲሆን ይባስ ተብሎም ማንነቱን ለማጥፋት ሲሸረብ የነበረ ፖለቲካዊ ደባ እንደሆነም ይታወቃል።የገዥ መደብ ጻሃፊዎንች ለምዕተ- ዓመትና ለበለጠ ጊዜ የፅሑፍ ባህል የሌላቸውን የሃገሪቱን ህዝቦች ታሪክ-አልባ እንደሆኑ ለማሳመንና አልፎም በጠላትነት በመፈረጅ ጭምር ሲያዩአቸው እንደቆዩና በተጻራሪ መልኩ የራሳቸውን ማንነት አጉልተው የገዥ መደብ ብሔርን የበላይነት እንዲቀበሉ በግድ ሲጭኑባቸው እንደነበር አይካድም።
ከሁሉም የሚያስገርመው ነባሩን የኦሮሞ ህዝብ መጤና በቅርብ ጊዜ ፈልሶ ሀገሪቱን ያጥለቀለቀ ፤ ሀገር አልባ ህዝብ እንደሆነ ለማሳመን የዉሸት ታሪክ ሲፈበርኩና ይህንኑ እንደመልካም ነገር በየት/ቤት ሲያስተምሩ መቆየታቸው ይታወሳል። ይህም አንሶ የአቢሲኒያ ደብተራዎች ኦሮሞን እንደ ሰው ልጅ ፍጡር ሁሉ ላለማሰብ ኦሮሞ ከወንዝ የወጣ ነው ብለው አላዝነዋል:: እንደ ገዥው መደብ አመለካከትና እምነት የኢትዮጵያ ህዝቦች ታሪክ ማለት ከሴም ሕዝቦች ታሪክ ወይንም ከሰሜን ኢትዮጵያ የኦርቶዶክስ ክርስቲያን ሴሜቲክ ሕዝቦች ታሪክ ያለፈ አልነበረም።
በመሆኑም እንደ ሀገሪቱ እውነተኛ ታሪክ : ባህል : ሃይማኖትና ቋንቋ ይቆጠር የነበረው ሁሉ የራሳቸው የሆነው ብቻ ነበር። ከዚህም የተነሳ ኦሮሞ እውነተኛ ታሪኩን ሌሎች እንዳይገነዘቡት ወይም በተሳሳተ መልኩ እንዲረዱት ሆኗል። የግድፈቱ አንድ ምንጭ የሚሆነው የታሪክ ማይማንና እንግዳ የሆኑት የደብተራዎች ጭፍን ሥራ ነው። እነዚህ ሰዎች በበኩላቸው የኦሮሞን ታሪክ ለመረዳት ፍላጎቱና ክህሎቱም የሌላቸው በመሆኑ ከዚህ አንፃር የፈጠሩት ችግር ነው። ባገኙት ዕድልና በነበራቸውም ትንሽ ዕውቀት በመጠቀምም እውነተኛው ታሪክ እንዳይጻፍ ሲያደርጉ ቆይተዋል። ለብሔራቸውና ለራሳቸው የፖለቲካ የበላይነት ሲሉ የኦሮሞን ታሪክ ሲያጣምሙ ከርመዋል።
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እስቲ ፈጽሞ ሊታመኑ የማይችሉ የደብተራዎችን ተረት በመተው ካሉ ተጨባጭ ማስረጃዎች እኚህን እንመልከት:-
1- ፍራ ማውሮ የተባለ የፖርቹጋል ሰው በ1430 ባወጣው ካርታ ከሃበሻ አገር በስተደቡብ ፤ ለአውሮፓውያን ሳይታወቅ የቆየውን፤ የኦሮሞ ህዝብን በአካባቢው መኖር በካርታ ላይ ለመጀመርያ ጊዜ አሰፈረ። በዚህ ካርታ ላይ የጊቤ እና አዋሸ ወንዞች ከሞላ ጎደል ትክክለኛ በሆነ ስፍራ ላይ ተመልክተዋል። በተጨማሪም ይሄው ሰው በ1457 በስቀመጠው የአለም ካርታ ለይም የኦሮሞ ህዝብ የነበረበትን ቦታ ከአሁኑ ጋር ከሞላ ጎደል በተመሳሰይ ቦታ አስፍሮት አናገኛለን።
2- ፕሮፌሰር ታደሰ ታምራት እንደፃፉት ኢትዮጵያ በአብዛኛው የኩሽ ሀገር ናት። ስሙ ሳይቀር ግሪኮች ኢትዮጵያ ብለው የተረጎሙት በጥንት እብራይስጥ ኩሽ ይባል የነበረዉ ሲሆን ፤ ግሪኮች በግብፅ በነገሱ ዘመን ከግብጽ በስተደቡብ የሚገኙትን የኩሽ ቋንቋ ተናጋሪዎች ኢትዮጵያ ብሎ ይጠሩ እንደነበር ተግልጿል ፤ በተጨመሪም አብዛኛወቹ ኩሾች በኢትዮጵያ ዉስጥ እንደሚኖሩ በመጥቀስ ከነዚህም መሀከል ኦሮሞ አንዱ መሆኑን ገልፀዋል።
3- ሊንች እና ሮቢንስ የሚባሉ ሁለት የዉጭ ምሁራን ሰሜናዊ ኬኒያ በተገኘዉ ጥንታዊ አምድ ላይ ከተጻፈዉ መረጃ በመነሳት ኦሮሞዎች በ300 B.C አካባቢ የራሳቸዉ የሆነ የቀን መቁጠሪያ እንደነበራቸዉ አረጋግጠዋል። ይህም ሕዝቡ በዚሁ ክልል ለመኖሩ አንዱ ተጨባጭ ማስረጃ ነው።
4- በተጨማሪም የኦሮሞ ህዝብ ከግራኝ አህመድ ወረራ በፊት በአካባቢው ይኖር እንደነበር አያሌ ማስረጃዎች ይገኛሉ። ከነዚህም ውስጥ:-
ሀ- በ8ኛውና በ10ኛው ክፍለ ዘመን መካከል የተሰሩ የኦሮሞ የአምልኮ እና የአቴቴ ቁሳቁሶች መንዝ ውስጥ ‘ጋ* ጉር’ በሚባል ቦታ በአርኪዮለጂስቶች ተገኝቶአል። ደብረ ሊባኖስ አካባቢ ክርስትናን በማስፋፋት የሚታወቁት አባ ሊባኖስ (በ1015) ተደብቀው ያስተምሩ የነበሩበት አካባቢ ገዢ ‘ሆራ’ የሚባል ሲሆን ፤ ስሙም የኦሮሞ መሆኑ ፤ በአካባቢው በወቅቱ ኦሮሞ ሕዝብ የነበረ መሆኑን የሚጠቁም ነው። እነዚህ ታሪኮች [History of the Oromo to the Sixteenth Century, Oct, 2006,] በገጽ 47 እና 62 ተጽፎዉ ይገኟሉ:: ቢያንስ ቢይንስ በ10ኛው መቶ ክፍለ ዘመን የኦሮሞ ማህበረሰቦች በሸዋ አካባቢ እንደነበሩና ወደ ኋላ ዘመናት ላይ በ14ኛው ክፍለ ዘመን የኦሮሞ ከፊሉ ሕዝብ በክርስቲያኑ መንግሥት ተገፍቶ ከኖረበት የሸዋ ክልል ፤ ማዕከሉ ወደ ደቡብ ከመገፋቱ በፊት የኦሮሞ ይዞታ የአባ ሙዳ (ቃሉ)፥ የኦሮሞ ሐይማኖትና ፖለቲካ ማዕከል ሆኖ ሲያገለግል እንደቆየና ዋና ዋና የሙዳ ሥፍራዎችም በዚሁ ሸዋ ዉስጥ እንደነበሩ አያሌ ማስረጃዎች አሉ። ነገር ግን የግዥ መደብ ታሪክ ጸሐፊዎች በ16ኛው መቶ ክፍለ ዘመን የተካሄደው ተሐድሶና የኦሮሞ ህዝብን እንቅስቃሴ እንደ መጤና እንግዳ በመቁጠር [የኦሮሞ] ፍልሰት ወይም ወረራ ሲሉ ሲዘግቡ ቆይተዋል ነገር ግን የነበረው እንቅስቃሴ የገዥ መደብ ጸሐፊዎች ስደት ይበሉት እንጂ በዘመኑ የነበረው ሕዝቡ ወደነባር ቀኤው የመመለስ ሂደት መሆኑ ሊታወቅ ይገባል።
ለ- አለቃ ታዬ ፤ መራ ተክለ ሐይማኖት ስመ ፤ መንግሥቱ ዛጉዌ በነገሰ በአስር ዓመቱ በ930 ዓ.ም የኦሮሞ ሕዝብ በመኃከለኛና ምሥራቅ ኢትዮጵያ እንደተስፋፉ መጻፈቸው የኦሮሞ ሕዝብ ከግራኝ አህመድ በፊት አምስት መቶ ዓመታት በላይ ቀደም ብሎ ሰፍሮ ይኖር እንደነበር የሚጠቁም ነው። [ታዬ ገብረ ማርያም ፤ የኢትዮጵያ ታሪክ (1959)]
ሐ- የአክሱም ሐውልቶችን በተመለከተ እ.ኤ.አ በ1830ዎቹ መጀመሪያ አካባቢውን ጎብኝቶ በወቅቱ ሲነገርና ሲታመንበት የነበርዉን ጀ. ሊዉስ ክራፕፍ እንደሚከተለው ግልጾ ነበር። “ሃበሾች እንደሚያምኑት የኖህ ሶስት ልጆች አለምን በሶስት አቅጣጫ ተከፋፍለው ለመኖርና በሰፈሩበት አገር መታሰቢያ የሚሆን ምሶሶ እንዲያቆሙ ፥ በዚህም መሠረት ሴም በእስያ፥ ያፌት በአዉሮፓ፥ ካም ደግሞ በአፍሪካ ይህንኑ የድንጋይ ዓምድ ለመትከል ተስማሙ”። በአክሱም የተተከለው ሃውልት የካም ሃውልት ነው። የኩሽ ወገኖች የአክሱም ሃውልትን ስለመስራታችው የተነገረው ስለመሆኑ ካሰፈረ በኋላ የአክሱምን ሃውልት ከኦሮሞ ህዝብ ጋር የሚያያይዝ ሃሣብም አስፍሮ ይገኛል። በተጨማሪም ፑልታክ የተባለ የታሪክ ተመራማሪ በአክሱም ዘመነ መንግሥት ኦሮሞዎች በምስራቅ አፍሪካ ይገኙ እንደነበር ጠቁሟል።
በሌላም በኩል ፦በእስልምና ሃይማኖት መነሻ ዘመን ከአረብ ሃገር ተሰደው ወደ አክሱም ንጉስ ነጃሺ ሲመጡ ፥ ንጉሡ “አሸማ ፤ አሸማ” ብለው እንደተቀበሏቸው ይነገራል። “አሸማ” የአፋን ኦሮሞ ቃል መሆኑን ሌሎች እንዲሁም ሌሎች መረጃዎች ይህን ግምት ያጠናክራሉ። እነ ኤም ታማሲዮ እና ኮምብ የተባሉ ፈረሳዊያን በ1830 ያሳተሙት የንጉስ ነጃሺ ደብዳቤ ትርጉም ላይ ይኸው አሸማ የሚለው ቃል የአፋን ኦሮሞ ሠላምታ መሆኑን ያረጋግጣል።
መ- የኦሮሞ ህዝብ በ16ኛው ክፍለ ዘመን ከሌላው ክፍለ ዓለም ወደ ምሥራቅ አፍሪካ መጣ የሚባለው ታሪክ የፈጠራና መሠረታዊ ታሪካዊ ጭብጦችን የሚክድ ነው። ይህም ታሪክ በአቢሲኒያ የቤተመንግሥት ታሪክ ጸሓፍትና ደብተራዎች የመነጨ አፈታሪክ ነው። ምንም እንኳን የጥላቻ ዘመቻቸውን ከጻፉት ድብተራዎች እንደወረደ ገልብጠው ያስነበቡን ጥቂት ግራ የተጋቡ ስክላሮች ብኖሩም በአካባቢው ታሪክ ላይ በስፋት ያጠኑ የታሪክ ምሁራን ኦሮሞዎች የቅርብ ጊዜ መጠዎች ናቸው የሚለውን አመለካከት የማይቀበሉት መሆኑን በየጽሁፋቸው ገልጻዋል። በርካታ የታሪክ ምሁራን ከሀበሾች መምጣት አስቀድሞ (በፊት) ኦሮሞዎች በሰሜን ምሥራቅ የአህጉሩ ክፍል ይኖሩ እነደ ነበር አመልክተዋል።
እንደ ፐርሃም(1948) ገለጻ ፥ መጠዎች (ኢሚግራንት) የሴም ነገዶች (ሴማውያን) ወደ አህጉሩ በደረሱ ጊዜ በሰሜን ምሥራቅ የአህጉሩ ክፍል ፥ ምሥራቃውያን የሃም ዝርያዎች ማለትም ብዙ ጊዜ ኩሽ ተብለው የሚታወቁ ዝርያዎች ፥ ከነሱም ዉስጥ [ኦሮሞዎች]* የሚገኙበት ህዝቦች ይኖሩበት እንደ ነበር ገልጿል። ግሪንፊልድ (1965) የተባሉ የታሪክ ሊቃውንት [ኦሮሞዎች]* የቅርብ ጊዜ መጤዎች ናቸው የሚለውን አመለካከት የማይቀበሉት መሆኑን “Modern Ethiopia is a Product of the ‘Scramble’ በተሰኘው ጽሁፋቸው ላይ ግልጸዋል። እንዲሁም ፓንክረስት (1985) ከአቢሲኒያውያን በገዛራሳቸው ቃል ሲወርድ ሲዋረድ ከመጡ አፈታሪኮችና ወጎች ዉስጥ የሚከተለውን የላስታን አፈ-ታሪክ ጠቅሷል፦ “…የሰለሞን ልጅ የሆነው ምኒልክ በምሥራቅ በኩል አድርጎ ወደ አቢሲኒያ ገባ። ይኸም አገር ከአዘቦና ከራያ [ኦሮሞዎች]* አገር ባሻገር ያለው ነው” -ከዚህም፦ ኦሮሞዎች በምኒልክ-አንደኛ ዘመን በአካባቢው እንደነበሩ በአቢሲኒያውያን ይታወቅ እንደ ነበር የሚጠቁም ነው።
ረ- ኦዳ ቡልቱም ከ16ኛው መቶ ክፍለ ዘመን በፊት ፥ ለአያሌ መቶ አመታት የኦሮሞ ሐይማኖትና ፖለቲካ ማ ዕከል ሆኖ ሲያገለግል እንደነበር በትዉፊትና በጽሁፍ ሰነድ የሚገኙ ማስረጃዎች ያረጋግጣሉ። ስለ ኦዳ ቡልቱም በኢቱ ኦሮሞዎች ዘንድ ከሚነገሩ ትዉፊቶች ዉስጥ አንዱ ፦ ኦዳ ቡልቱም ለ810 ዓመታት የፖለቲካ ማዕከል ሆኖ ሲያገለግል መቆየቱ ይነገራል። እንዲሁም ኦዳ ቡልቱም ማዕከል ሆኖ ማገልል ከጀመረበት ወቅት አንስቶ እስከ ምኒልክ ወረራ ድረስ 64/ስድሳ አራት/ አባ ገዳዎች በተከታታይ ስልጣን እንደጨበጡ ይነገራል። ከጽሁፍ ሰነዶች ለማወቅ እንደሚቻለው አጼ ምኒልክ ሁለተኛ ፥ ሐረርን በወረራ የያዛት በ1887 ዓ.ም ነበር። ከዚህ አንጻር ኦዳ ቡልቱም ከ1887 በፊት ለ64 /ስድሳ አራት/ የገዳ ዘመን ማዕከል ሆኖ ቆይቷል ማለት ነው። ይህንን የገዳ ዘመን ፥ ወደ ፍጹማዊ የጊዜ አቆጣጠር ከቀየርን (አንድ ገዳ = 8 አመት) ፦ የኦዳ ቡልቱም ማ ዕከል የተመሰረተው በ14ኛው መቶ ክፍለ ዘመን በ2ኛው አጋማሽ ፥ ማለትም በ1375 አካባቢ ማለት ነው። ይህም ኦሮሞዎች ቢያንስ ለአንድ ምዕተ አመት ከአህመድ ግራኝ መስፋፋት በፈት በአካባቢው እንደ ነበሩ የሚያሳይ ነው።
ሰ- እንዲሁም በባሬንቱ ኦሮሞ ትውፊት ውስጥ ከጥንት ጀምሮ ሲተላለፍ የቆየው ፦ የአባ ሙዳ(ቃሉ) መኖሪያ ሞርሞር (አባይ) እንደነበረና ይህም ይህም ከ200 ገዳ በፊት በአምስተኛው መቶ ክፍለ ዘመን መሆኑ ይነገራል። የኦሮሞ የሃይማኖትና ፖለቲካ ማዕከል በመሆን ሞርሞር (አባይ) ለዘመናት ሲያገለግል እንደ ቆየና በኃላ በ1116 ዓ.ም በኦዳ ነቤ (ዱከም አካባቢ) “ሃሮምሳ ገዳ” (የገዳ መታደስ) ተከናወነ። ከዚያን ጊዜ ጀምሮ ኦዳ ነቤ የኦሮሞ ገዳ- የእምነትና የፖለቲካ- ማዕከል ሆኖ እያገለገለ ሳለ ፥ የአባ ሙዳ መቀመጫ ወደ ኦዳ ሮባ (ባሌ- ጊኒር) በ1316 ዓ.ም የተዛወረ ሲሆን በመጨረሻም በመደ ወላቡ በ1450 (በአሁኑ ባሌ መደወላቡ ወረዳ) “ሃሮምሳ ገዳ” (የገዳ ተሃድሶ) ተካሄደ።
የኦሮሞ ህዝብ እንቅስቃሴ በቅድሚያ ከመሃል ኢትዮጽያ ፥ ከሞርሞር (አባይ) ተነስቶ ፥ በኃላም ወደ ደቡብ ኢትዮጽያ አቅጣጫ እንደተጉዋዙና መደ ወላቡ ከደረሱ በኃላም ወደ ሰሜን ኢትዮጽያ አቅጣጫ መንቀሳቀሱን በማስረዳት የሚቀርበው ትንተና አሳማኝ ይመስላል።ይህም ትንተና የኦሮሞ የሃይማኖት ማዕከል የሆነው የአባሙዳ መቀመጫ ከአባይ ወይም ሞርሞር ተብሎ ከሚታወቀው አካባቢ ተነስቶ እስከ መደወላቡ ድረስ የመቀመጫ ለውጥ ማድረጉን መሰረት በማድረግ ነው።
ኦሮሞዎች በጋራ ሲጠቀሙባቸው የነበሩና በታሪክ ታዋቂ የሆኑ የእምነትና የፖለቲካ ማዕከላትና የሚገኙበት ሥፍራ(ቦታ)ና ጊዜ :-
#በከኒሳ_ራያ —— በደቡብ ወሎና በሰሜን ሸዋ አከባቢ፤ ዘመኑ፦ ከረጅም ጊዜያት በፊት (ከክርስቶስ ልደት በፊት)
#ሪቡ_ፉጉግ —— በደቡብ ወሎና በሰሜን ሸዋ አከባቢ፤ ዘመኑ፦ ከረጅም ጊዜያት በፊት (ከክርስቶስ ልደት በፊት)
#ከታ ————- በግሼ (ሰሜን ሸዋ) አከባቢ፤ ዘመኑ፦ በ1ኛው ምዕተ ዓመት /ከክርስቶስ ልደት ወዲህ/
#ኦዳ_ነቤ ——— ዱከም አካባቢ፤ ዘመኑ፦ ከ2ኛው እስከ 11ኛው ምዕተ ዓመት
#ኦዳ_ሮባ ——— ባሌ (ባሌ- ጊኒር)፤ ከ12ኛው እስከ 14ኛው ምዕተ ዓመት
#መደ_ወላቡ —– ባሌ፤ ከ1450- 1900 ባሉት ጊዜያት ዉስጥ ሆኖ ባሌ መደወላቡ ወረዳ ነው።
እነዚህ ሥፍራዎች የቃሉ መቀመጫዎችና አጠቃላይ የጎሳ ገዳ ተወካዮች ሸንጎ መቀመጫና እንዲሁም የገዳ ፌስቲቫሎች ሲካሄድባቸው የነበሩ አካባቢዎች ናቸው።
Oromedia
The picture from other source.

The Oromo Country Oromia

22. OromianEconomist - March 28, 2017
23. OromianEconomist - March 28, 2017

https://uk.pinterest.com/pin/550565123174222872/ Map showing the popular hypothesis of the expansion of Afroasiatic out of Africa. Cush, Oromo, Kemetic, ancient Egypt, Afar, Sidama, Ogaden (Somali), Beja, Agawu, Saho, Hadya,…….

24. OromianEconomist - March 28, 2017


የኦሮሞ ህዝብ
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የታሪክ ምሁራን እንደሚያወሱት አስከቅርብ ጊዜ ድረስ በኢትዮጵያ ውስጥ ታሪካቸውና ባህላቸው በውጉ ካልተጠናላቸው ሕዝቦች መካከል የኦሮሞ ብሔር አንዱ ነው። ለዚህም ዋንኛ ምክንያት ተብሎ የሚታመነው በማንነቱ ላይ በገዥው መደብ ይደርስበት የነበረ ጭቆናና ግልፅ ተጽእኖ ሲሆን ይባስ ተብሎም ማንነቱን ለማጥፋት ሲሸረብ የነበረ ፖለቲካዊ ደባ እንደሆነም ይታወቃል።የገዥ መደብ ጻሃፊዎንች ለምዕተ- ዓመትና ለበለጠ ጊዜ የፅሑፍ ባህል የሌላቸውን የሃገሪቱን ህዝቦች ታሪክ-አልባ እንደሆኑ ለማሳመንና አልፎም በጠላትነት በመፈረጅ ጭምር ሲያዩአቸው እንደቆዩና በተጻራሪ መልኩ የራሳቸውን ማንነት አጉልተው የገዥ መደብ ብሔርን የበላይነት እንዲቀበሉ በግድ ሲጭኑባቸው እንደነበር አይካድም።
ከሁሉም የሚያስገርመው ነባሩን የኦሮሞ ህዝብ መጤና በቅርብ ጊዜ ፈልሶ ሀገሪቱን ያጥለቀለቀ ፤ ሀገር አልባ ህዝብ እንደሆነ ለማሳመን የዉሸት ታሪክ ሲፈበርኩና ይህንኑ እንደመልካም ነገር በየት/ቤት ሲያስተምሩ መቆየታቸው ይታወሳል። ይህም አንሶ የአቢሲኒያ ደብተራዎች ኦሮሞን እንደ ሰው ልጅ ፍጡር ሁሉ ላለማሰብ ኦሮሞ ከወንዝ የወጣ ነው ብለው አላዝነዋል:: እንደ ገዥው መደብ አመለካከትና እምነት የኢትዮጵያ ህዝቦች ታሪክ ማለት ከሴም ሕዝቦች ታሪክ ወይንም ከሰሜን ኢትዮጵያ የኦርቶዶክስ ክርስቲያን ሴሜቲክ ሕዝቦች ታሪክ ያለፈ አልነበረም።
በመሆኑም እንደ ሀገሪቱ እውነተኛ ታሪክ : ባህል : ሃይማኖትና ቋንቋ ይቆጠር የነበረው ሁሉ የራሳቸው የሆነው ብቻ ነበር። ከዚህም የተነሳ ኦሮሞ እውነተኛ ታሪኩን ሌሎች እንዳይገነዘቡት ወይም በተሳሳተ መልኩ እንዲረዱት ሆኗል። የግድፈቱ አንድ ምንጭ የሚሆነው የታሪክ ማይማንና እንግዳ የሆኑት የደብተራዎች ጭፍን ሥራ ነው። እነዚህ ሰዎች በበኩላቸው የኦሮሞን ታሪክ ለመረዳት ፍላጎቱና ክህሎቱም የሌላቸው በመሆኑ ከዚህ አንፃር የፈጠሩት ችግር ነው። ባገኙት ዕድልና በነበራቸውም ትንሽ ዕውቀት በመጠቀምም እውነተኛው ታሪክ እንዳይጻፍ ሲያደርጉ ቆይተዋል። ለብሔራቸውና ለራሳቸው የፖለቲካ የበላይነት ሲሉ የኦሮሞን ታሪክ ሲያጣምሙ ከርመዋል።
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እስቲ ፈጽሞ ሊታመኑ የማይችሉ የደብተራዎችን ተረት በመተው ካሉ ተጨባጭ ማስረጃዎች እኚህን እንመልከት:-
1- ፍራ ማውሮ የተባለ የፖርቹጋል ሰው በ1430 ባወጣው ካርታ ከሃበሻ አገር በስተደቡብ ፤ ለአውሮፓውያን ሳይታወቅ የቆየውን፤ የኦሮሞ ህዝብን በአካባቢው መኖር በካርታ ላይ ለመጀመርያ ጊዜ አሰፈረ። በዚህ ካርታ ላይ የጊቤ እና አዋሸ ወንዞች ከሞላ ጎደል ትክክለኛ በሆነ ስፍራ ላይ ተመልክተዋል። በተጨማሪም ይሄው ሰው በ1457 በስቀመጠው የአለም ካርታ ለይም የኦሮሞ ህዝብ የነበረበትን ቦታ ከአሁኑ ጋር ከሞላ ጎደል በተመሳሰይ ቦታ አስፍሮት አናገኛለን።
2- ፕሮፌሰር ታደሰ ታምራት እንደፃፉት ኢትዮጵያ በአብዛኛው የኩሽ ሀገር ናት። ስሙ ሳይቀር ግሪኮች ኢትዮጵያ ብለው የተረጎሙት በጥንት እብራይስጥ ኩሽ ይባል የነበረዉ ሲሆን ፤ ግሪኮች በግብፅ በነገሱ ዘመን ከግብጽ በስተደቡብ የሚገኙትን የኩሽ ቋንቋ ተናጋሪዎች ኢትዮጵያ ብሎ ይጠሩ እንደነበር ተግልጿል ፤ በተጨመሪም አብዛኛወቹ ኩሾች በኢትዮጵያ ዉስጥ እንደሚኖሩ በመጥቀስ ከነዚህም መሀከል ኦሮሞ አንዱ መሆኑን ገልፀዋል።
3- ሊንች እና ሮቢንስ የሚባሉ ሁለት የዉጭ ምሁራን ሰሜናዊ ኬኒያ በተገኘዉ ጥንታዊ አምድ ላይ ከተጻፈዉ መረጃ በመነሳት ኦሮሞዎች በ300 B.C አካባቢ የራሳቸዉ የሆነ የቀን መቁጠሪያ እንደነበራቸዉ አረጋግጠዋል። ይህም ሕዝቡ በዚሁ ክልል ለመኖሩ አንዱ ተጨባጭ ማስረጃ ነው።
4- በተጨማሪም የኦሮሞ ህዝብ ከግራኝ አህመድ ወረራ በፊት በአካባቢው ይኖር እንደነበር አያሌ ማስረጃዎች ይገኛሉ። ከነዚህም ውስጥ:-
ሀ- በ8ኛውና በ10ኛው ክፍለ ዘመን መካከል የተሰሩ የኦሮሞ የአምልኮ እና የአቴቴ ቁሳቁሶች መንዝ ውስጥ ‘ጋ* ጉር’ በሚባል ቦታ በአርኪዮለጂስቶች ተገኝቶአል። ደብረ ሊባኖስ አካባቢ ክርስትናን በማስፋፋት የሚታወቁት አባ ሊባኖስ (በ1015) ተደብቀው ያስተምሩ የነበሩበት አካባቢ ገዢ ‘ሆራ’ የሚባል ሲሆን ፤ ስሙም የኦሮሞ መሆኑ ፤ በአካባቢው በወቅቱ ኦሮሞ ሕዝብ የነበረ መሆኑን የሚጠቁም ነው። እነዚህ ታሪኮች [History of the Oromo to the Sixteenth Century, Oct, 2006,] በገጽ 47 እና 62 ተጽፎዉ ይገኟሉ:: ቢያንስ ቢይንስ በ10ኛው መቶ ክፍለ ዘመን የኦሮሞ ማህበረሰቦች በሸዋ አካባቢ እንደነበሩና ወደ ኋላ ዘመናት ላይ በ14ኛው ክፍለ ዘመን የኦሮሞ ከፊሉ ሕዝብ በክርስቲያኑ መንግሥት ተገፍቶ ከኖረበት የሸዋ ክልል ፤ ማዕከሉ ወደ ደቡብ ከመገፋቱ በፊት የኦሮሞ ይዞታ የአባ ሙዳ (ቃሉ)፥ የኦሮሞ ሐይማኖትና ፖለቲካ ማዕከል ሆኖ ሲያገለግል እንደቆየና ዋና ዋና የሙዳ ሥፍራዎችም በዚሁ ሸዋ ዉስጥ እንደነበሩ አያሌ ማስረጃዎች አሉ። ነገር ግን የግዥ መደብ ታሪክ ጸሐፊዎች በ16ኛው መቶ ክፍለ ዘመን የተካሄደው ተሐድሶና የኦሮሞ ህዝብን እንቅስቃሴ እንደ መጤና እንግዳ በመቁጠር [የኦሮሞ] ፍልሰት ወይም ወረራ ሲሉ ሲዘግቡ ቆይተዋል ነገር ግን የነበረው እንቅስቃሴ የገዥ መደብ ጸሐፊዎች ስደት ይበሉት እንጂ በዘመኑ የነበረው ሕዝቡ ወደነባር ቀኤው የመመለስ ሂደት መሆኑ ሊታወቅ ይገባል።
ለ- አለቃ ታዬ ፤ መራ ተክለ ሐይማኖት ስመ ፤ መንግሥቱ ዛጉዌ በነገሰ በአስር ዓመቱ በ930 ዓ.ም የኦሮሞ ሕዝብ በመኃከለኛና ምሥራቅ ኢትዮጵያ እንደተስፋፉ መጻፈቸው የኦሮሞ ሕዝብ ከግራኝ አህመድ በፊት አምስት መቶ ዓመታት በላይ ቀደም ብሎ ሰፍሮ ይኖር እንደነበር የሚጠቁም ነው። [ታዬ ገብረ ማርያም ፤ የኢትዮጵያ ታሪክ (1959)]
ሐ- የአክሱም ሐውልቶችን በተመለከተ እ.ኤ.አ በ1830ዎቹ መጀመሪያ አካባቢውን ጎብኝቶ በወቅቱ ሲነገርና ሲታመንበት የነበርዉን ጀ. ሊዉስ ክራፕፍ እንደሚከተለው ግልጾ ነበር። “ሃበሾች እንደሚያምኑት የኖህ ሶስት ልጆች አለምን በሶስት አቅጣጫ ተከፋፍለው ለመኖርና በሰፈሩበት አገር መታሰቢያ የሚሆን ምሶሶ እንዲያቆሙ ፥ በዚህም መሠረት ሴም በእስያ፥ ያፌት በአዉሮፓ፥ ካም ደግሞ በአፍሪካ ይህንኑ የድንጋይ ዓምድ ለመትከል ተስማሙ”። በአክሱም የተተከለው ሃውልት የካም ሃውልት ነው። የኩሽ ወገኖች የአክሱም ሃውልትን ስለመስራታችው የተነገረው ስለመሆኑ ካሰፈረ በኋላ የአክሱምን ሃውልት ከኦሮሞ ህዝብ ጋር የሚያያይዝ ሃሣብም አስፍሮ ይገኛል። በተጨማሪም ፑልታክ የተባለ የታሪክ ተመራማሪ በአክሱም ዘመነ መንግሥት ኦሮሞዎች በምስራቅ አፍሪካ ይገኙ እንደነበር ጠቁሟል።
በሌላም በኩል ፦በእስልምና ሃይማኖት መነሻ ዘመን ከአረብ ሃገር ተሰደው ወደ አክሱም ንጉስ ነጃሺ ሲመጡ ፥ ንጉሡ “አሸማ ፤ አሸማ” ብለው እንደተቀበሏቸው ይነገራል። “አሸማ” የአፋን ኦሮሞ ቃል መሆኑን ሌሎች እንዲሁም ሌሎች መረጃዎች ይህን ግምት ያጠናክራሉ። እነ ኤም ታማሲዮ እና ኮምብ የተባሉ ፈረሳዊያን በ1830 ያሳተሙት የንጉስ ነጃሺ ደብዳቤ ትርጉም ላይ ይኸው አሸማ የሚለው ቃል የአፋን ኦሮሞ ሠላምታ መሆኑን ያረጋግጣል።
መ- የኦሮሞ ህዝብ በ16ኛው ክፍለ ዘመን ከሌላው ክፍለ ዓለም ወደ ምሥራቅ አፍሪካ መጣ የሚባለው ታሪክ የፈጠራና መሠረታዊ ታሪካዊ ጭብጦችን የሚክድ ነው። ይህም ታሪክ በአቢሲኒያ የቤተመንግሥት ታሪክ ጸሓፍትና ደብተራዎች የመነጨ አፈታሪክ ነው። ምንም እንኳን የጥላቻ ዘመቻቸውን ከጻፉት ድብተራዎች እንደወረደ ገልብጠው ያስነበቡን ጥቂት ግራ የተጋቡ ስክላሮች ብኖሩም በአካባቢው ታሪክ ላይ በስፋት ያጠኑ የታሪክ ምሁራን ኦሮሞዎች የቅርብ ጊዜ መጠዎች ናቸው የሚለውን አመለካከት የማይቀበሉት መሆኑን በየጽሁፋቸው ገልጻዋል። በርካታ የታሪክ ምሁራን ከሀበሾች መምጣት አስቀድሞ (በፊት) ኦሮሞዎች በሰሜን ምሥራቅ የአህጉሩ ክፍል ይኖሩ እነደ ነበር አመልክተዋል።
እንደ ፐርሃም(1948) ገለጻ ፥ መጠዎች (ኢሚግራንት) የሴም ነገዶች (ሴማውያን) ወደ አህጉሩ በደረሱ ጊዜ በሰሜን ምሥራቅ የአህጉሩ ክፍል ፥ ምሥራቃውያን የሃም ዝርያዎች ማለትም ብዙ ጊዜ ኩሽ ተብለው የሚታወቁ ዝርያዎች ፥ ከነሱም ዉስጥ [ኦሮሞዎች]* የሚገኙበት ህዝቦች ይኖሩበት እንደ ነበር ገልጿል። ግሪንፊልድ (1965) የተባሉ የታሪክ ሊቃውንት [ኦሮሞዎች]* የቅርብ ጊዜ መጤዎች ናቸው የሚለውን አመለካከት የማይቀበሉት መሆኑን “Modern Ethiopia is a Product of the ‘Scramble’ በተሰኘው ጽሁፋቸው ላይ ግልጸዋል። እንዲሁም ፓንክረስት (1985) ከአቢሲኒያውያን በገዛራሳቸው ቃል ሲወርድ ሲዋረድ ከመጡ አፈታሪኮችና ወጎች ዉስጥ የሚከተለውን የላስታን አፈ-ታሪክ ጠቅሷል፦ “…የሰለሞን ልጅ የሆነው ምኒልክ በምሥራቅ በኩል አድርጎ ወደ አቢሲኒያ ገባ። ይኸም አገር ከአዘቦና ከራያ [ኦሮሞዎች]* አገር ባሻገር ያለው ነው” -ከዚህም፦ ኦሮሞዎች በምኒልክ-አንደኛ ዘመን በአካባቢው እንደነበሩ በአቢሲኒያውያን ይታወቅ እንደ ነበር የሚጠቁም ነው።
ረ- ኦዳ ቡልቱም ከ16ኛው መቶ ክፍለ ዘመን በፊት ፥ ለአያሌ መቶ አመታት የኦሮሞ ሐይማኖትና ፖለቲካ ማ ዕከል ሆኖ ሲያገለግል እንደነበር በትዉፊትና በጽሁፍ ሰነድ የሚገኙ ማስረጃዎች ያረጋግጣሉ። ስለ ኦዳ ቡልቱም በኢቱ ኦሮሞዎች ዘንድ ከሚነገሩ ትዉፊቶች ዉስጥ አንዱ ፦ ኦዳ ቡልቱም ለ810 ዓመታት የፖለቲካ ማዕከል ሆኖ ሲያገለግል መቆየቱ ይነገራል። እንዲሁም ኦዳ ቡልቱም ማዕከል ሆኖ ማገልል ከጀመረበት ወቅት አንስቶ እስከ ምኒልክ ወረራ ድረስ 64/ስድሳ አራት/ አባ ገዳዎች በተከታታይ ስልጣን እንደጨበጡ ይነገራል። ከጽሁፍ ሰነዶች ለማወቅ እንደሚቻለው አጼ ምኒልክ ሁለተኛ ፥ ሐረርን በወረራ የያዛት በ1887 ዓ.ም ነበር። ከዚህ አንጻር ኦዳ ቡልቱም ከ1887 በፊት ለ64 /ስድሳ አራት/ የገዳ ዘመን ማዕከል ሆኖ ቆይቷል ማለት ነው። ይህንን የገዳ ዘመን ፥ ወደ ፍጹማዊ የጊዜ አቆጣጠር ከቀየርን (አንድ ገዳ = 8 አመት) ፦ የኦዳ ቡልቱም ማ ዕከል የተመሰረተው በ14ኛው መቶ ክፍለ ዘመን በ2ኛው አጋማሽ ፥ ማለትም በ1375 አካባቢ ማለት ነው። ይህም ኦሮሞዎች ቢያንስ ለአንድ ምዕተ አመት ከአህመድ ግራኝ መስፋፋት በፈት በአካባቢው እንደ ነበሩ የሚያሳይ ነው።
ሰ- እንዲሁም በባሬንቱ ኦሮሞ ትውፊት ውስጥ ከጥንት ጀምሮ ሲተላለፍ የቆየው ፦ የአባ ሙዳ(ቃሉ) መኖሪያ ሞርሞር (አባይ) እንደነበረና ይህም ይህም ከ200 ገዳ በፊት በአምስተኛው መቶ ክፍለ ዘመን መሆኑ ይነገራል። የኦሮሞ የሃይማኖትና ፖለቲካ ማዕከል በመሆን ሞርሞር (አባይ) ለዘመናት ሲያገለግል እንደ ቆየና በኃላ በ1116 ዓ.ም በኦዳ ነቤ (ዱከም አካባቢ) “ሃሮምሳ ገዳ” (የገዳ መታደስ) ተከናወነ። ከዚያን ጊዜ ጀምሮ ኦዳ ነቤ የኦሮሞ ገዳ- የእምነትና የፖለቲካ- ማዕከል ሆኖ እያገለገለ ሳለ ፥ የአባ ሙዳ መቀመጫ ወደ ኦዳ ሮባ (ባሌ- ጊኒር) በ1316 ዓ.ም የተዛወረ ሲሆን በመጨረሻም በመደ ወላቡ በ1450 (በአሁኑ ባሌ መደወላቡ ወረዳ) “ሃሮምሳ ገዳ” (የገዳ ተሃድሶ) ተካሄደ።
የኦሮሞ ህዝብ እንቅስቃሴ በቅድሚያ ከመሃል ኢትዮጽያ ፥ ከሞርሞር (አባይ) ተነስቶ ፥ በኃላም ወደ ደቡብ ኢትዮጽያ አቅጣጫ እንደተጉዋዙና መደ ወላቡ ከደረሱ በኃላም ወደ ሰሜን ኢትዮጽያ አቅጣጫ መንቀሳቀሱን በማስረዳት የሚቀርበው ትንተና አሳማኝ ይመስላል።ይህም ትንተና የኦሮሞ የሃይማኖት ማዕከል የሆነው የአባሙዳ መቀመጫ ከአባይ ወይም ሞርሞር ተብሎ ከሚታወቀው አካባቢ ተነስቶ እስከ መደወላቡ ድረስ የመቀመጫ ለውጥ ማድረጉን መሰረት በማድረግ ነው።
ኦሮሞዎች በጋራ ሲጠቀሙባቸው የነበሩና በታሪክ ታዋቂ የሆኑ የእምነትና የፖለቲካ ማዕከላትና የሚገኙበት ሥፍራ(ቦታ)ና ጊዜ :-
#በከኒሳ_ራያ —— በደቡብ ወሎና በሰሜን ሸዋ አከባቢ፤ ዘመኑ፦ ከረጅም ጊዜያት በፊት (ከክርስቶስ ልደት በፊት)
#ሪቡ_ፉጉግ —— በደቡብ ወሎና በሰሜን ሸዋ አከባቢ፤ ዘመኑ፦ ከረጅም ጊዜያት በፊት (ከክርስቶስ ልደት በፊት)
#ከታ ————- በግሼ (ሰሜን ሸዋ) አከባቢ፤ ዘመኑ፦ በ1ኛው ምዕተ ዓመት /ከክርስቶስ ልደት ወዲህ/
#ኦዳ_ነቤ ——— ዱከም አካባቢ፤ ዘመኑ፦ ከ2ኛው እስከ 11ኛው ምዕተ ዓመት
#ኦዳ_ሮባ ——— ባሌ (ባሌ- ጊኒር)፤ ከ12ኛው እስከ 14ኛው ምዕተ ዓመት
#መደ_ወላቡ —– ባሌ፤ ከ1450- 1900 ባሉት ጊዜያት ዉስጥ ሆኖ ባሌ መደወላቡ ወረዳ ነው።
እነዚህ ሥፍራዎች የቃሉ መቀመጫዎችና አጠቃላይ የጎሳ ገዳ ተወካዮች ሸንጎ መቀመጫና እንዲሁም የገዳ ፌስቲቫሎች ሲካሄድባቸው የነበሩ አካባቢዎች ናቸው።
Oromedia
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The Oromo Country Oromia

25. OromianEconomist - March 30, 2017

የኦሮሞ ከተማ አክሱም ከ3000 BC በፊት ተቆረቆረች ።
የአክሱም ከተማ ጥንታዊ ሥም አካሱማ ነበር።
አክሱም የኦሮሞ ከተማ ነበረች። ምክንያቱም በ3000 BC ሐበሻ አባቶች የሳባ አረብ ነጋዴዎች ወደ ሰሜን የኦሮሞ ሀገር አልመጡም። በ6 የዓለም ታሪክ መረጃዎች እንደ ተረጋገጠው የመጡት በ500-250 BC መካከል ነበር። በቀይ ባህር አድርገው ወደ አፍሪካ የገቡት ጥንት “አዶላ” እየተባለ በሚጠራው አዶሊስ ወደብ ነበር። የንግድ እቃ ማር፣ የዝሆን፣ ጥርስ፣ የአውራሪስ ቀንድ፣ እጣን፣ ከርቤ፣ የሳጎን ላባ ለመግዛት ነበር የመጡት። እየመጡ ተመልሰው ሲሄዱ እንደገና ሲመጡ ሲቀሩ ኩሽ እየተባለ በሚጠራው ከኦሮሞ ሕዝብ ጋር ተዛምደው ዳሞቴ (Dhaamoote) በሚባል ቦታ ድንኳናቸውን ተከሉ። በኦሮሞ ደሞቴ ማለት በረደ ማለት ነው። ድንኳናቸውን የተከሉበት ቦታ ለማስታወስ እስከ ዛሬ ድረስ “ዳሚት” እያሉ ይጠራሉ ። ነጋዴዎቹ የኦሮሞ ሴት ልጆችን አግብተው በዘር ተቀላቅለው የሀገር ዜግነት መብት አገኙ። እንደዚህ በጋብቻ ተሳስረው እየኖሩ የአረብ ቆዳ ቀለማቸው በኦሮሞ DNA ተውጦ ወደጥቁርነት ተለወጠ። የሐበሻ DNA ቢፈተሽ 90% ያለጥርጥር የኦሮሞ ይሆናል። እነዚህ እንግዶች ናቸው ዓይናቸውን በጨው ታጥበው ያለምንም ሃፍረት ኦሮሞ አባታቸውን መጤ እያሉ የሚሳደቡት።
የዛሬዎቹ የሐበሻ ክልሎች የኦሮሞ ንጉሣዊ አገዛዝ እስከ ፈረሰበት 4ኛ ክፍለ ዘመን AD መጨረሻ ድረስ በኦሮሞ አገዛዝ ስር ነበሩ።ከ5ኛ እስከ ክፍለ እስከ 9ኛ ክፍለ ዘመን መግቢያ ድረስ ሐበሻ ግዛቱን ተቆጣጠረ። በ9ኛ ክፍለ ዘመን የኦሮሞ ንግሥት ጉዲቲ ጋዲኣ ፋላሳ (አኮመኖዬ) በሐበሻ አገዛዝ ላይ ጦርነት ከፍታ በመደምስ የሳጉ (ዛጉዌ) ስርዎ መንግሥት መሥርታ እስከ 12 ክፍለ ዘመን ድረሰ ኦሮሞች መልሰው ግዛታቸውን ተቆጣጠሩ ሲገዙ ኖሩ። ሐበሾች አምባገነኗ አኮማኖዬን ዮዲት ጉዲት እያሉ እስከ ዛሬ ድረስ ይጠራሉ። ታሪኳን ከመቃብር እስከ አወጣሁበት ጊዜ ድረስ ኦሮሞዎች ዮዲት አኮማኖዬ መሆንዋን አያውቁም። በአጠቃላይ ሰሜን ኢትዮጲያ የኦሮሞ ሀገር ነበር።
የአክሱም ጥንታዊ ሥም አካሱማ ነበር። በተለያየ ዘመን የነገሱ አካሱማ ቢዬና አካሱማ ራምሱ የሚባሉ ሁለት የኦሮሞ ንጉሦች ነበሩ። የአክሱም ትላልቅ ሃውልቶች ለእነዚህ ንጉሦች መቃብር መታሰቢያነት የተሠሩ ለመሆናቸው የምርምር መረጃዎች ያሳያሉ። የአክሱም ሥልጣኔ እየተባለ የሚጠራው የሰሜን ኦሮሞ ወይም የኑቢያ መሆኑን አያሌ መረጃዎች ያረጋግጣሉ። አክሱም የኦሮሞ ንግሥት ጋንዳኬ ጎርሳሜ ጉዲቻ፤ ንግሥት ማኪዳ አጋባስ ሶቦ፤ ንግሥት ጉዲቲ ጋዲኣ ፋላሳ (አኮማኖዬ) የነገሱባት ከተማ ነች። በአክሱም ክርስቶስ በተወለደ በ40-70 AD መካካል የኢትጲያ ኦርቶዶክስ የመጀመሪያ ቤተክርስቲያን ጽዮን ማሪያምን ቤተክርስቲያን ያሰራቸው ጋንዳኬ ጎርሳሜ ነበረች። ኦሮቶዶክስ ክርስትና ሃይማኖትና ግዕዝ የሰሜን ኦሮሞ ቅርስ ነው።አሜሪካዊቷ የታሪክ ተመራማሪ ደራሲ ዱርሳላ ዱንጂ የሰጠችው የምስክርነትና የኦሮሞ ታሪክ ተመራማሪ ደራሲ ቡልቶ ቤኛ ያቀረብኳቸው ተጨባጭ መረጃዎች ከሥም ልዩነት በስተቀር አንድ ናቸው። ዱርሲላ ዱንጂ ሀውስተን ኩሽ የኦሮሞ ዘር መሆኑን ባለመረዳቷ የአክሱም ሃውልት የኩሽ ስነጥበብ መሆኑን አረጋገጠች። እኔ የኦሮሞ መሆኑን ብዙ መሰጃዎችን አቀረብኩ።
ኩሽ የሚባለው ታሪኩ የተቀበረበት ኦሮሞ ነው።ኩሽ በ37 የኦሮሞ የዘር ግንድ ይገኛል።ኦሮሞ የኩሽ ዘር አይደለም። ኩሽ የኦሮሞ ዘር ነው። ኩሽ አያት ኖህ የተወለደው 2944BC የኩሽ አባት ካም የተወለደው 2334 BC ኩሽ የተወለደው 2169BC ነበር። የኩሽ አያት ሳይወለድ ኦሮሞ ከ3000 BC በፊት በአክሱም ሥልጣኔ ያስፋፋ ነበር። በ7500 BC በኑቢያ የመጀመሪያ ከተማ በቃራማ ሥልጣኔ ያስፋፋ ነበር። በ8000 BC ከሱማሌ እስከ ኑቢያ ሱዳን ድረስ ተስፋፍቶ ይኖር ነበር ። ኦሮሞ የሰው ዘር ግንድ የሉሲ ዕሙቡጥ የአፍሪካ አባት የኢትዮጲያ ሕዝብ የዘር ማህጸን የታሪክ መሰረት የአክሱም መስራች ነው። ደራሲ ዱርሲላ ዱንጂ የክሱም ሃውልት የኩሽ ሕዝብ ቅርስ መሆኑን ያረጋገጠችው የገለጽኳቸው መረጃዎችን ስለምታውቅ ይመስላል። የአክሱም ሃውልቶች ብጠየቁ የኦሮሞ ቅርሶች መሆናቸውን ያረጋግጣሉ። https://www.facebook.com/aloromo/posts/1694211313939336

26. OromianEconomist - June 11, 2017

======አልማዝ መኮና የቅማንቱ ሰዉ፣=====
በአማራ ክልል ትግል ላይ ያሉት ብሔረሰቦች፤
በአማራ ስም የምንቀሳቀሱትም ይሁኑ፣በውሸት አንድነት
ማወናበጃ ጊዜያቸውን የሚያጠፉ ኃይሎችን ከሁሉም
ነገር በላይ የሚያንገበግባቸው፣አንድነቱ ሳይሆን፣የኦሮሞ
ህዝብ ለራሱ መብት የሚያደርገው ትግል ነው።አብዛኛው
የፕሮፖጋንዳና የስም ማጥፋት ዘመቻ የሚካሄደውም በኦሮሞ
ታጋዮች፣በኦሮሞ ታሪክና በኦሮሞ አክትቭስቶች ላይ ነው።
ለዚህ ስጣደፉ ደግሞ በጓሮ በር እየገባ ጉድ እየሰራቸው
ያለውን ከነሱ የተጽዕኖ ክልል ወጥቶ ብዙ የተጓዘውን የቅማንትን፣የቤተ እሥራኤሎችን፣የአርጎባን፣የአገውንና
የወልቃይትን ጉዳይ ይረሱታል። እጅግ ከልክ አልፈው
“ኦሮሞ ከኢትዮጵያ ምድር መሬትም ሀገርም የለውም”
እስከማለት ደርሰዋል።-“የኦሮሞ ልጆች ብቻ የኢትዮጵያን
የጭቆናና የግፍ ታሪኮች ከለምንም ጠፍጥፈው ያቀርባሉ”
ብለውም ይከሳሉ።የኢትዮጵያን መንግሥታት ግፎች ከኦሮሞ ልጆች ጋር ሆነው የታገሉትንና ዛሬም ለህዝቦቻቸው መብትና
ዕኩልነት የሚታገሉትን፣የአንድ ቋንቋ የበላይነትንና በውሸት
የሚመሠረት አንድነትን የማይሹትን ለመጥቀስ አይፈልጉም።በኃይለ ሥላሴ ዘመን ከኦሮሞ ልጆች ጋር ሆነው
በመጫና ቱላማ ማህበር ሥር ተደራጅተው ስለ ህዝባቸው መብት ስታገሉ የነበሩትን የሞቻውን ቀኛዝማች ኃይሌ ዴኖምሮን፣የቢኔሻንጉሉን ደጃዝማች አብዱረህማን ሆጃሌን፣
የሲዳማውን ወልደ አማኑኤል ዱባሌን፣የወለይታውን ፊታውራሪ ደስታ ጦናን፣የጋሞውን ፊታውራሪ ካታን፣ የሀዲያውን አቶ ማሞ ኮምኦልቻን፣የአፋሩን ተወላጅ በለምበራስ አይዳ ሒሳአሎንና ሌሎችን እነ ኤርታሞ ኤረቻ፣በሻ ጎዱ፣ ሙሉ መኛ፣ኦብሴ በራቆን የመሳሰሉትን የደቡብ ልጆች ማንሳት አይፈልጉም። ዛሬም ቢሆን የህዝቦች የመብት ጥያቄ የሚይዙትንና የሚጨብጡትን ስያሳጣቸው እያዬን፣ታሪካቸው ለፈጠረው ችግር መፍትሔ ከመፈለግ ኦሮሞን ይከሳሉ።
“The hidden Jews of Ethiopia” ስለ ተበለው ፍልም
መሰራት የተሰማውን እንድገልጽ በጋዜጠኛ የተጠየቀው
የቤተ እሥራኤል (ፈላሻ) ተወላጅ አበበ ዴባይ በወገኖቹ ላይ
ይደርስ የነበረውን ግፍ …”እኛን የሚያስቡት ቀን ቀን በሰባአዊ
ፍጡርነት፣ማታ ማታ ደግሞ ጅቦች እንደሆኔን ተደርጎ ነው።ማንተታችንን ለመደበቅ አምልኮአችንን በሚስጢር
ለማከሄድ የተገደድን ሰዎች ነበርን” በማለት ኦርቶዶክስንና
የአማራን ተጽዕኖ በምሬት ገልጧል።
ቋንቋው ልጠፋ ትንሽ ቀርቶት የነበረው የአርጎባ ህዝብን ምንነት አህመድ አብዱላህ የተበለው የብሔሩ ተወላጅና
የኢትዮጽያ ጥናት እንስቲቱዩት ባልደረባ የነበረ ሰው
የኛን ስም የሰጡን “አረብ ገባ”የሚለውን ቃል ተጠቅመው ነው።የሀበሻ ነግሥታት እስልምናን እንደ ህዝብ ሃይማኖት
የማይቀበሉት ስለነበረ፣”መጤዎች ናቸው” ለማለት አስበው የሰየሙልን ነው ብሎ ይገልጻል።
አንዳንዶቹ የግፉ ሰለባዎች እንደሚጠቁሙት የአገውን ህዝብ በሚመለከት፣ አንድ የምገርም አባባል ነበር። …”አገው በእግዝአብሔር ፍት ከቶውኑ ጽድቅ አያገኝም”
ይሉታል። ምክንያቱን ስገልጹትም” በቋንቋቸው ለመናገር ስሞክሩ ወይም ስለማንነት ስያነሱ ነው።በመሆኑም “ሳንወድ አማራ ነን ብለን ኖርን” በማለት ይገልጻሉ።ትንሽ ከአገው ህዝብ ብሶት፤
እነሱ ቀማኞች …ራሳቸውም ዳኞች
እነሱ ገዳዮች…መልሰው ከሳሾች
እነሱ ልፈርዱ…ራሳቸው ዕማኞች
እነሱ ብልጣ ብልጥ…እኛ ሁሌም ሞኞች
እነሱ ነግሥትታ…እኛ ተገዥዎች
እነሱ ከልመሩ…ሀገሩ የሚጠፋ
እነሱንም ከኛው…ይዞን ሁሉም ይጥፋ!
የተባለላቸውን በትዝታ ያሰማሉ።የቅማንትን ህዝብ በሚመለከት ቀጥሎ ያለውን በትእግሥት እንድታነቡ
እጋብዛሌሁ።
ጁላይ 19, 2017 አድማስ ጋዜጣ
በአሁኑ ጊዜ በሃገራችን የብሄር እውቅና ጥያቄ ከሚያነሱ ህዝቦች መካከል በአማራ ክልል ጎንደርና አካባቢዋ ነዋሪ የሆኑት “ቅማንቶች” ተጠቃሽ ናቸው፡፡ ይህን የቅማንቶች ታሪክና የብሄር ጥያቄ ለመጀመሪያ ጊዜ ወደ አደባባይ ይዘው ብቅ ያሉት ደግሞ ከኒውዮርክ “ዩኒቨርሳል ፒስኮርፕ ኮርፖሬሽን” የሰላም አምባሳደርነት ማዕረግ ያገኙት አቶ ነጋ ጌጡ ናቸው፡፡ በጎንደር የፋርማሲ ባለቤት የሆኑት አቶ ነጋ፤ ከ1984 ዓ.ም ጀምሮ የቅማንትን ብሄረሰብ ለማስተዋወቅና የብሄር ጥያቄያቸው እንዲመለስ ብዙ መስዋዕትነት እንደከፈሉ ይናገራሉ፡፡ ምላሽ ለማግኘት ያልገቡበት የመንግስት መዋቅር እንደሌለም የሰላም አምባሳደሩ ይገልፃሉ፡፡
የፌዴሬሽን ምክር ቤት የብሄረሰቡን የእውቅና ጥያቄ ተቀብሎ ከመረመረ በኋላ በድጋሚ እንዲጠና ትዕዛዝ ማስተላለፉን አቶ ነጋ ይናገራሉ፡፡ “የብሄረሰቡ ጥያቄ መቼም ተዳፍኖ አይቀርም፤ ቅማንት ቅማንት ነው፤ ማንም አይሽረውም” ባይ ናቸው፡፡
የአዲስ አድማስ ከፍተኛ ሪፖርተር አለማየሁ አንበሴ
ለስራ ጎንደር በቆየበት ወቅት ከአቶ ነጋ ጌጡ ጋር በብሄረሰቡ ማንነት፣ ባህልና ቋንቋ ዙሪያ አውግቷል፡፡
እስቲ ስለቅማንት ብሄረሰብ ማንነት በዝርዝር ይንገሩኝ?
የቅማንት ብሄረሰብ ቀደምት ህዝብ ከሚባሉት ውስጥ አንዱ ነው፡፡ መገለጫው በኛ በቅማንቶች አባት፣ እሚታ፣ አያት፣ ቅድመ አያት – ቅማንት – ምንዥላት – እንጃለት ብለን 7ኛ ቤት ድረስ ይሄዳል። 6ኛው ዙር ምንዥላት የሚባለው አሁን ጠፍቷል፡፡ አሁን ያለው የመጨረሻው ቅማንት ነው፡፡ እነዚህ ከአባት ተጀምሮ ወደ ላይ የሚጠሩት የዘር ተዋረዶች ናቸው፡፡ ኢትዮጵያዊ ህብረተሰብ “እሚታ”ን አያውቀውም፡፡ ስም ከነአያት እየተባለ ነው የሚፃፈው፡፡ በኛ ግን ከአባት ቀጥሎ እሚታ፣ ከእሚታ ቀጥሎ አያት ይከተላል፡፡ አሁን እኔ ስጠራ ነጋ ጌጤ ለምለሙ ተስፋዬ ነው፡፡ እናንተ ግን ስትጠሩኝ ነጋ ጌጤ ተስፋዬ ብላችሁ ነው፡፡ ምክንያቱም እሚታዬን ፃፍ አላላችሁኝም፡፡ በብሄረሰቡ አጠራር የአባት ስም መጀመሪያ ይሆንና የልጅ ስም ይከተላል፡፡ ለምሳሌ የእኔ “ጌጤ ነጋ” ነው በብሄረሰቡ አጠራር፡፡
እንግዲህ ቅማንት ማለት ስንተረጉመው፤ “ከመንታ” ማለት ነው፡፡ ከመንታ ማለት “አንተ ካም ነህ” ማለት ነው፡፡ በመፅሃፍ ቅዱስ የምናውቃቸው ኖህ፣ ሶስት ልጆች አሏቸው – ሴም፣ ያፌት፣ ካም ይባላሉ፡፡ አፍሪካውያን የካም ልጆች ናቸው። የካም ልጆች ደግሞ ኩሽ፣ ምዝራይብ፣ ፉጥ እና ከነአን ናቸው፡፡
እንግዲህ ይሄ ሁሉ የዘረዘርነው ዘር እየተዋለደ ተበተነ፤ ቅማንት ግን እንዳለ አለ፣ አገው፣ አርጎባ፣ ሞረት፣ ብሌን፣ ከይላ (ፈላሻ) አሉ፡፡ ጋፋት አሁን ጠፍቷል፤ በቆዳ መፋቅ ነበር የሚተዳደሩት፡፡ ሞረት ደግሞ ሸማና የእጅ ጥበብ ሰሪ ናቸው፤ ሰሜን ሸዋ ውስጥ ይኖራሉ፡፡ አርጎባ ደግሞ በተለያዩ ክልሎች ተበጣጥሶ የተቀመጠ ነው፡፡ አገውም ደቡብና ሰሜን አገው ተብሎ ተበታትኖ አለ፡፡ መሃል ላይ ያለው እንግዲህ ቅማንት ነው፡፡ ቅማንት ከዘረዘርናቸው ብሄሮች በቁጥር በብዛት ይበልጣል፡፡ በጎንደር ውስጥ በ4 ወረዳዎች ከሚሊዮን በላይ የሆኑ ቅማንቶች አሉ፡፡ ግን በጣም የታፈነ ብሄር ነው፡፡ እንዲታወቅ አይፈለግም፡፡ ከባድ ጫና አለብን፡፡
ለምንድነው እንዲታወቅ የማይፈለገው?
ለኛም ሚስጢር ሆኖብናል፡፡ ወደፊት ይህን ሚስጢር እናወጣው ይሆናል፡፡ አሁን እያጠናነው ነው፡፡ የክልሉ መንግስት ለኛ እውቅና ለመስጠት የሞት ያህል ነው የሆነበት፣ ለምን እንደሆነ አይገባንም፡፡ በታሪክ ሂደት እየቀነሰ መጣ እንጂ ይህ ብሄር ከቀደምት የአፍሪካ ብሎም የኢትዮጵያ ዘሮች የፖለቲካና ማህበራዊ ስፋት የነበረው ብሄር ነው፡፡ እኛ ቅማንትን ስንገልፅ ከመጀመሪያው የዘር መነሻ ጀምረን ነው፡፡ አማራነት የተስፋፋው ከክርስትና ሃይማኖት መስፋፋት ጋር ተያይዞ ነው፡፡ አገው፣ ቅማንቱ፣ ከይላው ወዘተ ሲጠመቅ አማራ ተባለ እንጂ እገሌ፣ እገሌን ወለደ እያልክ የአማራን የዘር መነሻ አታስቀምጠውም፡፡ ይሄ ችግር ስላለ ቅማንት ስሙ እንዳይነሳ ይፈለጋል፡፡
እኛ ስለ ጎንደር፣ ስለፋሲል ግንብ የሚወራውን ሁሉ በሬዲዮ እየሰማን ከመሳቅ ውጪ በአሁን ሰዓት ምንም ማለት አንችልም፡፡ ስለፋሲልና ስለጎንደር መናገር የሚችለው ቅማንት ብቻ ነበር፡፡ ሌላ ማንም ሊናገር አይችልም ነበር፡፡ ግን ማንም ተነስቶ ሲዋሽ ስታየው ደምህን ያፈላዋል፡፡
የጎንደር ነገስታት የቅማንት ብሄር አባላት ናቸው ነው የሚሉት?
ባይሆንም ስለታሪኩ መናገር የሚችለው ቅማንት ነው፡፡ እርግጥ እነዚህ ነገስታት ከሸዋ ተሰደው የመጡ ናቸው፡፡ በዚያ ሰዓት ደግሞ ሸዋም ቢሆን ቅማንት ነው የነበረው፡፡ ነገር ግን አስቀድሞ ወደ ክርስትና የተለወጠ በመሆኑ፣ ቅማንትነትን እየተወ አማራ ተባለ፡፡ እነዚህ ሰዎች ወደ ጎንደር ለመግባት ሲሞክሩ፣ ቅማንት አላስገባ ብሏቸው 70 ዓመት ፈጅቶባቸዋል፡፡ በኋላ ነው በስንት መከራ የገቡት፡፡
ቅማንት እንግዲህ የሰሜን ኢትዮጵያን ከፈጠሩት አንዱ ነው፡፡ ከከነአን ቅማንት ሲወጣ፣ ከኩሽ ደግሞ የኦሮሞ ብሄርን እናወጣለን፡፡ኦሮሞዎች ለእኛ ወንድሞቻችን ናቸው፡፡ ምዝራይብ የሚባለው ደግሞ መነሻው ካይሮ ነች፡፡ ጥንት ምስር ተብላ ትጠራለች፡፡ በዚያ አካባቢ ያሉት ህዝቦች የምዝራይብ ዘሮች ናቸው፡፡
የቅማንት ሃይማኖት ምንድን ነው?
አሁን ከብሄረሰቡ 98 በመቶ የሚሆነው የተለያዩ የክርስትና እምነቶች ተከታይ ነው፡፡ ሙስሊምም አለ፡፡ የቀድሞውን ህገ ልቦናም የሚከተሉ አሉ፡፡ የእነ አብርሃም ሃይማኖት የሆነው ህገ ልቦና የቅማንቶች ቀዳሚ እምነት ነው፡፡ የህገ ልቦናው መሰረቶች የሆኑትን 5 መመሪያዎች ይከተላሉ፡፡
5ቱ መመሪያዎች ምንድን ናቸው?
በአይሁድ እምነት ካሉት 10 ትዕዛዛት 5 ያህሉ ማለት ነው፡፡ ሙሉ ለሙሉ ባላስታውሳቸውም አትስረቅ፣ አትግደል፣ አታመንዝር ወዘተ የሚባሉት ናቸው፡፡ ቄሶች አሉ፣ በጫካ ውስጥ ሆነው የአብርሃምን ቅዳሴ ይቀድሳሉ፡፡
ለቅማንት ብሄር መዳከም ምክንያቱ ምንድን ነው?
በሌላው የሚደርስበት ጫና ነው፡፡ በተለይም የክርስትና እምነት መስፋፋት፡፡ ክርስትና በአክሱም በኩል መጣ፣ ያመነ የተጠመቀ ይድናል የሚለው ታወጀ፡፡ ቅማንቶች ደግሞ “አባሽቲ ሸምዲ ደደብቲ” አሉ “ባባትህ እደር በሸማህ ተቀበር” ማለት ነው። በአዲስ መጤ ሃይማኖት አትታለል ማለት ነው።በዚያው ከተከዜ ወደዚህ በሶስት አቅጣጫ ፍልሰት ሆነ፡፡ አንደኛው አቅጣጫ በዋግ በኩል ነው፡፡ ዋግ የደረሱ የቅማንት አባቶች ወደ ሰሜን አቅጣጫ የመጡት ደግሞ በብዛት የህገ ልቦናው የሃይማኖት መሪዎች ናቸው፡፡ ቦታው ሲደርሱ “ድቢ ሸልሚ ጋጋ ከውጋላትን ነው” አሉ። በተራራ የጨለመ ሃገር ውስጥ ገብተናል የሚል ትርጓሜ አለው፡፡ በወልቃይት በኩል የመጡት ደግሞ “ውላጋ ከውጋላትን ነው” አሉ፡፡ እኛ ሜዳ በሆነ ሃገር ውስጥ ገብተናል ማለት ነው፡፡ ስለዚህ የሰፈሩት ከሰሜን ተራራ አንስቶ እስከ ፓዌ ተራራ ነው፡፡ ወደ ተራራ የገፋቸውም ጦርነት ነው፡፡
ታሪኩን እንዴት ሊያውቁ ቻሉ? ጥናቶችስ አድርገዋል?
የአባቴ አባት በጣም ነብይ ነበሩ፡፡ አንድ ምክር መከሩኝ፤ ይሄን ህዝብ የምታስጠራው አንተ ነህ፡፡ ጊዜው ሲደርስ ያለፍርሃት ለብሄረሰቡ መብት ታገል፣ ስሙን እንደገና አንሳው፤ ያኔ የኛ ህዝብ ቋንቋውን ያሳድጋል፤ ማንነቱ ይከበራል፤ እንደገና ቅማንትነት ይነግሳል አሉኝ፡፡ የሳቸውን ቃል ይዤ ተነሳሁ። በዚህም ብዙ መከራና ፈተና ገጥሞኛል፡፡ በፊት ጥቂት ሆነን እንታገል ነበር፤ ዛሬ ህዝቡ ሁሉ ሆ! ብሎ ተነስቶ እየታገለ ነው፡፡ መጀመሪያ ላይ ህዝቡ “ቅማንት ነኝ” ማለትን እንደ ሃፍረት ይቆጥረው ነበር። የቅማንት ብሄረሰብ የልማት ማህበርን በ1984 መሰረትኩ። በዚያ ማህበር ስም እየዞርኩ “እኔ ቅማንት ነኝ” እያላችሁ ራሳችሁን ግለፁ፡፡ ህገ መንግስቱ ለኛ መጥቷል፤ ተጠቃሚ መሆን አለብን” እያልኩ ከሃገር ሃገር በእግሬ እየዞርኩ አስተማርኩ፡፡ እግረ መንገዴንም “የቅማንት ህዝብ ታሪክ” የምትል ትንሽ መፅሐፍ ፃፍኩ፡፡ እሷ ከወጣች በኋላ በብሄረሰቡ ዙሪያ ውይይቱ ተስፋፋ፡፡ መፅሃፏ ትኩሳት አጫረች። በዚህ የተነሳ ብዙ መከራ ደርሶብኛል፡፡
አሁን ታዲያ ምን ውጤት አገኛችሁ?
ከክልሉ መንግስት እና ከፊውዳሉ ጋር የነበረው ትግል ቀላል አልነበረም፡፡ ቅማንት አይደለንም ስንል ኖረን እንዴት ቅማንት ነን እንላለን የሚል ሃፍረት ያደረባቸው፣ ያንን የስነ ልቦና ዝቅጠት ለማላቀቅ ብዙ ጊዜ ፈጅቷል፡፡ አሁን አማራውም ከኛ ጋ ነው፡፡ ለኛ የሚወግኑ አማራዎች፤ አገው የብሄርነት እውቅና ካገኘ ቅማንት ለምን አያገኝም ብለው ራሳቸው ጥያቄውን እየደገፉ ነው፡፡ ቅማንቱም “በቅማንትነቴ እኮራለሁ” እያለ ዛሬ በግልፅ እየተናገረ ነው፡፡ አመለካከቱ ተለውጧል፡፡
የቋንቋው ት/ቤቶችን በየቀበሌው ቤት ተከራይተን በመክፈት ማስተማሩን ተያይዘነዋል፡፡ የመንግስት ት/ቤትማ ማን አድርሶን፡፡ መንግስት እኮ እንደ ተቃዋሚ ነው የሚቆጥረን፡፡ እኔ በዚህ በጣም አፍሬያለሁ፡፡ በዚህ መልኩ አንዳንዶች ትግላችንን እያሰናከሉ፣ እስከዛሬ ቢያቆዩትም እግዚሃር ይመስገን አሁን እያለቀ ነው፤ እየተሳካም ነው፡፡
ኦሮሞውና ቅማንቱ አልተቀላቀለም? በአንድ ወቅት ኦሮሞዎች የሰሜን ኢትዮጵያን እስከማስተዳደር ደርሰው ነበር ብዬ ነው ጥያቄውን ያነሳሁት…
ኦሮሞው፣ አገው እና ቅማንት የተቀራረቡ ህዝቦች ናቸው፡፡ ሜሮይ ላይ የሃማቲክ ህዝቦች የምንላቸው አገው፣ ቅማንት የመሳሰሉት ናቸው። የኩሸቲክ ህዝቦች የሜሮይ ስልጣኔ ሲወድቅ ካርቱምን የተቆጣጠሩ ናቸው፡፡ ከኦሮሞ፣ ከአገው፣ ከቅማንትና ከሌሎችም ህዝቦች የተውጣጣ ነው። በክርስትና የተነሳ ህዝቡ በሙሉ አንድ ብሄር ሆኖ አማራ ተባለ። ኦሮሞውም በዚህ ሂደት አማራ ሆኗል፡፡ ቅማንት እንደውም
ቅማንትን ማጥፋት ማለት ትልቅ ቅርስ ማጥፋት ማለት ነው። ነገ ቅማንት ራሱን ሲያስተዳድር ጉዱ ይታያል፡፡ የታፈኑ እውነቶች ይወጣሉ፡፡
ቅማንቶችን በመልክ እና በቁመና አይተን ከሌላው ልንለያቸው እንችላለን? በባህል ረገድስ?
የቀድሞው ቅማንት የዛሬ አማራ የዛሬ፣ ትግሬ ብለን ነው የምንወስደው፡፡ ባህሉም ሁሉ የቅማንት ነው፡፡ የጎንደር ዘፈንና እስክስታ የቅማንት ነው። የነይርጋ ዱባለ ዘፈንና ዜማ የቅማንት ነው፣ ግን ሲዘፍኑ የቅማንትን ምድር ጎጡን አይጠሩትም፡፡ እሚጠሩት ቅማንት የሌለበትን ቦታ ነው፡፡ ትግሬ፣ አማራ፣ ቅማንት ነው፡፡ ባላገር ሄደህ ብታየው ምንም ልትለየው አትችልም፡፡ ምክንያቱም የዛሬ ማንነቱን የያዘው በእምነት ነው፡፡ ክርስትናን በመቀበሉ እንጂ በደም አልተለወጠም፡፡
ጎንደር የሚለው ቃል ትርጉሙ ምንድንነው?
የጌታ መነሻ ማለት ነው፡፡
የጌታ መነሻ ማለት?
እንግዲህ አንዱን የውሸት ታሪክ ትንሽ ልምዘዝልህ ማለት ነው፡፡
አፄ ፋሲል ቤተ-መንግስቱን ከመትከላቸው በፊት በቅማንቶች ህገ ልቦና እምነት ይቀደስበት ነበር፡፡ ሲቀድሱ በዜማው መሃል “ጎሃይደር” ይላሉ፤ ትርጉሙ “ጌታው ቢነሱ” የሚል ነው፡፡ ጎንደር የሚለው ስም ከዚህ የመጣ እንጂ እንደሚባለው “ከተራራው ጎን እደር .. በዚያ እደር” የሚለው አይደለም፡፡ ከትግራይም የመጡ ሰዎች “ወይኒሰይኒ” የሚባሉ ህዝቦች ናቸው፡፡ ነገሩ “አፍ ያለሽ ያግባሽ ወይስ ከብት ያለሽ” ነው፡፡ በወቅቱ ቅማንት አፍ የለውም፤ መስማት ብቻ ነበር ያለው እድል፡፡ እና ታሪክ ሁሉ ተዘበራርቆ ያስቅሃል… እኔ አንዳንዴ አምርሬ አለቅሳለሁ፡፡ በሚሊኒየሙ ጊዜ አንድ የቴሌቪዥን ጋዜጠኛ ስለ ጎንደር ነግሬው፣ ሙሉ በሙሉ በኔ ስም ሌላ ታሪክ ነው ያወጣው። ይህን ትክክለኛውን ለእናንተ የነገርኩትን ታሪክ አይደለም ያቀረበው፡፡
የጥንቱ ቅማንት በምን ነበር የሚተዳደረው?
በእርሻ ነው፡፡ የእህል ምግብ፣ የእንስሳት ምግብ፤ ይሄን ብሉ፤ ያንን አትብሉ… ተብሎ የተመረጠው በቅማንቶች አይደለም እንዴ? ዋናው የቅማንት ታሪክ እኮ የነበረው አዲግራት ላይ ነው፡፡ ትግሬ ማለት በቅማንትኛ “ሰው ሳይመጣ” ማለት ነው። ከዚያ ደግሞ እንደርታ ተባለ፤ “ሰው መጣ” ማለት ነው፡፡ “አጋመ” ቅማንትኛ ነው፤ “የኛ ያልሆነ” ማለት ነው፡፡
ይሄ ትውልድ ቅማንትን አላወቀውም፡፡ በ1987 ይሁን… በእርግጠኝነት አላስታውሰውም፡፡ አልማዝ መኮ የምትባል አፈጉባኤ ለሶስት ሰአት ቢሮዋ ስታነጋግረኝ፣ ቅዳሴዎቹን ሁሉ አስደምጫት ነበር። እሷም “ቅማንት ሲባል ተማሪ እያለሁ እሰማለሁ፤ እንዲህ ያለ ነገር ግን አይመስለኝም ነበር” አለችና “ግን የአማራው መንግስት እውቅናውን የሚሰጣችሁ አይመስለኝም፤ ያለፉሃል አለችኝ፡፡ እንዴት አድርገህ እንደምታልፈው አላውቅም፤ እኔ በበኩሌ የብሔረሰቡን
ራሱን የቻለ ህዝብ መሆን ዕውቅና ዛሬውኑ ቢሰጥህ ደስ ይለኛል፤ የክልልህ መንግስት ግን አስቸጋሪ ነው” አለችኝ፡፡ እሷም መሯት ስለነበር በዚያው ሄደች፡፡
ግራሃም ሃንኰክ ደግሞ በ“Sign and the Seal” መፅሃፉ የቅማንት ጉዳይ ሚስጥር ነው ብሎታል። እውነት እልሃለሁ ቅማንት ብዙ መከራን የተቀበለ የኢትዮጵያ ሚስጢር ነው፡፡

27. OromianEconomist - June 11, 2017
28. OromianEconomist - July 24, 2017

Gada system, an indigenous democratic socio-political system of the Oromo https://ich.unesco.org/en/RL/gada-system-an-indigenous-democratic-socio-political-system-of-the-oromo-01164

29. OromianEconomist - July 24, 2017

Oromia: Qallačča and Bokkuu: Themes in the ancient Qaallu institution and rock paintings of Hararqee— implications for social semiosis and history of Ethiopia https://www.academia.edu/9225466/Qalla%C4%8D%C4%8Da_and_Bokkuu_Themes_in_the_ancient_Qaallu_institution_and_rock_paintings_of_Hararqee_implications_for_social_semiosis_and_history_of_Ethiopia

30. OromianEconomist - January 15, 2018

ሙሴ አማራሚ አጥንቱ ታሪኩ ኦሮሞ ነው።

Ammaarami አማራሚ ማለት ተዘገን ማለት ነው።

በኦሮሚፋ ሙሴ ማለት ዛለ ተልፈሰፈሰ ማለት ነው

የሙሴ እናት ጃጀቤ የሌዊ ጎሳ ናት። አባቱ አማራሚ የሆባር (ህብሩ) ጎሳ ነው። ሆበር የግብጽ ኦሮሞ ጎሳ ነበር።ሆበር ከ100,000 ዓመት በፊት ከግብጽ ተነስቶ ወደ አሁኗ እስራኤል ሀገር ሄዶ በተራራ ላይ ሰፈረ። ተራራውን ሴና ብሎ ጠራው። የሴና ሥም ዛሬ ተለውጦ ሲናይ ተራራ ተብሎ ይጠራል። በኦሮሞ ሴና ማለት ታሪክ ማለት ነው። ህብሩ የእስራኤል ምድር የቆረቆረ መጽሐፍ ቅዱስ ጻፈ ባለታሪክ ሕዝብ ነው። መጽሐፍ ቅዱስ የጻፉ ኦሮሞዎች ለመሆናቸው በ48 ሐዋሪያትና ነቢያቶች ሥም ዝርዝር ተረጋግጧል። ተጨማሪ መረጃ በመጽሐፍ ቅዱስ ውስጥ የሚገኙ ታዋቂ ሰዎችና የቦታ ሥሞች የኦሮሞ ሥም ሆነው መገኘታቸው። ምክንያቱም መጽሐፍ ቅዱስ የጻፈው ሆበር ህብሩ ኦሮሞ በመሆኑ ነው። የእስራኤል የዘርግንድ ሆበር በዛሬዋ እስራኤል ምድር የሰፈረው ከ100,000 ዓመት በፊት እንደነበር የዓለም ታሪክ መረጃዎች የረጋግጣሉ። የእስራኤል የዘር ግንድ ጥቁር ሕዝብ ነው የሚባለው በዚህ እውነተኛ ታሪክ ምክንያት ነው። ሆበር ኦሮሞ ለመሆኑ 3ኛው መረጃ የዘር ሀረጉ መጠሪያ ሥሞች የኦርሞ መሆናቸው ነው። ለምሳሌ ሆበር ሆባን ወለደ፤ ሆባ ኮታ ወለደ፤ ኮታ አማራሚ ወለደ; አማራሚ ሙሴ ወለደ፤ሙሴ ጎርሳም ወለደ። የሙሴ ወንድም ኣራን እህቱ ማራም ሚስቱ ጃፑራ( ዛፑራ) ይባላሉ። የጃፑሩ አባት ቄስ ዮታሬ ይባላል። ሙሴ የዮተሬ በግ ጠባቂ ሆኖ እያገለገለ ሴት ልጁ ጃፑራን አገባ። ሙሴ ኦሮሞ በይሆን ኖሮ በማን ቋንቋ ተግባብቶ የኦሮሞ ቄስ የዮተሬ የበግ ጠባቂ ይሆናል?። በምን ቋንቋ ተግባብቶ የኦሮሞ ልጅ ጃፑራን ሊያገባ ይችላል? ሙሴ የጸፋቸው 6 መጽሐፎች በኦሮሞ ቋንቋ toora (ቶራ )ተብለው ጠራሉ፠ ከላይ የተገለጹ ታሪካዊ ሥምች በሙሉ የኦሮሞ ሥም ናቸው። በእነዚህ መረጃዎች መሰረት ሙሴ አጥንቱ ታሪኩ ኦሮሞ ነው። የሙሴ 10ቱ ትእዛዛት ህጎች (10 commandment) የሚባሉት የኦሮሞ መንግሥታዊ አገዛዝ ህጎች ነበሩ። ምክንያቱም ሙሴ ሳይወለድ አፍሪካዊያን በ10ቱ ትእዛዛት ህጎች ይገዙ እንደ ነበር የታሪክ መረጃዎች ይመሰክራሉ።

ኦሮሞ በንጉሳዊ ህጎች መተዳደር የጀመረው በ 4470 BC ነበር። የመጀመሪያው ንጉሥ ኦርማ ( ኦሪ )ይባላል። የኦሪት ዘመን የኦሪት ህግ የሚባለው ከንጉሥ ኦሪ የመጣ መሆኑን የጥናት መረጃዎች ያሳያሉ። በኦሪ+ ት =ኦሪት ይሆናል። የኦሪት ዘመን ከኦሮሞ በስተቀር ሌላ ባለቤት የለውም። ምክንያቱም ኦሮሞ የሰው ዘር ግንድ የታሪክ መሠረት የሙሴ አስተማሪ ነው።

ሙሴ በበትሩ ቀይ ባህርን መቶ ለሁለት ከፍሎ በማድረቅ እስሬኤላዊያንን ከግብጽ ባርነነት ነጻ አውጥቶ አሻገራቸው የሚባሉት የኦሮሞ ጎሳ ናቸው። ምክንያቱም የእስራኤል የዘር ግንድ ሆበር ህብሩ ኦሮሞ ነው። ከላይ እንደተገለጸው ከ100,000 ዓመት በፊት የእስራኤል ምድር የቆረቆረው የሆበር ጎሳ በደረሰበት ረሃብ ምክንያት ከእስራኤል ወደ ጥንታዊ ሀገሩ ግብጽ ተመልሶ የመጣው በ1680 BC ነበር። እብራዊያን ከ430 ዓመታት ግብጽ ቆይታ በኋላ በሙሴ መሪነት ወደ ሁለተኛ ሀገራቸው እስራኤል ተመልሰው የገቡት በ1250 BC ነበር።የእስራኤል ጥንታዊ ሥም አስረኤ ይባላል። በኦሮሞ አስራኤ ማለት ወደዚህ አጋደለ (tilted) ሆነ ማለት ነው። ግብጽ የካምአት ኦሮሞ ምድር የህብሩ ጥንታዊት ሀገር ነበረች። በኦሮሞ ከምአት ማለት አንተ የትኛው ነህ ማለት ነው። ወደ ግብጽ የሸሸው አስራኤላዊው ህብሩ ብቻ አይደለም። ሞጊ/ማጊ (Maagii/moogii) የሚባል ሰው የእስራኤል አምባገነን ንጉሥ ሄሮድስ ህጻናት እንዲገደሉ ትእዛዝ ማስተላለፉን ሰምቶ ለዮሴፍና ማሪያም ነገሪቸው። ህጸን እየሱስን ይዘው ወደ ግብጽ እንድሸሹ መከራቸው። የዮሴፍ እውነተኛ ሥም ጋያሲ የእየሱስ እውነተኛ ሥም ሃያሱ ነበር። በኦሮሞ ጋያሲ ማለት ወደ ውጭ አውጣቸው ማለት ነው። አያሱ ይፍሰስ ወይም ያውጣቸው ማለት ነው። እየሱስ በተወለደ ጊዜ ሕዝብ ከተለያዬ ቦታ መጥቶ ሰገደለት።በመጽሐፍ ቅዱስ ሰባ ሰገል ይባላል። በኦሮሞ ሰባ ሰገል ማለት የተለያዬ ሕዝብ ማለት ነው። ስለዚህ ሕዝቦቹ ኦሮሞች ነበሩ። ከላይ የተገጹ ሥሞች አሰራኤ፣ ማጊ ፣ሳባ ሰገል፣የከምአት፣የሆበር ፣የሲናይ ፣ የዮሴፍ፣ የኢየሱስ፣ የሙሴና ቤተሰቦቹ ሥም የኦሮሞ ነው። ስለዚህ ኦሮሞ የእስራኤል ዘር መሠረት ነው።

የዚህ ታሪክ መነሻ ምክንያት የለማ መገርሣ በሙሴ መመሰል ነው። ሙሴ ቀይ ባህርን ለሁለት ከፍሎ እስራኤላዊያን እንደ አሻገረው ለማ ጠቅላይ ሚኒስቴር ሆኖ የኢትዮጲያን ሕዝብ ከወያኔ የጭቆና በህር ነጻ እንደሚያወጣ ተደርጎ በመቅረቡ ነው። ለማ የኢትዮጲያ የባርነት ባህር አድርቆ ኦሮሞና ሌሎች ሕዝቦችን ከፈርኦኖች እጅ አውጥቶ ወደነጻነት ዓለም ሊያመጣ ይችላል የሚለው ትንቢት እውን የሚሆነው እንደሙሴ በቆራጥነት የባርነት ባህር መትቶ ማድረቅ ከቻለ ነው። ከዚህ በፊት በተደጋጋሚ እንደ ገለጽኩት ለማ አንድ ሰው ነው። ብቻውን ታሪክ መስራት አይችልም በኦሮሞ ኃይል ከልታገዘ በስተቀር ምንም ለውጥ ማምጣት አይችል። ለማ በደም ኦሮሞ ቢሆን የኢትዮጲያ ልጅ ነው። ለኢትዮጲያ ሕዝቦች አንድነት ስለሚታገል ከሕዝቡ ሙሉ ድጋፍ ያስፈልገዋል የሀገር መሪ ሆኖ እንዲያገለግል ። ምክንያቱም አማራ፣ ትግሬ፣ ወላይታ ፣የኢትዮጲያ መሪ ሆነው ሰላም አንድነትና ነጻነት ማምጣት አልቻሉም። ከዚህ በኋላ ተራው ያለጥርጥር የሰላም ዘምባባ የሆነ ኦሮሞ ሀገር ምራት አለበት። የሚቀጥለው ጠቅላይ ሚኒስቴር የኦሮሞ ልጆች ለማ መገርሣ ፣መረራ ጉዲና፣ በቀለ ገርባ ከልሆኑ የኦፕዴኦ መንጋ ጨምሮ ሁሉም ቆርጦ ተነስቶ እንደ ኦነጎ ታጥቆ ጫካ ገብቶ መዋጋት አለበት ። የኦሮሞ ሕዝብ የአመጽ እሳት አቀጣጥሎ ረመጨጡን አፋፍሞ ለባእድ መገዛት የለበትም። ኦሮሞ ከትውልድ ትውልድ ዘለዓለም በባርነት ለመገዛት ያልተፈጠረ መሆኑን አንድነቱን አስተባብሮ ኃያልነቱን ማሳየት አለበት። ስለዚህ ለማ እንደ ሙሴ የባርነት ባህር ለማድረቅ የኢትዮጲያ ሕዝብ አስተባብሮ ጠንክሮ መታገል ይኖርበታል። ይህን መልእክት ለሕዝብ አስተላልፉ የጭቆና ታሪክ አስተምሩ በአንድነት ታገሉ::

The Mosses picture is sample not real
Source:- https://www.facebook.com/utubaa.lammii.127/posts/2084356661787865

31. OromianEconomist - March 15, 2018

The Cushitic Origin of Humanity and Civilisations

Introduction
The portrayal we procure the present of the nations of Cush (Cushite)/Ham (Hamite), the children of Noah, in North & East Africa in past age from the phantom of the Solomonic dynasty, the history thought in Abyssinian high schools, their text books and elsewhere is that they were savages and that, though Abyssinians and Europeans overrun their lands and have made mere subjects of them, they have been in a way, bestowing a great favour on them, since they have brought to them the benisons of Christian Enlightenment.

With objective analysis, however, this paper obliterates and unmakes that inaccurate illustration, wanton falsifications, immorality, intellectual swindle, sham, mischievous tales, and the parable of human reductionism. Hence, it is the step to delineate an authentic portrait of a human heritage, which is infinitely rich, colourful, and varied in the retrograde of orthodox misconceptions. The paper is not only a disinclination itself but also a call for and a provocation of the new generation of historians to critically scrutinise and reinvestigate the orthodox approaches to Cushitic/Hamatic history and then to expose a large number of abusive scholarship authorities on Cushitic studies and it detects that they do not really know the intensity and profoundness of the history of these black African people and nations and the performance these Africans registered in the process of creating, making and shaping the prime civilisations of human societies.

The study acknowledges and advances a strict contest to an orthodox scholarship’s rendition of Egypt as a white civilisation, which arose during the nineteenth century to fortify and intensify European imperialism and racism. Depending on massive evidences from concerned intellectual works from linguistic to archaeology, from history to philosophy, the study authenticates that Egypt was a Cushitic civilisation and that Cushite civilisation was the authentic offspring of the splendid Upper Nile legacy. The Greek civilisation, which has been long unveiled as the birthplace of Western philosophy and thought, owes its roots to the Cushites thoughts and achievements. The original works of Asfaw Beyene (1992)and F.Demie (in Oromia Quarterly, 1998) are giving motivations and also greatly acknowledged.

The study also expresses that radical thinker and multi-genuis African historians such as Diop (1991) have not given due attention to the epic centre of Cushitic civilisation, the land after and Eastern and South Eastern to Nubia, pre-Aksum central Cush, Aksumite Cush and Cushites civilisation southern to Aksum, etc.

The Cushitic Origin of Humanity

When and where did human life first surface on our cosmos? Who contrived the original and prime human culture and civilisation? Ancient Egyptians contended that it was in their homeland, the oldest in the world, the God modelled the first of all human beings out of a handful of ooze soddened by the vivacity of the life giving sanctified and blessed water, the Nile (see, Jackson, 1995).

One of the oldest Cushites history to account for the origin and early development of man and his culture survives in a Greek version of the thesis advanced by the ancient Cushites. This marvellous people paraded in golden times in the region called Kush (Punt) in the Hebrew scriptures and stamped on the present-day upper Nile (see, Jackson, 1995).

Diodorus Siculus, wrote that the Cushites were of the opinion that their country was not only the birthplace of human race and the cradle land of the world’s earliest civilisation, but, indeed, the primal Eden where living things first appeared on Earth, as reported by the Scriptures. Thus, Diodorus was the first European to focus attention on the Cushites asseveration that Upper Nile is the cradle land of world’s earliest civilisation, the original Aden of the human race. Whether by almighty (God) or nature/ evolution (Darwin’s natural selection and survival of the fittest), the Cushite land was not only the birth place of man himself but also for many hundred years thereafter is in the vanguard of all world progress (see Diop, 1991). These are also authenticated by the present archaeological inferences in Oromo tropical fields and rivers valleys.

The original natives of Egypt, both in old and in the latter ages of development, were Cushite and there is every reason for saying that the earliest settlers were came from the Upper Nile.

The Cushitic Origin of Civilisation

There are many things in the manners and customs and religions of the historic Egyptians that suggest that the original home of their human ancestors was in the Upper Nile region and the biblical land of Punt/ Kush (Cush) which include the present day of Cushitic Horn of Africa. hence, historical records showed that the antiquity of Upper Nile Cushitic civilisation had a direct link with the civilisation of ancient Egypt and Babylonian. Hence, the Egyptian and Babylonian civilisations are part and parcel of the entire Cushite civilisation. There is an understanding that Cushites = Egyptians + Babylon + Oromo+ Agau + Somalis + Afars + Sidama + Neolithic Cush + other Cush. There is also an understanding that all the Cushites are branched out (descended ) from their original father Oromo which can be described as Oromo = Noah=Ham= Cush= Egyptian + Bablyon+ Agau + Somali + Afar + Sidama + Neolithic Cush + other Cush. For another advanced form of categorisations (see Asfaw Beyene, 1992).

According to Clarke (1995), many of the leading antiquarians of the time, based largely on the strength of what the classical authors, particularly Diodorus Siculus and Stephanus of Byzantium, had to say on the matter, were exponents of the vista that the Cushite, the ancient race in Africa, the Near East and the Middle East, or at any rate, the black people of remote antiquity were the earliest of all civilised peoples and that the first civilised inhabitants of ancient Egypt were members of what is referred to as the Black Cushite race who had entered the land as they expanded in their geographical space from the their birthplace in upper Nile, the surrounding Cushite river valleys and tropical fields. It was among these ancient people of Africa and Asia that international trade and commerce was first developed, which was the by-product of international contacts, exchange of ideas and cultural practices that laid the foundations of the prime civilisations of the ancient world.

Cushite Africa and also of the Middle East and West Asia is the key to ancient civilisations and African history. It must also be known that there were no such geographical names, demarcations and continental classification at that time. As a whole, Cushite occupied this region, their was the kernel and the centre of the globe, the planet earth, the universe.

African history is out of stratum until ancient Cushites looked up on as a distinct African/ Asian nations. The Nile river and it tributes played a major role in the relationship of Cushite to the nations in Southeast Africa. The Nile was a great cultural highway on which elements of civilisation came into and out of inner Africa. After expansions, there was also an offshoot, a graft, differentiation, branching out, internal separation, semi-independence and again interactions, interdependence and co-existence of the common folks. Cushites from the original home made their relationships with the people of their descendants in the South, the North, East and the West which was as both good and bad, depending on the period and the regime in power they formed and put in place in the autonomous regions.

Cushite Egypt first became an organised autonomous nation in about 6000 B.C. In the Third Dynasty (5345-5307 B.C.) when Egypt had an earnest pharaoh named Zoser; and Zoser, in turn, had for his chief counsellor and minister, an effulgent grand named Imhotep (whose name means ‘he who cometh in peace”). Imhotep constructed the famous step pyramid of Sakkarah near Memphis. The building techniques used in the facilitation of this pyramid revolutionised the architecture of the ancient world (Clarke, 1995). Of course, Independent Egypt was not the original home of these ancient technology. However, it was an extension, expansion, advancement and the technological cycle of the Upper Nile. Ideas, systems, technologies and products were invented, tested and proved in Upper Nile then expanded and adopted elsewhere in the entire Cush regions and beyond. .

Of course, Cushite Egypt gave the world some of the greatest personalities in the history of mankind. In this regard, Imhotep was extraordinary discernible. In ancient history of Egypt, no individual left a downright and deeper indentation than Imhotep. He was possibly the world’s first mult-genuis. He was the real originator of new medicine at the time. He revolutionised an architect of the stone building, after which the Pyramids were modelled. He became a deity and later a universal God of Medicine, whose images charmed the Temple of Imhotep, humanity’s earliest hospital. To it came sufferers from all the world for prayer, peace, and restorative. Imhotep lived and established his eminence as a curative at the court of King Zoser of the Third Dynasty about 5345-5307 B.C.(Duncan, 1932).

When the Cushite civilisation through Egypt afar crossed the Mediterranean to become the foundation of what we think of as Greek culture, the teachings of Imhotep were absorbed along with the axioms of other great Cushite African teachers. When Greek civilisation became consequential in the Mediterranean area, the Greeks coveted the world to ponder they were the originators of everything in its totality. They terminated to acknowledge their liability to Imhotep and other great Cushites. Imhotep was forgotten for thousands of years, and Hippocrates, a mythical posture of two thousand years latter, became known as the father of medicine. Regarding to Imhotep’s influence in Rome, Gerald Massey, noted poet, archaeologist, and philologist, says that the early Christians cherished him as one with Christ (Massey, 1907).

It should be understood that, while the achievements of Cushite Egypt were one of the best, these are not the only achievements that Cushite Africans can claim. The Nubians, upper Nile, central and eastern Cushites (the Oromo, Agau, Somalia, Afar, etc) were continue to develop many aspects of civilisation independent of Cushite Egyptian interactions. These nations and states gave as much to Egypt as Egypt give to them in terms of trade, ideas and technology as well.

There was also a considerable Cushite dominion on what later became Europe in the period preceding Christian era. Cushites played a major role in formative development of both Christianity and Islam. Both the Holly Bible and the Holly Quran moral texts are originated from the Cushite moral principles, beliefs, creeds and teachings.

There is a common believe and understanding that Abraham, a seminal prophet, believer and recipient of a single and eternal God was from Central Cush of present Upper Nile. The Cushites believed in a single and eternal God, Black God. While the Cushite faith, social structure and policies were the prime and the origins of all, Judaism, Christianity, and Islam were all the derivatives and originated from the Black God. Waaqayyoo in Oromo is the original, the single, the omnipotent, the prime and the greatest of all the great religions. All aspects of the present day Christian churches were developed in Cushites. One of the more notable of Cushite contributions to the early church was monasticism. Monasticism, in essence, is organised life in common, especially for religious purposes. The home of a monastic society is called a monastery or a convent. Christian monasticism probably began with the hermits of Cushite Egypt and Palestine about the time when Christianity was established as a licit religion (Clarke, 1995).

Oral tradition and Arabian records confirm that Bilal, a tall, gaunt, black, bushy-haired, Oromo, was the first High Priest and treasurer of the Mohammedan empire. After Mohamet himself, the great religion, which today numbers upwards of half a billion souls, may be said to have began with Bilal. He was honoured to be the Prophet’s first neophyte. Bilal was one of the many Cushites who concurred in the founding of Islam and later made proud names for themselves in the Islamic nations and expansions.

Europe was sluggishing in her Dark Ages at a time when Cushite Africa and Asia were relishing a Golden Age. In this non-European world of Africa and Asian, Cushites built and enjoyed an age of advancement in technology before a period of internal withdrawal and isolation that favoured the Europeans to move a head of them. For more than a thousand years the Cushites were in the ‘Age of Grandeur’ but the second rise of Europe, internal strife, slave trade and colonialism brought the age of catastrophic tragedy, abase and declivity.

The early Cushites made spears to hunt with, stone knives to cut with, the bola, with which to catch birds and animals, the blow-gun, the hammer, the stone axe, canoes and paddles, bags and buckets, poles for carrying things, bows and arrows. The bola, stone knives, paddles, spears, harpoons, bows and arrows, bow-guns, the hammer and the axe- all of them invented first by Cushites – were the start of man’s use of power. The present’s cannon, long-range missiles, ship propellers, automatic hammers, gas engines, and even meat cleavers and upholstery tack hammers have the roots of their development in the early Cushite use of (Clarke, 1995).

Cushite offered humans the earliest machine. It was the fire stick. With it, man could have fire any time. With it, a camp fire could be set up almost any place. With it, , the early Africans could roast food. Every time we light a match , every time we take a bath in water heated by gas, every time we cook a meal in a gas-heated oven, our use of fire simply continues a process started by early Cushites: the control of fire.

Of course, those early Cushite were the first to invent how to make a thatched hut. They had to be the first because for hundreds of thousand of years they were the only people on earth. They discovered coarse basket-making and weaving and how to make a water-tight pot of clay hardened in a fire. In the cold weather, they found that the skins of beasts they had killed would keep them warm. They even skin covers for their feet. It was from their first effort much later clothing and shoes developed. Humanity owes the early Cushites much and even much more (Clarke, 1995).

The Cushites dociled animals. They used digging sticks to obtain plant roots that could be consumed. They discovered grain as a food , how to store it and prepare it. They learnt about the fermentation of certain foods and liquids left in containers. Thus, all mankind owes to Cushites including the dog that gives companionship and protection, the cereals we eat at break-fast-time, the fermented liquids that many people drink , the woven articles of clothing we wear and the blankets that keep us warm at night, the pottery in which we bake or boil food, and even the very process (now so simple) of boiling water- a process we use every time we boil an egg, or make spaghetti, or cook corned beef. Canoes made it possible for man to travel further and farther from his early home. Over many centuries, canoes went down Baro, the Nile and the Congo and up many smaller rivers and streams. It was in this pattern that the early Cushite civilisation was advanced. from the blow-gun of antiquated Cushite, there come next , in later ages, many gadget based on its standard. Some of these are: the bellows, bamboo air pumps, the rifle, the pistol, the revolver, the automatic, the machine gun- and even those industrial guns that puff grains. Modern Scientists certain that by about 3000 B.C. , the Cushite farmers in the Nile Valley were growing wheat and barely, cultivating millet, sorghum, and yams. Around 1500 B.C. new crops farming were developed:- banana, sugar cane, and coconut trees and later coffee. The cultivation of bananas and coffees in particular spread rapidly which are suited to tropical forest conditions. Cushites had also domesticated pigs, donkeys, chickens, ducks, and geese, etc. (Greenblatt, 1992).

The agricultural revolution brought about a gradual increase in population. Then another development helped expand population still more. The technique of smelting iron innovated by Cushites. Iron working start and then advanced in the Nile valley and then started to spread to other parts of Africa and from who, by way of Egypt and Asian Minor, this art made its way into Europe and the rest of Old World. Iron greatly improved the efficiency of tools and weapons. Iron tools and weapons are much stronger and last longer than those made of stone or wood. Iron axes made it easier to chop tropical trees and clear land for farming. Iron sickles made harvest easier. Iron hoes and other farm tools helped farmers cultivate land more easily. Iron-tipped spears meant more meat. The new technologies boosted the Cushite economy, they increased food production that enabled more people to survive. In addition, iron objects became valuable items in Cushite trade and commercial activities. With his simple bellows and a charcoal fire the Cushite blacksmith reduced the ore that is found in many parts of the region and forged implements of great usefulness and beauty. In general, the Iron technology was instrumental in auguring the rise and expansion of Cushite civilisation (Greenblatt, 1992).

Cushite hunters many times cut up game. There still exists for evidences, drawings of animal bones, hearts and other organs. Those early drawings as a part of man’s early beginnings in the field of Anatomy. The family, the clan, the tribe, the nation, the kingdom, the state, humanity and charity all developed first in this region of the cradle of mankind. The family relationships, which we have today, were fully developed and understood then. The clan and the tribe gave group unity and strength. The nation, the common whole was first developed here. It was by this people that early religious life, beliefs, and the belief in one God, the almighty started and expanded.

The first formal education of arts, science, astronomy, times and numbers (mathematics) were visual, oral and spoken tradition given in the family, during social and religious ceremonies. Parents, Medicine men, religious leaders, etc were the education heads. Ceremonial Cushite ritual dances laid the basis for many later forms of the dance. Music existed in early Cushite Among instruments used were: reed pipes, single-stringed instruments, drum, goured rattles, blocks of wood and hollow logs. Many very good Cushite artists brought paintings and sculpture into the common culture. The early Cushites made a careful study of animal life and plant life. From knowledge of animals, mankind was able to take a long step forward to cattle raising. From the knowledge of plants and how they propagate, it was possible to take a still longer step forward to agriculture. Today, science has ways of dating events of long a go. The new methods indicate that mankind has lived in Cushite Africa over two million years. In that long, long time, Cushites and people of their descent settled in other parts of Africa and the rest. Direct descents of early Cushites went Asia Minor, Arabia, India, China, Japan and East Indies. Cushites and people of Cushite descents went to Turkey, Palestine, Greece and other countries in Europe. From Gibraltar, they went into Spain, Portugal, France, England, Wales and Ireland (Clarke, 1995).Considering this information, the pre-Colombian presence of Cushite African mariners and merchants in the New World is highly conceivable and somewhat sounds. In this context, the first Africans to be brought to the New World were not in servitude and slavery, which contrary to popular creed.

Unlike the western Sudan and in Egypt, the people and nations of upper Nile had lost written records of their ancient times and medieval history. These were destroyed and burned during war of conquests. The early travellers to these areas are also mostly not yet known. Notable kingdoms and states did rise in this part of Africa and did achieve a high degree of civilisation. Scholarly undertakings show that Cushite Africans such as Oromos were the first in human history to invent and implement democratic institutions(GADA), democratic forms of government, elections and unwritten constitution. Democracy was first invented in upper Nile then to Athens, Greek and to the rest. It was not the other way round.

Orthodox historians and some archaeologists believe that the civilisation of Egypt is the oldest in the world , while others give that priority to western Asia or India. It has also been suggested that, since all these cultures possess certain points of similarity, all of them may evolve from an older common civilisation. This possibility has been acknowledged by men of eminent scholarship. In this regard, Sir E.A. Wallis Budge (1934) indicated:

“It would be wrong to say that the Egyptians borrowed from the Sumerians or Sumerians from Egyptians , but it may be submitted that the literati of both peoples borrowed their theological systems from common but exceedingly ancient source… This similarity between the two companies of gods is too close to be accidental.”

A pioneer American Egyptologist , Breasted (1936) advanced the following views:

“In both Babylonian and Egypt the convenient and basic number (360), of fundamental importance in the division of the circle, and therefore in geography, astronomy and time-measurement, had its origin in the number of days in the year in the earliest known form of the calendar. While its use seems to be older in Egypt than in Babylonian, there is no way to determine with certainty that we owe it exclusively to either of these two countries. A common origin older than either of is possible.”

Sewell (1942) said that the science which we see at the dawn of recorded history, was not science at its dawn, but represents the remnants of the science of some great and as yet untraced civilisation. Where, however, is the seat of that civilisation to be located?”

A number of scholars, both ancient and modern, have come to the conclusion that the world’s first civilisation was created by the people known as Cushite and also known by Greeks as Punt (Burnt Faces). The Greeks argued that these people developed their dark colouration since they were adjacent to the sun than were the fairer natives of Europe.

In terms of the sources of well informed modern authority, Herodotus describes the Cushites as in Lugard (1964) as:

” The tallest, most beautiful and long-lived of the human races,’ and before Herodotus, Homer, in even more flattering language, described them as ‘ the most just of men; the favourites of gods.’ The annals of all the great early nations of Asia Minor are full of them. The Mosaic records allude to them frequently; but while they are described as the most powerful , the most just, and the most beautiful of the human race, they are constantly spoken of as black, and there seems to be no other conclusion to be drawn, than that remote period of history the leading race of the western world was the black race.”

According to Homer and Herodotus, the Cushites were inhabited in the Sudan, Egypt, Arabia, Palestine, present Ethiopia, Western Asia and India.

The identification of Kush (Cush) civilisation with the present Abyssinia (Amhara-Tigre under the name of Ethiopia made by the Abyssinian priests translators of the Abyssinian version of the Bible in the 5th and 6th century or some other time, has been a cheating and misrepresentation of true human history. Those Abyssinians who were stealing the history were relatively recent migrant (conquerors) of the region. They occupied the present day Northern Ethiopia (central Cushitic of Agau and Oromo) long after the first human civilisation already originates in the area and spread to the rest of the world including to Mediterranean Europe. The native occupants of the region are the Cushite people (Oromo, Agau, Somali, Sidama, Afar, Beja, Saho, etc). Ethiopian Jews (Falashas) are also Cushite Agau who accepted Jews religion. Abyssinian tribes have fabricated their own false history to claim legitimacy to the region and then established a regime truth through continuos fable story, phantom, indoctrination and falsification of the real Cushite history. Aksum was not founded by Semitic immigrants but the Abyssinians resettled among the Cushites cities and commercial centres in which Aksum was one and latter dominated the ruling power in this very centre of the civilisation of the central Cush. Ge’ez was invented as a language of the centre and latter used as the official language of the church and the colonising Abyssinian ruling class. Ge’ez was initially developed from the mixture of Cushitic and Greek elements that was facilitated by the Cushite trade links to the Greek world. There was also Greek resettlement in Aksum and the surrounding central Cush commercial towns. The earlier rulers of Aksum and Christian converts including Ezana were Cushites. Though Ezana was the first convert from the above (the ruling class) to Christianity, he did not give up his belief in one God (Cushite/ black God). He was also not the first Cushite to be a Christian. In their linkages with a wider world, it is also highly likely and very logical and possible that there were Christians among the civilian Cushite trading communities who had already disseminated their new faith, as so many Oromo merchants were to do latter in the expansion of Islam. The splendid Stella, towers of solid masonry, with non-functional doors and windows at Aksum was not the earliest materialisation but it was the continuity in the manifestation of major indigenous Cushite tradition of monumental architecture in stone, which also later found expression in the rock-hewn churches of the Cushite Agau kings (see also Isichei, 1997 for some of the opinions). Abyssinians were the rulers. They were not the engineers and the builders of the stone monuments. It was the original product and brain child of Cushite technologist. Of course, their advancement was thwarted with the unfortunate coming of the Abyssinians.

Almost all of the original studies of the origin of Cushite civilisation could not penetrate far deep into regions south east to Nubia (Mereo) and could not dig out vast primary sources in present day Oromia. Though the British Museum has collected vast sources on Nubia, it has not kept any on Oromo. For me, as native Oromo with knowledge of oral history and culture, as I observed the Nubian collection in British Museum, what they say Nubian collection is almost identical to Oromia, but in a less variety and quantity. I can say that Nubian and other Cushite civilisations were extensions (grafts) of the vast products of Oromo.

I may also be driven to the culmination that the people whose manners and customs have been so thoroughly capitulated by Herodotus, Diodorus, Strabo Pliny and other were not Abyssinians and other Black people at all, but the natives of Upper Nile, Oromos, Agau, Somalis, Afar and the rest of Cushitic people of the present Horn of Africa. Sir Henry Rawlinson in his essay on the early History of Babylonian describes Oromos as the purest modern specimens of the Kushite. Thus, Oromo is Kush and Kush is Oromo. To deeply analyse the subject under investigation, however, such study may require specific topic of investigation like the Oromo origin of humanity and civilisation.

Seignobos (1910), in his scholarly works on the history of Ancient Civilisation reasoned that the first civilised natives of the Nile and Tigiris-Euphrates Valleys were a dark skinned people with short hair and prominent lips , they were called Cushites by some scholars and Hamites by others. So Cushite (Hamite) is generally recognised as the original home of human civilisation and culture both beyond and across the Red Sea . They are the original source of both the African and Asiatic (Cushitic Arabian) civilisation.

Higgins in 1965 scholarly undertaking discusses:

“I shall, in the course of this work , produce a number of extraordinary facts , which will be quite sufficient to prove , that a black race, in a very early times, had more influence of the affairs of the world than has been lately suspected; and I think I shall show, by some very striking circumstances yet existing, that the effects of this influence have not entirely passed away.”

Baldwin’in his 1869 study of Arab history expressed in his own words the following:

“At the present time Arabia is inhabited by two distinct races, namely descendants of the old Adite, Kushite, …known under various appellations, and dwelling chiefly at the south, the east, and in the central parts of the country, but formerly supreme throughout the whole peninsula, and the Semitic Arabians- Mahomete’s race- found chiefly in the Hejaz and at the north. In some districts of the country these races are more or less mixed, and since the rise of Mahometanism the language of Semites, known as to us Arabic, has almost wholly suppressed the old … Kushite tongue; but the two races are very unlike in many respects, and the distinction has always been recognised by writers on Arabian ethnology. To the Kushite race belongs the purest Arabian blood, and also that great and very ancient civilisation whose ruins abound in almost every district of the country.”

Poole (in Haddon, 1934) says “Assyrians themselves are shown to have been of a very pure type of Semites, but in the Babylonians there is a sign of Kushite blood. … There is one portrait of an Elmite king on a vase found at Susa; he is painted black and thus belongs to the Kushite race.”

The myths, legends, and traditions of the Sumerians point to the African Cushite as the original home of these people(see. Perry, 1923, pp. 60-61). They were also the makers of the first great civilisation in the Indus valley. The first Sumerian remains were unearthed by Hincks, Oppert, and Rawlinson called these people Kushites. Rawlinson in his essay on the early history of Babylonian presents that without pretending to trace up these early Babylonians to their original ethnic sources, there are certainly strong reasons for supposing them to have passed from Cushite Africa to the valley of the Euphrates shortly before the opening of the historic period: He is based on the following strong points:

The system of writing, which they brought up with them, has the closest semblance with that of Egypt; in many cases in deed the two alphabets are absolutely identical.
In the Biblical genealogies, while Kush and Mizrain (Egypt) are brothers, from Kush Nimrod (Babylonian) sprang.
With respect to the language of ancient Babylonians, the vocabulary is absolutely Kushite, belonging to that stock of tongues which in postscript were everywhere more or less mixed up with Semitic languages, but of which we have with doubtless the purest existing specimens in the Mahra of Southern Arabia and the Oromo.

Conclusions

The above study exposes the tragedy caused by history and fable of human reductionism. It also reshapes the spoiled and the injured magnificent black beauty and the gists of Cushite history. The paper expresses that Cushites are the origin of humanity and the original home of prime human civilisation. It is not an original work by its own but it is the extension of the scholarly studies of Beyene (1992), Diop ( 1991), Demie (The Chustic roots of Oromo, in Oromia Quarterly, 1998) and others.

The history of reductionism has been caused by and also the product of racism, politics of depossesion, impoundment, aggression and transgression of humanity. The catastrophic tragedy was not only in the past but still persists that it has been the root cause and the mother of all conflicts imposed on the Cushite people of East Africa today. Hence, historians, concerned scholars and humanitarians should work day and night to restore the self-possession power of the people whose identities and history have been not only confiscated but also intentionally manipulated, spoiled and tribulated.

References

Baldwin Baldwin, J. (1869), Pre-historic nation, New York, Harper &Bros.

Beyene, A. (1992), Oromo, Novelty and Antiquity, A draft and unpublished manuscript.

Clarke, J.G. (1995), Introduction, in. Jackson, J.G. (1995), Introduction to African Civilisation,

New York, Carol Publishing.

Breasted, J.H. (1936), Time and its Mysteries, series I. New York, New York University press

Buge, E.A. (1934), From fetish to God in Ancient Egypt , London, Oxford University Press.

Diop, C.A. (1991), Civilisation or barbarism: An authentic anthropology, New York.

Lawrrence Hill Books,

Duncan (1932) A Scheme of Egyptian Chronology, Macnaughton.

Welt, P.T. and .Greenblatt, W. (1992), The Human expression:: World religions and cultures,

California, Macmillan.

Haddon, A. (1934), History of anthropology, London, Watt and Co.

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Komroff (1939), New York, Dial Press.

Isichei, E. (1997), The History of African Societies to 1870, New York, Cambridge University

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Jackson, J.G. (1995), Introduction to African Civilisation, New York, Carol Publishing.

Lugard, L. (1964), A tropical dependency, New York. Barens & Noble.

Massey, G. (1907), Ancient Egypt: The light of the world , 2 vols., London, Unwin

Perry, W.J. (1923), The Children of the sun, New York, Dutton & Co.

Seignobos, C.(1910), History of ancient civilisation, London, T.Fisher Unwin.

Sewell, J.W.S. (1942), In The legacy of Egypt, p.15, edited by S.R.K. Glanville, Oxford, Oxford

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http://www.oocities.org/hasf4/Oromia/History/CushiticOrigin.html

32. OromianEconomist - April 21, 2018

ኦሮሞ ከኢትዮጵያ ህዝብ ገሚሱን የሚሸፍን ፥ ከሰሀራ በታች ከሚገኙ የአፍሪካ ሀገሮች ውስጥ የቀዳሚው ካሌንደር ባለቤት (በናሳ ሳይንቲስቶች የተረጋገጠ) ፤ በዓለም ከግሪክ አቴና ዴሞክራሲ በሁሉም መስክ የሚልቅ ፦ ስልጣን ርስት ሳይሆን በየ8 ዓመቱ የሚለዋወጥበት ፥ መሪዎቹ በችሎታቸው የሚመረጡበት ፤ ለፓርላማው ታዛዥ የሆኑበት ፥ ከአባ ገዳው (አፈ ጉባዔ) ጀምሮ first among equals የተለየ ጥቅም የማያሰጥ ፥ ፓርላማው (ጨፌ) ከፍተኛ የስልጣን አካል የሆነበት egalitarian ፤ በስልጣን የባለገ አመራር 8 ዓመቱ ከመጠናቀቁ በፊት የሚወገድበት ስርዓት (ቡቂሱ) የሚካሄድበት፤ ታሪኩን ሳያዛቡ ከትውልድ ወደ ትውልድ የሚያስተላልፉ ታሪክ አዋቂዎች (ሃዩ) የሚያስተምሩበት፤ ሴቶች መብታቸውን የሚያስከብሩበት (ሲቄ)፤ በዕድሜ እርከን የተከፋፈለ የስራ ሃላፊነት (social responsibility) በዝርዝር የተቀመጠበት፤ ከጦርነት ሰላምን የሚመርጥ (nuu wara nagee)፤ ፍትሀዊ የሀብት ክፍፍል እንዲሰፍን ከብቶቻቸው ወይም ሀብት በአደጋ ወይም በህመም ቢጠፋ የተትረፈረፈ ሀብት ያላቸው በፍላጎት የብድር ስሜት ሳይኖር የሚያካፍልበት፤ የመሸበት እንግዳ የማሳደር (bultii wal hin dhoowiituu)፤ ባሪያ የሌለበት freedom to all regardless of wealth and hereditary kinship ፥ ልመና የሚያሳፍር በመሆኑ እጁን ለስራ እንጂ ለስጡኝ የማይዘረጋ dignified existence ፤ የኢትዮጵያን ሰንደቅ ዓላማ መለያ ባንዲራ ከሮም እስከ አሜሪካ ያውለበለቡ እንደነ ሃይሌ ገ/ስላሴ ፣ደራርቱ ቱሉ ፣የዲባ ልጆች ፣ቀነኒሳ በቀለ… ያሉ ጀግኖች መፍለቂያ patriotic in actual sense ፤ በአገር ውስጥ አርበኝነትም ሆነ በሁለተኛው ዓለም ጦርነት ጀግና መሪዎች የነበሩት ፤ በአፍሪካ የቀንድ ከብት አንደኝነታቸው መሰረት ፥ የኢኮኖሚ ዋልታ ቡና ብለን ብንዘምር የአንበሳውን ድርሻ የሚይዝ ፤ የራሱ በአንድ አምላክ (ዋቃ) ላይ የተመሰረተ ፥ የራሱ Pope አባ ሙዳ ፥ ወንድና ሴት ካህናት ቃሉና ቃሊቲ ያሉት ፤ አዋሽ ፥ ገናሌ ፥ ዋቢሸበሌ ፥ ዳዋ ፥ ጊቤና ሌሎች ወንዞች የሚገማሸሩበት ፥ ውበቱና እንግዳ ተቀባይነት ባህሪው እንደ ገባር ወንዝ እየጠራቸው ከውስጥም ከውጪም የሚፈሱ ጅረቶችን ባህር ሆኖ የሚቀበል ፥ ወደ ሌሎች የማይፈስ ፥ በኢትዮጵያ ታሪክ በሩጫ አበበ ቢቂላ ፥ በዘፈን ጥላሁን ገሰሰ ፥ በሳቅ በላቸው ፥ በስነ ጽሁፍ ሎሬት ጸጋዬ ገብረመድህን ፥ በውበት ውቢት አመንሲሳ ፥ በወርቅ አዶላ ወለጋ ፥ በዴሞክራሲ ፥ በሀብት ፥ በብዛት ፥ በእምነት ፥ በካሌንደር +( በአጠቃላይ የማይልቅበት ዘርፍ የሌለ) ፥ ታላቅ የርብርብ ማዕከል የሆነ ፤ ከሁሉም በመቀላቀል ለከፈለው ታላቅ ዋጋ የቀልደኞች አፍ መፍቻና መክፈቻ የሆነ ታላቅ ህዝብ ነው ።
አፄ ምኒልክ የጀግንነቱን ልኬት ተገንዝበው ፦ የጦር ሚኒስትራቸውን ፊታውራሪ ሀብተጊዮርጊስ ዲነግዴ አባ መላ ፥ የጦር መስፋፋት ሚኒስትራቸውን ጎበና ዳጬ ፥ ሠራዊታቸውን በኦሮሞ ጦር መገንባታቸውን መካድ አይቻልም ፤ መኮንን ጉዲሳ ፥ አብዲሳ አጋ ፥ ባልቻ ሳፎ ፥ ታደሰ ብሩ ፥ አበበ አረጋይ ፥ በቀለ ወያ ፥ ገረሱ ዱኪ ፥ አብቹ … ወዘተርፈ ጀግኖችን መጥቀስ እንችላለን ። ።የኦሮሞ ህዝብ የፍቅር እንጂ የግጭት መንስዔ አይደለም ። source: Raya Tube

33. OromianEconomist - June 4, 2018
34. OromianEconomist - August 19, 2018

ወሎ የማን ነው? (ይህንን ጽሑፍ የተዘጋጀው ታሪክን መሰረት አድርጎ ነው፤ ማንንም ለመጉዳት ወይም ለመጥቀም አይደለም)
……………….
ብዙ ጊዜ እስከ ወሎ ድረስ የተዘረጋ የኦሮሞ ካርታ በማህበራዊ ሚድያ ሲሰራጭ አይተናል፡፡ አማራዎችና አንዳንድ የወሎ ኦሮሞ ታሪክ የማያውቁ ኢትዮጵያውያን ኦሮሞዎቹን የተስፋፊነት እቅድ እየነደፉ መስሏቸው ብዙ ሲነጫነጩ አይተናል፡፡ ሆኖም ኦሮሞዎች የገዛ መሬታቸው እንጂ የሰውን መሬት ከካርታቸው አላካተቱም፡፡ ወሎ ከጥንት ዘመን ጀምሮ የኦሮሞ እንጂ ለደቂቃ እንኳ የአማራ ሆኖ አያውቅም፡፡ አማራ የሚባል ብሄር የለም እያልን ወሎ የአማራ ነው ብሎ መደምደም እርስበርሱ የሚጣረስ ነው፡፡

በኢትዮጵያ ታሪክ የየጁ ስርወ መንግስት ከፍተኛ ቦታ የሚሰጠው ገናና ታሪክና አስተዋጽኦ የነበረው ስርወ መንግስት ነው፡፡ ከ18ኛው ክፍለ ዘመን መጨረሻ እስከ 19ኛው ክፍለ ዘመን አጋማሽ ድረስ ተጠናክረው ኢትዮጵያን በእንደራሴነት ሲያገለግሉ የነበሩ የኦሮሞ ራሶችን የሚገልጽ ነው፡፡ የየጁ ራሶች በወታደራዊ አቅማቸው ፈርጣሞች ስለነበሩ ያሻቸውን የማስፈጸም፣ የመሾምና የመሻር ስልጣን ነበራቸው፡፡ ከየጁ ስርወ መንግስት እንደራሴዎች መካከል ራስ ዓሊ ትልቁ፣ ራስ ዓሊጋዝ፣ ራስ፣ ጉግሳ፣ ራስ ይማም፣ ራስ ማርዬ፣ ራስ ዶሪ እና ራስ ዓሊ ትንሹ የመሳሰሉ ስመ ገናና የኦሮሞ ራሶች የሚጠቀሱ ናቸው፡፡

ንግስት ወርቂቱ ሁላችንም እናቃታለን፤ የወሎ ንግስት የነበረች ነች፡፡ ከሁሉም በላይ ደግሞ ጡት ቆራጩን ምንሊክን በግዞት ታስሮበት ከነበረው መቅደላ አውጥታ ወደ ሸዋ እንዲሸሽ ከፍተኛ ኦፕሬሽን የፈጸመች በጣም ጀግና ንግሥት ነች፡፡ ምንሊክ ያለ ንግስት ወርቂቱ እርዳታ ለንግስና መብቃት ይቅርና በሕይወት አይገኝም ነበር፡፡ ሆኖም ይኼ የበላበት ሳህን ሰባሪ አረመኔ ኦሮሞዎቹ የዋሉለትን ውለታ ረስቶ የኦሮሞን እናቶች ጡት በመቁረጥ በዓለም ታይቶ የማይታወቅ ዘግናኝ ግፍ ፈጽሟል፡፡ ለማንኛውም ንግስት ወርቂቱ ወሎ የኦሮሞ ባህልና ወጉን ሳይለቅ እስካሁኑ ዘመን ድረስ እንዲዘልቅ ከፍተኛ ሚና የተጫወተች ንግስት ነች፡፡ ሌላ የየጁ ኦሮሞዎች ምን ያህል ጠንካሮች እንደነበሩ የሚያሳይ ከወሎ ወጥተው እስከ የአሁኗ ኤርትራ ድረስ የማስተዳደር አቅም ነበራቸው፡፡ ራስ ውቤ ኃይለማርያም ትግራይ-ትግርኚንና ቤጌምድርን ያስተዳድሩ የነበሩ ራስ ናቸው፡፡ ራስ ውቤ ማለት የእቴጌ ጣይቱ ብጡል (የምንሊክ ሚስት) አባት የነበሩት የብጡል ኃይለማርያም ወንድም ናቸው፡፡ ስለዚህ እቴጌ ጣይቱ ራሳቸውም ኦሮሞ እንጂ ከአማራ ጋር ምንም የሚያገናኛቸው እንደሌለ እንረዳለን፡፡ ከዚህም በተጨማሪ የአጼ ቴዎድሮስ ሚስት የነበሩት ንግስት ተዋበች ዓሊ እና ልዕልት የሺመቤት ዓሊ የየጁ ኦሮሞ ተወላጆች ናቸው፡፡

ወሎን ወሎ ካደረጉዋት ቤተሰቦች የየጁ ኦሮሞ አንስተናል፡፡ ከዚህም በተጫማሪ ወረ ኢሉ፣ ወረ ባቡ፣ ወረ ሂማኖ፣ ወረ ዋዩ፣ ወረ ቃሉ ወዘተ የመሳሰሉት የሚጠቀሱ ናቸው፡፡ ሆኖም ወሎ የቦሮና እና የቡጂ ኦሮሞ ጎሳዎች ትልቁን ስፍራ የሚይዙ ናቸው፡፡ የወሎ ኦሮሞዎች ኦሮሞነታቸውን ጠበቀው ለመዝለቅ ከፍተኛ ጥረት ቢያደርጉም የአማራዎች ዝርፊያና ግፍ በህልውናቸው ላይ ከፍተኛ አደጋ ደቅኖ ቆይቷል፡፡ ባህላቸውና ታሪካቸው በአማራዎች ተወሯል፡፡፡፡ ለምሳሌ አማራዎቹ ከወሎ የቦሮና ኦሮሞ የሚወለደውን ጀግናው በላይ ዘለቀ ላቀዉ ቂልጡ አያኖ ገልገሊን ወደ ጎጃም ወስደው የእኛ ጀግና እያሉ ሲዘፍኑለት እያየን ነው፡፡ ከዚህም በተጨማሪ ዛሬ አማራ የሚባለው ህዝብ ራሱ እስከ ቅርብ ጊዜ ድረስ ስማቸው የሚታወቀውን እነ ጋፋት፣ ዳሞት፣ ቤጃ ወዘተ ብሄሮችን ውጦ እስከነ ቋንቋቸው ከምድረ ገፅ ኣጥፍቷል። እነ ቅማንትም ማንነታቸው ሊጠፋ ኣፋፍ ላይ እያለ ታገሉና አሁን ትንሽም ብትሆን የማንነታቸውን ዋስትና በማረጋገጥ ከመሞት ተርፈዋል። ታላቁ የአገው ህዝብም የሚበዛው ቁጥሩ ዛሬም ቢሆን የአገውነት ማንነቱ ተቀይሮ በአማራነት የሚጠራ ነው።

ሌላው አማራዎች ሌሎች ብሄሮችን ለማጥፋት ካላቸው ድብቅ አጀንዳ የተነሳ ድርቅ በሚከሰትበት የሌላ ብሄር አካባቢ ላይ ድርቁን ለመከላከል ምንም ጥረት አያደርጉም ነበር፤ የብሄሮቹ ዘር እንዲጠፋ በማሰብ፡፡ የወሎ ድርቅ ተብሎ የሚጠራው አስከፊው ድርቅ አያሌ የወሎን ህዝብ ሲፈጅ ሃይለስላሴ ቁርጥ እየቆረጠ ዊስኪ እየተራጨ የተመለከተውም ወሎ ውስጥ የሚኖረው ኦሮሞ እንዲያልቅ ሆን ብሎ የቀየሰው ዘዴ መሆኑ በርካታ የታሪክ ጸሐፍት ሰንደውታል፡፡ በአጠቃላይ ወሎ የኦሮሞ መሆኑ አያሌ የታሪክ ድርሳናትን ማቅረብ ብቻ ሳይሆን እስካሁን ድረስ በሕይወት ያሉ ኦሮሞዎችን ጠይቆ መገንዘብ ነው፡፡ እናም የኦሮሞ ህዝብ መሬቱን በይፋ መጠየቅ አለበት፡፡ ወሎ ፈጽሞ ከአማራ ጋር የሚያገናኘው የለውም፡፡ ወሎ ውስጥ የሚገኙ አማራዎች መጤዎች እንጂ ባላባቶች አይደሉም፡፡ የወሎ ታሪካዊ ባላባት ኦሮሞ ነው፤ እስከ ዘላለሙም ሆኖ ይቀጥላል! አማራዎች የሰው ወርቅ አያደምቅ ነውና የሰውን መሬት ለባለ መሬቶቹ መልሱ! ለሁሉም እንዲዳረስ ሼር አድርጉት! https://www.facebook.com/Hager.Wedad2/posts/2093341144045031

35. OromianEconomist - October 24, 2018

ጎንደር የኦሮሞ ጎሣ የቦጂያ ብሔረሰብ ግዛት ነበር፡፡ አበሲኒያ ቦጂያን ሥም ወደ “ቤጃ” ለዉጣ ጎንዳርን የቤጃ ምድር አለች፡፡ ቀጥላ ቤጃን ምድርን “በጌምድር” አለች፡፡በመጨረሻ በጌምድር ማለቱን ትታ ጎንደር አለች፡፡ጎንደር “ከጉንዶ” የመጣ ሥም መሆኑን ታሪክ ይናገራል፡፡ጉንዶ የኦሮሞ ቃል ነዉ፡፡ትርጉሙ ሰፌድ ማለት ነዉ፡፡ በጎንደር በዘር ተለይቶ እየተጮቆነ የሚኖረዉ የኩሽ ዘር የሚባለዉ ቅማንት (ካምኣት )የኦሮሞ ጎሣ ነዉ፡፡አበሲኒያ ካምአትን ወደ “ቅማንት” ለዉጣ አሮሞ መሆኑ እንዳይታወቅ አደረገች፡፡ካም አት ማለት “አንተ የትኛዉ ነህ” ማለት ነዉ፡፡ጎንዳር የኦሮሞ ሀገር እንደ ነበር የሚያረጋግጡ እስከ ዛሬ ድረስ በኦሮሞ ቃል የሚጠሩ ብዙ ስፍራዎች ይገኛሉ፡፡ለምሳሌ ላጋ አምቦ ፣ጉባ ላፍቶ፣ ዳፋጫ፣ አጋራቢ ፣ ማጋጪ፣ አራራት፣ጋንዳ፣እንተላ፣ዳ ቂ፣ሞጊ፣ሳንጋ ቦካ፣ ማታማ፣ ቆራ … የሚባሉ ናቸው፡፡ አበሲኒያ ቆራን ወደ ቋራ ለዉጣ የኦሮሞ ቃል መሆኑ እንዳይታቅ አደረገች፡፡ በኦሮሞ ላጋ አምቦ ማለት አምቦ ወንዝ ማለት ነዉ፡፡ ጉባ ላፍቶ ከግራር በላይ፤ ማጋጪ ማጋጣ፣ አራራት ለእርቅ፣ዳፋጫ ድፍጥጥ፣ ጋንዳ መንደር፣ እንተላ አንቺ፣ዳቂ ሂድ፣ኣጋ ረቢ የፈጣሪ መልካም ነገር፣ሰንጋ ሳንጋ፣ቦካ መአዛ ማለት ነዉ፡፡ የጎንዳር ፍርድ ቤቶች በኦሮሞ ቋንቋ ፍርድ ይሰጡ ነበር፡፡በእነዚህ መረጃዎች መሠረት ጎንዳር የኦሮሞ ሀገር ነበረች፡፡
=== ጎጃምና ኦሮሞ === .
Gojami (ጎጃም) ቃሉ የኦሮሞ ነዉ፡፡ትርጉሙ መጎምጀት ማለት ነዉ፡፡ ጎጃም የአጋዉ ብሔረሰብ ግዛት ነዉ፡፡ትክክለኛ ሥሙ Haagahu (ሃጋሁ) ነዉ፡፡በኦሮሚፋ ትርጉሙ ይብቃ ማለት ነዉ፡፡ አበሲኒያ ሃጋሁን ወደ አገዉ ለዉጣ ኦሮሞ ቃል መሆኑ እንዳይታወቅ አደረገች፡፡ በ16ኛ ክፍለ ዘመን የጎጃም የመጀመሪያ ሴት ኦሮሞ ንግሥት ዋቢ ትባላች፡፡ አበሲኒያን የዋቢ ሥም ደብቀዉ “ዋለተ ባርሳቤህ ” እያሉ ይጠሯታል፡፡ በኦሮሞ ዋቢ ማለት ተጠሪ ማለት ነዉ፡፡ በ20ኛዉ ክፍለ ዘመን ተዋቂዉ ኦሮሞ የጎጃም ንጉሥ አዳል ዶሪ ይባላል፡፡አበሲኒያን ሥሙን ለዉጠዉ ንጉሥ ተክለ ሃይማኖት ይላሉ፡፡የኦሮሞ ጀግና ጦር አዛዦች ጎጃም አባ ቤላና ይማም ይባላሉ፡፡ በጎጃም እስከ ዛሬ ቀን ድረስ በኦሮሞ ቃል የሚጠሩ በዙ ስፍራዎች ይገኛሉ:: ማጫ፣ዲማ፣ ሰቃላ፣ ቆራቲ፣ጃዊ ፣ቡሬ፣ጂጋ፣ባሶ፣ ጋሌ፣ሊባን፣ ሜታ፣ ዳሞቴ፣ ሙጣ/ሞጣ, ቡሬ ዝጉርጉር ,ኢለማን ዲንሳ የሚባሉት ናቸዉ፡፡አማራ ይልማና ድኒሳ እያለ ይጠራል፡፡ ኦሮሞን በደሙና በአጥንቱ ይጠላ የነበረው የአማራሽደብተራ አለቃ አጽመ ጊዮርጊስ በጻፈው ታሪክ የጎጃም መሣፍንቶች ኦሮሞ መሆናቸውን አረጋግጧል። መጤዎች እነቀዚህ ተጨባጭ መረጃዎችን ደብቀዉ ታሪክ ማዕዘን ድንጋይ የሆነዉን ኦሮሞ መጤ እያሉ ሲሳደቡ ይኖራሉ፡፡ ከላይ በቀረቡ መረጃዎች መሠረት በጥንት ዘመን ዛሬ የአማራ ጎሣ የሚባሉ አገዉና ቤጃ ኦሮሞዎች ነበሩ፡፡ ስለዚህ አማራ የሚባል ጎሣ የለም፡፡ ፕሮፌሰር መስፍን ወልደማሪያምና ኮሎኔል መንግሥቱ ኃይለ ማሪያም ቋንቋዉ እንጂ አማራ የሚባል ጎሣ የለም ብለዉ አረጋግጠዋል ፡፡ . Melaku TesfayeTsegaye Aysheshim TilahunAysheshim DenberuSete AshudAshu AsnakeWorku ZerayakobAmdetsion
LemessaTulu . ጥያቄ አላችሁ?
ያው የወሎ ጉዳይ ጥያቄ እንደማይሆን ተስፋ አደርጋለሁ። https://www.facebook.com/ETHIOBOOMS/photos/a.1039676139534037/1070253556476295/?type=3&hc_ref=ARQNabry8jErqSZIqsc70UJ9dxVvjR_Dqost_qjSx8nOToxzNH0kpMVDlnTceJQoJCM&__xts__%5B0%5D=68.ARB7vEN47eh_mL_aqGdtXOyA6-QwN0zGa_ZawteQfzSZ6OhANiZ34Tmpc23sK5xZk-HI8nPyNi4mxbzpq_3P4dsOhkft6a8LYXLXLztKuTX3XDpb5oG7OhZOpOEPOdwLNDJEifnIaw0vvJXv9HCJz1wuZej-DyVYgDFFyvowpd9HnH50UJZN8Kz0R8loXliRcl7OjeQzKYp1oYeimvxSJdIFOMo&__tn__=EC-R


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