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Oromia: The Ethiopian Empire Formation And Its consequences On The #Oromo And Beyond. #Africa January 16, 2015

Posted by OromianEconomist in Afar, Agaw people, Boran Oromo, Ethiopia's Colonizing Structure and the Development Problems of People of Oromia, Ethiopian Empire, Ethnic Cleansing, Mursi, National Self- Determination, Ogaden, OLF, Oromia, Oromiyaa, Sidama, Southern Ethiopia and the Omo Valley, The Tyranny of Ethiopia.
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“…The sustained and bloody campaign of Minilik resulted in the cutting of limps of men of all ages, breasts of women of the Arssi Oromos, which many Oromo Anthropologists, historians and the elderly equate it to the genocide committed against the Armenians by the Ottman Turks Empire during the First World War, in which over a million Armenians were killed.”

The Ethiopian Empire Formation And Its consequences On The Oromo And Beyond

By Bakkalcho Barii 

With the help of the then three colonial powers, Minilik, the Abyssinian king managed to break and conquer the Oromo Country and beyond in the last two decades of the nineteenth century. Following this war of conquest, the invading Abyssinian colonial army not only committed genocide on the entire Oromo, Walita, Sidama, and other people, but also, committed cultural, historical, social,and economic genocides in this new frontiers by imposing Abyssinian culture, language, way of life, administrations, and religion. These crimes were committed by presenting anything Abyssinian as superior to the languages, cultures, system of governance of the new colonies, as Europeans did practice when they conquered vast territories in Africa, Asia, and Latin America.  

Thanks to their heroes and heroines, the Oromo and the Southern people begun the journey of re-claiming what istheirs and re-writing their own history. Like other Empires in history, the Ethiopian Empire shall collapse by the subjected people, on which it has been built on, and that processes of de-colonization and the wheel of freedom is marching forward with full gear so that those subject nations shall claim their due place among the free nations of the world. The late P.T.W Baxter spent much of his time studying mainly the Boran and the Arssi Oromos. Paul Baxter documented and wrote many research books and articles on the Oromo way of life, their Gada system of governance and their experiences under the Ethiopian empire after the Minlik colonial army managed to conquer much of the Oromo land and the Southern nations by default and with the help of the then European Colonial powers, the French, the British and the Italians.

In his research article titled “Ethiopia’s Unacknowledged Problem: The Oromo” (July 1978) wrote the following; “Each of the Oromo peoples has a distinctive history but all shared comparable experiences; ……….perhaps I may select a few observed by myself in Arssi to illustrate some common types of Oromo experience under Abyssinian rule. …… The Arssi and the Oromo Country beyond were finally subjugated by Shoan gun power in 1887 after six different annual campaigns which R.H Kofi Darkwa, the Ghanaian historian of Menilek reign, summarizes as “perhaps the most sustained and the most bloody war which Menilek undertook.”

The above description of the sustained and bloody campaign of Minilik resulted in the cutting of limps of men of all ages, breasts of women of the Arssi Oromos, which many Oromo Anthropologists, historians and the elderly equate it to the genocide committed against the Armenians by the Ottman Turks Empire during the First World War, in which over a million Armenians were killed.

Paul Baxter and John Hinnant, who both studied the Arssi, the Boran and the Guji Oromos in the 1960s, summarized the experiences of those Oromos under conquest as the following: “The Arssi described their conquest by Abyssinians as the commencement of an era of miseries, since which life has not run as God intended it but out of true”.  “The Boran likewise divided their history into two eras, before and after, the first of which was good and the second bad” to describe what colonization has brought upon them.

Similarly, John Hinnant described the experiences of the Guji Oromos as tending “to blame all social problems on their incorporation into the Ethiopian empire.”  The above feelings and humiliation expressed and felt by the Boran, the Arssi and the Guji Oromos are the same as the feelings and humiliation felt by the Oromos of the Wollo, the Rayya, the Karayu, the Ittu, the Leqa, the Mecha, and the Tulama.

One would always ask how successive Abyssinians regimes managed to rule over the Southern nations, including the Oromo’s (currently known as the subjects or colonies), who constitute more than two-third of the entire populations of the Ethiopian Empire for so long?

The precise answer to the above question was given by Paul Baxter in his article “Ethiopia’s Unacknowledged Problem: The Oromo, in which he says “ The absolute political domination and cultural dominance of the Amhara ( now the Tigres), has resulted in the public presentation of Ethiopia as a state with a much more unitary culture than , in fact, it has. Even scholars have come to accept Ethiopia at the evaluation of its own sophisticated and charming elite.”

The current Tigrian elites copied their Amhara elite’s, their predecessors, in presenting their Empire as a unitary and at peace with itself while waging unprecedented war of genocide on the Oromo people and other nations. They (both the Amhara & Tigre elites) hired foreign PR companies, influential individuals, and lobbyists in Western capitals and political corridors to maintain their marginalization of the Oromos and the Southern people, and present their Empire at peace with itself at the expense and misery of the subject people.

Of all the Abyssinian regimes, the current TPLF regime can only be equated with that of Minilik rule because TPLF rulers, like Minilik openly declared the entire Oromo people as the enemy of the state, and placed them in open concentration camps, in parallel with what the Nazi Germany inflicted on the Jewish communities of Europe during the Second World War.

The question many Oromos and friends of Oromos raise is Why is it the current rulers of the Empire (the TPLF), and their unprecedented scale of human rights violations and abuses on the Oromos is different from the past three regimes of the Empire rulers?

Unlike the past three regimes, who rose from the Amahric speaking Abyssinians, the TPLF originates from a minority Tigre region, which comprises only about five percent of the current Ethiopian Empire population, and was junior partners or foot-soldiers with the invading Minilik army during a war of conquest and expansion of the Abyssinian Empire towards the south.

Secondly, the TPLF rose from a century old power struggle with its close kin, the Amharas, who defeated the Tigre king Yohannes IV. In other words, the TPLF came to power not only to rule over the Empire but also to avenge their century old wounds against their kin, the Amharas. Thirdly, TPLF’s cleverly learnt the shortcomings of the Amaharas rulers over the colonies and, for the first time in the history of the Empire forcefully accepted the existence of independent nations like the Oromo’s, and allowed some form of self-rule and the use of their languages in office and schools.

However, when it comes to responding to the  democratic and justice demands of the Oromo for total liberation from alien rulers, TPLF created satellite organizations who speak the languages of the indigenous population and used them as a Trojan horses to kidnap, harass, kill, displace and jail thousands of innocent Oromo for only demanding their country Oromia be free, and it is only the Oromos as owners and custodians of their Country Oromia, who shall decide their future relationships with neighbouring countries, including the Abyssinian themselves.  According to official reports by Amnesty International, Oromia Support Group and other local human rights bodies, currently there are close to 45,000 innocent Oromo prisoners of conscience in different TPLF concentration camps.

Finally, the event of the September the 11th, 2001, in which thousands of innocent American lives were lost by a global terrorist organization called Al-Qaida. This horrific incident played well in the hands of TPLF rulers and exploited to receive billions of dollars and military aid in the name of fighting Islamic extremism in the region, but in actual facts to crash its opponents by bullying and invading neighbouring countries of the region with the tacit support of the Western powers.

The late TPLF ruler, Meles Zenawi loudly and clearly declared on many occasions that, TPLF conquered the Empire’s power by the barrel of guns, and, therefore, it can only be forced out of power by those who can use the same tactics. This reminded me of that famous saying “Power never gives up by will” but only by force.

The current minority regime of the TPLF hell-bent on not only committing unprecedented human rights atrocities against the Oromos and other nations in the South, its determinations to displace millions of Oromo from their ancestral land and selling those lands at the lowest bid to its foreign backers, destroy their forests by clearing in the name of development, and expose current and future generations of Oromos and the southern nations to environmental genocide shall have huge implications for the years to come.

The challenge for the Oromos and the people of the South is that the old guards, who conquered and built the Ethiopian Empire are so desperate and furious for losing the Empire to their junior partners, and making everything they  can to re-claim their lost glory in the name of united Ethiopia, one vote and individual democratic rights slogans. These old guards of the Empire are barking and pulling their hair inside and outside of the country to undo the symbolic self-rule that is currently in-place that successive Oromo generations earned by much blood and sacrifice.

As one of my favourite young broadcaster, journalist and poet Abdi Fixe recently put on his comment regarding the fire that destroyed the Taitu Hotel in Finfinnee, “ where were these people who were so enraged by the burning of a hotel, for which the cause of the fire is not known yet, and silent when the TPLF Agazi militia murdered over seventy Oromo University students at Ambo and other Universities across Oromia for peacefully demonstrating against the expansion of Finfinnee? Where were these people when TPLF Agazi army carried out mass murder on the people of the Gambella, Sidama? Where were these people when TPLF deliberately burned Forests across all over Oromia?

In fact, they were cheering and clapping from the side when and every time TPLF carries-out their dirty work and some of them even could not hide their hatred towards the Oromos, the Gambellas, the Sidamas, and went on air and different social Medias in support of TPLF’s dirty deeds against the Oromo and the South. For Oromo and Southern compatriots in the Diasporas, keep it up the pressure on TPLF’s backers not to fund and support this in-humane and autocratic regime by coordinating your resources and hiring PR groups, lobbyists on behalf of your people back in the Empire, by collecting facts and figures of human rights violations that were committed and going to be committed, and expose them to governments and agencies in the West not to support this brutal regime diplomatically, financially and militarily.

Describing why the Oromo demand for statehood has not received news coverage in the West, despite the problem of the Oromo has been a major and central one in the Ethiopian Empire ever since it was created by Minilk in the last two decades of the 19th Century, Paul Baxter attributes the failings of the Western media for failing to cover this major issue due to two major factors:  The first factor was all “the difficulties the Ethiopian Empire has been enduring were the conflicts in the north and eastern frontiers ( with Eritrea and Somalia), which were fairly reported due to their accessibility to foreign reporters, coupled with the interests of the Great Powers and their satellites have been involved”.  “The second factor for the under-coverage or total absence of covering the Oromo and the Ethiopian Empire conflicts was the absolute political domination and cultural dominance of the Amhara has resulted in the public presentation of Ethiopia as a state with a much more unitary culture than, in fact, it has. Even some Western and “African Scholars” have come to accept Ethiopia at the evaluation of its own sophisticated and charming elite.”  There is one last myth or propaganda both the Abyssinian camps are using as a last resort to foil the total liberation of Oromos and the Southern people, including the Ogadenian Somali brothers, who have similar aspirations being free from Abyssinian domination. This last myth or propaganda currently waged and used by both Abyssinian camps are puffing out “is if Oromia shall become independent, their neighbouring Nations such as Sidama, Walita, Kambata, Hadiya, Harari & Somali will be dominated or even cease to exist as a people.

This is a complete myth used as a last resort to delay the inevitable liberation of Oromia and other nations indicated above. We Oromos, have lived peacefully and protected these nations to maintain their way of life, languages, culture, religious practices, and we have been living with these nations for thousands of years.  Imagine if these nations were bordering either the Amhara or Tigre Abyssinians? Their fate would have very similar to the Wollo Oromos who were forced to be Amharized and the Rayya Oromos, who were forced to abandon their language and history to be Tigre speaking people. Above all, we Oromos share common way of life and share closer kinship with our neighbours unlike what the Empire rulers try to portray.

One last message to my Oromo and the Southern compatriots to support their political and media organizations to shed lights and expose the chronic human rights violations perpetrated by successive Abyssinian regimes, so that their people back home shall rise and get rid-off them once and for all for peace to reign in that part of Africa. Strengthening and empowering Oromo Media Organizations will fill this void and the under-reporting of Oromo and the southern people conflicts with the Ethiopian Empire.

Let me quote the late P.T.W. Baxter and conclude my message:

“……But the efflorescence of feelings of common nationhood and aspirations for self-determination among the cluster of peoples who speak Oromo has not been much commented upon. Yet the problem of the Oromo people as has been a major and central one in the Ethiopian Empire ever since it was created by Minilik in the last two decades of the nineteenth century. If the Oromo people only obtain a portion of the freedoms which they seek then the balance of political power in Ethiopia will be completely altered. If the Oromo act with unity they must necessarily constitute a powerful force. ………..If an honest and free election was held ( an Unlikely event) and the people voted by ethnic blocks, as experience of elections elsewhere in Africa suggests that they well might do, then around half the votes would be cast by Oromo for the Oromo…”

May Waqaa Bless our forefathers, fathers, mothers, brothers and sisters who paid the ultimate price for the dignity of the Oromo People and the southern nations.

Bakkalcho Barii

This article is originally published in  ayyaantuu.com



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Seenaa Gabaabduu Sabboonaa Oromoo Obbo Araarsoo Boruu (1952 – 2015) January 16, 2015

Posted by OromianEconomist in Obbo Araarsoo Boruu, Oromo, Oromo Identity, Oromummaa.
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OObbo Araarsoo Boruu

Seenaa Gabaabduu    Sabboonaa Oromoo Obbo Araarsoo Boruu

(1952 – 2015)

Ararso1Qabsoon bilisummaa ummata Oromiyaa, arra, sadarkaa if duuba hin deebine geeysee jirti. Akkanumaa waliin, bahaa-bu’ii amna isii keessatti warra dhaabbiin rooraatuu fii kanneen Xophiyummaan a’oo seente jidduu, lammii keessaa, kanneen galii isii irraa shakkii qaban heddu. Garuu, yo kan durin wal cinaa qabame, lakkooysi warra kanaa akkaan xiqqa.

Hamma walakkaa baroota torbaatamootaatti, warri kaayoon qabsoo bilisummaa Oromiyaa abjuu hujiin hin fassaramne itti fakkaachaa turte        baayye. Haalli san,  murannoo qabsaawota dirree qabsoo saaqaniin injifatamee, kaayoon bilisummaa dhaabbii takkittii mooraa qabsoo taatee lammii keessa babal’achutti seente. Milkii tanaaf Elemoo Qilxuu fii Jaarraa Abbaa Gadaa tiin alatti warri itti faarfaman hin jiran.

Gaafa jeeynoonni armaa olitti maqaan dhawame, kaayoo bilisummaa tiif wareegama barbaachisu kennuuf muratanii daggala Oromiyaa seenan, kaayoo deemaniin bowwaasuu fii tumsa barbaachisuun warri bira dhaabbatan jibiri. Qoonni jara kanaa, babal’ina kaayoo bilisummaa tan gaafa qacalee tiif murteessa ture. Sadarakaa qabsoo tan gaafa kanaa keessatti, qabsaawota maqaan tarree duraatti tarrifamu keessaa tokko, Rabbi rahamata haa godhuu fii, Araarsoo Boruu (Ahmad Muussaa Haaji Alii Boruu) ti.

Araarsoo, abbaa isaa Obboo Mussaa Haaji Alii Boruu tii fii haadha isaa Aadde Haloo (Halimaa) Aadamirraa Baha Oromiyaa, Godinaa Bareentumaa, magaalaa Dirree Dhawaa, duubbee Masgiid Jum’aa, naannoo maqaa akaakoo isaa tiin moggaafamuun, ganda Haaji Boruu-tti beekkamutti  Caamsaa 10, bara 1952, dhalate.

Gaafa sammuun Araarsoo barnoota fudhachuu geeyse, ijibbaata sirna gabrummaa dura dhaabbachuu, tan gaafa inni dhalte lammiin hordofaa turan irraan kan ka’e, akkuma daa’imman yaroo saniitti, mana barnoota Amaaraa (akka gaafas itti beekkamutti) irraa iggitamee, Amantii Islaamaa tii fii Arabii akka baratuuf, Madrasaa Gubee geeyfame.

Madrasatti, Araarso, qu’annaa hifaata malee tiin, yaroo gabaabduu keessatti if bira dabree, warra waliin baratan gargaarutti seene. Xiqqo booda, san bira kutee, barachaa, manuma barnootaa sanitti, joollee barnootaan isaa gad jiran barsiisuu jalqabe. Barnoota madrasaa akka xumureen, guddaan, dheeraan, barnoota ammayyaa tiif, mana barnoota Madrasa Jadiidaa geeyfame. Araarso akkuma mana barnoota kaanitti, kanattiis, barnoota isaatti akkaan cime. Barnoota sadarkaa duraa booda kan jiddu galaa tiif mana barnoota Laga Harree-tti dabree, waliigala kutaa duraa, baroota gabaabotti keessa fullahee, kan lamadaatti tarkaanfate.

Gama biraa tiin, Araarso sab-boonota bara 1974, magaalaa Dirree Dhawaa keessatti maadheeleen gurmaawan keessaa tokko. Magaalaa san keessatti, barattootaa fii dafkaan bultoota dammaysuu fii jaaruu, akkasumatti ammallee, qotee buloota naannoo sanii if beeysisuu irratti odoo haalaan hojjatuu, ji’a Waxabajjii tan bara 1977, gama universitiitti tarkaanfachuuf, qormaata hulaa kudha lamaa fudhatee, barumsa maraan qabxii ol-aantu galmeesse.

Yaroon tuni, yaroo qabsoon hidhannoo bilisumma ummata Oromiyaa qacalee ti ture. Qabsoo hidhannoo qacalee gubbisuuf warra jalqabaan marxifatan keessaa Araarso angafa tahe. Akka hujiin Dirree Qabsoo karaa qabatteen, biyya alaa deemee qabsoo bilisummaa tiif tumsa akka argamsisuuf qaadhimame. Araarso barnoota isaa itti fufuuf karaa universitii Finfinnee deemuu dhiisee, dirqama qaadhimameef hobbaafachuuf, jilaa waliin, biyyarraa sossoohe. Amna miilaa tan guyyaa torbaa booda, ji’a Onkololeessaa kan bara 1977a, magaalaa Jabuutii seene.

Gaafni Araarso faan Jabuuti seenan, gaafa biiyti sirna bulchiinsa gabrummaa Faransaayii jalaa reefu bilisa itti baate ture. San malees, yaroon san, yaroo Oromoonni biyya san keessa jiran, jijjiirama arkametti fayyadamuun, caasaa Embaasii mootummaa Xophiyaa jalaa walaba taateen, if gurmeessanii maqaa Caayaa Oromoo ja’uun mootummaa haarayatti if galmeessan ture.

Jilli Araarso irraa tokkoo, Caayaa Oromoo magaalaa Jabuutii tan reefu jaaramaa jirtu caaseysuu fii karaa qabsiisuu irratti qooda guddaa laatan. Gama biraa tiin, miseensonni caayaa tiis, qoma bal’oon isaan simatanii, dhimma biyyaa bahaniif if dura tarkaanfachiisuu irratti dugugguruu (lafee duuydaa) tahaniif.

Araarso, karoora biyyaa bahaniif fiixa baasuu irratti, ramaddii hujii tan magaalaa Jabuutii keessatti isa hambifte gammachuun fudhatee, hujitti seene. Gama tokkoon, dhimma siyaasaa tan biyyaa baheefiif dhaabotaa fii Embaasiilee ambaarra daddeemaa, gama kaaniin, lammii Oromoo kanneen biyya san keessatti if wallaalanii alagooman dammaysuu fii Caayatti dabaluu irratti hifannaa malee halkanii fii guyyaa carraaquu jalqabe.

Lakkuma qabsoon bilisummaa finiinaa deemtuun, Oromoonni baayyinaan baqatanii Jabuutii gaafa seenuu jalqaban, Araarso daran hirriiba dhabaa dhufe. Baqattootaaf iddoo bulmaataa tii fii dhihana irraa arkatan barbaaduu fii qubachiisuu dirqama godhate. Akka hara fudhataniin, bixxillee baqattumaa akka arkataniif waan barbaachisu godhuu fiin ba’aa isarra jirtu taate. San boodaas, kanneen qubsumaaf karaa Amerikaa fii Kanadaa deemuu barbaadaniif, korboo guutuu, afaan hiikuu fii mala dhawuun tan isaa taate. Warra dalagachuuf karaa Sa’udii deemuu fedhanii fiis baasabooraa fii viisaa biyya sanii barbaaduuf, oowwa biyya sanii keessa, olii fii gad kan daddeemu tahe.

Gama biraa tin, rakkoo dirree qabsoo bilisummaa ummata Oromiyaa keessatti bara 1978 arkamte furuuf, Araarso, tattaafata guddaa godhe. Haala dhalate irraa kan milkaawu diina qofa taachaa hubachuun, dhibdeen ganamumaan akka dhaamtuuf karaa dandayuu maraan carraaqe. Ijibbaanni isaa fiixa bahuuf dinnaan, odoo hin jaalanne, dhaabbi fudhachuu dirqame. Dhaabbiin, murannoo cimtuu waliin, gaafas Araarso fudhate, tokkummaa Oromoo cimsuu irratti qooda guddaa gummachite.

Addi Bilisummaa Oromoo, biyya Soomaalee keessatti heeraan hojjachuuf akka hayyama arkateen, Araarso achiitti ramadamee, jalqaba bara 1980i, Jabuutii irraa gamas sossoohe. Soomalee keessatti itti gaafatamaa Waajjira Hargeessaa tahee, qabsoo bilisummaa tiif dirqama isaa hobbaafachaa odoo jiruu, dhaabaan waldhabee, biraa deemee, ji’a Adooleessaa kan bara 1982a, bahara Hindii qaxxaamuree Sa’uudii seene.

Araarso Sa’uudii dhaquun hawaasa achi ture keessatti jijjiirama cima fide. Araarso Sa’uudii keessatti, ilmaan Oromoo faffac’arraa akka gurmaawan godhe. Dhaaba maqaa Tokkummaa Hojjattoota Oromoota Riyaad (THOR) ja’uun gurmeessee, ifii fii wal malees, qabsoo bilisummaa Oromiyaa tiif waan hedduu akka gumaachan godhe. Biyya dibbee dhawuun boquu nama dhabsiisu keessatti, agarsiisa aadaa tii fii daawwiilee dhooysatti qopheessanii, Oromoota achii malees, kanneen naannoo biraa akka irraa barataniif viidiyoon waraabanii wanni lammii keessa facaasan, irree qabsoo bilisummaa akkaan cimsite.

Ararso2Haalli Sa’uudii akkaa-gara dhaabaa gaafa dhufe, maatiif biyya qubsumaa barbaacha, Sadaasa 19, bara 1986, biyya Xaaliyaanii – magaalaa Roomaa warraa waliin seenan. Hamma yaroon achii sossoohuu geeysutti, akkuma Riyaaditti Roomaa keessattiis, lammii gargaaruu fii gurmeessuu hujii godhate. Hooggana isaa fii kanneen biraa tiin, waldayni baqattoota Oromoota Roomaa keessatti dhaabbatee, yaroo gabaabduu keessatti, damee Tokkummaa Barattoota Oromoo Aroppaa (TBOA) keessaa kan hundarra cimaa tahee arkame.

Araarsoo fii maatii: Bitaarraa gama mirgaatti, Faayoo, Tiyyaa,

Araarso, Faxxumee, Leensaa fii Guulaa

Araarso, jiruu baqattummaa irraa hara fudhatee qubachuuf, Ebla 14 bara 1988, maatii isaa waliin biyya Kanadaa magaalaa Torontoo dhufe. Akka Torontoo seenettiis, hujiin sabaa jalaa in hafne. Wanni qubsumaa hanqattee, miseensa Tokkummaa Oromoo Amerikaa Bitaa (TOAB) damee Ontariyoo tahee, murannoo isaa saniin, mooraa qabsoo bilisummaa gabbisutti seene.

Araarso, nama naamusa cimaan faayame. Nama yaada isaa ifatti ibasatu, kan namaa tiis qamaa qalbiin gurra banee caqasu. Nama dhaabbii bilisummaa ummata Oromiyaa tan ganama manaa baheef irraa takkaa hin daddabini. Nama dirqama fudhate hamma hobbaafatuu hirriibni hin fudhanne. Guddaa fii xiqqaa lammii tiif jaalalaa fii kabajaa qabuun, qabsaawaa fii sab-boonaaf fakkeenya dhugaa tahe.

Waldhabbii qabsaawotaa tan bara 1978 irraa kaasee, Araarso, “bilisummaa biyyaa tii fii walabummaa sabaa tiif  tokkummaan qabsaawotaa barbaachisaa dha,” je’ee nama yaadu.  Yaada isaa kana, afaan bira kutee, katabbii isaa tan akkaan faayamteen taraaree, suuraan miidhaysee, kaleen agarsiiseen odoo abdii hin kutanne, irra daddeebi’ee, yaroo hedduu dooyaarratti agarsiisee jira. Yaroo dhukkubni itti sharafee hafuura itti kutaa dhufees, wanni dhaammate, wasiyyaan isaa, “tokkummaa qabsaawotaa fiduuf tattaafata godhaa jirtan itti jabaadhaa,” tan jattu.

Ararso3Araarso, bara dabre, Amajjii 19, 2014, hawaasa Torontoo kanneen gadda haadha warraa, Aadde Faxxum Abdukariim Alii, tiif walitti qabaman irratti, “Ambayyoo! Ani silaa nama du’a Fxxumee irraa dandamatuu miti. Garuu, haalli keessan irraa na hambise. Galatoomaa!” jechuun jaalala haada warraa tiif qabu ibsee ture. Duuba, tin’isni hawaasaa akka hawwe hin taaneef. Akki je’ee hanqattee, amata isaatti, Amajjii 15, bara 2015, dhukkuba yaroo gabaabduu keessatti isa sardeen, magaalaa Torontoo keessatti, adunyaarraa gale.

Araarsoo fii Faxxumeen, dhuma bara 1981, Somaalee keessatti irbuu jaarsaa jaartummaa waliif seenan. Eega gaafasii, hamtuu fii toltuu isaan mudattu mara jaalala namayyu hinaafsiftuun keessa hulluuqan. Akkuma wal-jaalatanitti wal jalaa hafuu didanii, Guulaa, Faayoo, Tiyyaa fii Leensaa biyya ambaa keessatti hadiyyomsanii, wal duraa duuba, deeman. Ilmaan isaanii malees, hawaasa Oromoo magaalaa Torontoo garaa raasan.

Rabbi jannataan haa qananiyu!

Oromiyan ni bilisoomti!

Abbaa Urjii


Economics: Role and Method of Econ (1.1-1.5) January 16, 2015

Posted by OromianEconomist in Economics, Uncategorized.
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‘Economics is the study of choices we make among our many wants and desires given our limited resources. With unlimited resources we wouldn’t have to worry about scarcity.
Resources are inputs that we use to produce goods and services. These include Capital, Entrepreneurship, Land and Labor (CELL). Capital is the goods we make to produce other goods. Entrepreneurship are machines that are used to make products. Land is our natural resources and Labor is the human effort put into making products. Scarcity is defined as products that are desirable but limited. These cause us to change our decision and and give up opportunities that we value, this is known as the Economic Problem.’

Pepperdine Summary Notes


Economics is the study of choices we make among our many wants and desires given our limited resources. With unlimited resources we wouldn’t have to worry about scarcity.

Resources are inputs that we use to produce goods and services. These include Capital, Entrepreneurship,  Land and Labor (CELL). Capital is the goods we make to produce other goods. Entrepreneurship are machines that are used to make products. Land is our natural resources and Labor is the human effort put into making products.

Scarcity is defined as products that are desirable but limited. These cause us to change our decision and and give up opportunities that we value, this is known as the Economic Problem. Every person, worker and firms all face the Economic Problem. Consumers have to decide what to buy, save and how much of their money to invest. Workers have to decide where to work, what to do…

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