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Oromia: The Spirit of Oromummaa in the Blessing Season: Irreecha Malkaa 2017 in Naqamtee colorfully and peacefully celebrated at Malka Adii Yaa’a with Massive tournout. And also at Malkaa Qicuu, in Cobii town, Jalduu, West Shawwaa. October 29, 2017

Posted by OromianEconomist in Irreecha, Irreecha Birraa, Irreecha Oromo, Irreessa.
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A week after Irreecha 2017 at Malkaa Booyyee in Jimmaa, Oromians in the city of Naqamtee and East Wallaggaa (Western Oromia) and in Jalduu, Cobii town (West Shawwaa, Central Oromia) on 29 October 2017 celebrated their national and cultural season  peacefully and successfully.   The colorful festival was taken place  in Naqamtee at Malkaa Adii Yaa’a while in Jaldu it was celebrated at Malkaa Qicuu.

Onkoloolessa 29 bara 2017  (6411 ALO) ayyaanni Irreecha Malkaa maqaalaa Naqamtee Haroo Adii Yaa’atti haalaa bareedaa fi nageenya qabuun bakka namni miliyoona tokkoo ol argamanitti irreeffatamee oolera. Haaluuma wal fakkatuun Aanaa Jalduu magaalaa Cobii Malkaa Qicuuttisi irreeffatameera.  #Irreecha2017


Some of the pictures and videos  (credited to social media) at Malkaa Adii Yaa’a



Irreecha 2017 celebrated at Malkaa Hadiyyaa in city of Naqamtee, E. Wallaggaa, Oromia, 29 October 2017 with peaceful Oromia Police and TPLF mass killer Agazi was not at the event.png

Irreecha 2017 celebrated at Malkaa Hadiyyaa in city of Naqamtee, E. Wallaggaa, Oromia, 29 October 2017 with peaceful Oromia Police and there were no TPLF mass killers, no Agazi at the event.


“ABOn Naqameen Galee” Jedhu Qeerroon guyyaa har’aa Irreecha Wallagga Naqamteetti ta’e irratti.

Irreecha 2017 at Malkaa Qicuu, Cobii town, Jaldu, Oromia, 29 ) October 2017


Oromia: The Blessing Season: #Irreecha2017: Oromians continued with the celebrations of their national & the common ancient culture in Malkaa Booyyee (Jimma), Qar Sadee (Abuunaa, Gindabarat) and Basaqaa (Fantaallee). The events were colorful, peaceful and successful with massive turnouts October 23, 2017

Posted by OromianEconomist in Irreecha, Irreecha Birraa, Irreecha Oromo, Irreessa, Uncategorized.
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Odaa OromooOromianEconomist


Three weeks after Horaa Harsadi, two weeks after Malkaa Ateetee and a week after Malkaa Ogiyyoo,  Malkaa Raachaa, Jalduu and more, Oromians celebrated the Irreecha Birraa 2017 season (6411, According Oromoo Gadaa Calendar) in Malkaa Booyyee (Jimma Abba Jifar), Malkaa Qar Sadee (Abuunaa Gindabarat) and Malkaa Basaqaa (Fantaallee). As of  the last 3 weeks major events, the Sunday, October 22nd, 2017 events were  with massive people of all walks of life in attendance.  They were very bright and colorful events with Oromo social styles, cultural costumes, Abbaa Gadaa’s, Siiqqee, the Qeerroo, cultural songs and #OromoProtests. The people and the Oromia State Police made the events peaceful and successful.  Irreecha is part of the Oromo Gadaa System UNESCO World Heritage. 

Irreechi bara kanaa (6411)  kan Malkaa Booyyee, Malkaa Qar Sadee fi kan Malkaa Basaqaa akkuma kan iddoowan biroo darbanii, Dilbata (Sanbata) Onkoloolessa 22 Bara 2017 (6411 ALOtti) haala ho’aa fi bareedan kabajaamee oole. Irreefannaa kana irratti namoonni heddummaan kan irratti argaman yoo ta’u, sabnii fi Polisiin Oromiyaa wal ta’uun diina irraa wal irraa ittisuun nagaan, gammachuu fi sirbaan ayyaanefatame oole.

#Irreecha2017      #Irreecha2017


Here are some of the videos and pictures  from the events:-

Irreecha Birraa (Malkaa) 2017 at Malkaa Booyyee, Jimmaa Abba Jifar, State of Oromia. 22nd October 2017







The eve of Irreecha Oromoo 2017 at Malkaa Deeddee, the eve (jala bultii) of Malkaa Booyyee, 21 October 2017

Irreecha Birraa 2017 at Malkaa Booyyee, Jimmaa Abba Jifar, Oromia on 22nd October 2017 (6411 ALO)

Irreecha Birraa 2017 at Malkaa Booyyee, Jimmaa Abba Jifar, Oromia on 22nd October 2017


Irreecha Birraa 2017 at Malkaa Booyyee, Jimmaa Abba Jifar, Oromia on 22nd October 2017 (6411 ALO).

Irreecha  Birraa  2017,   Malkaa Booyyee, Jimmaa  Abba Jifar, Oromia on 22nd October 2017 (6411 ALO).png

Irreecha Birraa 2017 at Malkaa Booyyee, Jimmaa Abba Jifar, Oromia, 22 October 2017 (6411 ALO)

Irreecha Birraa 2017 at Malkaa Booyyee, Jimmaa, Oromia on 22nd October 2017 (6411 ALO)


Irreecha Birraa 2017 at Malkaa Booyyee, Jimmaa Abba Jifar, Oromia, 22nd October 2017 (6411 ALO)

Malkaa Basaqaa, Fantallee, Oromia

Irreecha Birraa bara 6411 (ALO), Irreecha Birraa Oromoo 2017, on 8th October 2017 colorfully celebrated in Fantalle, Malkaa Basaqaa, in the state of Oromia

Irreecha Birraa bara 6411 (ALO), Irreecha Birraa Oromoo 2017, on 8th October 2017 colorfully celebrated in Fantalle, Malkaa Basaqaa, Oromia

Irreecha Birraa Oromo 2017, Malkaa Basaqaa, Fantallee, Oromia, 8 October 2017.png


Irreecha 2017 Malkaa Qar Sadee, Abunaa, Gindabarat, Oromia

Irreecha  2017, Malkaa Qar Sadee  Abuunaa,  Gindabarat,  Oromia 22 October 2017 (6411 ALO).png

Irreecha  2017  at Malkaa Qar Sadee  Abuunaa,  Gindabarat,  Oromia 22 October 2017 (6411 ALO).png

Irreecha 2017 at Malkaa Qar Sadee Abuunaa, Gindabarat, Oromia 22nd October 2017 (6411 ALO)

Restoring Oromummaa: Irreecha Malkaa 2017 celebrated in Mandii, Mana Sibuu, Wallagga, Oromia after 88 years October 16, 2017

Posted by OromianEconomist in Irreecha, Irreecha Birraa, Irreecha Oromo, Irreessa, Uncategorized.
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Odaa Oromoooromianeconomist

Kabajin ayyaana Irreecha Birraa kan bara 2017 (6411 ALO) Oromiyaa bakka adda addaatti itti fufee jira. Haaluma kanaan Mandii, Mana Sibuu, Wallaggaa dhihaatti  haala bareedan Onkoloolessa 15 bara 2017 kabajamee oolera.  Iddii bara 1929tii barana deebi’ee Malkaa Ogiyyootti irreeffatame. #Irreecha2017


Irreecha Birraa Oromoo 2017 at Mandii, Mana Sibuu district, Oromia, on 15 October 2017





Irreecha Birraa 2017 Celebrated in Mandi, Wallaggaa, W. Oromia, 15th October 2017 after 88 years

Irreecha Birraa (Malkaa) Oromoo 2017 ( 6411 ALO) Colorfully Celebrated in Mandii, West Wallaggaa, Oromia, 15th October 2017.png

Irreecha Birraa 2017 Celebrated in Mandi, Wallaggaa, Oromia, 15th October 2017.png


Irreecha Birraa Oromoo 2017 at Mandii, Wallaggaa Oromia, on 15 October 2017.png

Irreecha Birraa Oromoo 2017 at Mandii, Mana Sibuu, Wallaggaa Oromia, on 15 October 2017

Irreecha Birraa Oromoo 2017 at Mandii, Mana Sibuu district, Wallaggaa Oromia, on 15 October 2017.png

Irreecha Birraa Oromoo 2017 at Mandii, in Mana Sibuu district, Oromia, on 15 October 2017.pngIrreecha Birraa Oromoo 2017 at Mandii, Mana Sibuu district, Oromia, on 15 October 2017.png

Onkoloolessa 15 Bara 2017 Malkaa Raachaa, Jalduutti  haala gaarii irreenfatamee oole.


Dabalataan kana caqasaa Kan Makkoo Bilii

Akkasumasi Irreechi Haraa Basqaatti kbajameerra.

Irreecha 2017 also celebrated in Nairobi, Kenya.

Suuran gadii kun kan  Odaa Bulluq

Oromia: Irreecha Birraa 2017: Malkaa Ateetee: Irreecha Oromo Thanksgiving Colorfully Celebrated at Gafarsaa, Buraayyuu with Massive Turn Out October 8, 2017

Posted by OromianEconomist in Irreecha, Irreecha Birraa, Irreecha Oromo.
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As a continuation of  the celebration of Oromo national and Cultural Holiday, massive people turned out on 8th October 2017 to celebrate the colorful festive season at Malkaa Ateetee. The event was peacefully held and concluded in jubilation at Hora Gafarsaa in Buraayyu, Oromia, 10 km west to Finfinnee, the capital. This is the 2nd biggest Irreecha Birraa celebration a week after the grand festival at Hora Harsadii, Bishoftuu, on 1st October 2017.  The event was also marked by #Oromoprotests against Ethiopia’s regime.  Fundraising was made to support the Oromo people displaced by Liyu Police attacks.

Here are some of the pictures and videos at Irreecha Birraa Malkaa Ateetee:-











Posted by OromianEconomist in Irreecha Birraa, Irreecha Oromo, Irreessa, Uncategorized.
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Odaa Oromoooromianeconomist

Irreecha Oromo 2014 Hora Harsadii, Oromia


Getaachew Chemeda ( Member: Gadaa Meelbaa)

14440855_1012083622242098_3525717134028063329_nSince time immemorial Oromo men, women, youths, and elders have been rallying together to express thanks and happiness to their Waaqa, who according to the Oromo concept of colour is symbolised by the colour gurraacha, meaning black. By its very original concept the colour gurraacha (black) did not stand for mourning, grief or for the expression of sorrow. It was used to symbolise the invisible supreme power that can do and undo anything anywhere in the universe. Having this narrative tradition in mind, the Oromos have been getting together around rivers or lakes to thank their Waaqa Gurraacha at the end of the rainy season. They strongly believe that, it was Waaqa who delivered them from the restraining rainy season and brought them to the cherished flowery season. This great event, called Irreecha in Afaan Oromoo, is celebrated every year at the end of September or in the first week of October.

Irreecha holds an important social event in Oromo people’s aspiration for peace, prosperity, abundance, fertility, and a hope for the renewal of a new social life. Like ancient Egyptians who used to celebrate the yearly inundation of the River Nile as a symbol of life giving, Oromos have been celebrating their new year on the side of river banks or lakes which, according to Oromo mythology, is the source of all life. Some of the hymens ancient Egyptians sang while praising the Nile were:

Oh Nile! You rise out of the earth and come to nourish Egypt! You quench the thirsty desert! You bring forth the barley! You create the wheat! You fill the granaries and the storehouses, not forgetting the poor. For You we pluck our harps, for You we sing! [1]                        

                                     Creation Narrative Stories

It was not only the ancient Egyptians or the Oromos who had creation stories in relation to water. In the Japanese telling stories, we find water holding the core of the dawn of creation. First, there was an ocean, out of which the many Japanese Islands were believed to have been created. There was a god known as Izanagi and a goddess Izanami. The gods, as a couple, had three children, of whom the grandson of the Sun Goddess had become the first Emperor of Japan, Nippon, as known to the native population.[2]

The gods used a long spear and stirred up mud at the bottom of the ocean.  It was out of the stirred up mud those more than 6000 Japanese islands were believed to have been created. On the eastern side, out of the glittering Pacific Ocean, the sun rose every morning. It was the cherished sun’s rays which had a big role in illumining, nourishing, and bringing up the Japanese archipelagos to life. This is the Japanese thought of their land, Mount Fuji being the most beautiful and sacred one.[3]

For the Japanese, Japan has not only been their country.  Japan has been their world and their religion. The creation story the people share in common and the passionate love they have for their country has continued to make up the coherent faith of their oneness. And, out of the cherished mythology, they have undoubtedly benefited enormous groundwork principles for their social and technological advancement we are witnessing today.

When we come to the antique Scandinavians of northern Europe, we find similar watery creation stories. In the beginning there was an abyss filled with water. The water froze; and lastly melted down. Out of the melted water, a giant being of human form called Ymir emerged. Thereafter, a man and woman were created out of Ymir’s armpits. In short, this was the beginning of ancient Scandinavian telling stories about the myth of human creation.[4]

The Oromo myth of creation holds the view that water being the source of androgynous being. According to Oromo narration story, by the unfathomable wisdom of Waaqa Gurraacha, the androgyny was divided in to two parts and became male and female. After the division, the two opposite sexes began to live separately on the either side of the river. Though they were able to see each other across the river, they were hampered from joining each other by the overflow of the river.  When the river subsided and sank down into its course, during the flowering season, they were able to cross the river and embraced each other.[5] Here was the point, during the flowering season, according to Oromo belief, when the first gaa’ila  (engagement for marriage) started to blossom.

Many of us may remember when newly married Oromo couples were coming to Irreecha at Hora Harsadii, enforced by nobody but only inspired by the tradition to get the blessings of the hayyuus and Abbaa Gadaas. But that was not performed on October 2, 2016 because of the heinous massacre carried out by the incumbent Ethiopian regime that disrupted the whole process of the ceremony.

Having this entire narrative story in mind, defending and combatting all challenging obstacles and heinous crimes imposed on them, the Oromos have continued to celebrate their yearly thanksgiving Irreecha festival, dressing beautiful national costumes suited for the occasion.

Norms of Irreecha Celebration

Today, at national level, millions of Oromos are celebrating Irreecha Birraa, on the side of Hora Harsadii in Bishooftuu town. At national or local levels, there are traditionally agreed upon norms that govern the whole process of the ceremony from the beginning to the end, which is deeply rooted in the strongly and humanely established Oromo views for peace, love, prosperity, and human dignity. Based on Oromo clans’ successive generation by birth, there are individuals who offer blessings first, second, and so on. This is dually (angafaa fi qixisuu) restructured in Oromo kinship organisations whose function of check and balance has become basic foundation for the indigenous Gadaa  Oromo Democracy to flourish.

The ceremony commences first by offering thanks and greeneries to Waaqa, followed by blessing all creatures of Waaqa to be at peace with each other. They also give admiration and honour to Waaqa’s wisdom who gave them a perfect bliss of land with abundant natural resources. This is one of the inherent reasons why the Oromos are cherishing their ancestral homeland, Oromiyaa (Biyya Oromoo) as part of their natural right, be it in peace or war times.

In the case of Irreecha Birraa, it is the Abbaa Malkaa who ‘opens the door’ of the malkaa (river) by charmingly welcoming those who arrived at the site in peace.[6] Those distinguished hayyuus from senior and junior clans (mana angafaa fi qixisuu) and the Abbaa Gadaa from the incumbent Gadaa party are traditionally honoured to take leading positions in giving thanks and blessings to all. Even the Ayyaantu-Qaalluus, who are believed to be the guardians of the laws of Waaqa and the  custodians of Oromo traditional religion, have no seniority right  to claim either to take the leading position or to give blessings first. They have their own defined time and place to do so. Failure to honestly follow those agreed upon traditional charter, could lead to chaos and eventually to the disintegration of the society. Nevertheless, despite so many apartheid walls erected among Oromo regions by builders of the imperial palace of political Ethiopia (in contradiction to historical Ethiopia), the Oromos are not able to be divided by the walls. They are chiselling down the walls and are patiently moving forward in unison.

         Is Irreecha a Religion?

As common to any Oromo meetings or conferences, thanking Waaqa and blessing each other precede the opening of the agenda of the meetings. There is no exception for the thanksgiving Oromo new year celebration, Irreecha. Since the Oromo name of Waaqa is the centre of Oromo Natural Religion, the solemn invocation of Waaqa at Irreecha or elsewhere cannot be avoided. This is the core issue, the authenticity of Oromo natural religion and Oromo morality that seem to have scared general managers of ‘Revelation Industries’ and their sponsors in Oromia. They are prompted to develop phobic images against essential Oromo values: vilifying, desecrating, defaming, and bedevilling Oromo material and spiritual assets as a whole. Why? The answer is so unilineal, not parallel.

Irreecha has been one of the major Oromo events that distinguishes, makes, and marks the identity of an Oromo personality as a member of the nation.

  • It is a social festival that praises Waaqa who helped them come together in peace and embrace the incoming bright-sunny season.
  • It is a social festival that sees off the out-going rainy season, wishing its recurrent appearance in peace, happiness, abundance, fertility, equality, fraternity and a hope for victory against all forms of evils.  

But, as has obviously been duplicated by foreign media outlets, particularly after the Irreecha massacre of October 2, 2016, there is a clear tendency to look on Irreecha as a ‘religious festival’. It is quite villainous and sinisterial to depict the general Oromo sense of Oromo-self only from a single perspective. Is Habasha’s Inkutatash not Qiddus Yohannes’ religious celebration or is it a new year festival?  Is Tigrian’s Ashanda the worshipping of Churches of Saints or season greetings? Is European Christmas the celebration of Christ’s birth day, or is it the continuation of pre-Christianity European culture of winter solstice celebration?

When it comes to Irreecha Oromo, it is propagated as heathenish or animist religion that makes a tree or a river the centre of worship. This can simply be attested from the recently publicised sub-human propaganda by a self-declared “Prophet” named Suraphael Demise

We do not understand whether such inconsiderate propaganda is really a reflection from a fully-developed human brain or is it a proxy psychological war sponsored by the monstrous Satan.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           If one wants to talk or know about Oromo religion, it is called Waaqeffanna, not Irreecha. Where is the self-organised Waaqeffannaa religion right now? One may ask the Tigrian Ethiopian regime, sitting in Minilk’s imperial palace; muddling the peoples of that empire,  sponsoring divisive and xenophobic people like Suraphel  Demise.

Waaqeffannaa by its natural origin, contrary to revelationists’ assertions who claimed to have seen visions and heard voices, is neither a claimed vision nor claimed heard voices. Had it been a claimed vision or claimed voices, it could have been dwelling on narrating about a place of everlasting torture or about a place of eternal delight in the afterlife. In the narrative story telling of Waaqeffannaa there were no individuals who did claim any visions or heard voices for its establishment as a religious institution. It emerged naturally out of the organised Oromo people’s activities in the remote antiquity. Henceforth, Waaqeffannaa, as a natural religion, has become the common vision of Oromo people’s common mind. It is free from claiming any received information of the afterlife, be it from the chamber of the sinners or from the chamber of the pious. However, Waaqeffannaa may wonder or speculate what could be happening beyond the veil of a man’s soul (lubbuu) after his dead body was ceremonially buried. Revealed religions claimed and are still claiming that they had unveiled the veil, saw the souls, and heard their voices from chambers of the ‘hell and heaven’.

In its strictest sense, Irreecha is not a religious institution. It is a ritualised social event; certainly, adorned and accompanied by Oromo Natural Religion known as Waaqeffannaa. Waaqeffannaa and Irreecha have been with the Oromos, by the Oromos, and for the Oromos since the dawn of creation long before the conception of revealed religions.

                 The Irreecha Massacre and the “Tasa” Monument

 An attempt to ban the Irreecha festival started the time when Oromos lost their sovereign rights to Abyssinian firearms under the supreme commandship of King Minilk of Shewa. After the Tigrian-led Ethiopian regime took the imperial palace by force in 1991, the orchestration to ban the Irreecha ceremony was concluded. This time, the regime took the first apartheid action by banning the revived Matcha-Tulama Self-Help Association and the freely organised Waaqeffaanaa religious association. Instead of directly banning Irreecha, however, like Matcha-Tulama and Waaqeffanaa, the regime renewed the old Nugus-Orthodox tactics of hijacking anything good of the Oromos and good for the Oromos.

A delegate led by Abba Duulaa Gammadaa, the then president of ‘Oromia Regional State’ was despatched to Hora Harsadii to hijack Irreecha. The delegate failed to accomplish the mission it intended to seal and returned to the palace in dismay. Here was planted the seed of the evil action that took thousands of innocent lives on October 2, 2016 at Hora Harsadii, Bishooftuu.

Ahead of the massacre, the regime meticulously orchestrated provocative tactics that could incite the people against itself. It imposed rules that are too antagonistic to the established Irreecha tradition. When the people reacted to the evil provocation, its ill-behaved security forces started firing life bullets from the ground and from armoured vehicles against millions of celebrants. Military helicopter flew over them spraying teargas on them. On this day, that barbaric action changed the happy Oromo Irreecha event to a bloody grief.

The regime and its killing forces rejoiced the success of their fascistic actions on human carnages. The regime’s trumpet Prime Minister, Haile Mariam Desalegn, was so quick to deny the massacre and said, “No single bullet was heard; but because of stampede about 52 people were killed.” Finally, like Muktar Kadir who thanked the Agazi killing forces, Ethiopia’s Prime Minister thanked the regime’s mercilessly firing forces

To remember the success of their evil plan, the Tigrian-Ethiopian regime erected a very offensive stone they call “Memorial Monument”. A deaf monument, that speaks of nothing about the root cause of the massacre. Sadly, what is inscribed on the monument seems to be articulated in the way it could depict the lost human lives as unworthy ones. It reads in Afaan Oromoo “Tasa Lubbuun Isaanii dabreef, for suddenly passed away lives”

This “Tasa Monument” was erected in a faraway place where the actual massacre did not take place


The Oromos have tried to do everything positive for Ethiopia. But why are they being reciprocated with negativity for their positive generosity? When the Oromos are coming out for peace, those who are making huge business in the name of “Ethiopia” are incessantly confronting them with vibrant forms of violence, persecution and marginalisation.

 In former days, before Oromo country and their central holy site, Walaabu, had fallen to naftenya’s bayonet, Oromo generations in every Oromo clan were making pilgrimage to Walaabu. The purpose of the journey was more of religious, that they sought the anointment and blessings of Abbaa Muudaa, who was believed  to be the eldest son of Oromo [Orma], the Spiritual Father of the nation holding the centre of Oromo Natural Religion, the belief in Waaqa Tokkicha.[7]

The pilgrims, who were scattered in north-east Africa, representing their clans, used to travel a long journey and arrived at the Muuda site. On their return to their clans, they came back with qumbii (myrrh), which the Abbaa Muuda distributed to them as a symbol of his fatherly holy blessings. This had been considered as dangerous and anti-peace to Abyssinian crosses and crowns. Subsequently, with the invention and consolidation of the ‘New Ethiopia’, qinyi gizaat, (the Amharic version for colonial empire) by King Minilik of Shewa, Oromo’s journey to the Muuda holy site was prohibited. It was finally banned at the beginning of the twentieth century. Huntingford who collected good information from various sources wrote:

”—after the Abyssinian conquest of [Oromia], however, the pilgrimage was forbidden owing to its political and nationalistic influence.—as opportunities for stirring up Oromo patriotism and forming plans of rebellion for men of all the  Oromo tribes met at Walaabu.”[8]

This inhumane and erratic ideology will get nowhere. It is now far from halting down Oromo people’s aspiration for regaining their lost freedom. We, including those in ati-Oromo camps, are daily watching and witnessing the reality on the ground.  The more direct wars and propaganda campaigns are pouring on the Oromos, the more their heroisms are reinvigorated. Irreecha will continue to march forward with its noble objectives of thanksgiving social festivities: vitalising, remaking, and remarking Oromummaa (Oromo-ness).




Posted by OromianEconomist in Irreecha, Irreecha Birraa, Irreecha Oromo, Irreessa.
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Odaa OromooOromianEconomist

Irreecha Oromo 2014 Hora Harsadii, Oromia

Oromia and the continuity its Nile Valley Civilization, Irreecha Malkaa 2015 ( 6409 years since started on upper Nile (Mormore) Valley)Irreecha Malkaa 2015 @Malkaa Ateetee, Gafarsaa, Buraayyuu, Oromia. 11 October 2015 picture18Irreecha Malkaa 2015 @Malkaa Sabbataa, Gafarsaa, Buraayyuu, Oromia. 11 October 2015Oromo, Irreecha Malkaa Oromoo 2015 @Hora Harsadi, Bishoftuu, OromiaIrreecha Malkaa Oromoo kan Bara 2015 (6409 ALO) Onkoloolessa 4, Hora Harsadi. picture3Irreecha Malkaa Oromoo Onkoloolessa 4, Bara 2015 (6409 ALO), Hora Harsadii, Bishooftuu, OromiaOromo from Raayya at Irreecha Malakaa 2015, Hora Harsadi, Bishoftu October 4, 2015Irreecha Oromo 2014 Hora Harsadii, Oromia 4Irreechaa Arfaasaa 2015 (17)


Ibsa Qeerroo Bilisummaa Oromoo: “Ayyaana Irreecha Guddicha Bu’aa Qabsoo Bilisummaa Oromoon Kan Argamee As Gahe Qabsoon Kunuunfanna” September 17, 2016

Posted by OromianEconomist in Irreecha Birraa, Irreecha Oromo, Irreessa.
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Odaa OromooOromianEconomist


Ka'i Qeerro

Oromia and the continuitity its Nile Valley Civilization, Irreecha Malkaa 2015 ( 6409 years since started on upper Nile (Mormore) Valley)Irreecha Malkaa Oromoo kan Bara 2015 Hora Harsadi, Bishoftuu, Oromia, Africa. Onkoloolessa 4,  2015  (6409 ALO)Oromia and the continuity its Nile Valley Civilization, Irreecha Malkaa 2015 ( 6409 years since started on upper Nile (Mormore) Valley)

Ayyaanni  Irreechaa kabajamaa fi jaalatamaan uummata Oromoo miliiyoona kudhanootaan kan kabajamu bu’aa  qabsoo bilisummaa Oromoo wareegama qaalii lafee gootota Oromoo fi dhiiga gootota Oromoon tikfamee hardha ga’ee , yeroo ammaa kanattis ayyaana Irreechaa fi aadaa Oromoo kunuunsanii tiksuun dhalootaaf dabarsuuf gootonni Oromoo wareeegama qaalii itti baasaa jiru. Baroota darban keessa ayyaana Irreechaa kabajuuf jecha ummanni Oromoo fi sabboontotiin hedduun waraana Agaazii fi Poolisoota sirna TPLFn hedduu dararamanii jiru, gariin qabsaawotaa fi dargaggoonni Oromoo bakka irreecha kabajatanii fi kabajuuf deemanitti reebamuun kanneen qaamaa hirdhatan hedduu dha. Warri hidhamanii hanga ammaa bakka buuteen isaanii wallaalalme dhibbootaa  hedduu dha. Kanas ta’ee gootonni Qeerroo Bilisummaa hiraarsa kora bittinneessaan osoo hin jilbeeffatiin ayyaana Irreechaa Oromiyaa bakkoota adda addaatti kabajamu sirna miidhagaan kabajachuun aadaa Oromoo aduunyaatti muldhisaa turan. Haalleen dararaa fi gufaatii sirni Wayyaanee TPLF ummata keenya irraan gahu hunda keessa qaxaamuruun bu’aa gootota wareegamanii kan ta’e Ayyaana Irreechaa kana daran midhagsuu fi aduunyaatti muldhisuuf har’a sadarkaa UNESCO itti galmaa’aa jiraachuun qabsoo Oromootiif injifatnoo tokko.

Haala kana keessatti  Qeerroon Bilisummaa Oromoo Ayyaana Irreechaa Birraa kan baranaa 2016 Hora Arsadiitti kabajamuuf yeroo jiru kana keessatti, Oromiyaa fi ummanni Oromoo bulchiisa waraanaa yoomyyuu caalaa suukanneessaa kan ta’e jala galtee jirti. Ayyaanni guddaan saba Oromoo biratti jaallatamaa ta’e kun duula waraana TPLF Oromiyaa fi Oromoo irratti labse kana cabsuun ummata miliyoona hedduun kabajamuuf Oromoota biratti qophii guddaa irra jirama. Bara kana ayyaanni Irreechaa kabajamu kun dhaadannoo  ‘ Ayyaana Irreecha Guddicha  Bu’aa Qabsoo Bilisummaa Oromoon Kan Argamee As Gahe Qabsoon Kunuunfanna”jedhuun kan kabajamuu waan ta’eef Qeerroon Bilisummaa Oromoo  uummata isaa cufa waliin ta’uun ayyaana Irreecha 2016 kabajamu bifa adda ta’een kabajachuuf kan jirru  ta’uu hubachisuun haala kabaja ayyaanaa Irreecha bara kana sadarkaa hundarratti  kabajamu  ilaalchisuun Qeerroon Bilisummaa Oromoo  uummata Oromoo, sabootaa fi sabalammoota kabajaa fi jaalaala ayyaana irreechaa Oromoof qaban hundaaf Ibsa kanaa gadii dabarsee jira.

  1. Ayyaanni Irreechaa bakka uummatnı Oromoo Waaqa isa uume ıttı galateeffatu, kadhatuu fi wal arguun waliin İrreeffachuu Aadaa, Duudhaa, eenyummaa, Oromummaa , Sabboonummaa isaa itti jabeeffatuu fi tikfatu ta’uun gadi jabeessuun hubachiifna;
  2. Biyyaatti Impayera Ethiopia humna waraana mootummaa EPRDF/TPLF gaggeeffamaa jirtu keessatti ayyaanota gurguddoo kabajaman keessa ayyaanni Irreechaa qofti bara baraan loltoota EPRDF, TPLF fi ergamtoota isaaniin uummatni nagaan ayyaaneffachuuf bahuu daandii irratti goolamaa , reebamaa, hidhamaa, daraaraamaa fi hiraarsaa ulfaataan kan isa  mudachaa ture.  Ummatni Oromoo haala rakkisaa kana hundaa tokkummaa fi kabajaa fi jaalala eenyummaa isaa kan ibsuu ayyaana Irreechaaf qabu  obsaa fi murannoon jala dhaabbatee wareegama baasaa kabajachaa har’a ga’ee. Bara kanas TPLF /Wayyaaneen Irreechaa 2016  karaa dhaaba jalee isaa OPDO  maqaaf Aadaaf Turizimiin karoora danqaa tatta’an baafachuun ummati Oromoo ifaa fi bilisaan akka ayyaanicha hin kabajneef shira xaxaa jira.  Karoorri OPDO kun hatattamaan ummata keenya irraa ka’ee Oromoon bilisaan ayyaana qabsoon argate kana akka kabajatu warra karoora shiraa wixinee ummata rakkisu karoora kana akka kaasaan gaafatna;
  3. Mootummaan Wayyaanee OPDOn ummata Oromoo waaqa uumaa kee illee eeyyama koo malee waaqeffachuu fi ayyaaneffachuu hın dandeessuu jechuun mirga uumamaan uummatni keenya qabu  ırraa sarbuun anatu siif beekaa akkan jedhetti malee waaqeffachuu hin dandeessuu jechuun shoroorkaa uummataa keenyarratti gaggeessaa jiran hatattamaan akka dhaabbatu Qeerroon Bilisummaa Oromoo gadi jabeessuun ni hubachiisa.  Jaarmiyaaleen mirga namummaa Idil-addunyaa hundii rakkoo ulfaataa uummatni keenyaa keessa jiru akka hubatanii fi dhiibbaa  wayyaanee irratti akka jabeessus sabboontotni biyya alaa jirtan gadi jabeessitanii akka irratti hojjettan cimsinee gaafatna;
  4. Qeerroon dargaggootni Oromoo haamilee uummata keenyaa fi qabsoo bilisummaa bara dheeraa  ummatni keenya irratti wareegamaa jiruuf kabaja fi jaalalaa qabnu  muldhisuun jeequmsa kamuu osoo hin uumne Oromiyaa, gootota Oromoo qabsoof wareegaman faarsuun ummata haamlessuu fi diddaa sirna gabroomfataaf qabnu muldhisuu irratti jabaannee akka hojjennu hubachiifna;
  5. Ayyaana kana irratti hogganootii fi miseensotiin Qeerroon Bilisummaa Oromoo bakka jirtan hundatti tokkummaa, jaalalaa fi kabajaa ummata  keenyaa fi gootota keenyaa wareegamaa qaalii kanfaluun asiin nu ga’an faarsuun eegumsa naamusaa,daa’immanii , Shamarranii fi Maanguddootaaf akkasumaas uummata keenyaa waliigalaaf akka goonu dhaamsa Oromummaa fi dirqama dhalootaa waliif dabarsina;
  6. Jalbultii Ayyaana İrreechaa barana Fulbaana 20-21, 2016 Wayyaanee TPLF fi ergamtooti isaa OPDOn muddamanii waan qabanii dhiisan dhabuun maqaa waldorgommii İspoortii jedhu gaggeessuun yaada ummataa hanga tokko warraaqsaa FXG irraa jallaisuu dandeenya jettee toftaa dulloomaa ishee butachuun olola afaan fajjii gaggeessuuf akka jirtu saaxilameera. Ummatni Oromoo dhumaa utuu jiruu, hidhaa keessatti  dararaa hiriyyaa hin qabne irra gahaa osoo jiruu biyyi keenya  Oromiyaan waraanaan shororkeeffamaa utuu jiruu shirri itti fakkeessi TPLFn wixinamee OPDOtti kenname kun salphinaa fi farrummaa qabsoo Oromoo waan ta’eef dargaggoonni Oromoos ta’e ummanni Oromoo bakka shiraa maqaa Ispoortiin qopaawee kana akka hin geenyee fi irraa akka of qusatan dhaamsa lammummaa wareegmtoota dabarsina;
  7. Ummatni Oromoo biyya isaa keessatti mootummaa hin qabu; Media Mootummaas hin qabu; poolisii isa eeguu , nageenyaa fi mirga isaa kan kabachiisu hin qabu; Oromoon wal malee homaa waan hin qabneef bakka jirtaan hundatti jaalala, tokkummaa fi kabaja Oromummaa waliif akka qabaattanii nagaan baatanii nagaan qe’ee keessanitti akka deebitaniif akka wal tiksitaniif waamichaa keenyaa dabarsina. Meidaleen walabaa Oromoo jalbultii ayyaana Irreechaa irraa eegaluun ayyaanichaa fi qophii isaa aduunyaatti muldhisuun akka miidhagsitan waamicha keenya dabarsina;
  8. Mootummaan Wayyaanee shiroota garaagaraa jalbuitii Ayyaana İrreechaa rawwachuuf jiru qindeessaa jira. Shiroota kanneen keessa ammaaf kan saaxilame Fajjii qabsoo bilisummaa Oromoo alaabaa ABO har’a uummaatni Oromoo golee fi Oromiyaa cufa keessatti qabatee  ittiin warraaqsa gaggeefataa jiru fi  jaalaalaa, kabaja uummatni ABO faajjii qabsoo isaaf qabu argisiisaa kan jiru kana gaafa jala bultii ayyaana Irreechaa irraa kaasee basaasotiin Wayyaanee bal’inaan karaa irra dhaabbatanii gurguruun nama alaabaa bitu hordofuun qabuuf shira guddaa xaxaa jiru. Ummanni keenyaa fi dargaggoonni keenya kana hubachuun alaabaa Oromoo kan Wayyaaneen gurgurtaaf dhiheessaa jirtu akka irraa hin bitne gadi jabeessinee dhaamsa dabarsina;
  9. Ayyaanii Irreecha birraa 2016 sadarkaa godinaaleetti waan itti fufuuf qabxiilee ibsa kana irratti taarrifaman bakka iyyuutti yaadachaa muuxannoo Hora Arsadiitti argattan irraa kabaja Ayyaana Irreechaa godinaalee irrattis bifa ho’aa, naamusa ol aanaan  fi qindaa’aan akka kabajamu waltaanee gamtaan kan irratti hojjennu ta’uu dhaamsa keenyaa dabarsina.


Injifannoon Uummata Oromoof!!


                Gadaan Gadaa Bilisummaati!!


                Qeerroo Bilisummaa Oromoo!!


            Fulbaana 16, 2016 Finfinnee


OROMIA: IBSA EJJENNOO GUMII TOKKUMMAA ABBOOTII GADAA OROMOO WALTAJJII MARII ABBOOTII GADAA GODINOOTA OROMIYAA MARA IRRAA WALITTI DHUFAN MARII GUYYAA SADIIF (HAGAYYA 24- 26/2008 A.L.H) Gaggeeffame. Statement by the Union of Oromo Gadaa Councils on Current Affairs in Oromia Statement by the Union of Oromo Gadaa Councils on Current Affairs in Oromia Issued following the conclusion of a three day extraordinary assembly held from 30 August- 1st September 2016 by Abba Gaddas representing all Oromia provinces September 2, 2016

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Nuti Abbootiin Gadaa Oromoo rakkoolee hawaasummaa, dinagdee fi siyaasaa hiikuuf mootummaa fi uummata gidduu taanee hojjechaa turuun keenya ni beekama.

Keessattu rakkoolee nageenyaa biyya keenya keessatti uumame ilaalchisee yaada furmaataa akka mootummaaf dhiyeessinetti guutummaa guutuutti hojiirra oolee hin jiru.
Gaaffilee ummatni qabatee hiriira bahullee abbootiin taayitaa irra jiran gaaffiii uummataa kana seeraan dhiyaatanii deebii kennuurra humna waraanaa qofaan fayyadamuun rakkoo hiikuu hin dandeenye.

Sababuma kanaan yeroo yeroodhaan reebichi, ajjeechaan, hidhaan uummata keenya miidhaa jira. Kanaafuu, shakkii qofaadhaan hidhaa fi reebichi ajjeechaan hammaataa jira. Ammas irra deebinee yaada furmaataa kan kenninu haala armaan gadiitiin ibsa ejjennoo qabxii kudha sadii(13) qabuun ibsina.

  1. Ummatni Oromoo kamiyyuu godiinaan ,aanaan, gandaan, amantiinii fi ilaalcha siyaasaatiin osoo wal hin qoodiin gaaddisa Sirna Gadaa jalatti duudhaa Sirna Gadaa Oromootiin tokkummaa keenyaan Gadaa keenya ni jabeeffanna.
  2. Waraanni mootummaa Fedreraalaa daangaa biyyattii eeguurra taree , seeraan ala daangaa mootummaa naannoo Oromiyaa cabsee seenuun, ,kutaawwan oromiyaa adda addaa irra qubatee jiru, waraanni kunis aadaa , duudhaa fi afaan ummatichaa waan hin beekneef hubaatii fidee jira , akkaata Sirni Gadaa kaa’uun hogganaan waraanaa Abbaa Duulaa jedhamu dhaabbannee isa jalattiimmoo kuusaa, dabballee fi foolleedhaan rakkoowwan naannoo keenyaa kamirrattuu akka ofii keenyaan furannu ummata keenyaaf dhaamsa dabarsaa waraanni kun akka nurraa kahu mootummaa federaalaa ni gaafanna.
  3. Badii fi seera malee namoonni keenya mana hidhaatti guuraman yeroo dhihootti akka gadi lakkifaman sagalee tokkoon gaafanna.
  4. Namoonni dhiiga Oromoo taatanii lammii keessan ajjeestanii fi ajjeesaa turtan, waan hamaaf dabarsitanii kennitan sobaaf raga baatan, guyyaa har’aatii kaasee yaa’ii tokkummaa abbootii gadaa oromoo kun maqaa uummata oromoo kabajamaa fi guddaatiin badii darbeef dhiifama gaafattanii,dhugaa lammii keessaniitiif akka dhaabbatan isinii dhaamaa, kanarra kan darbe kana booda gocha kana irra deebitanii yoo raawwattan lafee fi dhiigni ilmaan oromoo, akka safuu fi safeeffannaa Sirna Gadaatiin kan isin gaafatu taha.
  5. Ilmaan Oromoo naannawaa Finfinnee lafarraa buqqaa’an akka deebi’anii manni jirenyaa kennamuuf ni gaafanna.
  6. Irreechi hora Finfinnee akka nuuf deebi’uuf fulbaana 24/2009 ummatni Oromoo fi Abbootiin Gadaa achirratti argamuun akka kabajannu beeksisaa akka nuuf mirkanaa’u ni gaafanna.
  7. Qotee bulaan sababa baballina masterpilaanii magaalaatiinii fi investimentiitiin uummata keenya lafarraa buqqisaa jiraachuun akka nurraa dhaabbatu ni gaafanna.
  8. Hojii dhabdummaa Naannoo Oromiyaatti babal’ataa jiruufi naannoowwan magaalotaa fi Finfinnee jirurratti dargaggoota yuniversitii fi koollejii irraa eebbifamaniif rakkoo hojiidhabdummaatiin dararaman haalli mijachuun deeggersi barbaachisaa tahe akka
    godhamuuf ni gaafanna.
  9. Nuti uummatni Oromoo sabaa fi sablammiiwwan jiran waliin nagaan jiraachuu barbaadna. Sababa daangaan keenya sharafamaa jiruuf uummatni keenya sabaa fi sablammiiwwan ollaa jiruun walitti bu’aa jira. Kanaafuu ,mootummaaan kara lachanuu ilaaluun furmaata akka kennuuf ni gaafanna.
  10. Sirni Gadaa Oromoo safuu fi safeeffannaa isaa ganamaa eegee caasaa qabuun akka ijaaramuu fi kan ijaaramee jiru jabinaan akka itti fufu imaanaa guddaa saba keenyaaf kallattii hundaan cimsinee haa hojjennu.
  11. Sirni Gadaa Oromoo Sirna Bulchiinsa Oromoo karaa nagaa fi tasgabbii qabuun rakkoowwa hawaasaa hiikuun aadaa fi duudhaa hawasaa babl’isuun abbaa qabeenyummaa dinagdee hawaasichaa kan mirkaneessudha waan taheef sirni kun jabeeffamuu kan qabuu fi kan ittiin bullu tahuu uumata keenyaaf dhaamsa dabarsiina.
  12. Sirni Gadaa Oromoo faajjii mataa isaa:- Gurraacha, Diimaa Fi Adii kan qabu dha.kanaafuu ummatni Oromoo fi ummatni Ayyaana Irreechaa fuuldura keenyaa kamirratuu kabajamu irratti Faajjii kanaan ala alaabaa dhaaba siyaasaa kamiyyuu qabatee akka hin dhufne ni akeekkachiisna.
  13. Afaan Oromoo afaan hojii federaalaa akka tahu ni gaafanna.

    Ibsa Ejjennoo Abbotii Gadaa, Birraa 1 Bara 2016

Statement by the Union of Oromo Gadaa Councils on Current Affairs in Oromia

Statement by the Union of Oromo Gadaa Councils on Current Affairs in Oromia

Issued following the conclusion of a three day extraordinary assembly held from  30 August- 1st September 2016 by Abba Gaddas representing all Oromia provinces

Place: Sodere Resort Hotel



We, Oromo Gadaa elders, have been working with the government and the community to solve the societal, economic and political predicaments facing the Oromo nation. Yet, none of the recommendations we presented to the government – particularly on issues that have caused lack of stability in the country- has been implemented. The government’s decision to violently suppress legitimate questions raised in peaceful rallies instead of dealing with them calmly and in accordance with the law has failed to solve the problem. Persecutions, killings and imprisonments as a result of this are worsening, even on mere suspects whose involvements in protest activities have not been established. In the light of this, and while having regard to our earlier recommendations, we have issued the following 13-point resolution.

  1. The people of Oromia- regardless of zones, districts or localities we hail from or our religious & political differences- will stand in unity under the umbrella of The Gadaa and uphold our customs, values and traditions.
  2.   The national defense army that should be guarding the outside borders of the country has, in clear contravention of the constitution, entered into the territory of our regional state and stationed in different parts of Oromia. The army’s inability to communicate in the local vernacular and lack of awareness of the customs, culture and traditions has created a huge problem for the people. We would like to state our position that we should be able to resolve any problems within Oromia in line with the principles and structures of the Gadaa constituting the Abbaa Duulaa (a military commander with the highest authority), Kuusaa, dabballe and foollee. We would also like to call on the federal government to withdraw its army from the territory of Oromia.
  3. We demand that the government immediately release innocent people unlawfully held in prisons
  4. To Oromo agents of the government who collaborate/collaborated in killings, betray/betrayed and bore/bear false witness on your own people, we plead with you in the name of the noble people of Oromia to turn from your immoral ways, to plead for forgiveness and to stand with our people from now onwards. If you refuse and continue to stand on the wrong side of history, you will be held responsible for infringement of the moral and ethical order laid down in the Gadaa rules of governance.
  5.    We request that the government return the Oromo who have been displaced from areas surrounding Finfinnee back to their land and dwellings.
  6.    We demand for the ban on Lake Finfinne as a gathering point for Irreecha (thanksgiving) celebrations to be lifted and for our right to celebrate at this location be respected. We would also like to inform the authorities of the intentions of the Gadaa elders and people of Oromia to celebrate the upcoming Irreecha on the 24th of September 2016 at Lake Finfinne and request for this to be confirmed by the government.
  7. We request that the evictions of our farmers from their ancestral lands with the pretext of investments and city master plans be ceased.
  8. To keep rising levels of unemployment in Oromia, regional towns and Finfinnee in check, we request that the government provide the necessary support to college & university graduates struggling to make a living and create better opportunities for them.
  9. We –the people of Oromia- would like to live in harmony with other nations and nationalities in the country. However, encroachments on our borders are giving rise to skirmishes between our people and other nations and nationalities. We, therefore, call on the government to look into this matter and rectify the problems.
  10. We urge members of the Oromo public to strengthen and take a keen interest in the Gadaa system of governance, which plays a crucial role in terms of dealing with societal challenges in a peaceful and orderly manner, preserving and helping flourish the cultures and values of the Oromo as well as ensuring the society’s resource ownership.
  11. The Gadaa system has its own unique badge: Black, Red and White. We urge the people of Oromia and other Irreecha festival participants not to bring flags representing any political organization in future celebrations other than the Black, Red and White badge.
  12. We request that Afaan Oromo become a federal working language.




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???????????Irreecha Oromo 2014 Hora Harsadii, Oromia 5

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Oromia: The Oromo Heritages: Gadaa, Siiqqee and Irreecha. #Africa. June 13, 2015

Posted by OromianEconomist in Africa, Ancient African Direct Democracy, Ancient Egyptian, Ancient Rock paintings in Oromia, Ateetee, Ateetee (Siiqqee Institution), Boran Oromo, Gadaa System, Irreecha, Irreecha Oromo, Oromia, Oromo, Oromo Nation, Oromo Social System, Oromo Wisdom, Oromo women, Oromummaa, Sirna Gadaa, The Goddess of Fecundity, Waaqeffanna (Oromo ancient African Faith System).
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Oromo nation and Gadaa system

Oromo nation and Gadaa system

The Borana Calendar REINTERPRETED

by Laurance R. Doyle

Physics and Astronomy Department, University of California, Santa Cruz,at NASA Ames Research Center, Space Sciences Division, M.S. 245-7,
Moffett Field, Calif. 94035, U.S. 20 XII 85

The announcement of a possible first archaeoastronomical site (called Namoratunga II) in sub-Saharan Africa by Lynch and Robbins (1978) and its subsequent reappraisal by Soper (1982) have renewed interest in an East African calendrical system, the Borana calendar, first outlined in detail by Legesse (1973:180-88). I shall here reinterpret the calendar as Legesse describes it in the light of astronomical constraints.
The Borana calendar is a lunar-stellar calendrical system, relying on astronomical observations of the moon in conjunction with seven particular stars (or star groups). At no time (except indirectly by way of lunar phase) does it rely upon solar observations. The Borana year is twelve lunar synodic months (each 29.5 days long), 354 days. While it will not correspond to the seasons, this may not be of primary importance for people this close to the equator. There are twenty-seven day names (no weeks), and since each month is either 29 or 30 days long, the first two (or three) day names are used twice in the same month starts on a new day name. The day names are listed in Table 1, the month names in Table 2.
The first six months can be identified at the beginning of the month with a particular astronomical observation, whereas the last six months can be so identified only around the middle of the month. The first six months begin with the observation of the new-phase moon in conjunction with six positions in the sky marked by seven particular stars or star groups. Thus the phase of the moon is held constant while its position varies. The last six months are identified by a particular-phase moon seen in conjunction with the first star position. Thus, here, the lunar phase changes and the position is held constant. The seven stars or star groups in order are Triangulum (which I take to mean Beta Trianguli), Pleiades, Aldebarran, Belletrix, central Orion (around the sword), Saiph, and Sirius. They are given in Table 2 next to the months they define.
The New Year starts with the observation of the new moon in conjunction with Beta Trianguli. (The term “new moon” here will be taken to be within two days of zero phase, although the Borana allow up to three “leap” days’ leeway, the astronomical observation determining the correct day to start on. This is indicated in the day nomenclature by the assignment of like prefixes to two or three day names before the approximate time an important astronomical observation is to take place.) Since the new moon can be seen only just before sunrise or just after sunset, twilight makes the observation of Beta Trianguli (a third-magnitude star) in conjunction with a new moon impossible with the naked eye.

Assuming that such an observation, however, was possible, would the next new moon be in conjunction with the next star group. Pleiades? (Conjunction here is taken to mean “rising with” or “setting with,” having the same right ascension. Legesse says (p. 182), “Let us assume that a new moon was sighted last night and that is appeared side by side with the star Sirius, which the Borana call Basa.”) Since the sidereal period of the moon is 27.3 days long, it will arrive back at the Triangulum position more than two days before completing its synodic month. At the sidereal rate of 13.2° per day, the moon will be within 3° of Pleiades when it rises in the new phase again. However, by the time of the third month it rises, not with Aldebarran, the next star, but a little past Belletrix, the fourth star, which is supposed to start the fourth month. By the fourth month the new moon is rising past Sirius, the sixth start, and the calendar is clearly not working as described. It should be added that the right-ascension positions of the stars in the area from Beta Trianguli to Sirius change with time, at the rate of roughly 15° every thousand years. However, the stars stay in approximately the same configuration, and arguments based on their present right-ascension relationships will hold over the past several thousand years as well.
What happens if we take the term “conjunction,” or “side by side,” as Legesse has it, to mean not “rising with” but “rising single-file,” that is, at the same horizon position (in other words, having the same declination)? Examining the idea that it is not the proximity of the moon to the star that is important but its horizon rising (or setting) position with respect to that star’s horizon rising (or setting) position, we immediately find that the first necessary observation, the new moon rising at the horizon position of Beta Trianguli, is not currently possible. Beta Trianguli rises (at the equator) about 35° north of the east point (0° declination), while the moon (on the northernmost average) rises at 23.5° north of east, never rising farther north than 28.5° from the East Point. The earth’s rotation axis is known to precess over the centuries, and while this does not change the lunar orbital positions significantly, it does change the apparent position of the stars. We can calculate the positions of the seven Borana stars at a time when Beta Trianguli was well within the moon’s declination limits to see if the calendar would have worked then. In 300 BC, Beta Trianguli was rising at a declination of +23° north of east. The right-ascension positions at the time still do not allow a “rising with” interpretation of the calendrical system. We can begin by defining the start of the Borana year as the new moon rising at the rising position of 300 BC Beta Trianguli. (The date of 300 BC was strongly suggested by the preliminary dating of Namoratunga II, but it was chosen because +23°, Beta Trianguli’s declination at the time, is the northern average of the moon’s monthly motion. I will take the moon’s motion, for the example here, from theNautical Almanacs for 1983 and 1984.) The next new moon rises at 14° north of east, which corresponds precisely to the 300 BC horizon rising position of Pleiades, the next Borana star. The next four new moons (starting the next four Borana months) rise at +9 degrees, +1 degree, –11 degrees, and –17 degrees declination. These positions correspond to the 300 BC horizon rising positions of the Borana stars Aldebarran. Belletrix, central Orion—Saiph (taken together), and Sirius, respectively (Table 3).
The seventh month should be identifiable 14 or 15 days from its automatic start (about 29 days after the start of the sixth month) by a full moon rising at the Beta Trianguli position, and this is indeed the case. Each subsequent moon rises at this horizon position 27.3 days later (sidereal month) in a phase (synodic month) about two days less waxes (since it is on its way to the full phase again) each time. (Legesse has a waning moon, but this must mean waning with respect to each subsequent monthly observation, not with respect to the Phase State for that month.) On the thirteenth or first month, the moon is seen rising in the new phase again (“new” meaning within a couple of days of zero phase), and another year begins. Tracing the moon’s motion as it arrives at these positions in the sky (which are, however, no longer directly marked by the seven stars), we can derive the calendar (see Table 4).
This outline is still general with respect to what is sometimes called the lunar excursion (regression of the line of nodes of the lunar orbit). The three “leap” days the Borana calendar allows for the starting of some of the months just before an important astronomical observation could account for this declination excursion of the moon (± ca. 5° from 23.5° declination on an 18.6-year basis), but this would certainly require confirmation in the field.
The Borana calendrical system as described by Legesse is, therefore, a valid timekeeping system, subject to the astronomical constraints outlined here, and the pillars found in northwestern Kenya by Lynch and Robbins and preliminary dates at 300 BC could, as they suggest, represent a site used to derive that calendar. The calendar does not work in right-ascension sense, but it does work if taken as based on declination. It might have been invented around 300 BC, when the declinations of the seven stars corresponded to lunar motion as the calendar indicates, and the star names would therefore apply to the horizon positions as well. Because the horizon rising positions constitute the important observations (over half of which must be made at twilight), some sort of horizon-marking device would seem to be necessary. Since the calendar is still in use, and the horizon-making pillars can no longer be set up by aligning them with the horizon rising positions of these stars, it would seem that the Borana may be using ancient (or replicas of ancient) horizon markers and this possibility should be investigated. I look forward with great interest to a test of these hypotheses.

Table 1

Borana Day names (Legesse 1973)

Bita Kara Gardaduma
Bita Lama Sonsa
Sorsa Rurruma
Algajima Lumasa
Arb Gidada
Walla Ruda
Basa Dura Areri Dura
Basa Ballo Areri Ballo
Carra Adula Dura
Maganatti Jarra Adula Ballo
Maganatti Britti Garba Dura
Salban Dura Garba Balla
Salban Balla Garda Dullacha
Salban Dullacha

Table 2

Borana Months and Stars/Lunar Phases That Define Them
(Legesse 1973)


Star/Lunar Phase

Bittottessa Triangulum
Camsa Pleiades
Bufa Aldebarran
Wacabajjii Belletrix
Obora Gudda Central Orion-Saiph
Obora Dikka Sirius
Birra full moon
Cikawa gibbous moon
Sadasaa quarter moon
Abrasa large crescent
Ammaji medium crescent
Gurrandala small crescent

Table 3

Declinations (Degrees) of Borana Stars, 300 BC and Present



300 BC


Beta Trianguli












Central Orion









Table 4

Astronomical Borana-Cushitic Calendar (1983-84)

Borana-Cushitic Day/Month

Gregorian Date


Bita Kara/
August 7, 1983 New moon rises at Triangulum horizon position
September 6, 1983 New moon rises at Pleiades horizon position
October 5, 1983 New moon rises at Aldebarran horizon position
Basa Dura/
November 2, 1983 New moon rises at Belletrix horizon position
Maganatti Jarra/
Obora Gudda
December 2, 1983 New moon rises at central Orion-Saiph horizon position
Salban Dura/
Obora Dikka
December 30, 1983 New moon rises at Sirius horizon position
January 29, 1984 Full moon sets at Triangulum on February 15
Rurruma/Cikawa February 28, 1984 Gibbous moon sets at Triangulum on March 14
March 28, 1984 Quarter moon sets at Triangulum on April 10
Areri Dura/
April 26, 1984 Large crescent sets at Triangulum on May 7
Adula Dura/
May 25, 1984 Medium crescent sets at Triangulum on June 3
Garba Dura/
June 23, 1984 Small crescent sets at Triangulum on June 30
Bita Kara/
July 28, 1984 “New” moon rises at Triangulum position again, new year starts

References Cited

Legesse, A. 1973. Gada: Three approaches to the study of African Society. New York: Free Press.

Lynch, B. M., and L. H. Robbins. 1978. Namoratunga: The first archaeoastronomical evidence in sub-Saharan Africa. Science 200:766-68.

Soper, R. 1982. Archaeo-astronomical Cushites: Some comments. Azania 17:145-62


ASTRONOMY IN EAST AFRICA:Borana-Cushitic Calender

The Borana-Cushitic Calendar and Namoratunga
Laurance Reeve Doyle
Space Sciences Division, N.A.S.A.
Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California

“While Western thought has always prided itself on scientific objectivity, it has often been found unprepared for such surprises as an intellectually advanced yet seemingly illiterate society. In the face of apparent primitiveness, the possibility of significant intellectual development may not be fully investigated.
This was certainly the case when, in the early 1970’s, Dr. A. Legesse first found that the Borana people of southern Ethiopia were indeed using a sophisticated calendrical system based on the conjunction of seven stars with certain lunar phases. Previous calendrical investigations into the area up to this time had superficially stated that the Borana “attach magical significance to the stars and constellations,” incorrectly concluding that their calendar was based, as ours is, on solar motion.
What Dr. Legesse found was an amazing cyclical calendar similar to those of the Mayans, Chinese, and Hindu, but unique in that it seemed to ignore the sun completely (except indirectly by way of the phases of the moon). The workings were described to him by the Borana ayyantu (timekeepers) as follows.
There are twelve months to a year, each month being identifiable with a unique (once a year) astronomical observation. The length of each month is either 29 or 30 days – that is, the time it takes the moon to go through all its phases. (This time is actually 291/2 days and is called a synodic month, but the Borana only keep track of whole days). Instead of weeks, there are 27 day names. Since each month is 29 or 30 days long we will run out of day names about two or three days early in the same month. The day names can therefore be recycled and for day 28 we use the first day name again, the second day name for day 29, and start the next month using the third day name. Thus each month will start on a different day name. Whether the particular month is to be 29 or 30 days long would depend on the astronomical observations, which are quite ingeniously defined.
The seven stars (or star groups) used to derive the calendar are, from northernmost to southernmost, 1) Beta Triangulum – a fairly faint navigation star in the constellation of the Triangle, 2) Pleiades – a beautiful, blue star cluster in the constellation of Taurus the Bull, and sometimes referred to as the seven sisters, 3) Aldebarran – a bright, red star that represents the eye of Taurus, 4) Belletrix – a fairly bright star that represents the right shoulder of the constellation Orion the Hunter, 5)Central Orion – the region around Orion’s sword where the Great Orion Nebula may be found, 6) Saiph – the star representing the right knee of Orion, and finally 7) Sirius – the brightest star in the night sky and the head of the constellation Canis Majoris, the Great Dog.
The New Year begins with the most important astronomical observation of the year – a new moon in conjunction with Beta Triangulum. (this day is called Bitotesa, and the next month is called Bitokara). The next month starts when the new moon is found in conjunction with the Pleiades. The third month starts with the new moon being observed in conjunction with the star Aldebarran, the next with Belletrix, then the area in between Central Orion and Saiph, and finally with the star Sirius. So the first six months of the calendar are started by the astronomical observations of the new phase moon found in conjunction with six specific locations in the sky marked by seven stars of star groups.
The method is now switched and the final six months are identified by six different phases of the moon (from full to crescent) being found in conjunction with only one position in the sky – the one marked by Beta Triangulum. Thus the whole Borana year is identified astronomically and when the new phase moon is again finally seen in conjunction with Beta Triangulum the New Year will start again. Since there are 12 such synodic months of 29 ½ days each, the Borana year is only 354 days long.
Now, in the latter part of the 1970’s another interesting development was to take place regarding the astronomy of this region. In 1977 Drs. B.M. Lynch and L.H. Robbins, who were working in the Lake Turkana area of northwestern Kenya, came upon what they believed was the first archaeoastronomical site ever found in sub-Saharan Africa. At Namoratunga, it consisted of 19 stone pillars, apparently man-made, that seemed to align toward the rising positions of the seven Borana calendar stars as they had appeared quite some time ago. (their suggested date from the various archaeological considerations, which still requires corroboration, was about 300 BC). Due to precession (the slow, wobbling of the pointing direction of the rotation axis of the Earth), the stars will seem to move from their positions over the centuries, although the moon’s position would not vary on this time scale. (Such an example is the alignment of certain features of the Egyptian pyramids with the star Thuban in the constellation Draco the Dragon, which was the north polar star about 5000 year ago; today it is Polaris and in several thousand years it will be Vega). If the date that Drs. Lynch and Robbins suggested was correct, the site would then correspond to the time of the extensive kingdom of Cush, referred to as Ethiopia in the Bible but actually centered about present day Sudan. One would then conclude that the Borana calendrical system was old indeed, having been developed by the Cushitic peoples in this area about 1800 years before the development of our present day Western Gregorian calendrical system.
In 1982, a number of significant questions arose concerning the site, the calendar, and archaeoastronomy of East Africa in general. The pillars were remeasured by an anthropologist in Kenya (Mr. Robert Soper) and found to be magnetic in nature. The original measurements had to be modified but, again, alignments with the seven Borana stars were found. However, this brought up the question of whether pillar alignments are significant at all, since the Borana ayyantu certainly can recognize the phases of the moon and when it is in conjunction with the appropriate seven stars. It was time to approach the question astronomically, and ask the moon and the stars how the calendar worked.
First, we could take the New Year’s observations, a new moon in conjunction with the faint star Beta Triangulum. What is meant by the term “conjunction” which is astronomically defined as the closest approach between two celestial objects? A new moon means that the moon is very close to the sun, being at best only a very small crescent, and therefore can only be seen just before sunrise or just after sunset. Interestingly enough, it turns out that during this twilight time the sky is too bright to be able to see the star Beta Triangulum so that seeing the new moon next to Beta Triangulum, the most important observation of the Borana calendar, was impossible!
In addition, assuming that the new moon and Beta Triangulum could be somehow seen rising together, the next month’s new moon rises significantly behind Pleiades, the newt conjunction star group. The third new moon rises with Belletrix, having skipped the third star, Aldebarran, completely. This is certainly not how the Borana described their calendar. If we were to continue to try to work the calendar in this way, by the start of the sixth month the new moon would be rising almost four hours after Sirius.
How could the calendar work then? Suppose (as we did), that one takes the term “conjunction” to mean “rising at the same horizon position” instead of “rising horizontally next to at the same time.” Thus one could mark the horizon rising position of Beta Triangulum, with pillars for instance, and once a year a new moon will rise at that position on the horizon. Let us suppose that this astronomical event marks the start of the New Year. We must add that we are taking the horizon rising position of these seven stars as they were in or around 300 BC, since present day Beta Triangulum has precessed too far to the north over the centuries and the moon will never rise there. However, the position of 300 BC Beta Triangulum, as well as the other Borana stars, was quite within the realm of the moon’s orbit.
Now where will the next new moon rise? It turns out to rise at precisely the rising position of Pleiades! The next new moon, marking the start of the third month, rises at the Aldebarran horizon position, the next at Belletrix, the next in between Central Orion and Saiph, and finally the sixth new moon rises at the horizon position that Sirius rose at during the night. During the next six months one can tell what month it is only in the middle of the month, since one has to wait to see what phase the moon is in when it appears at the Beta Triangulum horizon position. During the seventh month, as described, a full moon will be observed at the Beta Triangulum position. The next month a gibbous waxing moon, then a quarter moon, and successively smaller crescents will be seen there until, at the time when the 13th or first month should start the new year again (exactly 354 days later), a new moon is again seen rising at the Beta Triangulum position on the horizon.
It is interesting that one can draw some significant anthropological results from the astronomical derivation of this calendrical system. It would appear that the calendar would have had to have been invented (to use the stars correctly) sometime within a few hundred years of 300 BC, a time when the Cushitic peoples were dominant in this part of the world. Hence we would call it the Borana-Cushitic calendar. In addition, although the seven Borana-Cushitic stars no longer rise in the correct horizon positions to be correctly marked by pillars for observing the monthly rising position of the new moon, the present day Borana people nevertheless use this system of timekeeping. The implication is that the Borana require ancient horizon markers in their present derivation of the calendar.
Concerning the site at Namoratunga, and considering that the use of pillars is apparently necessary to the derivation of the calendar, such horizon markers as are found there may, indeed, have been an ancient observatory. Petroglyphs on the pillars at Namoratunga may also hold the possibility of being ancient and, if Cushitic, may represent the alignment stars or moon. Cushitic script has never been deciphered and any hints as to the meaning of tits symbols could be significant clues with very exciting prospects indeed!

Thus, archaeoastronomy in East Africa is still quite new and many discoveries await. From coming to understand, even in a small way, the calendrical reckoning and observational abilities of the ancient and modern astronomer-timekeepers of this region, Western thought should certainly not again underestimate the ingenuity and intellect present there. As for this Western thinker, this study continues to be a welcome lesson in perspective and humility, taught to him by his astronomical colleagues of long ago.”

This is a summary of a talk delivered at Caltech for Ned Munger’s African Studies class.;wap2

Irreechaa Arfaasaa was celebrated under the theme of “Moving Forward: Restoring the Good Spirit of Humanity” May 31, 2015

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???????????Spring celebration in Oromia, Jimmaa, Tulluu Deeddee. 26 April 2015. Irreecha Arfaasaa.

Advocacy for Oromia

(Advocacy4oromai, Melbourne, 30 May 2015) The Oromo Irreecha Arfaasaa festival, held on 30 Mya 2015  for the first time in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia at Mount Dandenong.

Irreechaa Arfaasaa 2015 (17)The ceremony was celebrated at Mount Dandenong to promote the Oromo Good Spirit tradition of respect for nature and gratefulness for life.
It was celebrated under the theme of “Moving Forward: Restoring the Good Spirit of Humanity” in which it aimed to celebrate Irreechaa festivals to follow our tradition and religion in society, to create public awareness where Oromo cultural and religious issues was discussed.

According to the organisers the festival was designed to provide a better understanding of Oromo culture, history and humanity, to pave the way for promotion of the Oromo culture, history, and lifestyle.

The Celebration of Irreechaa Arfaasaa, a national Spirit Day, is held yearly both to thank Waaqaa for the blessings and mercies we have received throughout the past…

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