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Oromo Speaks: Some of the Collected Inspirational Speeches (Interviews) of Oromo Women September 29, 2015

Posted by OromianEconomist in Afaan Publication, African Beat, Amane Badhaso, Artist Almaz Tafarraa, Ateetee (Siiqqee Institution), Ayantu Tibeso, Inspirational Oromo Women, Oromia, Oromian Voices, Oromo Culture, Oromo First, Oromo Identity, Oromo Sport, Oromummaa, Safuu: the Oromo moral value and doctrine.
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15-Year-Old Haawii’s Moving Speech on the Importance of Media, OMN and the Struggle to Uphold Afan Oromo

Mini Documentary by Seenaa Jimjimo

‘The Oromo Community Association in Chicago was featured on Chicago Public Radio’s Worldviewprogram on Wednesday, October 20, 2010. Listen below the full segment of the program on the Oromo people, the Oromo Community Association in Chicago, and the benefit jazz concert that the Association will hold on October 24, 2010.From the Chicago Public RadioThere are an estimated 40 million Oromo in Ethiopia, which makes them the nation’s largest ethnic group. Their numbers extend into Kenya and Somalia as well. Yet, despite their wide influence in the Horn of Africa, many people have never heard of the Oromo. Seenna Jimjimo of Chicago’s Oromo Community Association and Kadiro Elemo talk with Jerome about the Oromo culture, the struggle for independence and the local Oromo community in Chicago.’  Source:Gadaa.com

Listen:

http://gadaa.com/oduu/6380/2010/10/20/oromia-the-oromo-community-of-chicago-featured-on-chicago-public-radio/

Related references:

http://www.oromotv.com/highlighting-the-achievements-of-oromo-women-in-our-lives-raised-in-a-diverse-culture-gifted-with-a-supreme-artistic-talent-and-dedicated-to-interlock-oromo-culture/

 https://www.oromiamedia.org/2015/03/omn-gaafiif-deebii-artist-bohaarsituu-obsaa-bitootessa-16-2015/

Related References to Inspiring Oromo Women:http://www.oromotv.com/category/oromo-women/

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Oromia: The Oromo Heritages: Gadaa, Siiqqee and Irreecha. #Africa. June 13, 2015

Posted by OromianEconomist in Africa, Ancient African Direct Democracy, Ancient Egyptian, Ancient Rock paintings in Oromia, Ateetee, Ateetee (Siiqqee Institution), Boran Oromo, Gadaa System, Irreecha, Irreecha Oromo, Oromia, Oromo, Oromo Nation, Oromo Social System, Oromo Wisdom, Oromo women, Oromummaa, Sirna Gadaa, The Goddess of Fecundity, Waaqeffanna (Oromo ancient African Faith System).
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Oromo nation and Gadaa system

Oromo nation and Gadaa system

The Borana Calendar REINTERPRETED

by Laurance R. Doyle

Physics and Astronomy Department, University of California, Santa Cruz,at NASA Ames Research Center, Space Sciences Division, M.S. 245-7,
Moffett Field, Calif. 94035, U.S. 20 XII 85

The announcement of a possible first archaeoastronomical site (called Namoratunga II) in sub-Saharan Africa by Lynch and Robbins (1978) and its subsequent reappraisal by Soper (1982) have renewed interest in an East African calendrical system, the Borana calendar, first outlined in detail by Legesse (1973:180-88). I shall here reinterpret the calendar as Legesse describes it in the light of astronomical constraints.
The Borana calendar is a lunar-stellar calendrical system, relying on astronomical observations of the moon in conjunction with seven particular stars (or star groups). At no time (except indirectly by way of lunar phase) does it rely upon solar observations. The Borana year is twelve lunar synodic months (each 29.5 days long), 354 days. While it will not correspond to the seasons, this may not be of primary importance for people this close to the equator. There are twenty-seven day names (no weeks), and since each month is either 29 or 30 days long, the first two (or three) day names are used twice in the same month starts on a new day name. The day names are listed in Table 1, the month names in Table 2.
The first six months can be identified at the beginning of the month with a particular astronomical observation, whereas the last six months can be so identified only around the middle of the month. The first six months begin with the observation of the new-phase moon in conjunction with six positions in the sky marked by seven particular stars or star groups. Thus the phase of the moon is held constant while its position varies. The last six months are identified by a particular-phase moon seen in conjunction with the first star position. Thus, here, the lunar phase changes and the position is held constant. The seven stars or star groups in order are Triangulum (which I take to mean Beta Trianguli), Pleiades, Aldebarran, Belletrix, central Orion (around the sword), Saiph, and Sirius. They are given in Table 2 next to the months they define.
The New Year starts with the observation of the new moon in conjunction with Beta Trianguli. (The term “new moon” here will be taken to be within two days of zero phase, although the Borana allow up to three “leap” days’ leeway, the astronomical observation determining the correct day to start on. This is indicated in the day nomenclature by the assignment of like prefixes to two or three day names before the approximate time an important astronomical observation is to take place.) Since the new moon can be seen only just before sunrise or just after sunset, twilight makes the observation of Beta Trianguli (a third-magnitude star) in conjunction with a new moon impossible with the naked eye.

Assuming that such an observation, however, was possible, would the next new moon be in conjunction with the next star group. Pleiades? (Conjunction here is taken to mean “rising with” or “setting with,” having the same right ascension. Legesse says (p. 182), “Let us assume that a new moon was sighted last night and that is appeared side by side with the star Sirius, which the Borana call Basa.”) Since the sidereal period of the moon is 27.3 days long, it will arrive back at the Triangulum position more than two days before completing its synodic month. At the sidereal rate of 13.2° per day, the moon will be within 3° of Pleiades when it rises in the new phase again. However, by the time of the third month it rises, not with Aldebarran, the next star, but a little past Belletrix, the fourth star, which is supposed to start the fourth month. By the fourth month the new moon is rising past Sirius, the sixth start, and the calendar is clearly not working as described. It should be added that the right-ascension positions of the stars in the area from Beta Trianguli to Sirius change with time, at the rate of roughly 15° every thousand years. However, the stars stay in approximately the same configuration, and arguments based on their present right-ascension relationships will hold over the past several thousand years as well.
What happens if we take the term “conjunction,” or “side by side,” as Legesse has it, to mean not “rising with” but “rising single-file,” that is, at the same horizon position (in other words, having the same declination)? Examining the idea that it is not the proximity of the moon to the star that is important but its horizon rising (or setting) position with respect to that star’s horizon rising (or setting) position, we immediately find that the first necessary observation, the new moon rising at the horizon position of Beta Trianguli, is not currently possible. Beta Trianguli rises (at the equator) about 35° north of the east point (0° declination), while the moon (on the northernmost average) rises at 23.5° north of east, never rising farther north than 28.5° from the East Point. The earth’s rotation axis is known to precess over the centuries, and while this does not change the lunar orbital positions significantly, it does change the apparent position of the stars. We can calculate the positions of the seven Borana stars at a time when Beta Trianguli was well within the moon’s declination limits to see if the calendar would have worked then. In 300 BC, Beta Trianguli was rising at a declination of +23° north of east. The right-ascension positions at the time still do not allow a “rising with” interpretation of the calendrical system. We can begin by defining the start of the Borana year as the new moon rising at the rising position of 300 BC Beta Trianguli. (The date of 300 BC was strongly suggested by the preliminary dating of Namoratunga II, but it was chosen because +23°, Beta Trianguli’s declination at the time, is the northern average of the moon’s monthly motion. I will take the moon’s motion, for the example here, from theNautical Almanacs for 1983 and 1984.) The next new moon rises at 14° north of east, which corresponds precisely to the 300 BC horizon rising position of Pleiades, the next Borana star. The next four new moons (starting the next four Borana months) rise at +9 degrees, +1 degree, –11 degrees, and –17 degrees declination. These positions correspond to the 300 BC horizon rising positions of the Borana stars Aldebarran. Belletrix, central Orion—Saiph (taken together), and Sirius, respectively (Table 3).
The seventh month should be identifiable 14 or 15 days from its automatic start (about 29 days after the start of the sixth month) by a full moon rising at the Beta Trianguli position, and this is indeed the case. Each subsequent moon rises at this horizon position 27.3 days later (sidereal month) in a phase (synodic month) about two days less waxes (since it is on its way to the full phase again) each time. (Legesse has a waning moon, but this must mean waning with respect to each subsequent monthly observation, not with respect to the Phase State for that month.) On the thirteenth or first month, the moon is seen rising in the new phase again (“new” meaning within a couple of days of zero phase), and another year begins. Tracing the moon’s motion as it arrives at these positions in the sky (which are, however, no longer directly marked by the seven stars), we can derive the calendar (see Table 4).
This outline is still general with respect to what is sometimes called the lunar excursion (regression of the line of nodes of the lunar orbit). The three “leap” days the Borana calendar allows for the starting of some of the months just before an important astronomical observation could account for this declination excursion of the moon (± ca. 5° from 23.5° declination on an 18.6-year basis), but this would certainly require confirmation in the field.
The Borana calendrical system as described by Legesse is, therefore, a valid timekeeping system, subject to the astronomical constraints outlined here, and the pillars found in northwestern Kenya by Lynch and Robbins and preliminary dates at 300 BC could, as they suggest, represent a site used to derive that calendar. The calendar does not work in right-ascension sense, but it does work if taken as based on declination. It might have been invented around 300 BC, when the declinations of the seven stars corresponded to lunar motion as the calendar indicates, and the star names would therefore apply to the horizon positions as well. Because the horizon rising positions constitute the important observations (over half of which must be made at twilight), some sort of horizon-marking device would seem to be necessary. Since the calendar is still in use, and the horizon-making pillars can no longer be set up by aligning them with the horizon rising positions of these stars, it would seem that the Borana may be using ancient (or replicas of ancient) horizon markers and this possibility should be investigated. I look forward with great interest to a test of these hypotheses.

Table 1

Borana Day names (Legesse 1973)

Bita Kara Gardaduma
Bita Lama Sonsa
Sorsa Rurruma
Algajima Lumasa
Arb Gidada
Walla Ruda
Basa Dura Areri Dura
Basa Ballo Areri Ballo
Carra Adula Dura
Maganatti Jarra Adula Ballo
Maganatti Britti Garba Dura
Salban Dura Garba Balla
Salban Balla Garda Dullacha
Salban Dullacha

Table 2

Borana Months and Stars/Lunar Phases That Define Them
(Legesse 1973)

Month

Star/Lunar Phase

Bittottessa Triangulum
Camsa Pleiades
Bufa Aldebarran
Wacabajjii Belletrix
Obora Gudda Central Orion-Saiph
Obora Dikka Sirius
Birra full moon
Cikawa gibbous moon
Sadasaa quarter moon
Abrasa large crescent
Ammaji medium crescent
Gurrandala small crescent

Table 3

Declinations (Degrees) of Borana Stars, 300 BC and Present

Star

Declination

300 BC

Present

Beta Trianguli

+23

+35

Pleiades

+14

+23

Aldebarran

+9

+16

Belletrix

+1

+6

Central Orion

–10

–6

Saiph

–13

–10

Sirius

–17

–17

Table 4

Astronomical Borana-Cushitic Calendar (1983-84)

Borana-Cushitic Day/Month

Gregorian Date

Description

Bita Kara/
Bittottessa
August 7, 1983 New moon rises at Triangulum horizon position
Algajima/
Camsa
September 6, 1983 New moon rises at Pleiades horizon position
Walla/
Bufa
October 5, 1983 New moon rises at Aldebarran horizon position
Basa Dura/
Wacabajjii
November 2, 1983 New moon rises at Belletrix horizon position
Maganatti Jarra/
Obora Gudda
December 2, 1983 New moon rises at central Orion-Saiph horizon position
Salban Dura/
Obora Dikka
December 30, 1983 New moon rises at Sirius horizon position
Gardaduma/
Birra
January 29, 1984 Full moon sets at Triangulum on February 15
Rurruma/Cikawa February 28, 1984 Gibbous moon sets at Triangulum on March 14
Gidada/
Sadasaa
March 28, 1984 Quarter moon sets at Triangulum on April 10
Areri Dura/
Abrasa
April 26, 1984 Large crescent sets at Triangulum on May 7
Adula Dura/
Ammaji
May 25, 1984 Medium crescent sets at Triangulum on June 3
Garba Dura/
Gurrandala
June 23, 1984 Small crescent sets at Triangulum on June 30
Bita Kara/
Bittottessa
July 28, 1984 “New” moon rises at Triangulum position again, new year starts

References Cited

Legesse, A. 1973. Gada: Three approaches to the study of African Society. New York: Free Press.

Lynch, B. M., and L. H. Robbins. 1978. Namoratunga: The first archaeoastronomical evidence in sub-Saharan Africa. Science 200:766-68.

Soper, R. 1982. Archaeo-astronomical Cushites: Some comments. Azania 17:145-62

Source:

http://web.archive.org/web/20081029073246/http://www.tusker.com/Archaeo/art.currentanthro.htm

ASTRONOMY IN EAST AFRICA:Borana-Cushitic Calender

ASTRONOMY IN EAST AFRICA
The Borana-Cushitic Calendar and Namoratunga
Laurance Reeve Doyle
Space Sciences Division, N.A.S.A.
Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California

“While Western thought has always prided itself on scientific objectivity, it has often been found unprepared for such surprises as an intellectually advanced yet seemingly illiterate society. In the face of apparent primitiveness, the possibility of significant intellectual development may not be fully investigated.
This was certainly the case when, in the early 1970’s, Dr. A. Legesse first found that the Borana people of southern Ethiopia were indeed using a sophisticated calendrical system based on the conjunction of seven stars with certain lunar phases. Previous calendrical investigations into the area up to this time had superficially stated that the Borana “attach magical significance to the stars and constellations,” incorrectly concluding that their calendar was based, as ours is, on solar motion.
What Dr. Legesse found was an amazing cyclical calendar similar to those of the Mayans, Chinese, and Hindu, but unique in that it seemed to ignore the sun completely (except indirectly by way of the phases of the moon). The workings were described to him by the Borana ayyantu (timekeepers) as follows.
There are twelve months to a year, each month being identifiable with a unique (once a year) astronomical observation. The length of each month is either 29 or 30 days – that is, the time it takes the moon to go through all its phases. (This time is actually 291/2 days and is called a synodic month, but the Borana only keep track of whole days). Instead of weeks, there are 27 day names. Since each month is 29 or 30 days long we will run out of day names about two or three days early in the same month. The day names can therefore be recycled and for day 28 we use the first day name again, the second day name for day 29, and start the next month using the third day name. Thus each month will start on a different day name. Whether the particular month is to be 29 or 30 days long would depend on the astronomical observations, which are quite ingeniously defined.
The seven stars (or star groups) used to derive the calendar are, from northernmost to southernmost, 1) Beta Triangulum – a fairly faint navigation star in the constellation of the Triangle, 2) Pleiades – a beautiful, blue star cluster in the constellation of Taurus the Bull, and sometimes referred to as the seven sisters, 3) Aldebarran – a bright, red star that represents the eye of Taurus, 4) Belletrix – a fairly bright star that represents the right shoulder of the constellation Orion the Hunter, 5)Central Orion – the region around Orion’s sword where the Great Orion Nebula may be found, 6) Saiph – the star representing the right knee of Orion, and finally 7) Sirius – the brightest star in the night sky and the head of the constellation Canis Majoris, the Great Dog.
The New Year begins with the most important astronomical observation of the year – a new moon in conjunction with Beta Triangulum. (this day is called Bitotesa, and the next month is called Bitokara). The next month starts when the new moon is found in conjunction with the Pleiades. The third month starts with the new moon being observed in conjunction with the star Aldebarran, the next with Belletrix, then the area in between Central Orion and Saiph, and finally with the star Sirius. So the first six months of the calendar are started by the astronomical observations of the new phase moon found in conjunction with six specific locations in the sky marked by seven stars of star groups.
The method is now switched and the final six months are identified by six different phases of the moon (from full to crescent) being found in conjunction with only one position in the sky – the one marked by Beta Triangulum. Thus the whole Borana year is identified astronomically and when the new phase moon is again finally seen in conjunction with Beta Triangulum the New Year will start again. Since there are 12 such synodic months of 29 ½ days each, the Borana year is only 354 days long.
Now, in the latter part of the 1970’s another interesting development was to take place regarding the astronomy of this region. In 1977 Drs. B.M. Lynch and L.H. Robbins, who were working in the Lake Turkana area of northwestern Kenya, came upon what they believed was the first archaeoastronomical site ever found in sub-Saharan Africa. At Namoratunga, it consisted of 19 stone pillars, apparently man-made, that seemed to align toward the rising positions of the seven Borana calendar stars as they had appeared quite some time ago. (their suggested date from the various archaeological considerations, which still requires corroboration, was about 300 BC). Due to precession (the slow, wobbling of the pointing direction of the rotation axis of the Earth), the stars will seem to move from their positions over the centuries, although the moon’s position would not vary on this time scale. (Such an example is the alignment of certain features of the Egyptian pyramids with the star Thuban in the constellation Draco the Dragon, which was the north polar star about 5000 year ago; today it is Polaris and in several thousand years it will be Vega). If the date that Drs. Lynch and Robbins suggested was correct, the site would then correspond to the time of the extensive kingdom of Cush, referred to as Ethiopia in the Bible but actually centered about present day Sudan. One would then conclude that the Borana calendrical system was old indeed, having been developed by the Cushitic peoples in this area about 1800 years before the development of our present day Western Gregorian calendrical system.
In 1982, a number of significant questions arose concerning the site, the calendar, and archaeoastronomy of East Africa in general. The pillars were remeasured by an anthropologist in Kenya (Mr. Robert Soper) and found to be magnetic in nature. The original measurements had to be modified but, again, alignments with the seven Borana stars were found. However, this brought up the question of whether pillar alignments are significant at all, since the Borana ayyantu certainly can recognize the phases of the moon and when it is in conjunction with the appropriate seven stars. It was time to approach the question astronomically, and ask the moon and the stars how the calendar worked.
First, we could take the New Year’s observations, a new moon in conjunction with the faint star Beta Triangulum. What is meant by the term “conjunction” which is astronomically defined as the closest approach between two celestial objects? A new moon means that the moon is very close to the sun, being at best only a very small crescent, and therefore can only be seen just before sunrise or just after sunset. Interestingly enough, it turns out that during this twilight time the sky is too bright to be able to see the star Beta Triangulum so that seeing the new moon next to Beta Triangulum, the most important observation of the Borana calendar, was impossible!
In addition, assuming that the new moon and Beta Triangulum could be somehow seen rising together, the next month’s new moon rises significantly behind Pleiades, the newt conjunction star group. The third new moon rises with Belletrix, having skipped the third star, Aldebarran, completely. This is certainly not how the Borana described their calendar. If we were to continue to try to work the calendar in this way, by the start of the sixth month the new moon would be rising almost four hours after Sirius.
How could the calendar work then? Suppose (as we did), that one takes the term “conjunction” to mean “rising at the same horizon position” instead of “rising horizontally next to at the same time.” Thus one could mark the horizon rising position of Beta Triangulum, with pillars for instance, and once a year a new moon will rise at that position on the horizon. Let us suppose that this astronomical event marks the start of the New Year. We must add that we are taking the horizon rising position of these seven stars as they were in or around 300 BC, since present day Beta Triangulum has precessed too far to the north over the centuries and the moon will never rise there. However, the position of 300 BC Beta Triangulum, as well as the other Borana stars, was quite within the realm of the moon’s orbit.
Now where will the next new moon rise? It turns out to rise at precisely the rising position of Pleiades! The next new moon, marking the start of the third month, rises at the Aldebarran horizon position, the next at Belletrix, the next in between Central Orion and Saiph, and finally the sixth new moon rises at the horizon position that Sirius rose at during the night. During the next six months one can tell what month it is only in the middle of the month, since one has to wait to see what phase the moon is in when it appears at the Beta Triangulum horizon position. During the seventh month, as described, a full moon will be observed at the Beta Triangulum position. The next month a gibbous waxing moon, then a quarter moon, and successively smaller crescents will be seen there until, at the time when the 13th or first month should start the new year again (exactly 354 days later), a new moon is again seen rising at the Beta Triangulum position on the horizon.
It is interesting that one can draw some significant anthropological results from the astronomical derivation of this calendrical system. It would appear that the calendar would have had to have been invented (to use the stars correctly) sometime within a few hundred years of 300 BC, a time when the Cushitic peoples were dominant in this part of the world. Hence we would call it the Borana-Cushitic calendar. In addition, although the seven Borana-Cushitic stars no longer rise in the correct horizon positions to be correctly marked by pillars for observing the monthly rising position of the new moon, the present day Borana people nevertheless use this system of timekeeping. The implication is that the Borana require ancient horizon markers in their present derivation of the calendar.
Concerning the site at Namoratunga, and considering that the use of pillars is apparently necessary to the derivation of the calendar, such horizon markers as are found there may, indeed, have been an ancient observatory. Petroglyphs on the pillars at Namoratunga may also hold the possibility of being ancient and, if Cushitic, may represent the alignment stars or moon. Cushitic script has never been deciphered and any hints as to the meaning of tits symbols could be significant clues with very exciting prospects indeed!

Thus, archaeoastronomy in East Africa is still quite new and many discoveries await. From coming to understand, even in a small way, the calendrical reckoning and observational abilities of the ancient and modern astronomer-timekeepers of this region, Western thought should certainly not again underestimate the ingenuity and intellect present there. As for this Western thinker, this study continues to be a welcome lesson in perspective and humility, taught to him by his astronomical colleagues of long ago.”

This is a summary of a talk delivered at Caltech for Ned Munger’s African Studies class.

http://www.africaspeaks.com/reasoning/index.php?topic=2194.0;wap2

Oromia: The 2015 Commemoration of Odaa-Bultum (One of the Major Oromo Gadaa System’s Administrative Centers) March 20, 2015

Posted by OromianEconomist in Africa, Ateetee (Siiqqee Institution), Black History, Chiekh Anta Diop, Gadaa System, Kemetic Ancient African Culture, Odaa Bultum, Oromia, Oromo Nation, Oromummaa, Sirna Gadaa, The Oromo Democratic system, The Oromo Governance System.
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???????????Odaa Bultum

The 2015 Commemoration of  Odaa-Bultum (One of the Major Oromo Gadaa System’s Administrative Centers)

Finfinne Tribune | Gadaa.com

Oromos from all corners of Oromiyaa have converged at the once-banned Odaa-Bultum, one of the major Oromo Gadaa System’s administrative centers and located in Eastern Oromiyaa, to celebrate Odaa-Bultum and witness the peaceful power-transfer to the newAbbaa-Gadaa; the celebration will last for eight days, starting on January 28, 2015. According to sources, the new Abbaa-Gadaa of Odaa-Bultum will be inaugurated at this week-long celebration.

Odaa-Bultum, together with the other Odaa’s across Oromiyaa, was banned by the invading Habesha army at the end of the 19-century. Though the banning was meant to destroy and erase people’s memory of the Oromo Gadaa heritage, the strong collective societal memory of the Gadaa System continues to propel the ongoing Renaissance of the Gadaa System across Oromiyaa.

Video#1 (click on the clip to play):
https://www.facebook.com/video/embed?video_id=10101480773474883

Video#3 (click on the clip to play):
https://www.facebook.com/video/embed?video_id=10101480878105203

Odaa Bultum Revives - The Oromo Gadaa Renaissance in Action

OdaaBultum 2015_18

OdaaBultum 2015_17

OdaaBultum 2015_16

OdaaBultum 2015_15

OdaaBultum 2015_14

OdaaBultum 2015_13

OdaaBultum 2015_12

OdaaBultum 2015_11

OdaaBultum 2015_10

OdaaBultum 2015_9

OdaaBultum 2015_8

OdaaBultum 2015_7

OdaaBultum 2015_6

OdaaBultum 2015_5

OdaaBultum 2015_4

OdaaBultum 2015_1

OdaaBultum 2015_2

OdaaBultum 2015_3

Source: Amajjii/January 29, 2015 · Finfinne Tribune | Gadaa.com

Jila Odaa Bisil

 ‘Waggoota saddettan dabraniif Gadaa Odaa Bultum kan bulchan Abbaa Gadaa Mahammad Hammad Bookee guyyaa har’aa hogganaa haraya ta’uun kan filaman Abbaa Gadaa Shaamil Hammadootti baallii dabarsan. Gadaan haarayni, Gadaa quufaa-nagaayaa, tan bilisummaan biyyaafi ummata Oromoo keessatti goonfannu akka taatu hawwina.’ Jawar Mohammed,  Guraandhala 4 bara 2015.

Abbaa Gadaa Mahammad Hammad BookeeAbbaa Gadaa Shaamil Hammadoo

More at :

http://finfinnetribune.com/Gadaa/2015/01/photos-and-videos-from-the-2015-commemoration-of-the-once-banned-odaa-bultum-one-of-the-major-oromo-gadaa-systems-administrative-centers/

Ateetee:The divinity for motherhood and fecundity in Oromo mythology December 18, 2014

Posted by OromianEconomist in Ancient African Direct Democracy, Ateetee (Siiqqee Institution), Culture, Gadaa System, Humanity and Social Civilization, Meroetic Oromo, Nubia, Oromia, Oromia Satelite Radio and TV Channels, Oromian Voices, Oromiyaa, Oromo, Oromo Artists, Oromo Culture, Oromo First, Oromo Identity, Oromo Music, Oromo Nation, Oromo Social System, Oromummaa, Qubee Afaan Oromo, Safuu: the Oromo moral value and doctrine, Sirna Gadaa, State of Oromia, The Goddess of Fecundity, The Oromo Democratic system, The Oromo Governance System, The Oromo Library.
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O

 

 

 

Yaa Maaraam furootu gahee

Waliin nu Gahee

Emmoo yaa obbolee emmoo

 

 

 

Maaram is believed to be the divinity of women. Maaram was created by Waaqa and
addressed as haadha boor (the mother of ocean). I think this is to indicate that Maaram
came to the Oromo from outside. The Oromo believe that Mooram is the mother of a
child. The Oromo women perform traditional ceremonies in respect of Maaram. It is
believed that Maaram will help barren women to beget a child, and help pregnant
women to give birth to a child. When a woman gives birth to a child Oromo women will
gather and ululate (say ilili ilili). They also prepare porridge, and splash butter. It is
normal for the Oromo to sacrifice an animal during this ceremony. Moreover, Maaram
is worshipped for the health of the environment, animals, human beings and crops.
The Oromo Qoolluu leaders pray to Maaram every two weeks for the continuation of
offspring of humans. Maaram has her own ritual house. Ritual goods include Jaaloo
(earthen caldron), and Qoloo (traditional shirt). It has also madabii (raised platform of
Earth). The dancing ceremony is performed on Tuesdays, Thursdays,. and Saturdays.

Some writers have explained the nature of Ateetee and Maaram. Knutsson states that the  names Ateetee and Maaram are used interchangeably for the same kind of being (Kmitsson 1967,55). Daniel states that  the various songs of Ateetee imply that “[a]teete is a ceremony prepared for Ayyolee, Maaram and Waaqa as thanksgiving by those who have children and a lamentation by the barren women” (Daniel 1984, 111). Bartels, however, questioned this assertion. To the Oromo of Western Matcha, Ateetee is the name of the ritual in which Maaram is invoked (Bartels 1983). Baxter (1979) had similar observation concerning the belief of the Arsi Oromo. For Cerulli, Ateetee is conceived as the goddess of fecundity (Cerulli 1922,127; Harris 1968,50).

– http://www.ossrea.net/publications/images/stories/ossrea/ssrr-19-p-3.pdf

In the traditional Oromo society, women played distinct roles through an institution called the Siiqqee (a symbolic decorated stick given to all women by their mothers upon marriage). This is an exclusively women’s solidarity institution sanctioned by tradition and respected by society. It is a sort of sorority that provides women with channels to participate in village councils, and a cultural vehicle to mobilize en masse against violence and abuse. Infringement of certain rights that women enjoy is regarded as an attack on human rights. In the event of violation of their rights, women take out the Siiqqee and mobilize to fight for the respect of rights, and for any perpetrator of abuse to be tried by society. The use of Siiqqee draws an enormous religious, ritual and moral authority and in the pursuit of peace and social tranquility. According to tradition peace is not merely the absence of war, but a constant state of unity and cooperation among the people as well as harmony with God and nature, with the power to bless or curse. Historically, women as a sector of society were designated as strangers and excluded from the Gadaa structures and rituals, but, they stuck together through the Siiqqee counting on one another within this common sorority. –http://oromowomensinternationalconferenceonline.com/general-information.html

http://http://ayyaantuu.com/horn-of-africa-news/oromia/interesting-messages-obtained-from-facebook/

http://ayyaantuu.com/horn-of-africa-news/oromia/interesting-messages-obtained-from-facebook/

http://portal.svt.ntnu.no/sites/ices16/Proceedings/Volume%203/Marit%20Tolo%20%C3%98steb%C3%B8%20-%20Wayyuu%20%E2%80%93%20Women%E2%80%99s%20Respect%20and%20Rights.pdf

http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=gCxLwdmLNMIC&pg=PA177&lpg=PA177&dq=siiqqee+Oromo+institution&source=bl&ots=TFj2Y7vo_G&sig=IrqVfrNe8PKIgo2ZCTkL0DtVtJE&hl=en&sa=X&ei=TxSwU8DwBYiK1AWaoYH4BQ&ved=0CCYQ6AEwATgK#v=onepage&q=siiqqee%20Oromo%20institution&f=false

http://www.academia.edu/4604793/Qaallu_Institution_A_theme_in_the_ancient_rock-paintings_of_Hararqee-implications_for_social_semiosis_and_history_of_Ethiopia

http://www.slideshare.net/chalihundu/oromo-peoplehood-historical-and-cultural-overview

http://trace.tennessee.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1080&context=utk_socopubs

http://zelalemkibret.files.wordpress.com/2013/07/jos-volume-4-numbers-12-1997.pdf

Weedduu Maaram / Weedduu Ateetee

(Translation: Zelelaem Aberra Tesfa)

http://www.zelealemaberra.com/?page_id=388

 

In Oromo mythology, the divinity for motherhood and fecundity is Ateetee or Maaram. Maaram or Ateetee is invoked and praised on birth-rituals. In addition, women prepare a feast and invoke Her, praise Her kindness so that they could be fertile, healthy, prosperous, and happy (Bartles, 1990,124; Cerulli 1917, 127, Tilahun Gamta, 2004,101)

Atoomaa hardhoo Maarami!
Maa mukoofna yee!

Yaa Maaram yaa Maaramii,
Wallaalaaf araarami.
Yaa Maaram, yaa kuullee koo,
Kottu taa’i fuullee koo.

Ciniinsuu afaa butuu
Miixuu dagalee butuu
Da’anii mucaa butuu
Iddoo ciniinsuu kee tii
Guddeen kun kan kee ti.

Yaa deessuu waalluu kobe,
Maaramtu boroo gonfe,
Dhirsatu balbalaa kolfe.
Yaa dhabduu waalluu moojoo
Dhirsatu aaree guungume,
Maaramtu boroo sokkee.

Utuun Balasiin ta’e,
Balas Boongaa ta’e,
Dhabaadhaaf mirgan kenna;
ittiin haa doorsifatu.
Utuun Maaramiin ta’e,
Maaram giiftii ta’e,
Dhabduudhaaf ilman kenna,
Dhirsa haadoorsifattu.

Yaa Maaram, yaa Maaramee
Dhabduudhaaf araarami mee.
Yaa Maaram godeettii koo
Yaa dhiiga toleettii koo
Yaa Maaram marmaartuu koo
Yaa hiika gargaartuu koo.
Aayyoleen walii lama
Tokkoo ishee carii gamaa
Tokko ishee asii kana.

Akka abbaa fardaa beeka
Irraangadee kaachisa
Akka abbaa warraa beeka
Niiti deessuu caalchisa
Gaangoo jedhee na cabsee
Gindoo saa nabaachisa
Yaa maaram hundaaf giiftii
Rakkoo kiyya naaf hiiki
Yookaan ilmaa naa kennii,
Beekaattan moggaafadha
Yookaan durba naa kennii
Beektuuttin moggaafadha
Yookaan dua naa kennii
Waayeekoon obbaafadhaa.

Get-together, for today is Maaram
Let us rejoice, throw away the boredom!

O Maaram, O dear Maaram,
Reconcile, with us who lack wisdom.
Maaram with beautiful eyes, O Maaram,
Have a sit, in front of me, please come!

When in pain, the mattress one clutches
When in labour, the wall one clutches
After delivery, a baby one snatches!
In return for your labour pain
Here, the little one is your gain.

O prolific woman, your clothes smell bad,
But Maaram has adorned your backyard,
The husband laughs from the front yard.
O sterile woman, with beautiful dress
Your husband furiously grumbles,
For your backyard, Maaram avoids.

If I were Balas,
That Balas of Boongaa,
To a bad-shooter his trophies I give;
So he could boast about it with relief.
If I were Maaram,
Our great lady Maaram,
A son I would give to the sterile woman,
So she could intimidate her man.

O Maaram, my dear Maaram
Be merciful to the childless.
O Maaram, with beauty and grace
You have revered blood in your face
O Maaram, you are my commuter [between me and God]
My parturifacient mother.
Two kinds of mothers are there
One is far across the river [The biological one]
The other one is the one here. [Maaram]

I know a rider’s thought and will
He gallops down the hill
I know a husband’s thought
He loves the prolific wife the most;
He equates me to a mule, dry and bare
and makes me carry his ploughshare.
O Maaram every women’s’ queen
Resolve this problem for me
Either grant me a baby boy
I call him “he the wise”
Either grant me a baby girl
I call her “she the wise”
Or either give me death
So I could get done with my worries.

 

The following stanza is taken from a birth song:

Odoshaa gofaa ka’u
Sareen agartee laata?
Agartee nyaattee laata?
Dhabduu ishee mucaaf boossu,
Yeelalaa fayyaaf boowu,
Adeemsa mirgaa boowuu
Maareen agartee laata?
Agartee laattee laata?

Ililleen Waaqa akka
Ililcheen Waaqiin kadha;
Gabaa shaqaxxuu faaqi
Anoo sagadduu Waaqi!

Loome qoraan karaa
Yomiree wal agarraa?
Bor guyyaa afaan waaree
Loonee wal agarra.

Garbuu kaballaa tokko
Manteessuun akaawwatte
Kan maseente ittiin horte
Kan deesse lakkaawwatte.

Deessuun akka naan jette
Mucaa koo hinargin jette
Diinqa koo hindarbin jette.
Maali yoon diinqa shee darbee?
Maali yoon mucaa shees argee?
Mucaa sheef argaan laadha
Garaa koof marqaan nyaadha
Jabbisheetu gola miti
Mucasaheen dhora miti.

Yaa dhabduu anaa nyaatu
Ulfooftee gumaa hin nyaannee
Deesse gumaata hindhugne.
Dhagaa kakatta guutuu
Rarra’etu wal baachise
Dhabduun dawuu hinjibbine
Maaramtu wal caalchise

Yaa deessuu waalluu qobe
Ayyaanni boroo gonfe.
Yaa dhabduu waalluu moojoo
Ayyaanni boroo sokke.

Yaa dhabduu masoo dhirsa
Dhirsatu dhaanu hawwee.
Yaa saree eegee dabbasaa
Kan quufee Waaqiin darbata
Kan Maaram namaa gootu
Haati ofii namaa hingootu.
Sibiila mutaa gootee
Kan djiiga mucaa gootee.

Baddaan qullubbii hinqabu
Muree laga dhaabbata
Kan kee dhukkubbii hinqabu
Turtee nama yaadattaa.
Araarfanne yaa maaram
Sirraa deenyee.
Gadi jedheen xaafii haamaa
Ol jedheen Waaqiin waama

An old horse’s rise from the stable,
I wonder if dogs have seen it and been able?
To have eaten it, and then did settle?
Cry of a baby-longing childles
Lament of a health-longing patient
A trophy-longing hunter’s plight
I wonder if Maaree have seen?
If She has seen and granted!

Ululation for Waaqa is a must
I ululate and beseech Waaqa;
Market of the taxing tanner
I am Waaqa’s earnest prayer!

The Loomee firewood of the street
When do you think we could meet?
Tomorrow, around mid-day
We will meet slipping away.

A handful of barley
That a widow parched and eat
the sterile prospered with it
the prolific counted it. [To equally divide.]

You know what the prolific said?
“Do not see my baby.” she said
“Do not enter my inner-room” she said.
What if I enter her inner-room?
What if I see her baby?
To her baby, I give a gift
To my stomach, porridge I eat.
No calf is kept in her inner-room,
She thinks I pine her child, I presume.

What a pity for the sterile lady
She could not get pregnant and eat a hunk of meat
She could not deliver and have showers of gift.
Abundance of rock and escarpment
Is hanging and piling up
The sterile did not hate giving birth
It is Maaram that un equalizes.

The prolific with smelly skirt
Her backyard is full of spirit.
But, the childless in a pretty skirt
Her backyard is devoid of spirit.

The sterile, the husband’s name-sake
The husband wishes to punish her.
O dog with a hairy tail
The over-fed hurls at Waaqa
The favour Maaram does for one
One’s own mother would not do.
She turned iron to needles
She turned blood to a baby that toddles.

The high land does not have onion
They cut and plant in the valley;
Your delay is not offensive
for you compensate gradually.
Reconciliation with you, O Maaram
You gave us deliverance.
I bow down and harvest xaafi [food plant]
I rise up and invoke Waaqi

Iyya Siiqqee

Hoga iyya Siiqqee

Ilmaan hidda Horoo,

Guchuma baattee siida Ateetee
Siiqqeen iyyite seenaaf godaante

Safuuf nagaa waaqa tokkichaan dursa
Na ofkolchaa iyya Siiqqeefan tumsaa
Godaana siiqqeefan imimman robsa!

Safuu! Hoga iyya Siiqqeef
kan mandiisu akka bakakkaa
Safuu! Godaana faana Siiqqeef
Seenaa hin duune, kan hin qabne fakkii fi akka!

Uggum! Hoga iyya Siiqqeef
Iyya eenyummaa – diroon fufe gumaaf birmatu
Uggum! Godaana faana Siiqqeef
Adeemsa seenaa – qaraan-qara hin dhaabbatu

Hoo dhommoqxes Siiqqeen hin cabdu
Harooressa hin haanxoftu – gogdee hin baddu

Ni latti akka coqorsaa – jilbeeffattee dhukaan riqxee
Ni lalisti akka saardoo – margee leensa diroon cobxee
Ni daraarti akka keelloo – kuusaa aadaan booka naqxee

Sarara ulumaa Siiqqeen hareeroo
Hormata eenyummaa seenaa iyya Horoo
Duudhaa ganamaa irkoo fi utubaa boroo
Jandoo baaxii galma suuqa sororoo
Siiqqeen hin baddu dagaleen Gadaa
Kanaaf iyyatti – qabattee guchuuma aadaa!

Kan Waaqni mildhate Ayyaantuun eebbaa
Eenyummaaf birmadhu jamaan kaabaa fi kibbaa
Hoga dabarsaa, bahaa fi lixaa seenaa utubaa
Seenaa iyya Siiqqeef goonni dhiiga roobaa!

Kuusaa Oromummaa fi Hooda Ayyaantuu
Bir’uu eenyummaaf Siiqqeef birmatu!
Gadaan quufaa fi gabbina
Gabbisi ya Waaq, keenniif humna!

Humna Siiqqee kan hin cabne
Humna Gadaa kan hin dabne
Humna Oromummaa kan hin banne
Dilbii- Kuusaa kan hin dhumne
Seenaa boonsaa eenyummaa abdanne!

Gadaan gabbina Siiqqeen hareeroo
Gabbisi yaa waaq nurraa cabsi roorroo!

http://waaqeffannaa.org/iyya-siiqqee/

 

Oromo and Greek based Democracies

By Ibsaa Guutama

This article is for those who did not have the opportunity to know how democracy evolved in human society. Democracy is only one type of government supposedly based on the will of the masses. There had been other types of government like monarchy or aristocracy, dictatorship or autocracy and totalitarian. One can find overlapping characters in all these. So what ever form we may talk about we have to expect element of one in the other. For much, democracy is an ideal type of government but not all proclaimed democracies are fully pro-people. Here the writer is trying to introduce the essence of both Western and Oromo democracy in an easy way.  For those who are well versed in theory and practice of democracy this is an opportunity to enrich this work for the benefit of the youth. In particular the young generation that is showing pride in its historic past from oral tradition if armed with the facts may show more interest and start to inquire about it. To prepare the following information in addition to oral tradition and experience this writer was exposed to, the books: Gadaa and Oromo Demokrasii by Asmirom Laggasaa, The Oromo by De Salviac as translated by  Qannoon, Folk Litrature by Ceruuli, Aadaa Booranaa by Ton Leus, Ethiopia through Russian Eyes by Bulatovich and Wikiipedia from internet  were refered to.

Short note on Western Democracy 
Democracy is a term frequently heard from lips of everyone to express equality, justice and liberty in one word. There are no governments that do not claim to follow democratic principles in their governance. Even totalitarian states call themselves “democratic republics” (probably with exception of fascism) in spite of flagrant violation of their subjects’ rights. Just like true democrats they talk about the inviolability of people’s and human rights and respect for the rule of law and fair and free election.  They claim that it is to protect these rights on behalf of the masses when they take what are inhuman actions for others. Their founding documents are full of borrowed phrases from ideal democracies. Democratic governmental structures are adopted minus their functions from different countries.

Democratic models many emulate are American governmental structure with its system of separation of powers. The functions of legislature, executive and judiciary are separated into three branches in such a way that one can check on excesses of the other to maintain the balance of power. The executive or President and the legislative or members of Congress are elected directly by the people. Members of the Supreme Court are nominated by the president and endorsed by the legislature for life. The other models are Parliamentary Democracy where the executive is elected by the legislature. Those can be its members or non elected persons that are answerable to it. Britain and European governments fall under this. They have mainly different styles of organization. Still others are traditional rulers blended with modern jargons.

All these claim their objective to be safeguarding peoples’ democratic interests. The term democracy is a legacy of ancient Greek city state, Athens. It is derived from Greek demokratia which means government of the people (“demos”, people, and “kratos”, power).  In this aspect “people” for Athens includes only male citizens above 20 years of age. That does not include women, children under 20, those not born in the city state and slaves.

In the city state all those qualified had the right to be present at meetings and participate in deliberations directly. That is why it is now referred to as direct democracy. After many modifications it has reached the present level of modern Western democracy. Here people elect representatives that participate in deliberations on its behalf. The two methods of electing representatives are plurality and proportional voting systems. In the first one with the highest vote is elected even if one represents minority of voters. The second shares votes in proportion of the votes parties got in overall election. Those are the features of modern indirect democracy. In both not all electorates are represented.

Now in most cases men and women above certain age have the right to vote depending on the law of each democratic country. The right to vote for women was achieved, for example, for Switzerland in 1971 on federal level and 1990 at Canton levels. It took a long time and a relentless struggle to attain universal suffrage. Though all accept these basics of democracy the structure and function of elected offices are not yet standardized and methods of elections fall short of including every voter’s voices. For example if hundred people vote for three persons and two of them got thirty votes each and the third one gets forty he/she wins the whole thing. That leaves 60 persons unrepresented. Proportional representation may improve this but cannot totally correct it. Here seats are divided in proportion to votes parties got overall.

For African countries democracy was imposed on them by departing colonial masters that keep on insisting to this day not to abandon it even if it was a fake one. Africans did not participate to construct a government relevant to their culture and tradition. Even those who later wanted to introduce amendments tried to mix the various world systems instead of looking into their own history and tradition and make it reflect national personality or psyche.  As copy and eclectic as it is, it is understood only by elites who themselves are copies of colonial culture.

They rule the way they wanted, constitutions are only window dressings. On the other hand the West had modified the concept of democracy in such a way that it fits their particular national needs not as it was practiced by Athenians or any other pioneer democracies. Therefore there is no one common blueprint for it.

Had it not excluded a segment of the population Athenian democracy could have been an ideal one where the concern of every member is taken care of. Much has been tried to approximate that but the world did not yet achieve flawless democracy. Abraham Lincoln’s famous Gettysburg Address “Government of the people, by the people for the people shall not perish from the earth.” reflects that aspiration. The question to be answered is who are the people that influence decisions, are they really the people or oligarchs?  Though the ideal is not yet achieved there are those that had come nearer and worth emulating. Had Oromo democracy been able to answer that question?

Be as it may there are certain basics that underlie every governance of those that claim to be democratic. Principles like equality, freedom, fair and free election; rule of law and respect for people’s and individual rights run through all of them. Even dictators and totalitarian government claim to apply these principles in their own way.   Thus these are universally accepted principles of governance though malpractice is rampant in so many countries. Ethiopian rulers had tried to adopt constitutionalism under pressure against their established tradition.  The emperor had instituted a semblance of Westminster parliament without political parties. His successor (Darg) had one party state. The next (Wayyaanee) is a pseudo multiparty system but only its party is destined to win.

Be him the last emperor or the two dictators after him used democratic phraseology to cover up their core authoritarian values. Their inherited autocratic practices could not go away. The Habashaa in most part of their own history were ruled by forces that come through coup d’états violently or outlaws overthrowing the preceding government. That was so before they formed the empire and remained so even after it.  All the three came to power overthrowing their predecessors. The first two staged coup d’états the third was an outlaw.

It was not consensus but brut force that kept that highland kingdom together under one crown. Democracy assumes one man one vote in a fair and free election that should be carried out periodically. Democracy is the rule of majority. Who ever gets most of the votes comes to power. In numbers they are the minority in the empire and are scared of others outnumbering them at the ballot box. They have no confidence of winning an election by strength of their platform and performance. Therefore they believe that many opportunities would be at stake if they really change from the old ways bowing down for democratic principles. The situation makes the rulers greedy, self centered, chauvinistic and paranoid that they believe only in their own ways and wisdom and are not permeable to new possibilities.  They do not believe that even their own people would elect them in a democratic election.  That is why human right abuse became their trade mark.

Brief note on Gadaa Democracy 
When one discusses Gadaa it would be preposterous to claim understanding its depth and breadth. It was a highly complicated and sophisticated societal system to be attributed only to few generations. That it has a background of ancient civilizations can be deduced from organization of society, its legal system and patterns of knowledge it emanates. For this reason what this article presents is only a simplistic superficial aspect of it, which yet could give a clue to its democratic legacy. Leaving aside procedures, rituals and the regalia what interests us here is the legal and democratic principles enshrined in it. To discover the truth of it much effort is needed from nationals that so far considered it to be just one among the age grade initiation systems found in so many societies. They have to erase all they learned about the Oromo in colonial schools and start unraveling the truth about this so far neglected great African nation.

Gadaa was an all encompassing national system where by every male of all ages had roles to play in groups based on peerage.  Accordinglly all institutions in society were managed by elected bodies that decide in counsel. Though all activities in general fall under the Gadaa system, it was more visible in its political aspect.  Major divisions to be considered are the temporal and the spiritual institutions and within the temporal one the social and the political functions.  Gadaa is temporal while Qaalluu is spiritual. It is said that the Qaalluu office used to assist in Gadaa operations like elections. But sovereignty is vested in Gadaa Assembly. Therefore Qaalluu as an institution does not interfere in running political affairs of the country.  That means Gadaa was secular. Here we are more interested in Gadaa secular democracy. The social and political aspect of the spiritual institution may worth following for its historical and academic significance.  There are several Oromoo that follow traditional religion to this day.

Gadaa was practiced by the Oromo people from time immemorial. In social aspect male members of society are grouped into age grade “hiriyaa” (peer) system. To simplify, these were Dabbalee from 1-8 years, Foollee or Gaammee 9-24 and Qondaala or Kuusaa 25-33, Raaba didiqqaa 30-38, Raaba Doorii, 38-46 Luba 46-54 and Yuba 55-78 and gadamoojjii or jaarsa above 78 (taken from different regions practice for convenience). Each member of a society had rites to pass through. At each grade there were roles to be played and training to go through.

Activity of a hiriyaa group starts from cradle to calf herding, to different hurdles of fitness that include military training to ruling and counseling the country. It is from these hiriyaa groups that members of national leadership evolve and gradually become Luba, members of the Gadaa ruling group. These leaders in most cases had been leaders of hiriyaa group from the beginning. Women, non naturalized aliens (kan luba hin bahin) and artisans were not included in Gadaa power sharing process.

One Gadaa period is eight years. At the end of that period there used to be great feast. That ceremonial feast was called “Buttaa”. Buttaa also served as measurement of time. To know someone’s age one asks “how many Buttaa did you eat?”  All those who were born during the eight years tell the same age, one, two, three etc.  Buttaa. From that a wise man could tell to which hiriyaa group or Gadaa party one belonged. Five buttaa are slain in one Gadaa cycle of forty years. Those born into each Gadaa are hiriyaa (peers) irrespective of up to eight years possible differences. A boy born at the beginning of the eight years and one born on Buttaa day after eight years are considered to have eaten one Buttaa.

On the political side society is divided into Gadaa of five parties. Members in each Gadaa party were recruited from their own generational age grades. Each Gadaa has a role to play in the political life of the nation depending on the time and level in the Gadaa tier. The oldest group is the Yuba. It is composed of person whose members were in power in previous times. Next is Luba, the ruling party. Below that is the Itmakoo or Raba Doorii (these may have other names with different tribes) juniors that lead in defense and nation building. The next group follows the foot steps of their seniors and engages in different aspects of society appropriate for their ages. Each hiriyaa group maintains close relationship and prepare themselves for the next stage of partisan responsibility. They all elect their leaders. Those at the bottom of the ladder are the dabbalee to whose raising society gives much attention. It is there that the basis of Oromummaa is laid down and hunting for generational leaders start.

At any one period there are three Gadaa levels that engage is serious party work and has conventions or yaa’a. The bottom one is Raabaa Doorii a group that is preparing to take power after eight years (from), the middle one is the Gadaa in power Luba and the last one is the one that leaves office, Yuba. Each Gadaa comes to power after a cycle of forty years. Since there is a party in waiting to replace the other no party can stay in power for more than eight years. No crisis can be obstacle to transfer Baallii for there is a ready made leadership. To transfer Baallii means to transfer authority. As symbol of authority the old Abbaa Gada hands over to the incoming ostrich feather that was in his custody. Each Gadaa proclaims its own constitution and laws. Therefore there is no stagnation in waiting for cumbersome methods of amendments. Even if there is no article to be changed the past law is formally made null and void and proclaimed again as new. The five Gadaa had set names or are called after their leaders.

The highest Assembly of the nation is Caffee or Gumii. The Caffee sits under shade of an Odaa tree. The General Assembly includes all members of the ruling party and any such persons that want to attend it. In this way it is a representative indirect democracy with some elements of direct democracy. Living Abbaa Gadaas and the Yuba can also participate in the assembly. Abbaa Gadaa or Abbaa Bokkuu is the head of the Caffee and the chief executive as well. There is a case where their were two heads of Caffee, one ritual head called Abbaa Bokkuu and another elected head, Abbaa Gadaa. The Luba usually consults “raagaa” wise man or philosopher on the future or consequences of certain decisions. But the raagaa has no power to avert a decision.

In addition to mentioned institutions there are several others that should not escape our attention. For example the institution of clan elders which are hereditary have no place in the Gadaa structure but has important role in organizing and guiding the tribe. Members of Gadaa were recruited (nominated) from tribes they lead. They have ritual symbols and roles to play in cursing and blessing. When Gadaa is the national leadership these ones are tribal ones. It was from among these ones that the colonizers embraced and recruited as agents for all their grassroots activities. In tribal protocol the eldest of the clans is called or seated first. Since tribal structures have already been rendered obsolete it has no nationwide political relevance in modern setting. There is also the Siiqqee institution that gives women social and political authority to some degree. In principle this can be integrated into any modern adaptations.

For the Oromo rights like equality, freedom, fair and free election; rule of law and respect for people’s and individual rights, respect and protection for environment and wild life are inbuilt qualities of Gadaa democracy. All human beings are equal; no one is above the law; discrimination because of origin, color or economic status etc is unjust. Respect for human rights, freedom of expression that are not safuu or morally repulsive, freedom of movement and association are protected by law. Elected officials are loved and respected as long as they serve the people whole heartedly and with the highest morale standard.  An incompetent and corrupt official can be removed from office by the assembly before the expiry of his term of office. In meetings it was preferred if decisions were reached by consensus. Each member of a meeting or assembly has the right of veto to halt a discussion. Once decisions were reached all are required to acclaim and the law becomes sacred.
Gadaa Assembly combines executive, legislative and judiciary powers. Gadaa here is to mean the ruling class as well as the eight years of their rule. Leaders of current Gadaa are called Luba. The outgoing Gadaa which participates as advisors and judges are called Yuba. The Yuba group includes two previous Yuba. Though all powers and responsibility lie with the Luba, Yuba and all living Abbaa Gadaas had also roles to play in matters of law and checking on excesses of Luba and had great influence on all political matters. Full retirement comes three Gadaa after they leave office. From thence they are called gadamoojjii or jarsaa. Another hiriyaa group that is active during a Gadaa period is the Itmakoo or Raaba Doorii with defense as their major activity with their eye on the bokkuu when the time comes.

In Oromo society there was a tendency of the weak to form alliance against the strong. For example grandparents and grandchildren ally against parents. In the same way it is logical for Raabaa Doorii to ally against the strongest institution of the land, Luba. In that way power of Luba can be checked before it gets corrupted and become abusive.

The chief Luba is the Abbaa Bokkuu or Abbaa Gadaa (Hayyuu Fiixee). In places he has two deputies one having greater power than the other. The executive power is held by Salgee, the top nine Luba or six in some places. Those were elites elected by the people for eight years with Abbaa Gadaa as their leader. Committees were usually formed at different levels for different functions. Prerogatives of decision making at each level is known. There will always be consultation before decisions are taken. They were it is believed, those frequent meetings to make seera (law, legislation) that gave rise to Amaara legal term “seeraa” to mean conspiracy.

Abbaa Bokkuu implements what is decided by Salgee. Abbaa Bokkuu’s role as a chief is defined by law. Thus he has internal constraint imposed on him by peers and external ones by Yuba and Raaba Doorii and Caffee periodic assembly that is chaired by Abbaa Seera who is a well respected past Abbaa Gadaa.  The limitation of office term of only eight years for a party is by it self a reason not to get corrupted lest face humiliation with no chance of reelection. Thus Gadaa democratic system was a well balanced system with inbuilt checks and balance mechanism. The Abbaa Gadaa and Luba had assistances called makala (Makkala). Makala kan be compulsory service to Gadaa offices.

Military functions are assigned to Raaba Doorii by law and tradition. But Abbaa Gadaa was commander in chief and only Caffee can declare war. Commanders are appointed by Abbaa Gadaa for each engagement. After a campaign is over the person went back to his normal duties.

But lack of efficient communication and contingent law enforcement mechanism had given rise for Abbaa Duulaas to defy tradition starting in the course of the 16th century.

Some cardinal points of Gadaa system

  1. Gadaa is equal: There should be no one to be denied passing through Gadaa process, elect and be elected when ones turn comes. There should not be partiality or discrimination in services and protections Gadaa provides. Every member has the right to directly or through elected representative be heard in all affairs that affect people’s life; to be equally treated in matters of administration of justice. No one is above the law. No one may be prohibited to attend Gadaa deliberations.
  2. Odaa is equal: Odaa is a national symbol for people’s government, demokratia. It represents freedom of speech and expression, freedom of assembly, equality of all participants that meet there, freedom of worship, peace and araaraa (reconciliation) and liberty to rest for persons and animals under its shade without worry of being disturbed.
  3. Malkaa is equal: Ford or river crossing (confluence) is open to all for crossing; perform rituals; using water for drinking, washing etc for humans and animals. No one for any one reason can bar any one from using it. Malkaa is a symbol of transiting from status quo to something new.
  4. Market is equal: every one has equal rights to take ones produce to the market and exchange with goods and services that it provides. Every one is free to participate in such exchanges and any trade of ones liking that the market provides
  5. Road is equal: every one is entitled to the right of way; no one can be denied an access from his home to outer world or restricted from using of existing roads like all others; there will not be restriction to the right of travel; no one has the right to close an existing road for own use.

Is there any point that modern society discard from these? So far we have tried simplistic approach to uncover old Gadaa practice. Gadaa was more inclusive in its membership than Greek City state democracy. It involves every member of society to equally participate in all activity of the nation according to generations. All male nationals are grouped into generational hiriyaa and play roles society assigned for them. For this reason the Gadaa system involves all in the process of managing a society. Each division stays in the age grade for eight years before it is initiated into the next level. Probably except kids under nine all elect their leaders through electoral process. Gadaa was a representative democracy with some elements of direct democracy. Anyone that can travel to Caffee Assembly can participate in its deliberations and express ones opinion. That gives it semblance of direct democracy. Gadaa was practiced when Qaalluu institution had significant role in Oromo society and the nation was at a different level of economic and technological development than the present. Taking these variations into account let us see if there are principles that we could salvage for new democratic Oromiyaa.

  1. Societal development takes place on two lines. One is the social age grade system and the other is the party system. One follows the gradual mental and physical development of a child, while the other handles its political development. At stage of adult hood both overlap. In the political aspect society is grouped into five hiriyaa category and a party name is attached to them. Each party takes turn in governing every eight years. A party has to wait for forty years to reign again. All five parties exist at the same time with different roles to play.
  2. In Gadaa executive and legislative functions are combined. Bokkuu and Caffee (Gumii) are the highest authority of the land. Sovereignty lies with the people but expressed through Caffee and Bokkuu.
  3. Decisions are reached by consensus how ever long it may take. That means minority opinion is never neglected.
  4. Abbaa Bokkuu is the commander in chief of the fighting force. Caffee is the only power that can declare war. People love and respect the leaders because of their valor and uprightness not out of fear and threat.
  5. Yuba is the highest advisory body and also heads the supreme court of the land. Its head is the most respected among the living retired Abbaa Gadaas and usually taken as the Supreme Judge (Chief Justice).
  6. Itmakoo/Raaba Doorii is a power in waiting to replace the incumbent Luba. It is responsible for recruiting, training military personnel and conducting war.
  7. Qaalluu is the spiritual leader with some functions concerning elections but never interferes in secular affairs of the Gadaa. Gadaa was a temporal institution.
  8. Women were recognized as subjects of rights through Siiqqee institution. There were also rituals that cannot be performed without them. But full equality was not guaranteed.
  9. The top Gadaa counselors were nine ( Salgee) or Six
  10. The Luba are assisted by unelected official called makala (Aide de camp)
  11. Each Gadaa general assembly convenes at the beginning of its term to declare laws. Then it will assemble in its mid term to make progress report. Then members can be criticized, condemned or uprooted for wrong doings if any. That means electors had the right to recall their representatives for corruptions and abuses. Caffee meetings are open for citizens that can attend.
  12. Raagaa is a wise usually old man or philosopher that can advise on the future
  13. Hayyuu were notables (elites) that can give decisions and counseling on several issues. They were knowledgeable members of the society without any flaw in character.

To summarize, the people are sovereign; representative system mixed with direct democracy were practiced; rulers were elected for a limited term of only eight years; citizens had the right to elect and be elected according to their ages; no one was above the law; people can recall their representative; humans, animals and nature are protected by law; the welfare of children was concern of all members of society; their was majority rule but by making decision by consensus minority views were protected; all human being were equal, ill treatment was abhorred; right to assemble and freedom of expression were protected; right to engage in any trade was protected; right to travel were granted; right to worship was recognized and discrimination based on race, age, gender and economic status are forbidden. There was inbuilt check and balance system in the political process but not so spelled out.

Now, that we have seen a brief introduction to western and ancient Oromo Gadaa democracy, let us try if we can come out with a fitting system for reorganizing modern Oromiya. The system of dividing and managing society into generations is not different from modern world school systems. Children learn what is assigned them according to peerage, “preschool, kindergarten, primary, secondary, college”. This is not far from what they call “dabbalee, Foollee, Gaammee, Raaba etc.” Existing political parties recruit members from this school system. But the Oromo as different as they are, had something to add and their own outlook. Oromo see the system in interrelation with all other societal activities. To pass from one stage to the other are rights of all citizens not of particular classes.

Probably it would be essential to revise certain things and see how they may serve modern society better.  Instead of collectively saying Oromo youth association if one says association of Foollee, Gaammee, Raaba etc it will help to mobilize in unison generation that under stand each other better. It may also give better opportunity to develop future leadership for society. In the past stages in the Gadaa were seen from fathers’ point. For this reason the age at which one has to produce a child was determined. If one is born before that it was bad omen. Now all children should be treated equally and age has to be considered from childrens point. So, age should not be calculated by butta and father’s Gadaa grade, but the exact date of a child’s birth. All those excluded to participate in gadaa activities and elections must now be included to make true that all humanbeing are eqal. This is only the skeleton otherwise social functions require deeper research. During the period of Abbaa Gadaa there was only one Qaalluu, now they are numerous (in addition to those of other religions). In the past we go for pilgrimage only to Abbaa Muudaa now we crossed the sea and added Mecca and Jerusalem etc. After all, what do you think?  This is a big challenge for Oromoo intellectuals. It may require liberating ones mind from the shackles of foreign influences to appreciate what we had. Gadaa is never obsolete but may need refurbishing. Go and make research before responding.

Let us get prepared to be ourselves and show the world that Gadaa still dwells in our minds and body.  This will not be difficult for one who has pride in Oromummaa.

Honor and glory for the fallen heroines and heroes; liberty equality and freedom for the living and nagaa and araaraa for the Ayyaanaa of our fore parents!
Ibsaa Guutama
July  2011

http://gubirmans.com/Oromo%20and%20Greek%20based%20Democracies.html

…The presence of the aged, both men and women who attired in traditional costumes, and carrying ritual sticks—bokkuu and siiqqee—the symbols of power and justice of the gadaa system decorated the march which reflected the authentic Oromo tradition. This authenticity is articulated not only in the words spoken by the elders and sung by the artists but also expressed in the peacefulness of the gathering of millions of people. Oromo nationalism is reviving and thriving in the fertile soil of rich symbolic cultural resources that have come to the open since the 1990s. The array of national symbols such as the odaa tree which decorate the costumes worn by men, women and children, the siiqqee, the bokkuu and other pre-colonial pan-Oromo symbols carried by men and women at the festival represent and reinforce the pride of the nation and unite the multitude gathered for the festival through a common imagery of shared memories, myths and values—in other words the shared structures of feeling.

http://maddawalaabuupress.blogspot.co.uk/2012/11/oromo-freedom-from-what-and-for-what.html

 

Related Article:

Safuu, the Oromo moral value and doctrine

by Rundaasaa Asheetee Hundee 

is the principle of deep moral honor and accountability that was fostered by Waaqayyo fearing people of Oromia. “Yoon maqe, Waaqni na arga” is the principle rooted in each Oromo proven to be worthy of wholesomeness, to have virtue, and love other. These type of people have a desire to understand and live by traditional values.

Young Oromo children often spoke about the fundamental principle that telling the truth, respecting nature, being trustworthy, and standing for the right thing is natural to human beings. As an Oromo, we were taught these values and it made us women and men of such noble character.

Not only our characters were shaped by Safuu Oromo, even the process of Seera tumu (law making) was inspired by this principle and the Gadaa system was framed on the basis of Safuu. Basically then, Safuu is the principle of restoration of human dignity in a significant way. Because of Safuu, Birmadummaa and honesty is expected from each Oromo so that we all can live virtuous life of divine purposes.

When the Oromo people lived according to the Gadaa system, they dominated the horn of Africa and established their republic, and the Oromoo Foollee turned into statesmen and defended the norm of Gadaa governance. Because they believed in being honest, true, benevolent and virtuous in doing good to humanity, they demanded no money for their work and time. They worked on their farms but served their country as abbaa Seeraa, abbaa Alangaa, abbaa Caffee, abbaa Bokku and as Hadha sinqee etc..

Because of Safuu, the Oromos are inspired to respect nature and committed to deal justly with humankind! That’s why we are indebted to freedom-loving individuals everywhere who had the integrity necessary to build the foundations of human societies upon safuu’s fundamental moral values. Only in an atmosphere of freedom and trust could values like honesty and integrity truly flourish.

Safuu Oromo therefore is an expectation that people must rise above self-interest and act in the public interest with wisdom and courage both on the national and the local political scene.

One reason for the decline of Safuu in Oromia to day is that people invented new standards that constantly changes and undependable moral conduct. As a result, individuals define good and evil as being adjustable according to each situation but doing so is in direct contrast to the Safuu standard.

The vast majority of so called educated Oromos speak or think based on this mindset where right and wrong are calculated to either remain neutral or to be liked by others at the expenses of own value, the Safuu. In the process, our people lost their ancestral knowledge of what is right and what is wrong and went astray by longings for luxury and leisure that they think will be found in the western world style of living and thinking.

The devastation that comes from such fraudulent life style and self misrepresentation is immeasurable. It leads to a false belief that they can worship anything they want following the rules they set for themselves.

However, the continued survival of a free and open society is dependent upon a high degree of divinely inspired values and moral conduct (safuu), as stated by the Oromo Ayaantus. People must have trust in their institutions and in their leaders. Hence, a great need today is for leadership that exemplifies truth, honesty, and decency in both public and private life.

Honesty is not only the best policy, it is the only policy according to Safuu Oromo.
There are several things we can do to develop SAFUU.

Desire It (Fedhii Safuu horadhu)

Live honest life (hin Maqin)

Be Humble (Fayaalessa ta’i)

Study (Qu’adhu)

Search and ponder on ideas (Yaada xiinxali)
Love nature ( Umaa jaaladhu)

 

Read @ http://advocacy4oromia.org/home/safuu-the-oromo-moral-value-and-doctrine/

http://ayyaantuu.com/horn-of-africa-news/oromia/safuu-the-oromo-moral-value-and-doctrine/

 

 

Irreecha 2014: The Oromo Thanksgiving National And Cultural Holiday Season November 18, 2014

Posted by OromianEconomist in Africa, Ateetee (Siiqqee Institution), Humanity and Social Civilization, Irreecha, Kemetic Ancient African Culture, Oromia, Oromiyaa, Oromo, Oromo Culture, Oromo First, Oromo Identity, Oromummaa, State of Oromia.
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OIrreechaOromoWaaq2014Irreecha Oromo 2014 Hora Harsadii, Oromia 5

Irreecha (Irreessa)  Birraa Oromoo kan Bara 2014 ((akka lakkoobsa Oromootti kan Bara 6408)  akka gaariitti karooreffatamee, haala oo’aa fi bareedan kabajame. Here are some of  live  pictures, videos and reports refer to Irreecha Oromo Thanksgiving 2014 (6408 in Oromo Calendar)  Season Global Events Planning and Celebration. The blessing event that started in mid August and celebrated successfully and colorfully  through  Birraa (September- October). Millions attended Hora Harsadi (Bishoftuu, Oromia) and Malkaa Ateetee (Buraayyuu, Oromia).

At Hora Harsadii

Qophii Ayyaana Irreecha – Minneapolis – Fulbaana/Sept. 27, 2014

 

SBO Onkoloolessa 08 Bara 2014 Oduu – Qophii Ayyaana Irreechaa fi SBO Sagantaa Afaan Amaaraa

Irreecha (Oromo Thanksgiving) 2014: Colorfully celebrated in East Wallaggaa, Western Oromia, Naqamtee City, 16 November. This month’s Irreecha also known as Irreecha Yaadanno. Remembrance  Irreechaa.

Irreechi Malkaa Araaraa, Wallaggaa Naqamte Irratti Kabajame

Sadaasa 16, 2014 Wallaggaa Naqamtee irratti gaggeeffame.

Irreechi barana Sadaasa 16/2014 Malkaa Araaraa irratti tahekan Wallaggaa Leeqaa Naqamtee irratti taasifame uummata lixa shagarii fi Wallaggaa magaalaa Naqamtee fi barattoota yuuniversitii fimanneen barnootaa garagaraa guutummaatti kan hirmaachiseedha. Waggoota tokko dura kan gaggeeffame baayinniuummataa kan baranaa dachaadhaan akka dabale uummata kumaatama hedduudhaanlakkaawaman hirmaachise jira.

Buufata malkaa kanatti Qeerroon sirboota qabsoo garagaadhageessisee jira, keessattuu dhaadannowwan:
– Qaroon oromoo ABO dha.
– Yaa oromo mirgakeef ka’ii falmadhu
– Nuti oromoodha, nuu haa beekani.
– Oromiyaan ni bilisoomti kan jedhuu fi sirbootniqabsoo hedduun uummata kakaasuu fi sirboota qabsoo qeerroodhaan sirbamankeessatti poolisoota kan hirmaachise uummata waliin sirboota Qeerroo irrattihirmaachuudhaan haala nama boonsuun kan gaggeeffameedha.

Akkuma olitti ibsuuf yaaleetti uummanni jiraattootni garashawaa lixaaa jiraatan hunduu ayyaana irreechaa malkaa Araaraa kana irratti kanargamaniidha. Irra caalatti barattoota yuuniversitii fi koollejjii akkasumamana barumsaa sadarkaa garagaraa magaalaa Naqamtee, Siree, Baakkoo fi kkf niinkan dhuunfatameedha. Sochii qeerroodhaangodhame keessatti humni waraanaa poolisoonni jiran hunduu uummata waliin haalahoo’aadhaan guyyaa kana kan kabajanii oolanii fi dhaadannoolee uummata oromoofwaamicha taasisu, uummata kakaasan irrattillee kan hirmaatanii jiraniidha, uummanni hunduu kan irreecha kana irratti argaman nageenyaan bahee guyyaakeessa sa’a 7:30 irratti gara qe’ee isaatti kan galeedha. Guyyaa irreechaMalkaa Araaraa kana ilaalchisee gabaasa dabalataa isiniin geenya, waraabbiiqabnuuf haala mijeessinee isiniin geenya, nu eeggattu!

 Qeerroo.org

Gadaa.com

Gadaa.com

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Irreecha Oromo 2014 Naqamtee, Oromia

http://qeerroo.org/2014/11/18/irreechi-malkaa-araaraawallagga-naqamte-irratti-kabajame/

http://finfinnetribune.com/Gadaa/2014/11/irreechi-malkaa-araaraa-wallaggaa-naqamte-irratti-kabajame/

http://http://finfinnetribune.com/Gadaa/2014/11/irreechi-malkaa-araaraa-wallaggaa-naqamte-irratti-kabajame/

Irreecha (Oromo Thanksgiving) 2014: Colorfully celebrated at Burraayyuu, Malkaa Ateetee, Oromia with millions of Oromians in attendance.  9th October 2014.

Ayyaannii Irreechaa Burraayyuu Malkaa Ateeteetti bakka uummaanni Oromoo miliyoonaan lakkaa’amu argamutti sirna ho’a ta’een kabajame. Uummaatni Oromoo godinaalee Oromiyaa fi magaaloota Finfinnee, Burraayyuu, Bishooftuu, Adaamaa, Sandaafaa, Laga Xaafoo Laga Daadhii, Sulultaa, Sabbataa, Walisoo, Hollotaa, Amboo, fi Neqamtee irra walitti dhufuun haala ajaa’ibsiisa ta’een Ayyaana Irreechaa Magaalaa Burraayyuu Malkaa Ateeteetti kabajachuun eenyummaa, Tokkummaa, Oromomummaa fi Sabboonummaa isaa jebeeffachuun diina afaan faajjessa olee jira. http://qeerroo.org/2014/10/10/ayyaannii-irreechaa-burraayyuu-malkaa-ateeteetti-bakka-uummaanni-oromoo-miliyoonaan-lakkaaamu-argamutti-sirna-hoa-taeen-kabajame/

Irreecha Oromo 2014 Malkaa Ateetee, Buraayyuu, Oromia

Irreecha Oromo 2014 Malkaa Ateetee, Buraayyuu, Oromia.  Suura1

Malkaa Ateetee, Celebration of Irreecha Oromoo 2014 (6408Irreecha Oromoo bara 6408 kan Buraayyuu, Malkaa ateetee, Oromia. Irreecha Oromo Thanksgiving 2014,Malkaa Ateetee, Buraayyuu, Oromia . 9th October. Suura2

Malkaa Ateetee, Celebration of Irreecha Oromoo 2014 (6408Irreecha Oromoo bara 6408 kan Buraayyuu, Malkaa ateetee, Oromia. Irreecha Oromo Thanksgiving 2014,Malkaa Ateetee, Buraayyuu, Oromia . 9th October. Suura1

Malkaa Ateetee, Celebration of Irreecha Oromoo 2014 (6408Irreecha Oromoo bara 6408 kan Buraayyuu, Malkaa ateetee, Oromia. Irreecha Oromo Thanksgiving 2014,Malkaa Ateetee, Buraayyuu, Oromia . 9th October. Suura5

Malkaa Ateetee, Celebration of Irreecha Oromoo 2014 (6408Irreecha Oromoo bara 6408 kan Buraayyuu, Malkaa ateetee, Oromia. Irreecha Oromo Thanksgiving 2014,Malkaa Ateetee, Buraayyuu, Oromia . 9th October. Suura5Malkaa Ateetee, Celebration of Irreecha Oromoo 2014 (6408Irreecha Oromoo bara 6408 kan Buraayyuu, Malkaa ateetee, Oromia. Irreecha Oromo Thanksgiving 2014,Malkaa Ateetee, Buraayyuu, Oromia . 9th October. Suura4Malkaa Ateetee, Celebration of Irreecha Oromoo 2014 (6408Irreecha Oromoo bara 6408 kan Buraayyuu, Malkaa ateetee, Oromia. Irreecha Oromo Thanksgiving 2014,Malkaa Ateetee, Buraayyuu, Oromia . 9th October. Suura3Malkaa Ateetee, Celebration of Irreecha Oromoo 2014 (6408Irreecha Oromoo bara 6408 kan Buraayyuu, Malkaa ateetee, Oromia. Irreecha Oromo Thanksgiving 2014,Malkaa Ateetee, Buraayyuu, Oromia . 9th October. Suura2Malkaa Ateetee, Celebration of Irreecha Oromoo 2014 (6408Irreecha Oromoo bara 6408 kan Buraayyuu, Malkaa ateetee, Oromia. Irreecha Oromo Thanksgiving 2014,Malkaa Ateetee, Buraayyuu, Oromia . 9th October. Suura1

Irreecha (Oromo Thanksgiving) 2014: Colorfully celebrated at Bishoftu Oromia, Hora Harsadii with over 4 million in attendance.  5th October 2014.

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Irreecha (Oromo Thanksgiving) 2014: Colorfully celebrated at Bishoftu Oromia, Hora Harsadii with over 4 million in attendance. 5th October 2014

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Young people singing and dancing

OromoPress Report:- Irreecha: Oromo’s Largest African Festival Celebrated by Millions at Hora Arsadi, Bishoftu

OromoPress Report:- Irreecha: Oromo’s Largest African Festival Celebrated by Millions at Hora Arsadi, Bishoftu

(OromoPress) – On Sunday October 5, 2014 an estimated 4 million people attended the annual Irreecha Festival at Hora Arasdi (lake) in Bishoftu town, located 47.9 kilometers southeast of the Oromo nation’s capital Finfinne (aka Addis Ababa). Although not conceptually, historically and purposively equivalent, people sometimes superficially use the word from the American holiday “Thanksgiving” to describe Irreecha Festival to expatriates. Oromo and friends of Oromo from across all religions and backgrounds converged to celebrate the transition from a gloomy (dukkana) rainy season to a bright (booqaa) Birraa (Spring season). The rainy season that runs for 3 months–June to August– is considered a harsh winter and is associated with darkness and separation from friends and families because of rivers swelling, (and also because of the lack of electricity). In contrast, Spring is considered a more pleasant season of festivity. Honestly, the tropical rainy season is not as a harsh a season as Winter as we know it in the northern hemisphere if you have the skills to swim and walk in and on waters.To say that Irreecha is a celebration of escaping a bad season, would be a gross oversimplification given the long and complex history of the Oromo indigenous African holiday practiced for thousands of years before the arrival of Abrahamic faiths in Oromia, Ethiopia and the Horn of Africa. Read more @http://oromopress.blogspot.co.uk/2014/10/irreecha-oromos-largest-african.html

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http://http://www.ethiotube.net/video/32135/More-than-three-million-celebrated-Irreechaa-Oromo-Thanksgiving-in-Bishoftu-Oromia-The-largest-Festival-In-Africa

Irreecha Bara 2014 – Sirna Irreeffannaa WBO, Moonaa Leenjii Giddu Gala ABO!

Ayyaanni Irreechaa Godina Jimmaa

 Onkoloolessa 26 bara 2014

Qeerroo: Gabaasa Kabajamuu Ayyaanni Irreechaa Godina Jimmaa

Onkololeessaa 26, 2014 Ayyaanni Irreechaa Godina Jimmaatti sirna ho’aa ta’een kabajame! Uummatni Oromoo jalbultii ayyaana kana ilaalchisuun Onkololeessa 25/2014 irraa eegaluun godinaalee Oromiyaa gara dhihaa kanneen akka Godina Iluu abbaa Booraa, Godina kibba Lixa Shawaa, Shawaa Lixaa fi wallaggaa Bahaa irra gara Magaalaa Jimma seenan, jalbultiin Ayyaana kanaa haala akkam miidhagaa ta’een Malkaa Deeddeetti kan eegalame, Guyyaa kaleessaa Malkaa Booyyeetti haala akkam ajaa’ibsiisaa ta’een kabajame jira. Goototni barattootni Oromoo Yuunibarsiitii Jimmaa fi Saabboontootni hojjettootni fi barsiisotni Godina Jimmaa fi Yuunibarsiitii Jimmaa Ayyaana kana irratti argamuun haala akkam boonsaa ta’een Eenyummaa, Oromummaa ,sabboonummaa, fi tokkummaa uummata Oromoo jabeessuun Uummata Oromoo kuma kudha-shani (15,000) Olitti lakka’amuun kabajame jira.

Kabaja ayyaana Irreechaa Godina Jimmaa Malkaa Booyyeetti kabajame kana irratti dargaggootni Qeeerroon barattootni Oromoo Yuunibarsiitii Jimmaa gamtaadhaan argamuun walleewwaan warraaqsaa fi mootuummaa abbaa irree balaaleeffatan Sirbuun uummatni Oromoo eenyummaa, Oromummaa, Sabboonummaa fi bilisummaa isaa gonfachuuf yoom iyyuu rafee akka hin bullee fi tole jedhee halagaa fi abbootii irreef akka hin bitamne walleewwaan warraaqsaa kanaan uummataaf barnootaa fi ergaa guddaa dabarsa, walleewwaan warraaqsaa kanaaniis ABO fi Uummata Oromoo, Qabsoo bilisummaa Oromoo sodaa tokko malee faarsuun diina garaa gubaa oolaniru. walleewwaab Artisti kabajamaa fi Jaalatamaa Eebbisaa Addunyaa guutummaatti sirbaa Oolaan.

Mootummaan abbaa Irree Wayyaanee akkuma amala ayyaana irreecha kana danquu fi uummata sodaachisuuf humna poolisaa guddaa bobbaasuun guyyaa jalbultii Ayyaana kana irraa eegaluun Magaalaan Jimmaa eegamaa turte, tokkummaa Uummataa fi haala hedduminan uummatni Ayyaana kanaaf qophii gochaa jiru irraa ka’uun tajajila uummataa kanneen akka Ibsaa Eliktiriikii, Bishaan dhugaatii fi Network Magaalaa Jimmaa irraa balleessun uummata darara jiraachuun beekamee jira. kessumattuu Ayyaana kanaan walqabatee tajajillii bishaan dhugaatii, Ibsaa fi Network magaalaa Jimmaa irra baduun immoo yeroo amma kana haalan kan uummata dheekkamsiise ta’uun gabaafame.

Goototni Barattootni Yuunibarsiitii Jimmaa tajajillii bishanii, Ibsaa fi network uummata irraa dhaabbatee(citee waan jiruuf Mooraa yuunibarsiitii Jimmaa Main Campus keessa naanna’uun roottoowwaan bishaan itti kuufaman caccabsuun Mootummaan wayyaanee tajaajila hawwasuummaa uummata irraa kutuun uummata darara jiru nurraa ka’uu qaba jechuun halkan guutuu hanga poolisiin mooraa Yuunibarsiitii Jimmaa dhaabsiisuu dhadhabutti iyyaa bulan, Diddaa gootota barattoota Yuunibarsiitii Jimmaa kanatti Mootummaan Wayyaanee Yaaddoo ulfaata keessa seenuun humnoota basaasaa fi poolisaa bobbaasuun Yuunibarsiitiin Jimmaa eegamaa jira.

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Ayyaanni irreechaa godina Jimmaa malkaa Booyyetti haala akkaan hoo’aa ta’een kabajamee.

ONKOLOOLESSA 26/2014 “IRREECHA MALKA BOOYYEE”

DSC02079Ayyaanni irreechaa godina Jimmaa malkaa Booyyetti haala akkaan hoo’aa ta’een kabajamee oolee jira.Irreecha birraas ta’ee kan Arfaasaa biyya keessattii fi biyyoota alaattis waggaa waggaan akka irreeffatamu eenyu illee waan haaluu hin dandeenyedha. Haaluma kanaan ummanni oromoo magaalaa Jimmaa,naannawa ishii,akkasumas barattoonni oromoo yunivarsiitii Jimmaa kaampaasota garagaraa fi barattoonni kolleejjii barsiisota Jimmaa walitti dhufuun ayyaanicha jalabultii irraa jalqabuun bifa nama boonsuun kabajuu danda’anii jiru.Qeerroon yunivarsiitii Jimmaa fi kolleejjii barsiisota Jimmaa jiraattota magaalaa fi naannawa ishee waliin ta’uun jalabultii irreechaa dug-duuba kolleejjii barsiisota jimmaa malkaa doodee irratti bifa miidhagaa ta’een kabajanii jiru jedha gabaasni Qeerroo godina Jimmaa. Qeerroo fi sabboontonni oromoo kan yoomiyyuu diinaf gadi hin jenne sirboota fi waallewwan warraaqsan jibbaa fi tuffii diina isaanif qaban itti mul’isuun wayyaane fi ergamtoota wayyaanee daran rifaasisanii jiru.Qeerroo fi sabboontonni oromoo waalleewwan warraaqsaa akka armaan gadii kanatti kaasuun ijjannoo isaanii diinaf mul’isan:

1.Taaddee Birruu leenca boombin dadhabe har’a saaxiniin gadi qabe.

2.Yaa oromoo oromoo qulqulluu qonnee nyaannaa lafa hin gurgurru. 3.Boolloo xaddee Taaddasaa koo hin badde biyyoon galabaa miti wal-irraa hin xaragani.As irratti wanti hubatamuu qabu akka fakkeenyatti maqaan taaddasaa ka’e malee maqaan gootota oromoo osoo falmaa bilisummaa gaggeessanuu lubbuun isaanii wareegamte hedduun kaafamanii jiru.

4.Foolleen shanii Dabbaalleen kudhanii maal balleesse kan barataa Kenya hidhanii jechuun barattoota Oromoo gaaffii mirga namoomaafi abbaa biyyummaa gaafatanuu maqaa shororkeessan wayyaaneen mana hidhaatti darbattee hiraarsaa jirtu yaadatanii wall yaadachisuu danda’anii jiru.Walumaa galattii Irreechi birraa malkaa Booyyee oromoota kumaatamaan lakkaa’amaniin sirboota fi waalleewwan warraaqsaan dabaalamuun haala akkaan hoo’aa ta’een kabajamee oolee jira.Wayyaaneen humna tikaa fi basaastota ishii bobbaastus ayyaanichi muudannoo tokko malee milkaa’uu danda’ee Kira.Gabaasa kana irraatti waraabbii suuraa fi sagaleenis qindaawe dhihaata.

http://qeerroo.org/2014/10/26/ayyaanni-irreechaa-godina-jimmaa-malkaa-booyyetti-haala-akkaan-hooaa-taeen-kabajamee/

 

Irreecha (Oromo thanksgiving) 2014: Colorfully celebration in Nürnberg, Germany.18.10.2014

 Kabajaa Ayyaana Irrechaa -2014 Celebration of Oromo Thanks giving (Irrechaa) in Nürnberg, Germany.18.10.2014

Ayyaana Irreecha yeroo jalqabaaf gaafa 18.10.2014tti magaala Nürnbergtti kan Kabajame ole yemmu ta’u Seena Ayyaanicha maal akka ta‘e fi akkasumas Ayyaanni kuni Ummata Oromoof maali isa jedhu ilaalchise Miseensa Qindessitoota Ayyaana Irreechaa Awurooppaa kan ta’aani Obbo Getaachoo Camadaa barumsa ball’aa kann kennan yemmu ta’u akkasumas gaaffi fi deebi hirmaattoottaff walin geggeffame jira.

Qophii kana irratti qophii sirna “Buuna Oromoo” shamarran Oromoo dhihessaniiru.

Obbo Getaachoon “Ayyaani kuni ayyaana jaalaa fi araaraati!” kan jedhan yemmu ta’u Oromoonni argamani hunda gammachuu guddaan sirba aadaa Oromoo walin sirba fi ragada kann olani sagantichi haala midhagaa ta’een xumurame jira.

Ayyaana Wagaa 50ffaa WMT fi Qophii Aadaa Oromoo Magaala Nürnbergitti haala midhagaa ta’een Kabajame

Nuernberg 27.09.2014

Qophii Ayyaana Waggaa 50ffaa Waldaa Maccaa-Tuulamaa (WMT) bakka kessummoota hedduu argamaniin magaala Nürnbergitti Akka aadaa Oromoo Ebbaa manguddootan baname.

Ittiaansuudhaan qophii Agarsiisaa aadaa Oromoo fi Sirbaale Oromoon kan dhihaate jiddu jidduttii immo dargaggoota Oromoo Obbo Muktar fi Obbo Ahimedin Walaloo Qabsoo Bilisummaa Oromoo faarsuu fi hamilee nama kakaasu dhihessaniiru.

Turtii boqonnaa fi Laaqana booda immo Waa’ee Waldaa Maccaa- Tulama barumsa Hawaasa Oromoo Berlin irra marsaa Skype dhaan kan kenname yemmu ta’u, Do’ii gabaabdu “Abbaa Caaltu” dargaggoo Oliyad Dinaolin qophaa’ee umataatti barsise fi bashannansiise jira.

Walumagalaatti kabajaa Ayyaana Waggaa 50ffaa WMT hirmaattoota fi Kessummotaaf walittidhufenya harawaa kan ume akkasumas sababni WMT bu‘urreffamef yaadachudhaan kaayyoo sanas hubachuudhaan Qabsoo Bilisummaa Oromoo ittifufudhaaf guyyaa waadaakenya kan ittin haaromsinu ta’u isaa wali galuudhaan milkiin xumurame jira.

Injifannoon Ummata Oromoof!

Tokkummaa Barattoota Oromoo Biyyaa Jarmanii-TBOJ

www.tboj.de

Irreecha (Oromo thanksgiving) 2014: Colorfully celebration in Tel Aviv,  Israel,  (Middle East)

Irreecha (Oromo thanksgiving) 2014: Colorfully celebration in Uganda (East Africa)

5th October 2014.

The Oromo people, the largest nation in Ethiopia, celebrate Irreecha, a festival of thanksgiving. Oromo communities spread out across the world perform rituals on this day around water sources to thank God for enduring the rainy season and ushering in the Spring season. The Oromo Community in Uganda held their celebrations at the Kabaka’s Lake in Lubaga on October 5, 2014. http://finfinnetribune.com/Gadaa/2014/10/ntv-uganda-report-oromo-community-in-uganda-celebrate-irreecha-festival/

NTV Uganda

A Beautiful Irreecha Celebration in Groton, Connecticut (It Takes One Family to Start Building a Community)

Though lacking a big Oromo community in Groton, Connecticut, that didn’t deter the family of Gammachuu to hold the 2014 Irreecha (Oromo Thanksgiving) celebration; we hope to see a strong Oromo community in Connecticut next year following the Gammachuu’s lead.http://finfinnetribune.com/Gadaa/2014/10/a-beautiful-irreecha-celebration-in-groton-connecticut-it-takes-one-family-to-start-building-a-community/

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Irreecha Celebration in Perth (Australia) – Oct. 5, 2014

Irreecha (Oromo thanksgiving) 2014: Colorfully celebration in South Africa.

5th October 2014.

Irreecha (Oromo thanksgiving) 2014: Colorfully celebration in Melbourne, Australia

Irreecha (Oromo thanksgiving) 2014: Colorfully celebration in  Cairo, Egypt

5th September 2014.

Irreecha (Oromo Thanksgiving) 2014: Colorfully celebration in Atlanta, Georgia, USA

4th October 2014

Irreecha (Oromo Thanksgiving) 2014: Colorfully celebration in Holland.

4th October 2014

Irreecha (Oromo Thanksgiving) 2014: Colorfully celebration in Boston, MA, USA

28 September 2014

Irreecha (Oromo thanksgiving) 2014: Colorfully celebration in Los Angeles, California

27 September 2014

Ayyaanaa Irreecha 2014: Los Angels, California

Hawaasni Oromoo Magaalaa Los angeles fi San Diego Ayyaanaa Biyyoolessa Oromoo, IRREECHA, Birraa 27, 2014 haala hoo’an kabajaanni oolan. Sirni ayyaaneeffanaa sa’aa 11:00WD qabee hanga sa’aa 6:00WB gageeffame kun seeraan banamee, eebbaa manguddootiin itti fufee, aadaa irreechaatiin Waaqaa faarffachaa fi gammachuudhaan sirbaa iddoo haroo adeemudhaan erga irreeffatamee booddaa haaluma walfakkaataan iddoo qophiitti deebi’ame sirbaa fi mariin xumurameera. ‘Barrii baranaa kan hegereetiin Isin ha gahu!’

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Irreecha (Oromo Thanksgiving) Festival Celebrated in Bay Area, California

4th October 2014

Irreecha (Oromo thanksgiving) 2014: Colorfully celebration in Leeds, UK.

27 September 2014

Report: Irreecha Leeds 2014

 Irreecha (Oromo thanksgiving) 2014: Colorfully celebration in Ohio.

28th September 2014.

 Irreecha( Oromo thanksgiving) 2014: Colorfully celebration in Seattle with Oromiya and Caffee Tuulamaa Abbaa Gadaa- Bayanaa Sanbatoo, 28th September 2014

Irreecha: Colorfully Celebrated

inWashington DC, USA.

27th September 2014

At the Hururssaa, Name-Recognizing or Name-Giving Ceremony, held in conjunction with the 2014 Washington-DC’s Irreecha celebration, author Tasfaayee Gabra-aab has become “Gadaa” Gabra-aab; watch the ceremony below (video by OPride.com). Hururssaa is one of the rich traditions of the Oromo nation.

Author Tasfaayee Gabra-aab Becoming Gadaa Gabra-aab at DC’s Hururssaa Ceremony (Photo: @OromoPress)

Author Tasfaayee Gabra-aab Becoming Gadaa Gabra-aab at DC's Hururssaa Ceremony (Photo: @OromoPress)

Irreecha: Colorfully Celebrated in

 Nairobi, Kenya.

28th September 2014

 

Irreecha: Colorfully Celebrated in

 Chicago, Illinois.

27th September 2014

Irreecha: Colorfully Celebrated in Geneva, Switzerland.

Speeches by International Oromo Youth Assocation’s (IOYA) Leaders Amanee Badhaasoo & Sinqee Wesho

27th September 2014

Source: Oromiatimes.Org (http://oromiatimes.org/2014/10/03/dhufaa-jira-coming-soon/)

Irreecha: Colorfully Celebrated in London, UK

27th September 2014

 
 

 

 

 

Irreecha Colorfully Celebrated in Minneapolis,

Minnesota, Little Oromia in the Presence of A/G Bayyanaa Sanbatoo & Ob. Laggasaa Deettii, Former Leader of Macha-Tulama Association

 

Ayyaana irreechaa Fulbaana 27 bara 2014 magaalaa Bergen,Norway

Irreecha Colorfully Celebrated in Oslo, Norway, on Saturday, Sept. 27, 2014

 

Seife Nebelbal Radio: Special Program on the Irreecha Festival in Dallas, TX (With Abbaa Gadaa Bayyanaa Sanbatoo)

 

Seife Nebelbal Radio: Special Program on the Irreecha Festival in Dallas, TX (With Abbaa Gadaa Bayyanaa Sanbatoo)

Irreecha Birraa  2014 Celebration @ Las Vegas, Sunset Park
25 Fuulbana ( September ) 2014.

The 2014 Irreecha Celebration in Adelaide, South Australia

Ayyaana Irreecha Birraa Oromoo kan  bara 2014  Kanaadaa (Canada) Calgaryti Birraa 20 Bara 2014 haala O’ooan kabajamee Ooole. Irreecha celebrated in Calgary, Canada on 20th September 2014. See picture below.
 
 
Irreecha Oromoo kan Bara 2014 Baga Ittiini Isin Gahe! Aadaa Oromoo Maraa Irreechi Hundee Keenya Irree Keenya!!!
Happy the 2014 Oromo Irreecha Thanks Giving, Cultural and National Day!!!!
Felice 2014 Oromo Irreecha Thanks Giving, Culturali e Giornata Nazionale !!!!
Glückliche 2014 die Oromo Irreecha Thanks Giving, kulturellen und nationalen Tag !!!!
Glad de 2014 Oromo Irreecha Thanks Giving, kulturelle og National Day !!!!
Bonne 2014 Oromo Irreecha Merci Donnant, la culture et la Journée nationale !!!!
Gelukkig 2014 Oromo Irreecha Thanks Giving, culturele en nationale Dag !!!!
Shona 2014 Oromo Irreecha Go raibh maith agat a thabhairt, Cultúrtha agus Lá Náisiúnta !!!!

Irreechi Faajjii Keenya

PhotoKonsartiiIrreecha20142

Irreecha @Buraayyuu, 2013

Oromians in Sweden Celebrated Irreecha  in Stockholm on 13th September 2014

Ayyaanni Irreessaa/irreechaa Sweden magaalaa Stockholmitti     Fulbaana 13, 2014 Haala bareedan ayyaaneffatame

Ayyaanni Irreessa/irreecha Sweden magaalaa Stockholmitti     Fulbaana 13, 2014  ayyaaneffatame (suuraa kanaan olii ilaalaa, see the above pictures of Irreecha celebration in Stockholm )

Ayyaanni Irreessaa/irreechaa Sweden magaalaa Stockholmitti     Fulbaana 13, 2014  ayyaaneffatame

Ayyaanni Irreessaa/irreechaa Sweden magaalaa Stockholmitti     Fulbaana 13, 2014  ayyaaneffatame ( Suuraa kanaa olii ilaalaa,  Irreecha celebration @ Stockholm pictures).

Photo

Irreecha celebration:  Toronto,Canada 31 August 2014

We are pleased to inform you that he is finally able come to the United States. OSA has extended its theme focusing on Gada democracy through the end of the year and Abba Gada Bayana speak at a series of OSA-organized workshops in various cities in Unite Stated from September 6-27, focusing on the ongoing work of reviving the Gadaa system.

He will also participate as a guest of honor at several Irreecha celebrations organized by Oromo in the Diaspora.

We invite all who are interested in the Gadaa democratic system and Oromo culture in general to attend these workshops and participate in spectacular Irrechaa celebrations to be held throughout September and October 2014.

We would like to extend our appreciation to local individuals and institutions who participated in preparing these events. We are also grateful to the United States Consular Service for the assistance they provided in issuing Abbaa Gadaa Bayana’s travel documents.

The attached flyer contains general information about dates and cities where Abbaa Gadaa Bayana will be speaking.

Jawar Mohammed
President, Oromo Studies Association

Welcoming the New Season; Announcing the Season’s First Irreecha Celebration (Toronto, Canada – August 31, 2014)

According to the Oromo culture writer, Ob. Anga’a Dhugumaa, the preparation for the spring Oromo holiday of Irreecha/Gubaa, which celebrates the transition from the rainy season to the bright season by giving Thanks to Waaqa, begins in mid-August, and mid-August is only a couple of weeks away from today; the mid-August celebration is calledTaaboree or Muka Dhaabaa.

Here is a quote from Ob. Anga’a Dhugumaa article on Gubaa/Irreecha:

“In the middle of August, a tall olive tree (Ejersa – Olea Africana) is cut, and all its branches removed except at its top. It is then erected (horduu, dhaabuu) on ground as a pole. The species of this tree has to be olive. Olive trees (Ejersa) are considered as holy trees among the Oromo. Its smoke is very sweet. Erecting such a tree at the peak of the rainy season symbolizes a wish for the Earth to get firm. It is a peak time for the ground to get wet or saturated with rainwater, and is too weak to stand heavy rain. This day, which is called Taaboreeor Muka Dhaabaa, is observed by the youth only.

“The final gigantic celebration takes place exactly five weeks later from this day. The five weeks are refereed to as the ‘five-finger rules’. One finger is equivalent to one week.” (Read more here: http://goo.gl/kGdVBD)

With that, Toronto is once again ready to hold the first Irreecha celebration, which will be held in Whitby, Canada, on August 31, 2014.

Waamich Kabajaa Ayyaana Irreechaa – Nurnberg, Germany (Onk./Oct. 18, 2014)

Waamich Kabajaa Ayyaana Irreechaa – Nurnberg, Germany (Onk./Oct. 18, 2014)

Misensoota TBOJ fi Oromoo Biyyaa Jarmanii

Ayyaanni Irreechaa Gaafa 18.10.2014tti

Iddoo: Am Pegnitzwiese, Unter Jansenbrücke, 91207 Nürnbergtti
Sa’a: 13:00 irraa kaase akka Walin kabjanu kabajaan isinni affeerra.

Aadaakenya Eenyummaakenya!

Ulfaadhaa

UOSE-Germany

New Zealand: Affeerraa Kabajaa Ayyaana Irreecha Bara 2014 | National Holiday (Oromo Thanksgiving Festival) – Oct. 12, 2014

Hunda Dura Baga Nagaan Ayyaana Irreecha Bara Kanaan Isin Gahe!

IrreechaNZ2014

Ilmaan oromoo hundi jila duudhaa ganama kan ta’e, Aadaa Oromoo kana biyyaa keessaa fi alaa bakka jiran hundatti walitti dhufanii kabajata turan ittis jiru. Nutis Oromoonni biyyaa New Zealand magala Wellington keesa jirru bakka tokkotti walitti dhufnee guyyaa seena- qabeessa kana akka waliin kabajane oolluf waamicha guddaa isiniif goona.
Guyyaan isaa Onkoloolessa 12/10/2014 sa’aa1.00pm iratti oggaaa tahu, bakki: Otari Wilton Park, Wilton, Wellington (address: 160 Wilton Road)

Gaafa kana galgala isaa sagantaa qophii bashannanaa waan qabaannuuf jecha hundi keessan waareen booda sa’aa 4:pm irratti argamtanii nu Waliin akka bashanantan kabajaan isin afeerra.

Bakki isaa: Newtown Hall

HUBACHIISA: Guyyaa kana uffata Aadaa qabdan uffattanii maatii keessan waliin akka dhuftani siin yaadachiisna.

Gadaan roobaa fi gabbina!

Gubaa, Daaraa Gabanna fi Irreecha 2014, Atlanta, Georgia, Onkoloolessa 3-4, 2014

WAAMICHA KOREE IRREECHA SWITZERLAND SABBOONTOTA OROMOO SWITZERLAND FI NAANNOO JIRAATANIIF!

Irreecha 2014 VIIrreecha 2014 III

Irreechi Switzerland kan bara 2014 Guyyaa 27.09.2014 Hora Ouchy, magaalaa Lausanne tti kabajama. Koottaa, hirmaadhaa! Aadaa keenya haa guddifnu! Oromummaa bakka jirru hunda tti haa jabeessinu! Aadaa keenya ijoollee keenya kan hegeree Oromoo fi Oromiyaa ta’an fi firoota Oromoo haa barsiifannu!

GUYYAAN: 27.09.2014

SA’A: 10:00 IRRAA KAASEE HAMMA GALGALAA TTI

BAKKI: HORA OUCHY, LAUSANNE, SWITZERLAND

UFFATA AADAA UFFADHAA KOOTTAA! GALATOOMAA!

KOREE IRREECHA OROMOO SWITZERLAND

Ayyaana Irreecha | Oromo Thanksgiving in Boston/Cambridge, MA

Ayyaana Irreecha | Oromo Thanksgiving in Boston/Cambridge, MA

Akkam jirtu Oromoo Boston?

ODA Boston waggaa waggaadhaan laga Charles River, Cambridge kessatti argaamu irrati guyyaa Irreecha kabajaa turuun isaa ni yadatama. Haaluma Kanaan bara kanas gaafa guyyaa Fulbaana ykn September 28/2014 sa’ati 12:00pm irrati kabajuuf qophii irra jiraachu isaa gamachuudhan isin beekisisaa, akka irrati argamtan kabajaan isiin hafeerra.

Galatoomaa!

Koree ODA Boston

Plan of Event: Ayyaana Irreecha ,  Oromo Thanksgiving in Cairo, Egypt – on October 5, 2014 

BEEKSISA:
Oromoota magaalaa Nairobi fi naannawa isii jiraatan maraaf
DHIMMA: Ayyaana Irreechaa fi Hulluuqqoo, 2014

Ilmaan Oromoo hundi baga ganna bacaqii irraa gara booqaa birraatti nagayaan ceetan jechaa, ayyaanni Irreechaa fi Hulluuqqoo magaalaa Nairobitti Fulbaana 28, 2014 waan kabajamuuf, maatii fi hiriyyoota keessan wajjiin akka irratti hirmaattan kabajaan isin affeerra.

Bakka (Venue): Nairobi City Park
Yeroo: Ganama 8:00AM – 2:00PM

Ayyaana Irreechaa fi Hulluuqqoo sababeeffachuun barnootni:
~ aadaa fi argaa-dhageettii,
~ maalummaa Irreechaa fi Hulluuqqoo,
~ Seenaa fi amantii Oromoo ni kennama. Kana malees sagantaa nyaata aadaa Oromoo fi qophii bashannanaa waan qabnuuf ammas irra deebinee dhiyaadhaa isiniin jenna.

Odeeffannoo dabalataaf ammo karuma fuula facebook’n nu qunnamaa!
Koree Aadaa fi Argaa Dhageettii Oromoo, Nairobi

Ayyaana Irreecha | Oromo Thanksgiving in Edmonton, Canada – Sept. 27, 2014

Ayyaana Irreecha | Oromo Thanksgiving in Edmonton, Canada – Sept. 27, 2014

Guyyaan Fulbaana (September) 27, 2014
Yeroo (Time) 10:00 Am Irra Eegale (start)
Iddo: Hourlack Park (Heritage) kessatti Ayyaana Irreecha waan kabajjamuuf ummata Oromoo marratti akka dhamissa nu dabarrisiitaan kabajjaan isiin gaffana korree Ayyaana Irreecha magala Edmontonni, Kaanaaddaa (Canada)

Oromo Thanksgiving Day Celebration – September 27, 2014
Time: 10:00am start

Oddeffaano (Information call)
1) Nasser 7803945478
2) Amare 5879207786

Irreechi Irree uummata Oromootti!

IrreechaEdmonton2014

Ayyaana Irreecha | Oromo Thanksgiving in Sydney, Australia – Sept. 27, 2014

SydneyIrreecha2014

Ayyaana Irreecha Bara 2014 | Oromo Thanksgiving in Los Angeles on Sept. 27, 2014

Ayyaana Irreecha Bara 2014 | Oromo Thanksgiving in Los Angeles on Sept. 27, 2014

Ayyaanni Irreecha bara 2014 Fulbaana 27 magaala Los Anjeles keessatti kabajaamuuf qophiin itti fufeera. Lammiiwwan Oromoo fi firoonni Oromiyaa Kaaliforniyaa fi Godina Ollaa keessa jiratan hundinuu koottaa waliin haa Irreeffannuu!

Qophiin sa’aa 11:00 WD jalqaba.

Bakkeen Qophii:
Kenneth Hahn State Recreation Area
4100 S. La Cienega Blvd
Los Angeles, CA – 90056

———————

The Oromo Thanksgiving Day will be celebrated on September 27, 2014. All Oromo citizens and friends of the Oromo nation cordially invited. Please join us on our highly celebrated Holiday.

Program begins at 11:00am
Location:
Kenneth Hahn State Recreation Area
Los Angeles, CA – 90056

Odeefatnoof:
951-400-3998, 951-488-8188, 951-316-4688, 213-985-6086

 Ayyaana Irreecha | Oromo Thanksgiving in Helsinki, Finland – on October 4, 2014

Ayyaana Irreecha | Oromo Thanksgiving in Helsinki, Finland – on October 4, 2014

Event Details:

Date: 4th of October 2014
Time: from 12:00 to 5:00
Place: Kivikonkaari 11, Kivenkolo, Helsinki, Finland
Transport: Take Metro from Helsinki Railway Station to Kontula; From Kontula, take Bus 78. It is about 5 minutes.

Ayyaana Irreecha | Oromo Thanksgiving in Denver, Colorado – Sept. 27, 2014

IrreechaDenverCO2014

Irreecha Bara 2014 | Kan Biyya Jarmaniitti | Fulbaana/Sept. 20, 2014

Waamicha Kabajaa Ayyaana Irreecha kan Bara 2014 Biyya Jarmanii keessatti qophaa’ee: Koree Qindeesitu Ayyaana Irreeschaa irraa Ilmaan Oromoo Biyya Jarmanii keessa jiraatan Maraaf – Frankfurt am Main, Germany

Kabajammo Ilmaan Oromoo,

hundaa duraan dursee nagaan rabii isin haagahu. Ashamaa ilmaan Oromoo kann biyya Jarmanii keessa jiraattan; obboleewwan keenya dhiira fi dubartiin, baga ayyaana Irreecha bara haaraa 2014 walumaan jala geenye. Ayaanni Irreecha jila (festival) waga/bara haaraatti cee’uumsaatti.

Ayyaanni Irreecha kan bara haaraa 2014 biyya Jarmaniitti kutaa magaalaa Frankfurt am Main “Bockenheim” (im Stadtteil Bockenheim) jedhamu keessatti Fulbaana (September) 20, 2014 kabajamuuf qophiin Koree Qindeessituu Ayyaana Irreescha xumuramee jira. Kanaaf Oromoon biyya Jarmanii keessa jiraatan kabajaa ayyaana Ireechaa kan bara 2014 irratti argamtannii waliin akka kabajnu ulfina guddaan isin afeerra.

Ayyaanni Irreecha kan bara haaraa 2014 Fullbaana (September) 20, 2014, guyya sambata xiqqaa(Saturday), sa’a 12:30 WB (PM) irra eegalee hanga (hama) sa’attii 18:00 WB (PM) Paarkii (iddoo namni itti haara galfatu) “Rebstockpark” jedhamu keessatti cinaa (bukkee) haroo (Weiher im Rebstockpark = Pond in Rebstockpark) ti kabajama.

Ayyaanni Irreecha guyyaa ilmaan Oromoo akka sabaatti heddomminaan walarganii dhimma har’a itti jiran waliif himan, waan hegeree immoo waliin qindeeffaatan, guyyaa waloomaa (day of joint action) Oromoo ti. Heddomminaan bahanii ayyaana Irreecha irratti aadaa fi duudhaa/jifuu (culture and tradition) ofii agarsisuunis mallattoo sabboonummaa saba Oromoo ti. Aadaa kana guddisuu fi muldhisuun eenyummaa Oromoo guddisuudha.

Ayyaanni Irreecha kan bara 2013 kan yeroo kamuu caala biyya keessaa fi alatti sirna ho’aa fi hamilee guddaan akka kabajame, odeeffannoo fi gabaasa bakka gara garaa irraa argaa fi dhagahaa jirra. Kun kan muldhisu, ayyaanni Irreecha guddina aadaa fi duudhaa/jifuu, akkasumas eenyummaa fi tokkummaa saba Oromoof utubaa ta’uu nu hubachiisa.

Koree Qindeesitu Ayyaana Irreescha akka waliin taanee ayyaaneefannu, irraa debi’ee gammachuudhaan waamicha Oromummaa kabajaan isiniif dhiyeessa.

Namoota odeeffannoo dabalataa feetanif, Koree Qindeesitu Ayyaana Irreescha waliin qunnamtii godhaa!

Namoota Koree Qindeesitu Ayyaana Irreescha irra odeeffannoo (information)dabalataa feetanif lakkoofsa bilbila (telefoona) kanatti bilbilsaa:
lakko.bil.:
+4917853498098
+4917680018430
+4915212252957

Ayyaanni Irreessaa yeroo duraatif Magaalaa “Frankfurt am Main” jedhamu keessatti guyyaa gaafa Fulbaana 20, 2014 qophaa’ee:

Sa’aatii/Time: 12:30 WB (PM) ‐ 18:00 WB (PM)
Iddoo/Place: Paarkii “Rebstockpark” jedhamu keessatti (im Rebstockpark), cinaa (bukkee) haroo (Weiher im Rebstockpark = Pond in Rebstockpark)

Daandi (kara)/Street: Am Römerhof, Max‐Pruss‐Straße
Geejiba/Transport: Baabura (tram) lakoofsa 17 (Straßenbahnlinie 17 vom Hauptbahnhof Frankfurt am Main bis zur Endehaltestelle “Rebstockbad”)

OromoIrreechaGermany2014_1

OromoIrreechaGermany2014_2

Ayyaana Irreecha Kan Bara 2014 | Oromo Thanksgiving in Columbus, Ohio – Sept. 28, 2014

Address: 213 Camrose Court, Gahanna, OH

Irreecha2014_Ohio

UPDATED (Seattle): Workshop on Gadaa with A/G Bayyanaa Sanbatoo following Irreecha: Seattle, Washington (NW U.S. & British Columbia) – Fulb./Sept. 28, 2014

photo (3)

Ayyaana Irreecha Kan Bara 2014 | Oromo Thanksgiving in Columbus, Ohio – Sept. 28, 2014

Address: 213 Camrose Court, Gahanna, OH

Irreecha2014_Ohio

Ayyaana Irreecha | Oromo Thanksgiving in Leeds, the UK (Fulbaana/Sept. 27, 2014)

Mark your calendar; this year’s Irreecha celebration will be held in the city of Leeds, the UK, on Sept. 27, 2014. All Oromos and friends of the Oromo in the UK are invited.Irreecha2014Leeds2

Plan of Event: Ayyaana Irreecha ,  Oromo Thanksgiving on Onkoloolessa/October4, 2014- Perth, Australia

 

Baga bacaqii Gannaa nagaan baatanii Booqaa Birraa argitan jechaa, Eenyummaa fi Aadaa ofii yoo abbaan duukaa bu’ee hin kununisifatiin alagaan ishuma hafte iyyuu balleessuuf duubatti hin jedhu waan ta’eef IRREECHA bara kanaa / 2014 sirnna hoo’aan kabajachuuf Oromoonni dhuunfaan sagantaa kana irratti hojjataa jiru. Ammoo dhimma kana fiixaan baasuuf hirmannaan Hawaasa Oromoo Magaalaa Perth murteessaa dha.

Waan kana ta’eef jecha Oromoonni Magaalaa Perth jirraattan hundi ayyaana IRREECHAA kana irratti hafeeramtaniirtu.

Koottaa / dhyaadhaa waliin gammannaa!

Yoom:-
Gaafa 05/10/2014
Guyyaa Dilbataa

Bakka:- Burswood Park, Burswood

Yeroo:- Sa’aatii 11:00 AM irraa eegalee

Hubachiisa:-

Ayyaana Irreecha | Oromo Thanksgiving in Boston/Cambridge, MA

Wamicha Guyyaa Irreecha bara 2014 | London: Fulb./Sept. 27, 2014

Oromoo fi Firottan Oromoo UK Maraaf,

Hawaasni Oromoo UK kessa jiraatu guyyaa Irreecha galata kennan bara 2014 Fulbaana 27, 2014 Magaala Londonitti ayyaneffata. Kanaf, guyyaa Oromon tokkummadhan uumaa galata galchatu kana irratti argamtani akka gammaddan Hawaasni Oromoo UK kabajaan isin aferra. Nyatnii fi dhugaatin gatii bayyessan ni jira.

Kottaa aadaa fi muziqaa Oromoo dhandhamadhaa!

Sagantaa:

A. Sagantaa Irreffachuu: 11:00wd-2:00
Bakka: Hampsted Heath Park Staff Yard, Parliament Hill Fields, High-gate Road, London NW5 1QR
Gejjiba: Atobusii: C2, C11, 214
Baabura: Bufata baaburaa Gospel Oak
Konkolaataa dhabuf sa’ati 2f £2.50 basisa

B. Yeroo gammachuu fi hawaasessuu – 3.00wb-10.30gg
Bakka: Whittington Park Community Centre, Yerbury Road, London N19 4RS
Gejjiba: Atobusii C11 gara bufata baaburaa Archway, 17, 43, 263, 271 (gara bufata baaburaa Upper Holloway Road)
Baabura: Bufata baaburaa Archway
Bufata baaburaa: Upper Holloway Road

Koree Hojii Geggessituu Hawaasa Oromoo UK

Wamicha Guyyaa Irreecha bara 2014 | London: Fulb./Sept. 27, 2014

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Ayyaana Irreecha | Oromo Thanksgiving in Leeds, the UK (Fulbaana/Sept. 27, 2014)

Qophii Ayyaana Irreecha – Minneapolis – Fulbaana/Sept. 27, 2014

Waaqa Nu Uume Galateeffachuun ni Irreeffanna!

Aadaa Keenya ni Dagaagsina!

Ayyaanni Irreecha Minnesota (Magaalawwan Lakku) keessatti Minneapolisi Hora ykn Lake Nokomositti kabajamuuf deemaa jira.

Ayyaanni irreecha kan bara 2014 Fulbaana 27 bara 2014 ganama sa’aa 10:00 irraa jalqabee kabajama. Oromoo fi Firoottan Oromoo hundumtuu akka ayyaana kanarratti argamtanii waliin Irreeffannu koreen qindeesituu ayyaana Irreecha kabajaa fi ulfina guddaan isin affereera.

Bakki isaa:
Hora (Lake Nokomis)
5001 Lake Nokomis Pkwy W.
Minneaplois, MN 55417

Info:
Tel:
– Awash Nagawoo: 612-227-0712
– Biqilaa Deettii: 612-701-9834

Qophii Ayyaana Irreecha – Oslo, Norway – Fulbaana 27, 2014

Qophii Ayyaana Irreecha – Oslo, Norway – Fulbaana 27, 2014

“… birraan barihee dukkana nurra arihee
Ballammi haami jennaan haamee dhufe kuno
lammii kee waami jennaan waamedhufe kuno …”  Sirba Oromoo

Ayyaana Irreecha kan baranaa Fulbaana(September) 27 bara 2014biyyaa Norway, magaalaa Oslo, bakka hora Sognsvann jedhamutti waaree dura sa’ati 11:30 irraa eegalee kabajama. Ilmaan Oromoo kannen dhihoo fi fagoo jiraattan hundi jila dudhaa ganamaa kana irratti uffata aadaatiin of miidhagsitanii akka ayyaana kana irratti hirmaattan kabajaa guddaa wajjiin sin afeerra. Malkaa jilaa dhufuudhaaf, baabura lafa jalaa (Metro) laakkofsa3 (Sognsvann) gara kallattii lixaa deemu (westbound) yaabbadhaa; buufatni isaa kan maayyii Sognsvann suduudaan isin fida.

Erga qophiin Irreecha raawwatee booda qophii bashannanaa sa’aa 18:00 irraa eegalee qabna. Halkan guutuu waliin taphataa bulla.

Bakki qophiin bohaarsaa itti dhihaatu:
Simia-venner
Kristoffer Robins Vei 2 (Smedstua)
0978 Oslo

Bakka kana dhufuuf, magaala /Oslo S irraa baabura gara Lillestrøm deemuu qabattanii bakka Haugenstuastasjon jedhutti irraa bu’uun bakka Smedstua jedhu yoo iyyaafattani salphaatti achi geessu. Ykn Stovner Senter irraa bus 65 yoo qabattanii bakka Smedstua jedhutti irraa buutani, bakki qophichaa cinaadhuma sanatti argama.

Odeessii dabalataa yoo barbaaddan yookiin gaaffii yoo qabaattan bilbila harkaa laakkofsa

+47 951 88 081 / + 47 97964087 / irreechaa@gmail.com nuu qunnamaa.

Ana haadhufu!

Gadaan roobaa fi gabbina!

Koree Qindeessituu

Welcoming the New Season and the Culture of Darabaa Herding Among the Oromo in Daraa, Oromiyaa

Welcoming the New Season and the Culture of Darabaa Herding Among the Oromo in Daraa, Oromiyaa

Darabaa herding, as practiced in the Daraa district of the North Shawaa Zone in Oromiyaa, involves the migratory herding of cattle in the backwoods of River Mormor (the Blue Nile) valley during the rainy season, when the ground in the village areas becomes too muddy for herding. As the rainy season winds down, and the herders and the cattle return home, the community celebrates the coming of the new season by thankingWaaqaa (God) as part of the Irreecha festival. http://gadaa.net/FinfinneTribune/2014/08/welcoming-the-new-season-and-the-culture-of-darabaa-herding-migratory-herding-in-the-backwoods-among-the-oromo-in-daraa-oromiyaa/

Gubaa/Ibsaa
—————–
Ayyaana Gubaa jechuun dukkanaafi booruu gannaa oofkalanii gara ifa ykn booqaa birraatti ce’uuf sirna gaggeeffamuudha. Akkasumas, mallattoo Waaqa galateeffannaas ni jedhama. Sababni isaa, booruu gannaa, lolaafi bubbee hamaa, bakakkaa, galaanaafi kkf nagaan oofkalanii ifa birraatti waan bahaniif gammachuu ofii ibsachuun Waaqa galateeffatu. Firoonnis walitti dhufanii wal gaafachuu calqabu, “Baga booruu gannaa oofkaltee booqaa birraatti baate” waliin jechuu eegalu.
Ayyaanni Gubaa kun ummata Oromoo biratti kabajaafi jaalala guddaa qaba. Dubartootas ta’ee dhiironni dursanii qophii adda addaa taasisu. Dhiironni osoo guyyaan Gubaa hin ga’in mukeen akka Sukaayee, Sokorruu, Qamaxxee, Tamsaasa, maxaaxee, daalachoo, dhangaggoo fi kkf ciranii goggogsuun gaafa gubaan dhiyaate Xomboora hidhu. Kunis baay’ina dhiirotaatin qophaa’a.
Guyyaa gaafa Xomboora gubanii muka dhaabaa(‘Daamaraa’)f ta’u kanneen akka Abbayyii, Hindhee, Soolee, Ejersa, Ceekaa, Daalachoo, Urgeessaa fi kkf qopheessanii dhaabu. Guyyaa kana mukti jabaaf ta’u kan akka Laaftofii Diddiksaa fa’a ni qophaa’u.
Haala kanaan Ayyaanni Gubaa Oromoo walakeessa baatii Hagayyaa keessa gubama. Ibsaan Oromoo gaafa Hagayya 15 galgala yoo ta’u, Hagayya 16 daaraa guddaa jedhama.. Akka Oromoon dhugeefatutti guyyaa kana Waaqni sibiila lafatti gadi darbata jedhama. Guyyaa kana irraa kaasee lafti jabaachaa adeema, lagni ni hir’ata, firris wal gaafii eegala. Guyyaa gaafa ibsaa kana horiin haalan marga quufanii yeroon galfamu, fardeen yaabbii dhiqanii haalan kunuunsu. Galgala erga horiin hundi galanii booda namoonni mijirii(‘Abdaarii’) tokkotti ibsaa waliin guban marti isaanii walitti yaa’anii iddoo mijirii kanatti wal ga’u. Akkaataa angafaa quxusuu isaanitti Waaqa kadhachuun boolla muka dhaabaa dongoru. Yeroo dongoran kanas “Hamaa keenya dongori” jechaa Waaqa kadhachaa dongoru.
Kadhannaan isaanis:
Ibsaan kun ibsaa nagaa nuuf haa ta’u
Ibsaa quufafi gabbinaa haa ta’uu
Booruu gannaa nu oofkalchee
Booqaa birraas nu haa oofkalchu
Wal bira oolchee nu haa bulchu
……
Abbaa biyyaa biyyarra haa bulchu
Barri quufa; Gadaan gabbina

Gabbis Waaqi…jechuun kadhatanii muka dhaabaa dhaabu.

Mukoota dhaaban kanas hidda cimaan mudhii isaa naannessanii waliti hidhu.
Mukoota dhaabaa kana yommuu dhaaban maqaa muka dhaabanii sana waamun Safuu ykn cimina mukti kun qabuun Waaqa kadhatu. Fakeenyaf
Warri Abbayyii dhaaban, “ Abbayyii ati Abbaa nuuf ta’I” jedhu.
Warri Ejersa dhaaban, “ Waaqayyo ati akka Ejersa kanaatti nu cimsi “ jedhu.
Warri Hindhee ykn Soolee dhaabanis, “ Waaqayyo akka Soolee ykn Hindhee kanaatti nu soroorsi “ jechuun kadhachaa muka dhaabaa kana dhaabu.
Erga muka dhaabaa dhaaban booda muka dhaaban kanatti naanna’uun Sirba Gubaa ykn Hiyyoolee akka armaan gadii kanatti sirbu.
Hiyyoo koo daraari yaa abaaboo koo
Ganni bahee daraari yaa abaaboo koo

Birraan bari’e daraari yaa abaaboo koo
Kan qincee nyaatanii daraari yaa abaaboo koo
Kan fira gaafatanii daraari yaa abaaboo koo
Geese yeroon wal yaadanii daraari yaa abaaboo koo
Ibsaa gubnaa daraari yaa abaaboo koo
Har’I kudha shanii daraari yaa abaaboo koo
Qalloo dangashee too daraari yaa abaaboo koo
Osoon kiyya jedhuu daraari yaa abaaboo koo
Narraa fudhatanii daraari yaa abaaboo koo
Keelloon daraartee daraari yaa abaaboo koo
Randa gamaatti daraari yaa abaaboo koo
Qeerroon maraattee daraari yaa abaaboo koo
Warra durbaatti daraari yaa abaaboo koo
…jechuudhan sirbu.
Kana booda gara manaatti galanii sirna jabaa gaggeessu. Sirni kunis dhadhaa muuddachuun Waaqa kadhatanii Jabaa ibddatti kaa’u. haalli kadhannaa kunis:
Kunoo jabaa siif dhaabnnee ati nu jabeessi
Muudaan siif dhiiyaatee dhaltii okooleerra bulchi
Qotiyyoo harqoota keessa bulchi
Farad kooraa jala bulchi
Walii galtee nuuf kenni
Walitti nu jaaladhu
Bara bara quufaa gadhi.
Jabaa beelaa nurraa qabi
Jabaa deegaa nurraa qabi
………………………… jechuun kadhatu.
Sirni Jabaa akkuma xumurameen sirna Xomboora qabsiisutu itti fufa. Kan qabsiifatanis warra dhiiraa qofa. Haati warraa akka hangafaa quxusuutin abbaa warraa ishee irraa calqabdee Xomboora kanatti qabsiiftif. Yeroo qabsiifatan kanas “ kan baranaan nu geesse bara egereenis nu ga’I “ jechuun qabsiifatanii gara muka dhaabatti ykn bakka Mijirii dhaqanii muka dhaabaa kanatti Xomboora qabsiisu. Yeroo itti qabsiisan kanas gara bahaatti garagalanii “ Nyaataa moraa waraani “ jechuun itti kaa’u.
Sirni gubaa kun iddoo tokko tokkotti galgala muka dhaabanii bulchuun ganama obboroo gubu.
Kana booda dargaggootni mana manarra deemun hiyyoolee sirbu….
(Barruu Gadaa ,2013,:4-6), Sisay Sarbesa

IrreechaOromoWaaq2014

Irreech Mallattoo Tokkummaa fi Aadaa Oromooti!

Finfinne Tribune | Gadaa.com

Ayyaani Irreecha, guyyaa Oromoon malkaa ykn tulluutti bahee Waaqa isa uume, waan argateef kan galateeffatuu fi waan fuula dura hawwuu fi barbaadu itti kadhatudha. Irreechi ayyaana Oromoon ittiin beekamu, mallattoo Oromummaa fi Eenummaa isaa ibsu, calaqqee Aadaa fi Duudhaa keenya qofaa osoo hin ta’iin dhaalmayaa hambaa seenaa keenyaa ti. Kanuma mirkaneessuuf Oromoon biyya keenya Oromiyaa keessa jiraatu guyyaa ayyaana Irreecha waggaa waggaan bahaa fi dhihaa, kaabaa fi kibbaa walitti bahee osoo amantii, siyaasa fi kutaan walinqoodiin tokkummaan Ayyaana Irreecha kabajataa jira.

Ayyaani Irreecha Hora Arsadiitti qindoominaa fi hirmaannaa ummata bal’aan kabajamuu kan eegale bara 1997 irraa kaaseetu. Isa dura ummatuma naannoo sanaa fi keessattuu warra aadaa Waaqeffannaa hordofaniin ture. Bara 1997 keessa koreen tokko maqaa Guddinaa fi Dagaagina Aadaa Oromoo jedhuun WMT (Waldaa Maccaa-Tuulamaa) jalatti ijaaramtee Ayyaana Irreecha Bishooftuu kana ummata beeksisuu, barsiisuu fi qindoominaan guyyaa ayyaana kanaa bakka sanatti argamuun qalbii namaa harkisuu jalqabde. Ergasii waggaa waggaan achitti argamuun barumsaa fi dammaqiinsa kennameen sadarkaa har’a ummanni kumaa fi kitilaan herreegamu irratti argamee kabajaa jira. Kabajaa Irreecha Bishooftuu, kan Malkaa Arsadiitti kabajamu babal’achuun yeroo gara garaatti Oromiyaa bakka adda addaatti kabajamuun akka Ayyaana Biyyoolessa biyyaatti fudhatamaa jira.

Kana malees biyyoota alaa naannoo Oromoon heddumminaan qubatee jiruttis haala ho’aan kabajamuu erga eegalee bubbulee jira. Ayyaani Irreecha daran akka guddatuu fi babal’atu hawaasni Oromoo hubannoo gahaa qabaachuu qaba. Gaaffiilee Irreech Aadaa moo Amantiidha jedhuuf deebii argachuuf hayyoota aadaa afeeruun marii gochuu qaba. Hanga ammaatti kan beekamu Irreech Aadaa fi Duudhaa Oromoon waliin Waaqa kadhatu ykn galateeffatu ta’uun beekama. Kun ammoo amantii nama kamuu waan faallessu hin qabu.

Kanuma hubachuun Oromoon biyya keessaas ta’e biyya alaa jiraatan gamtaan bahuun Ayyaana Irreecha kabajuun aadaa fi eenymmaa isaa firaa fi alagaa akka beeksisu, akkasumas tokkummaa Oromoo haala kanaan akka mul’isu abdii qabna.

Ayyaani Irreecha bara 2014, Hora Arsadii Bishooftuutti kan kabajamu guyyaa 05.10.2014 yoo ta’u, biyyoota alaatti ammoo warri qophii xumuratanii fi sagantaa isaanii beeksisan kanneen armaan gadiiti.

• Hagaya/August 31, 2014- Toronto, Canada

• Fuulbana/September 13, 2014 – Stockholm, Sweden
• Fuulbana/September 20, 2014 – Calgary, Canada

.Fuulbana/September 20, 2014- Adelaide, Australia

.Fuulbana/September 20, 2014-  Frankfurt Am Main, Germany

.Fuulbana/September 25, 2014- Las Vegas, USA

• Fuulbana/September 27, 2014- Leeds, UK
• Fuulbana/September 27, 2014 – Bergen, Norway
• Fuulbana/September 27, 2014 – Oslo, Norway
• Fuulbana/September 27, 2014 – Switzerland
• Fuulbana/September 27, 2014 – Minneapolis, Minnesota
• Fuulbana/September 27, 2014 – Washington, DC
• Fuulbana/September 27, 2014 – Los Angeles California
• Fuulbana/September 27, 2014 – Finland

.Fuulbana/September 27, 2014- Sydeny, Australia

.Fuulbana/September 27, 2014-Edmonton, Canada

.Fuulbana/September 27, 2014- Denver, Colorado

• Fuulbana/September 27, 2014 – London, England

.Fuulbana/September 28, 2014- Nairobi, Kenya

.Fuulbana/September 28, 2014 – Columbus, Ohio

. Fuulbana/September 28, 2014- Seattle, Washington (NW US and  British Columbia)

.Fuulbana/September 28, 2014- Boston/ Cambridge, MA, USA

.Onkoloolessa/October3-4- Atlanta/Georgia, USA

• Onkoloolessa/October 4, 2014 – Amsterdam, Holland – Germany

.Onkoloolessa/October4, 2014- Helsinki, Finland

.Onkoloolessa/October4, 2014- Cairo, Egypt

.Onkoloolessa/October4, 2014- Perth, Australia

• Onkoloolessa/October 5, 2014 – Melbourne, Australia

.Onkoolessa/October 12, 2014-Wellington,   New Zeland

http://gadaa.net/FinfinneTribune/2014/09/irreech-mallattoo-tokkummaa-fi-aadaa-oromooti/

SEENAA Y.G(2005): Irreechi Mallattoo Tokkummaa Keenyaati!

SEENAA Y.G(2005)*

Addunyaan keessa jiraannu kun, irra jireessa Seenaa Abbooti Biyyaa Saamanii kan kooti jechuun waan nu dursaniif malee, Itoophiyaanis taatu Addunyaan biraa akka nu duuba jiran ragaalee hedduu tarrisuu dandeenya. Har’a Gabrummaa jala waan jirruuf, haqa kana fudhachiisuun ni ulfaata ta’a. Gaafa jabaannee humna taanee garuu addunyaan waan har’a aguugdee irra teesse kana ifa baasuun waan hin hafne. Gadaa nuuti waraqaa fi Maanguddoota keenya irraa dhaga’uun ala hojiin hin mul’ifne ykn, Beektoonni keenyas baratanii ittiin eebbifamuu malee, hanga har’atti Gadaan akkamiin hojii irra akka ooluu danda’u qorannoo gaggeessanii dhalootaaf dhiheessuu dadhaban kun, Dimokiraasii Ameerikaa har’aaf ka’umsa ta’uu isaa, Gola-hambaa yk Muziyeemiin Ameerikaa keessaa adda addaa, waan Oromoo addatti Booranaa keessaa guurame hedduu akka qaban, warri carraa argatanii ijaan argan ni dubbatu.

Biyyi yk Ummati Walabummaaf of qopheessu tokko, ega Walaboomee booda miti waan Biyya isaa keessatti ijaarrachuuf deemu yk barbaadu qorachuu kan eegalu. Walabummaa booda isa har’a Gabrummaa jalaa ba’uuf tattaaffannu caalaa hojiilee jajjabduutu nu eeggata. Walbummaa keenya kana mirkaneessuuf waan itti qophoofnu hedduutu jira. Humnaanu Biyya keenya dhuunfannu, Qabsoon Wlabummaa keenya addunyaa fudhachiisuuf nu eeggatu lakkoofsa hin qabu. Ragaalee walitti qabachuun, waan addunyaa irratti ittiin falamannu qopheeffachuun, waan gaafataman sirreeffachuun kkf, har’a kan nutti hin mul’annee, dhiheenya keenyatti argannu, yeroo yeroon isaa ga’u of biraa dhabnu hedduutu jira. Addatti beektoonni keenya Dirree siyaasaa irratti wal qabuu irra, hojiilee suduudaan isaan ilaallatan ammumaa gurmaa’aanii fixachuu, ragaalee guurrachuu, hojiilee Dippilomaasii gaggeessuu, waan Ummati kun dur qaba jedhamu kana hundaa walitti fidanii, waan fooyyaa’uu qabu fooyyeessanii, Baraa fi Dhaloota kana waliin akka deemutti qopheessuun Abshaalummaadha. Mata duree kana irratti bal’inaan waan itti qophaa’een qabaa yeroo biraa itti deebi’a. Qoodi hojii odoo jiraatee Mooraa qabsoo illee tasgabbeessuu danda’a jedhee waan yaaduuf.

Ummati Oromoo Gabrummaan dura akkuma Gadaan hundee Tokkummaa isaa ta’ee beekamutti “AYYAANNI IRREECHAA”s mallattoo Tokkummaa Ummatichaa akka ta’ee, kanneen seenaa Ummata kanaa akka gaaritti beekan addunyaa irratti katabanii ragaa ba’aniiru. Mootootii Biyya isaaniif fakkeenyummaa keenya kaasanii gorsaa turuu, Gola hambaa Biyyootaa fi Yunivarstiilee addunyaa irraa bebbeekamootu of keessatti dhokfatee, bara jabaannee nu dubbachuuf eegaa jiru. Amantiileen Addunyaa dhunfatanii jiran kanneen dachee Oromotti osoo hin dhufiin Waaqeffannaan akka turee fi Amantiin Addunyaa kana irra jiru hundi Oromiyaa ega seenee illee, Ummati Oromoo, IRREECHA akka Mallattoo tokkummaa isaatti fudhatee hanga har’aatti waliin Guyyaa Galataa kana kabajachaa jiraachuu ragaa kan ba’an lakkoofsa hin qaban.

Irreechi Guyyaa Waaqa itti Galateeffatan. Guyyaan kun Warra Irreecha dhabamsiisuuf waggoota dheeraaf ifaajjan biratti hin beekamu. Oromoon isaan waliin jiraatu GUYYAA GALATAA jedhee yennaa kabajatu, warra mukattii sagaduu jedhanii isa balaaleffatu. Balaaleffachuu irra dabree hidhaa fi ajjeesaa turan. Addunyaan Oromoo booda dhiheenya kanaa kaaftee Guyyaa Galataa jettee yennaa xibaartu ammoo, amma danda’an lallabaniifii ibsafaa itti kennuu barbaadu. Waan maraafuu kan beekaa rafe … isa jedhan waan ta’eef qalbii isaaniif haa laatu jechuun ala waan jennuun hin qabnu. Fakkeenyaaf Guyyaa jaalalaa kan jedhan addunyaan akka haaraatti faarsiti. Nuuti garuu maqaa adda addaa Godinaalee keenya keessatti haa qabaatu malee Baatiin Birraa Oromoo biratti waan addunyaan akka haaraatti faarsitu kanaan beekama. Addunyaan biqiltuu itti dhaabanii fi naannoo kunuunsan jettee Doolaara Biliyoonaan ittin saaman, Oromoon garuu muka muruuf seera mataa isaa umama isaa kaasee qaba. Addunyaan har’a Guyyaa hundaa, guyyaa fayyaa, guyyaa maanguddoo, guyyaa dubartii, guyyaa daa’immanii kkf jettee reefuu ramadaa jirti. Biyyoota hedduutti ega eegalamees Umuriin dargaggeessa tokko hin caalu. Oromoo biratti garuu Guyyaan 30 maqaa mataa isaa fi hiikkaa mataa isaa qaba. Waa hedduu kaasuu dandeenya. Nuumatu dhimma keenya dhimma addunyaa gochuuf hin tattaafannu malee, ykn Seenummaa isaatti qofaa daangeessinee teenye gaabbiin dhumna malee, waan irratti hojjatamu qabu lakkoofsa hin qabu jechuufan kaasee.

Irreecha waggoota 20 asitti kabajamaa jiru ilaalchisee beektoonni Biyya alaas ta’ee, Ummati keenya yaada nama jajjabeessu heddu kennee jira. Irreechi Guyyaa Galataa irra dabree hiikkaa ykn Kaayyoo jajjabaa kan biraas ni qabaata. Waaqayyoo guyyaa kanaaf isa ga’ee ni galateeffatan. Hegareef illee akka karaa qajeelchuuf dhaammatan. Mallattoo Tokkummaa saba kanaa ta’uu isaa fi Tokkummaa saba kanaa jabeessuuf qooda ofii akka gumaachan kakuu haarofatan, garaa qulqulluu wal eebbisan, hammeenya wal irratti hojjatan waliif dhiisan, garaatti hammeenyaa fi quuqqaa qabaachaa wal hin eebbisan, Malkaa nu’uun dura waan kana fixatan, Gadaa fi Miraga Abbaa Biyyummaa Oromoof kabachiisuuf waadaa seenan, waaqinillee akka gargaaruuf kadhatan, Maanguddoof Umurii, Ga’eessaaf qalbii, Dargaggeessaaf Gootummaa, Ijoolleef guddachuu itti hawwanii eebbisan. Ebbi kun garaa qulqullun yoo ta’ee qabachuu dubbatan. Kun Iccitti muraasa Guyyaa Glataa kana keessa jiru Bara gugguffannaa kana keessa hin guuttatan. Irrumaa barachaa dhaloota Guutuu ta’uu uummachuuf hojjatan.

Irreechi kan Oromooti. Dhimma Oromooti. Dhimma nama dhuunfaa miti. Dhimma beektootaa ykn Namoota siyaasaa ykn dhaabbilee siyaasaa qofaa miti. Waldaalee adda addaa qofaas miti. Qaamoon kanneen, Irreecha kana bakkatti deebisuuf, ykn addunyaatti beeksiisuuf hojjachuu danda’u. Yennaa hojjatanis, kan Oromoo ta’uutti labsanii Ummaticha illee ittiin beeksisan. Kanaaf, Irreecha Mallattoo Tokkummaa keenyaa ta’uu mirkaneessuuf gama hundaa walitti dhufanii fi wal Afeeranii kabajuun, Dimokiraasiin nuuf Aadaa malee kan addunyaan jettu kana akka hin taane mirkaneeffannee, Addunyaatti of beeksiisuun ni dada’ama jedheen amana. Fincila diddaa Gabrummaa Biyya keessaa 2014 ilaachisee Abbootiin Amatii adda addaaHIRIIRA DEEGGARSAA fi gocha wayyaanee balaaleffachuu irratti Biyyoota alaatti argamanii akkuma qooda isaanii gumaachan, IRREECHA BARANAA irratti hirmaatanii Tokkummaa Ummata kanaaf lallaba dhageesisuun nu jabeessa malee nu hin laaffisu. Gama Siyaasaan kan jirrus, waan tokkummaa keenya mamii keessa hin galchine irratti waliin dhaabbachuun akka waliif naatoo qabaannu nu taasisee hegaree keenya waliin qajeelchuuf nu gargaaruun ala badii tokkollee hin qabaatu. Guyyaa waaqa itti galateeffatan qofaa waan ta’eef.

Dubbiin heddummaateef maalitti hin fe’anii jedhama. Lammiileen keenya addatti Dargaggoonni Bara 2014 kana Fincila Diddaa Gabrummaa irratti wareegaman irra jireessi isaanii Aadaa fi Seenaa Oromoof kabajaa guddaa kan qaban, IRREECHA OROMIYAA keessatti babal’isanii Tokkummaa Ummatichaa akka sibiilaa jabeessuuf kan hojjataa turan heddummiinaan keessatti argaman. Kaayyoo isaanii kana Galmaan ga’uuf waadaa keenya illee kan itti haaromsinu haa ta’u. Waan ofii keenyaa addunyaatti nu beeksisuu danda’an katabuu fi barachuu, akkasumas ittiin eebbifamuu qofaa odoo hin taanee, hojii irra oolchuuf irratti haa hojjannu. Kana hojjachuuf ilaalchi siyaasaa kkf nu daangeessu jedhee hin amanu. Seenaa, Aadaa, fi duudhaa Oromoo keessa jiru katabuu fi argaa dhageettin dhaloota lama dabarsinee jirra. Walii dabarsuu kana keessa waan itti dabalamuu fi hir’atu hedduun jiraachuu ni mala. Kanaaf akkaataa dhalooti itti aanu illee ittin jiraatu irratti haa hojjannu. Addunyaa irratti saba Seenaan isaa qofti dubbatamu taanee hafnaa? IRREECHII 2014 KAN MILKII NUUF HAA TA’U! KAN DABE ITTI QAJEELEE, OFITTUMMAAN ITTI DHABAMEE, FEDHIIN ILMAAN OROMOO ITTI QAJEELU HAA TA’U. GADAAN QUUFAA FI GABBINA.

GALATOOMAA!

HORAA BULAA!

* SEENAA Y.G (2005): Burqaa430@gmail.com

IRREECHI GAHEERA. IRREECHILLEE GAHEE NUTOO MAALFAAN QOPHOOFNEE?
MEE HARDHA IRREECHARRAAN WAA XIQQOO SINIIF QOODA WARRA KEENYAA

Irreechi ammaan tana irraa xiqqoo haasahuuf yaalus Irreecha BIRRAA (GALATAA) ti.
Irreechi birraa kan galatataati.mallattoo MALKAA SAAQAAti.
DHAHA/TIBBA EERA.
OROMOON BOORUU GANNAA, BACCEE FI BACAQII, RAAREE  FI DHOOQQEE, MALKAA OBAA BOORAHEE FI LAGA GUDDAA FIRA ADDAAN KUTEE BOORUU GANNAA OROMOON LOON ISAA MALKAA HIN BUUSU HAMMA HAAYYOONNI FI AYYAANTUN DURA AANTEEN BOOQAA BIRRAA GAHUUSAA LABSANITTI.GAAFA DUR SAN IBSAA/GUBAA BARII OROMOON FARDASAA MIMMIIDHAGSEe  DIINASAATTI DUULA.
GUBAAN OROMOO INNI HAGAYYAA DACHEE GURRAATTIIN RANDAA JAJJABAACHUUSHEE, BOORRUN CALALAA FI TALIILAA DEEMUU,YEROON BOKKAA HAMAA, KAKKAWWISAA FI BAKAKKAADHAA DARBUU…booqan birraammoo,waan waqtii ARFAASAA WAAQASAANII BIRA OLKAAHATAN YKN GAAFATAN SANATU FAROON TOLEET,MILKIIN KEESSA WAAN HULLUUQEF GALATAAF MALKAA DEEMA.MALKAA SAAQUU …
YEROO KANA BOODA NAMAA SA’AAN, WALKEESSA DEDDEEMUUNIS NI JALQABAMA.
Akka walii galaatti, IRREECHI OROMOO FI AFRIKAANOTAAF DHIMMA 
HAWAAS DIINAGDEETI. MALLATTOO ARAARAATI. MARGI JIIDHAN MALLATTOO KA’UMSA LUBBUU QABIYYEETTI HERREEGAMA.

Irreechi kennaadhas, Kennaa KAA—KENNAA WAAQAA. RUDA JALA URJIITU JIRA BIIFTUTU JIRA
DACHEERRAA FI JALASHEES WAAN LUBBUU QABUU FI HIN QABNETU JIRA.
IRREECHI AMMALLEE ARAARAA EKERAATII.GAAFA GALATEEFFATANIS MAQAA WARRA DARBEE FI JIRUUTINIS GALATA BAASA.

Oromoon heeran bula. Malkaafi horris heeran bulee bulfata. Heera kanatu waliin ceeccatee, raaroo ulfaafii aadaan walyaasee cuftinuu waliin miila dheerata miila gabaabbata. Malkaan hora. Dawoomas qaba. Akka bishaan kaanii miti jedhama. Horri yeroo kaanis ‘XABALA’.
Irreechi birraa, yeroo dhaloonni, hiddaafi hiddiin wal dheebote itti wal arguudha.  Gaafa Oromoon garaan waliif fayyaa san Irreecchi ayyaana addaati qaba ture. Gammachuu fi galata addaati. Baras madaalliin uumamaas eeggamaa ture.
Oromoon dhugaarratti yakka waan heeran eeggatuuf gaafas rakkinas hin qabu. Hin rakkatus.
Yoo waa jallate garuu taa’et qorata.Seerri uumamaa akka hin goolamne godha.Maalif jennaan Namnis uumami biraas ni goolama waan taheef tiksuun heera diroo diroodhaa eeguufi tiksuudha. Ofis rakkinaa fi gadadoorraa of tiksuu isaati.
Gaafa Irreechaa, meeshaalee fi ulfaa nagaa ,hormaataa, ayyaantummaa fi ulfoo dhiiraa dhalaa, gadaa, qadaaddoo, yuubaa-ruufaa, ayyaantuufaatu baha.Wanti qara qabaa,wanti waraanaa lallabaa bakka san hin gahu, guyyaan kuni guyyaa gammachuu, guyyaa galataa, guyyaa dhiichisaa, guyyaa ragadaa, guyyaa geelloo fi guyyaa faaruuti, guyyaa jaalalaa fi kaadhimmannaati,  gaafa Oromoon Oromoon oromummaan guutuu san.

MALKAA IMMOO DUBARTIITU SAAQA. Haawwoliin keenyammoo kunoo akkas jechaa deemu:-
Hahoo yaa mareehoo
Hahoo yaa maree hoo
Maree hoo maree hoo
Ayyaana waggaa maree sitti marmaaree yaa mareehoo
Irreecha irree koo yaa maree sitti marmaaree hoo
Yaa waaqaa malkaa nuuf tolee yaa ayyolee koo
Yaa abbaa tulluu nutti toli yaa tolee koo

HAHOO YAA MAREE HOO?
MAREE HOO,MAREE HOO
YAA wAAQAA HUNDAAN OLII
YA WAAQA ABBAA HARDHAA BORII
NUUF ROOBIMEE SORII
……………………………………
HAHOO YAA MAREE HOO
MAREE HOO…MAREE HOO
Maree haadha deechuu
Maree haadha teechuu
Maree haadha saawwaa
Maree haadha fayyaa,yaa maree hoo
Wagga waggaan sitti deemna,yaa mareehoo
Kunoo dhufnee jiidhanoo sitti marmaarree hoo
……………………………………………….
HAHOO YAA MAREE HOO
Maree haadhaa loonii
Maree haadha waatii
Maree haadha maatii
Maree haadha gootaa
Maree haadha duulaa
Maree haadha fuulaa
Hahoo yaa maree hoo.
Mmaree hoo,maree hoo
Yaa malkaa tolii sitti marmmaarree
Ilmaa abbaan sitti marmaarree hoo
Kallachaa caaccuun sitti marmaamme hoo
Bukkuu dhuqqusaan sitti marmaarree hoo
Hoohoo…ohohoo!
Hahoo yaa maree hoo

Yaa abba kolbaa
Yaa abba kormaa
Yaa abba malkaa
Siiqqeef qadaaddoon sitti marmaarree hoo yaa ayyeelee hoo
Ulfaafi uumeen sitti marmaarree hoo
Birmaduu-dabballeen sitti marmaarre hoo
Bulaaf buulettiin sitti marmaarree hoo

Kooyaa birraa birraan barihe farda biti yaa gootaa…

Qeerroon fiigichaan dhiichisaa
Namoonni gurguddoon abbootii gadaafi warra ulfaa dabaltee dubartoota dabaalanii,
dhibaayyuu, coqorsa, muka ejersaa, dhallaaduufi muka jiidhaa akka ulmaayiifi abbayiis tahu qabatanii (garuu coqorsi irraa hafuu hin qabu yoollee dhibe saardoo) isaaniitiin gara Malkaatti dhiyaatan.
Irreecha coqorsa jiidhaa, ittacha, ulmaayii, allaaduufi kanneen biro baala muka qulqulluufi gaaroma qabuu qabatanii ulfoo uuman EEBBIFATANII DUBARTIIN MALKAA SAAQXI JECHUUDHA.
Faaruun jedhamaa deemus yeroo baay’ee Gabbisayyoo dha.

Mee gabbisayyoo naannoo Tuullamaa kana haa ilaallu:-
Gabbisayyoon kan faarfamuu yeroo irreechaaf gara malkaas tahee horaa ykn gara tulluutti deeman kadhaa Waaqayyoo bifa sagalee kilooleesanaan faarsaatii deemsa miilaa waliin riitimiin uumamaa qindaayet faarfama.
Gabbisayyoo jenna jedha tokko. Jalaa fuudhaniit sin gabbisaa gabbis jedhuun Akkasitti akka armaan gadii kanatti faarfama ykn gabbifama jechuudha.

Gabbisayyoo, lafa gabbisaa gadaan
Yaa waaq sorii nutti roobi
Oromoon korma qalee
Kormi isaa biyya falee
Yaa waaq sorii nutti roobii
Dhagaan daakuu akka daakuu
Gadaa aabboo kan akaakuu
Yaa waaq sorii nutti roobi
Dhagaa daakuun mirrigaa dhaa
Gadaa ooluun mirrigaadhaa
Yaa waaq sorii nutti roobii
Odaan nabee laga looyee
Waaq aabboo sitti booyee
Yaa Waaq sorii nutti roobi
Odaa Nabee gaaddisa koo
Gadaa aabboo yaa tuma koo
Yaa waaq sorii nutti roobi
Kallachaa caachuu yaa ulfaa koo
Gadaan dhugaa yaa dhugaa koo
Yaa Waaq sorii nutti roobii….. Jechaatii gara Malkaatti deemu.

MALKAA ERGA GAHANIIS, DURA HAAWWOLIIN, HAATI CAACCUU, HAATI SIIQQEE. HANGAFTITTIIN YKN HAATI MALKAA BISHAAN ADDAAN SAAQXI MARGA YKN COQORSAA FI WAAN JIIDHAA HARKAAN QABDUUN JECHUUDHA.
EEBBI HANGAFAA QUXISUUDHAAN EEBBIFAMA.
AMMAAF HAMMI KUNI ANAAF NI GAHA.
WARRI HUBANNOO NA CAALAA QABDAN BEEKUMSA KEESSAN NUUF QOODAA!!

NAGAA WALIIN!

Caalaa Haa Hiluu @FB

Kitaaba Raayyaa Horoo
Bara 6500 A. L . W /2008 ALA kan bahe irraa

Irreecha 2014: The Oromo National And Cultural Holiday, Oromians in Millions Celebrated  the Blessing Festival in Oromia and all over the Globe November 18, 2014

Posted by OromianEconomist in Ateetee (Siiqqee Institution), Culture, Hora Harsadii (Bishoftuu), Irreecha, Malkaa Ateteetee (Burraayyuu), Oromiyaa, Oromo, Oromo Culture, Oromo Identity, Oromo Protests, Oromummaa.
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OIrreechaOromoWaaq2014Irreecha (Irreessa) Oromo 2014 at Hora Harsadii, OromiaCelebration of Irreecha Oromoo 2014 (6408 according to Oromo Calendar). 5th October 2014 @ Horaa Harsadii, Bishoftu, Oromia. Suura2

Irreecha (Irreessa)  Birraa Oromoo kan Bara 2014 ((akka lakkoobsa Oromootti kan Bara 6408)  akka gaariitti karooreffatamee, haala oo’aa fi bareedan kabajame.  Here are some of  live  pictures, videos and reports refer to Irreecha Oromo Thanksgiving 2014 (6408 in Oromo Calendar)  Season Global Events Planning and Celebration . The blessing event that started in mid August and celebrated successfully and colorfully  through  Birraa (September- October). Millions attended Hora Harsadi (Bishoftuu, Oromia) and Malkaa Ateetee (Buraayyuu, Oromia).

At Hora Harsadii

Qophii Ayyaana Irreecha – Minneapolis – Fulbaana/Sept. 27, 2014

SBO Onkoloolessa 08 Bara 2014 Oduu – Qophii Ayyaana Irreechaa fi SBO Sagantaa Afaan Amaaraa

Irreecha Oromoo kan Bara 2014 Baga Ittiini Isin Gahe! Aadaa Oromoo Maraa Irreechi Hundee Keenya Irree Keenya!!!
Happy the 2014 Oromo Irreecha Thanks Giving, Cultural and National Day!!!!
Felice 2014 Oromo Irreecha Thanks Giving, Culturali e Giornata Nazionale !!!!
Glückliche 2014 die Oromo Irreecha Thanks Giving, kulturellen und nationalen Tag !!!!
Glad de 2014 Oromo Irreecha Thanks Giving, kulturelle og National Day !!!!
Bonne 2014 Oromo Irreecha Merci Donnant, la culture et la Journée nationale !!!!
Gelukkig 2014 Oromo Irreecha Thanks Giving, culturele en nationale Dag !!!!
Shona 2014 Oromo Irreecha Go raibh maith agat a thabhairt, Cultúrtha agus Lá Náisiúnta !!!!
سعيدة 2014 أورومو Irreecha تقديم الشكر والثقافة واليوم الوطني !!!!
 

Irreecha Buraayyuu irrattii yoo kabajamu. Suraan kun kan bara 2013 bara kan maxxanfame.

Oromo woman celebrating Irreecha (Irreessa) Thanksgiving at Burayyuu, Central Oromia, near the capital Finfinnee, September 2013.

Oromo woman celebrating Irreecha (Irreessa) Thanksgiving at Burayyuu, Central Oromia, near the capital Finfinnee, September 2013.

Irreecha (Oromo Thanksgiving) 2014: Colorfully celebrated in  East Wallaggaa, Western Oromia, Naqamtee City, 16 November. This month’s Irreecha also known as Irreecha Yaadannoo. Remembrance  Irreechaa.

Irreechi Malkaa Araaraa, Wallaggaa Naqamte Irratti Kabajame

Sadaasa 16, 2014 Wallaggaa Naqamtee irratti gaggeeffame.

Irreechi barana Sadaasa 16/2014 Malkaa Araaraa irratti tahekan Wallaggaa Leeqaa Naqamtee irratti taasifame uummata lixa shagarii fi Wallaggaa magaalaa Naqamtee fi barattoota yuuniversitii fimanneen barnootaa garagaraa guutummaatti kan hirmaachiseedha. Waggoota tokko dura kan gaggeeffame baayinniuummataa kan baranaa dachaadhaan akka dabale uummata kumaatama hedduudhaanlakkaawaman hirmaachise jira.

Buufata malkaa kanatti Qeerroon sirboota qabsoo garagaadhageessisee jira, keessattuu dhaadannowwan:
– Qaroon oromoo ABO dha.
– Yaa oromo mirgakeef ka’ii falmadhu
– Nuti oromoodha, nuu haa beekani.
– Oromiyaan ni bilisoomti kan jedhuu fi sirbootniqabsoo hedduun uummata kakaasuu fi sirboota qabsoo qeerroodhaan sirbamankeessatti poolisoota kan hirmaachise uummata waliin sirboota Qeerroo irrattihirmaachuudhaan haala nama boonsuun kan gaggeeffameedha.

Akkuma olitti ibsuuf yaaleetti uummanni jiraattootni garashawaa lixaaa jiraatan hunduu ayyaana irreechaa malkaa Araaraa kana irratti kanargamaniidha. Irra caalatti barattoota yuuniversitii fi koollejjii akkasumamana barumsaa sadarkaa garagaraa magaalaa Naqamtee, Siree, Baakkoo fi kkf niinkan dhuunfatameedha. Sochii qeerroodhaangodhame keessatti humni waraanaa poolisoonni jiran hunduu uummata waliin haalahoo’aadhaan guyyaa kana kan kabajanii oolanii fi dhaadannoolee uummata oromoofwaamicha taasisu, uummata kakaasan irrattillee kan hirmaatanii jiraniidha, uummanni hunduu kan irreecha kana irratti argaman nageenyaan bahee guyyaakeessa sa’a 7:30 irratti gara qe’ee isaatti kan galeedha. Guyyaa irreechaMalkaa Araaraa kana ilaalchisee gabaasa dabalataa isiniin geenya, waraabbiiqabnuuf haala mijeessinee isiniin geenya, nu eeggattu!

 Qeerroo.org

Gadaa.com

Gadaa.com

Gadaa.com

Gadaa.com

Gadaa.com

Irreecha Oromo 2014 Naqamtee, Oromia

http://http://finfinnetribune.com/Gadaa/2014/11/irreechi-malkaa-araaraa-wallaggaa-naqamte-irratti-kabajame/

http://qeerroo.org/2014/11/18/irreechi-malkaa-araaraawallagga-naqamte-irratti-kabajame/

http://finfinnetribune.com/Gadaa/2014/11/irreechi-malkaa-araaraa-wallaggaa-naqamte-irratti-kabajame/

Irreecha (Oromo Thanksgiving) 2014: Colorfully celebrated at Burraayyuu, Malkaa Ateetee, Oromia with millions of Oromians in attendance.  9th October 2014.

Ayyaannii Irreechaa Burraayyuu Malkaa Ateeteetti bakka uummaanni Oromoo miliyoonaan lakkaa’amu argamutti sirna ho’a ta’een kabajame. Uummaatni Oromoo godinaalee Oromiyaa fi magaaloota Finfinnee, Burraayyuu, Bishooftuu, Adaamaa, Sandaafaa, Laga Xaafoo Laga Daadhii, Sulultaa, Sabbataa, Walisoo, Hollotaa, Amboo, fi Neqamtee irra walitti dhufuun haala ajaa’ibsiisa ta’een Ayyaana Irreechaa Magaalaa Burraayyuu Malkaa Ateeteetti kabajachuun eenyummaa, Tokkummaa, Oromomummaa fi Sabboonummaa isaa jebeeffachuun diina afaan faajjessa olee jira. http://qeerroo.org/2014/10/10/ayyaannii-irreechaa-burraayyuu-malkaa-ateeteetti-bakka-uummaanni-oromoo-miliyoonaan-lakkaaamu-argamutti-sirna-hoa-taeen-kabajame/

Malkaa Ateetee, Celebration of Irreecha Oromoo 2014 (6408Irreecha Oromoo bara 6408 kan Buraayyuu, Malkaa ateetee, Oromia. Irreecha Oromo Thanksgiving 2014,Malkaa Ateetee, Buraayyuu, Oromia . 9th October. Suura1Malkaa Ateetee, Celebration of Irreecha Oromoo 2014 (6408Irreecha Oromoo bara 6408 kan Buraayyuu, Malkaa ateetee, Oromia. Irreecha Oromo Thanksgiving 2014,Malkaa Ateetee, Buraayyuu, Oromia . 9th October. Suura2

Malkaa Ateetee, Celebration of Irreecha Oromoo 2014 (6408Irreecha Oromoo bara 6408 kan Buraayyuu, Malkaa ateetee, Oromia. Irreecha Oromo Thanksgiving 2014,Malkaa Ateetee, Buraayyuu, Oromia . 9th October. Suura3Malkaa Ateetee, Celebration of Irreecha Oromoo 2014 (6408Irreecha Oromoo bara 6408 kan Buraayyuu, Malkaa ateetee, Oromia. Irreecha Oromo Thanksgiving 2014,Malkaa Ateetee, Buraayyuu, Oromia . 9th October. Suura4Malkaa Ateetee, Celebration of Irreecha Oromoo 2014 (6408Irreecha Oromoo bara 6408 kan Buraayyuu, Malkaa ateetee, Oromia. Irreecha Oromo Thanksgiving 2014,Malkaa Ateetee, Buraayyuu, Oromia . 9th October. Suura5Irreecha Oromo 2014 Malkaa Ateetee, Buraayyuu, Oromia

Irreecha Oromo 2014 Malkaa Ateetee, Buraayyuu, Oromia.  Suura1

Irreecha (Oromo Thanksgiving) 2014: Colorfully celebrated at Bishoftu Oromia, Hora Harsadii with over 4 million in attendance.  5th October 2014.

Irreecha Oromo 2014 Hora Harsadii, Oromia 5

Celebration of Irreecha Oromoo 2014 (6408 according to Oromo Calendar). 5th October 2014, Horaa Harsadii, Bishoftu, Oromia. Suura9Celebration of Irreecha Oromoo 2014 (6408 according to Oromo Calendar). 5th October 2014, Horaa Harsadii, Bishoftu, Oromia. Suura10Celebration of Irreecha Oromoo 2014 (6408 according to Oromo Calendar). 5th October 2014, Horaa Harsadii, Bishoftu, Oromia. Suura11Celebration of Irreecha Oromoo 2014 (6408 according to Oromo Calendar). 5th October 2014, Horaa Harsadii, Bishoftu, Oromia. Suura12Irreecha Oromo 2014 Hora Harsadii, OromiaIrreecha Oromo 2014 Hora Harsadii, Oromia 6Irreecha Oromo 2014 Hora Harsadii, Oromia 7

Celebration of Irreecha Oromoo 2014 (6408 according to Oromo Calendar). 5th October 2014, Horaa Harsadii, Bishoftu, Oromia. Suura7Celebration of Irreecha Oromoo 2014 (6408 according to Oromo Calendar). 5th October 2014, Horaa Harsadii, Bishoftu, Oromia. Suura5Celebration of Irreecha Oromoo 2014 (6408 according to Oromo Calendar). 5th October 2014, Horaa Harsadii, Bishoftu, Oromia. Suura6Celebration of Irreecha Oromoo 2014 (6408 according to Oromo Calendar). 5th October 2014, Horaa Harsadii, Bishoftu, Oromia. Suura4Celebration of Irreecha Oromoo 2014 (6408 according to Oromo Calendar). 5th October 2014 @ Horaa Harsadii, Bishoftu, Oromia. suura3Celebration of Irreecha Oromoo 2014 (6408 according to Oromo Calendar). 5th October 2014, Horaa Harsadii, Bishoftu, Oromia. Suura1

Celebration of Irreecha Oromoo 2014 (6408 according to Oromo Calendar). 5th October 2014, Horaa Harsadii, Bishoftu, Oromia. Suura8

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Irreecha (Oromo Thanksgiving) 2014: Colorfully celebrated at Bishoftu Oromia, Hora Harsadii with over 4 million in attendance.  5th October 2014.

Irreecha (Oromo Thanksgiving) is a celebration of the coming of the new Birraa (Spring) season in Oromia. Though it is celebrated by many millions throughout Oromia, the celebration at Hora Arsadi (Lake Arsadi) in Bishoftu, Oromia, is the largest of all. The celebration at Hora Arsadi has been identified as the largest festival in Africa, and there’s a proposal submitted to UNESCO to register it as the Cultural Heritage of the world. http://finfinnetribune.com/Gadaa/2014/10/in-photosvideos-the-largest-festival-in-africa-irreecha-oromo-thanksgiving-celebrated-by-millions-at-hora-arsadi-in-bishoftu-oromia-october-5-2014/

Onkoloolessa 5, 2014 Guyyaa har’a Uummatni Oromoo Miliyoona Afurii olitti lakkaa’amu Ayyaana Irreechaa Hora Arsadii irratti wal arguun Ayyaannii Irreechaa ganama barii lafaa eebba manguddootaan kan baname haala ho’aa ta’een kabajamuu eegalee jira.

Ayyaanaa irreechaa danquuf mootummaan abbaa irree wayyaanee EPRDF ugguraa garaagaraa kaa’ee, kellaawwaan biyyaatti cufee haa sakkatta’uu malee uummataa Oromoo eenyuummaa isaa, aadaa isaa, amantii isaa fi tokkummaa isaa cabsuu hin dandeenye, uummatni Oromoo yoom iyyuu caalaa yeroo ammaa kanatti uummata eenyummaa isaa, Oromummaa isaa, aadaa isaa, Amantii isaa fi sabboonummaa isaa jabeeffachuun diina dura dhaabbachuun bilisummaa isaa kabachiifachuuf uummata onnatedha.

Haaluma kana fakkaattuun guyyaa har’aa kana kabaja ayyaanaa irreechaa irratti dargaggootni Oromoo wallee waarraaqsaa fi eenyummaa uummatichaa calaqisiisuu sodaa tokko malee uummataaf sirbuun, uummanni cufti harka walqabanchuun sagalee tokkuummaa, eenyuummaa, abbaa biyyuummaa fi kabajamuu sabboonummaa jettuu dhageesisuun diina uummata Oromoo mootummaa garboomsaa naasuu guddaa keessa galchani jiru. Addaatti dargaggootni Oromoo walleellee warraaqsaa dhageesisuun Sabboonummaa Oromummaa faarsuu irratti argamu. http://qeerroo.org/2014/10/05/guyyaa-hara-uummatni-oromoo-miliyoona-olitti-lakkaaamu-ayyaana-irreechaa-hora-arsadii-irratti-wal-arguun-ayyaannii-irreechaa-ganama-barii-lafaa-eebba-manguddootaan-kan-baname-haala-hoaa-taeen/

 

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OromoPress Report:- Irreecha: Oromo’s Largest African Festival Celebrated by Millions at Hora Arsadi, Bishoftu

OromoPress Report:- Irreecha: Oromo’s Largest African Festival Celebrated by Millions at Hora Arsadi, Bishoftu

(OromoPress) – On Sunday October 5, 2014 an estimated 4 million people attended the annual Irreecha Festival at Hora Arasdi (lake) in Bishoftu town, located 47.9 kilometers southeast of the Oromo nation’s capital Finfinne (aka Addis Ababa). Although not conceptually, historically and purposively equivalent, people sometimes superficially use the word from the American holiday “Thanksgiving” to describe Irreecha Festival to expatriates. Oromo and friends of Oromo from across all religions and backgrounds converged to celebrate the transition from a gloomy (dukkana) rainy season to a bright (booqaa) Birraa (Spring season). The rainy season that runs for 3 months–June to August– is considered a harsh winter and is associated with darkness and separation from friends and families because of rivers swelling, (and also because of the lack of electricity). In contrast, Spring is considered a more pleasant season of festivity. Honestly, the tropical rainy season is not as a harsh a season as Winter as we know it in the northern hemisphere if you have the skills to swim and walk in and on waters.To say that Irreecha is a celebration of escaping a bad season, would be a gross oversimplification given the long and complex history of the Oromo indigenous African holiday practiced for thousands of years before the arrival of Abrahamic faiths in Oromia, Ethiopia and the Horn of Africa. Read more @http://oromopress.blogspot.co.uk/2014/10/irreecha-oromos-largest-african.html

http://http://www.diretube.com/awramba-times/irreecha-festival-2014-in-bishoftu-at-lake-hora-video_403bb9391.html

http://www.ethiotube.net/video/32135/More-than-three-million-celebrated-Irreechaa-Oromo-Thanksgiving-in-Bishoftu-Oromia-The-largest-Festival-In-Africa

Irreecha Bara 2014 – Sirna Irreeffannaa WBO, Moonaa Leenjii Giddu Gala ABO!

Ayyaanni Irreechaa Godina Jimmaa

 Onkoloolessa 26 bara 2014

Qeerroo: Gabaasa Kabajamuu Ayyaanni Irreechaa Godina Jimmaa

Onkololeessaa 26, 2014 Ayyaanni Irreechaa Godina Jimmaatti sirna ho’aa ta’een kabajame! Uummatni Oromoo jalbultii ayyaana kana ilaalchisuun Onkololeessa 25/2014 irraa eegaluun godinaalee Oromiyaa gara dhihaa kanneen akka Godina Iluu abbaa Booraa, Godina kibba Lixa Shawaa, Shawaa Lixaa fi wallaggaa Bahaa irra gara Magaalaa Jimma seenan, jalbultiin Ayyaana kanaa haala akkam miidhagaa ta’een Malkaa Deeddeetti kan eegalame, Guyyaa kaleessaa Malkaa Booyyeetti haala akkam ajaa’ibsiisaa ta’een kabajame jira. Goototni barattootni Oromoo Yuunibarsiitii Jimmaa fi Saabboontootni hojjettootni fi barsiisotni Godina Jimmaa fi Yuunibarsiitii Jimmaa Ayyaana kana irratti argamuun haala akkam boonsaa ta’een Eenyummaa, Oromummaa ,sabboonummaa, fi tokkummaa uummata Oromoo jabeessuun Uummata Oromoo kuma kudha-shani (15,000) Olitti lakka’amuun kabajame jira.

Kabaja ayyaana Irreechaa Godina Jimmaa Malkaa Booyyeetti kabajame kana irratti dargaggootni Qeeerroon barattootni Oromoo Yuunibarsiitii Jimmaa gamtaadhaan argamuun walleewwaan warraaqsaa fi mootuummaa abbaa irree balaaleeffatan Sirbuun uummatni Oromoo eenyummaa, Oromummaa, Sabboonummaa fi bilisummaa isaa gonfachuuf yoom iyyuu rafee akka hin bullee fi tole jedhee halagaa fi abbootii irreef akka hin bitamne walleewwaan warraaqsaa kanaan uummataaf barnootaa fi ergaa guddaa dabarsa, walleewwaan warraaqsaa kanaaniis ABO fi Uummata Oromoo, Qabsoo bilisummaa Oromoo sodaa tokko malee faarsuun diina garaa gubaa oolaniru. walleewwaab Artisti kabajamaa fi Jaalatamaa Eebbisaa Addunyaa guutummaatti sirbaa Oolaan.

Mootummaan abbaa Irree Wayyaanee akkuma amala ayyaana irreecha kana danquu fi uummata sodaachisuuf humna poolisaa guddaa bobbaasuun guyyaa jalbultii Ayyaana kana irraa eegaluun Magaalaan Jimmaa eegamaa turte, tokkummaa Uummataa fi haala hedduminan uummatni Ayyaana kanaaf qophii gochaa jiru irraa ka’uun tajajila uummataa kanneen akka Ibsaa Eliktiriikii, Bishaan dhugaatii fi Network Magaalaa Jimmaa irraa balleessun uummata darara jiraachuun beekamee jira. kessumattuu Ayyaana kanaan walqabatee tajajillii bishaan dhugaatii, Ibsaa fi Network magaalaa Jimmaa irra baduun immoo yeroo amma kana haalan kan uummata dheekkamsiise ta’uun gabaafame.

Goototni Barattootni Yuunibarsiitii Jimmaa tajajillii bishanii, Ibsaa fi network uummata irraa dhaabbatee(citee waan jiruuf Mooraa yuunibarsiitii Jimmaa Main Campus keessa naanna’uun roottoowwaan bishaan itti kuufaman caccabsuun Mootummaan wayyaanee tajaajila hawwasuummaa uummata irraa kutuun uummata darara jiru nurraa ka’uu qaba jechuun halkan guutuu hanga poolisiin mooraa Yuunibarsiitii Jimmaa dhaabsiisuu dhadhabutti iyyaa bulan, Diddaa gootota barattoota Yuunibarsiitii Jimmaa kanatti Mootummaan Wayyaanee Yaaddoo ulfaata keessa seenuun humnoota basaasaa fi poolisaa bobbaasuun Yuunibarsiitiin Jimmaa eegamaa jira.

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Ayyaanni irreechaa godina Jimmaa malkaa Booyyetti haala akkaan hoo’aa ta’een kabajamee.

ONKOLOOLESSA 26/2014 “IRREECHA MALKA BOOYYEE”

DSC02079Ayyaanni irreechaa godina Jimmaa malkaa Booyyetti haala akkaan hoo’aa ta’een kabajamee oolee jira.Irreecha birraas ta’ee kan Arfaasaa biyya keessattii fi biyyoota alaattis waggaa waggaan akka irreeffatamu eenyu illee waan haaluu hin dandeenyedha. Haaluma kanaan ummanni oromoo magaalaa Jimmaa,naannawa ishii,akkasumas barattoonni oromoo yunivarsiitii Jimmaa kaampaasota garagaraa fi barattoonni kolleejjii barsiisota Jimmaa walitti dhufuun ayyaanicha jalabultii irraa jalqabuun bifa nama boonsuun kabajuu danda’anii jiru.Qeerroon yunivarsiitii Jimmaa fi kolleejjii barsiisota Jimmaa jiraattota magaalaa fi naannawa ishee waliin ta’uun jalabultii irreechaa dug-duuba kolleejjii barsiisota jimmaa malkaa doodee irratti bifa miidhagaa ta’een kabajanii jiru jedha gabaasni Qeerroo godina Jimmaa. Qeerroo fi sabboontonni oromoo kan yoomiyyuu diinaf gadi hin jenne sirboota fi waallewwan warraaqsan jibbaa fi tuffii diina isaanif qaban itti mul’isuun wayyaane fi ergamtoota wayyaanee daran rifaasisanii jiru.Qeerroo fi sabboontonni oromoo waalleewwan warraaqsaa akka armaan gadii kanatti kaasuun ijjannoo isaanii diinaf mul’isan:

1.Taaddee Birruu leenca boombin dadhabe har’a saaxiniin gadi qabe.

2.Yaa oromoo oromoo qulqulluu qonnee nyaannaa lafa hin gurgurru. 3.Boolloo xaddee Taaddasaa koo hin badde biyyoon galabaa miti wal-irraa hin xaragani.As irratti wanti hubatamuu qabu akka fakkeenyatti maqaan taaddasaa ka’e malee maqaan gootota oromoo osoo falmaa bilisummaa gaggeessanuu lubbuun isaanii wareegamte hedduun kaafamanii jiru.

4.Foolleen shanii Dabbaalleen kudhanii maal balleesse kan barataa Kenya hidhanii jechuun barattoota Oromoo gaaffii mirga namoomaafi abbaa biyyummaa gaafatanuu maqaa shororkeessan wayyaaneen mana hidhaatti darbattee hiraarsaa jirtu yaadatanii wall yaadachisuu danda’anii jiru.Walumaa galattii Irreechi birraa malkaa Booyyee oromoota kumaatamaan lakkaa’amaniin sirboota fi waalleewwan warraaqsaan dabaalamuun haala akkaan hoo’aa ta’een kabajamee oolee jira.Wayyaaneen humna tikaa fi basaastota ishii bobbaastus ayyaanichi muudannoo tokko malee milkaa’uu danda’ee Kira.Gabaasa kana irraatti waraabbii suuraa fi sagaleenis qindaawe dhihaata.

http://qeerroo.org/2014/10/26/ayyaanni-irreechaa-godina-jimmaa-malkaa-booyyetti-haala-akkaan-hooaa-taeen-kabajamee/

 Irreecha (Oromo thanksgiving) 2014: Colorfully celebration in Nürnberg, Germany.18.10.2014

 Kabajaa Ayyaana Irrechaa -2014 Celebration of Oromo Thanks giving (Irrechaa) in Nürnberg, Germany.18.10.2014

Ayyaana Irreecha yeroo jalqabaaf gaafa 18.10.2014tti magaala Nürnbergtti kan Kabajame ole yemmu ta’u Seena Ayyaanicha maal akka ta‘e fi akkasumas Ayyaanni kuni Ummata Oromoof maali isa jedhu ilaalchise Miseensa Qindessitoota Ayyaana Irreechaa Awurooppaa kan ta’aani Obbo Getaachoo Camadaa barumsa ball’aa kann kennan yemmu ta’u akkasumas gaaffi fi deebi hirmaattoottaff walin geggeffame jira.

Qophii kana irratti qophii sirna “Buuna Oromoo” shamarran Oromoo dhihessaniiru.

Obbo Getaachoon “Ayyaani kuni ayyaana jaalaa fi araaraati!” kan jedhan yemmu ta’u Oromoonni argamani hunda gammachuu guddaan sirba aadaa Oromoo walin sirba fi ragada kann olani sagantichi haala midhagaa ta’een xumurame jira.

Ayyaana Wagaa 50ffaa WMT fi Qophii Aadaa Oromoo Magaala Nürnbergitti haala midhagaa ta’een Kabajame

Nuernberg 27.09.2014

Qophii Ayyaana Waggaa 50ffaa Waldaa Maccaa-Tuulamaa (WMT) bakka kessummoota hedduu argamaniin magaala Nürnbergitti Akka aadaa Oromoo Ebbaa manguddootan baname.

Ittiaansuudhaan qophii Agarsiisaa aadaa Oromoo fi Sirbaale Oromoon kan dhihaate jiddu jidduttii immo dargaggoota Oromoo Obbo Muktar fi Obbo Ahimedin Walaloo Qabsoo Bilisummaa Oromoo faarsuu fi hamilee nama kakaasu dhihessaniiru.

Turtii boqonnaa fi Laaqana booda immo Waa’ee Waldaa Maccaa- Tulama barumsa Hawaasa Oromoo Berlin irra marsaa Skype dhaan kan kenname yemmu ta’u, Do’ii gabaabdu “Abbaa Caaltu” dargaggoo Oliyad Dinaolin qophaa’ee umataatti barsise fi bashannansiise jira.

Walumagalaatti kabajaa Ayyaana Waggaa 50ffaa WMT hirmaattoota fi Kessummotaaf walittidhufenya harawaa kan ume akkasumas sababni WMT bu‘urreffamef yaadachudhaan kaayyoo sanas hubachuudhaan Qabsoo Bilisummaa Oromoo ittifufudhaaf guyyaa waadaakenya kan ittin haaromsinu ta’u isaa wali galuudhaan milkiin xumurame jira.

Injifannoon Ummata Oromoof!

Tokkummaa Barattoota Oromoo Biyyaa Jarmanii-TBOJ
www.tboj.de

Irreecha (Oromo thanksgiving) 2014: Colorfully celebration in Tel Aviv,  Israel,  (Middle East)

Irreecha (Oromo thanksgiving) 2014: Colorfully celebration in Uganda (East Africa)

5th October 2014.

The Oromo people, the largest nation in Ethiopia, celebrate Irreecha, a festival of thanksgiving. Oromo communities spread out across the world perform rituals on this day around water sources to thank God for enduring the rainy season and ushering in the Spring season. The Oromo Community in Uganda held their celebrations at the Kabaka’s Lake in Lubaga on October 5, 2014. http://finfinnetribune.com/Gadaa/2014/10/ntv-uganda-report-oromo-community-in-uganda-celebrate-irreecha-festival/

NTV Uganda

A Beautiful Irreecha Celebration in Groton, Connecticut (It Takes One Family to Start Building a Community)

Though lacking a big Oromo community in Groton, Connecticut, that didn’t deter the family of Gammachuu to hold the 2014 Irreecha (Oromo Thanksgiving) celebration; we hope to see a strong Oromo community in Connecticut next year following the Gammachuu’s lead.http://finfinnetribune.com/Gadaa/2014/10/a-beautiful-irreecha-celebration-in-groton-connecticut-it-takes-one-family-to-start-building-a-community/

A Beautiful Irreecha Celebration in Groton, Connecticut (It Takes One Family to Start Building a Community)

Though lacking a big Oromo community in Groton, Connecticut, that didn’t deter the family of Gammachuu to hold the 2014 Irreecha (Oromo Thanksgiving) celebration; we hope to see a strong Oromo community in Connecticut next year following the Gammachuu’s lead.http://finfinnetribune.com/Gadaa/2014/10/a-beautiful-irreecha-celebration-in-groton-connecticut-it-takes-one-family-to-start-building-a-community/

Connecticut_Irreecha2014_2Connecticut_Irreecha2014_2

Irreecha Celebration in Perth (Australia) – Oct. 5, 2014

Irreecha (Oromo thanksgiving) 2014: Colorfully celebration in South Africa.

5th October 2014.

Irreecha (Oromo thanksgiving) 2014: Colorfully celebration in Melbourne, Australia

Irreecha (Oromo thanksgiving) 2014: Colorfully celebration in  Cairo, Egypt

5th September 2014.

Irreecha (Oromo Thanksgiving) 2014: Colorfully celebration in Atlanta, Georgia, USA

4th October 2014

Irreecha (Oromo Thanksgiving) 2014: Colorfully celebration in Holland.

4th October 2014

Irreecha (Oromo thanksgiving) 2014: Colorfully celebration in Boston, MA, USA

28 September 2014

Irreecha (Oromo thanksgiving) 2014: Colorfully celebration in Los Angeles, California

27 September 2014

Ayyaanaa Irreecha 2014: Los Angels, California

Hawaasni Oromoo Magaalaa Los angeles fi San Diego Ayyaanaa Biyyoolessa Oromoo, IRREECHA, Birraa 27, 2014 haala hoo’an kabajaanni oolan. Sirni ayyaaneeffanaa sa’aa 11:00WD qabee hanga sa’aa 6:00WB gageeffame kun seeraan banamee, eebbaa manguddootiin itti fufee, aadaa irreechaatiin Waaqaa faarffachaa fi gammachuudhaan sirbaa iddoo haroo adeemudhaan erga irreeffatamee booddaa haaluma walfakkaataan iddoo qophiitti deebi’ame sirbaa fi mariin xumurameera. ‘Barrii baranaa kan hegereetiin Isin ha gahu!’

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Irreecha (Oromo Thanksgiving) Festival Celebrated in Bay Area, California

4th October 2014

Irreecha (Oromo thanksgiving) 2014: Colorfully celebration in Leeds, UK.

27 September 2014

Report: Irreecha Leeds 2014

Irreecha (Oromo thanksgiving) 2014: Colorfully celebration in Ohio, USA.

28th September 2014.

 Irreecha( Oromo thanksgiving) 2014: Colorfully celebration in Seattle with Oromiya and Caffee Tuulamaa Abbaa Gadaa- Bayanaa Sanbatoo, 28th September 2014

Irreecha: Colorfully Celebrated

inWashington DC, USA.

27th September 2014

At the Hururssaa, Name-Recognizing or Name-Giving Ceremony, held in conjunction with the 2014 Washington-DC’s Irreecha celebration, author Tasfaayee Gabra-aab has become “Gadaa” Gabra-aab; watch the ceremony below (video by OPride.com). Hururssaa is one of the rich traditions of the Oromo nation.

Author Tasfaayee Gabra-aab Becoming Gadaa Gabra-aab at DC’s Hururssaa Ceremony (Photo: @OromoPress)

Author Tasfaayee Gabra-aab Becoming Gadaa Gabra-aab at DC's Hururssaa Ceremony (Photo: @OromoPress)

http://finfinnetribune.com/Gadaa/2014/09/video-author-tasfaayee-gabra-aab-becomes-gadaa-gabra-aab-at-a-hururssaa-a-name-giving-ceremony-at-the-2014-dc-irreecha/

 

Irreecha: Colorfully Celebrated

in Nairobi, Kenya.

28th September 2014

 

Irreecha: Colorfully Celebrated in

in Chicago, Illinois.

Speeches by International Oromo Youth Assocation’s (IOYA) Leaders Aad. Amanee Badhaasoo & Aad. Sinqee Wesho

27th September 2014

Source: Oromiatimes.Org (http://oromiatimes.org/2014/10/03/dhufaa-jira-coming-soon/)

Irreecha: Colorfully Celebrated in Switzerland

27th September 2014

Irreecha: Colorfully Celebrated in London, UK

27th September 2014

 

 

Irreecha: Colorfully Celebrated in Minneapolis, Minnesota, Little Oromia in the Presence of A/G Bayyanaa Sanbatoo & Ob. Laggasaa Deettii, Former Leader of Macha-Tulama Association

Ayyaana irreechaa Fulbaana 27 bara 2014 magaalaa Bergen,Norway

Irreecha Colorfully Celebrated in Oslo, Norway, on Saturday, Sept. 27, 2014

 

Seife Nebelbal Radio: Special Program on the Irreecha Festival in Dallas, TX (With Abbaa Gadaa Bayyanaa Sanbatoo)

Seife Nebelbal Radio: Special Program on the Irreecha Festival in Dallas, TX (With Abbaa Gadaa Bayyanaa Sanbatoo)

Irreecha Birraa 2014 Celebration  @ Las Vegas, Sunset Park, Nevada

25 Fuulbana ( September ) 2014.

The 2014 Irreecha Celebration in Adelaide, South Australia

Ayyaana Irreecha Birraa Oromoo kan  bara 2014  Kanaadaa (Canada) Calgaryti Birraa 20 Bara 2014 haala O’ooan kabajamee Ooole. Irreecha celebrated in Calgary, Canada on 20th September 2014. See picture below.

 

Caayaan Tokkummaa Baqattota Oromo Biyya Masrii Ayyaana Irreecha Barana Fuulbana 20/2014 haala miidhagaa fii bonssaan kabajatan . Sirnicha akka Aadaa Oromotti Eebba Manguddon kan banamee hoggaa tahuu, Duraa Ta,aan Caayaa Tokkummaa duraanii Obbo Mohammed Zen Arabon Gabaasa waggaa lameen dabranii bal’inaan erga manaaf gabaasanii boddee koree haarowa waggaa kana Caayaa Tokkummaa hogganuuf jiratanitti sirna miidhagaan hujii dabarsanii itti laatanii jiru. Kanaaan booda Dura Ta’aan Caayaa Haarowni Obbo Abdallaa Jamaal maqaa Isaa fii koreetiin haawaasaf simannaa godhanii fii jiru . Bifa kanaan koreen Haarowni erga hujii fuudhanii fuula hawaasaa duratti ballamaa galanii jiru. Akkasuma Hawwisoon Baandii Abdii Boruu Wallelee garagaraan hirmaattota sirnicha baayyee gammachisanii jiru. Seenaa Ayyanaa kanarraa Hayyotaa fii manguddonni kan akka Obbo Xayyib fii Obbo Abdusalaam, Obbo Aksiir Nuree’ , Obbo Hassan Fakkaro fii Aaddee Raggaatuun walduraa dubaan ibsa bal’aafii gorsaas godhanii fii jiru. Maayyirratti Surnichi Eeyba Manguddon sirna miidhagaan xumuramee jira.

Oromians in Sweden Celebrated Irreecha  in Stockholm on 13th September 2014

Ayyaanni Irreessaa/irreechaa Sweden magaalaa Stockholmitti     Fulbaana 13, 2014 Haala bareedan ayyaaneffatame

Ayyaanni Irreessa/irreecha Sweden magaalaa Stockholmitti     Fulbaana 13, 2014  ayyaaneffatame (suuraa kanaan olii ilaalaa, see the above pictures of Irreecha celebration in Stockholm )

Ayyaanni Irreessaa/irreechiaa Sweden magaalaa Stockholmitti     Fulbaana 13, 2014  ayyaaneffatame

Ayyaanni Irreessaa/irreechaa Sweden magaalaa Stockholmitti     Fulbaana 13, 2014  ayyaaneffatame (Suuraa kanaa olii ilaalaa,  Sweden Irreecha celebration  pictures above).

Ayyaana Irreecha  Birraa Bara 2014. Hargaya  (August) 31 colourfully  Celebrated in Toronto, Canada.
Oromo Thanksgiving Celebration 2014, Toronto Canada. See the pictures below.

Ayyaana Irreecha  Birraa Bara 2014. Hargaya  (August) 31 as Celebrated in Toronto, Canada.
Oromo Thanksgiving Celebration 2014, Toronto Canada

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Ayyaana Irreecha  Birraa Bara 2014. Hargaya  (August) 31 as Celebrated in Toronto, Canada.
Oromo Thanksgiving Celebration 2014, Toronto Canada

We are pleased to inform you that he is finally able come to the United States. OSA has extended its theme focusing on Gada democracy through the end of the year and Abba Gada Bayana speak at a series of OSA-organized workshops in various cities in Unite Stated from September 6-27, focusing on the ongoing work of reviving the Gadaa system.

He will also participate as a guest of honor at several Irreecha celebrations organized by Oromo in the Diaspora.

We invite all who are interested in the Gadaa democratic system and Oromo culture in general to attend these workshops and participate in spectacular Irrechaa celebrations to be held throughout September and October 2014.

We would like to extend our appreciation to local individuals and institutions who participated in preparing these events. We are also grateful to the United States Consular Service for the assistance they provided in issuing Abbaa Gadaa Bayana’s travel documents.

The attached flyer contains general information about dates and cities where Abbaa Gadaa Bayana will be speaking.

Jawar Mohammed
President, Oromo Studies Association

Plan of Event: Ayyaana Irreecha ,  Oromo Thanksgiving on Onkoloolessa/October4, 2014- Perth, Australia

Ayyaana Irreecha | Oromo Thanksgiving in Boston/Cambridge, MA

Baga bacaqii Gannaa nagaan baatanii Booqaa Birraa argitan jechaa, Eenyummaa fi Aadaa ofii yoo abbaan duukaa bu’ee hin kununisifatiin alagaan ishuma hafte iyyuu balleessuuf duubatti hin jedhu waan ta’eef IRREECHA bara kanaa / 2014 sirnna hoo’aan kabajachuuf Oromoonni dhuunfaan sagantaa kana irratti hojjataa jiru. Ammoo dhimma kana fiixaan baasuuf hirmannaan Hawaasa Oromoo Magaalaa Perth murteessaa dha.

Waan kana ta’eef jecha Oromoonni Magaalaa Perth jirraattan hundi ayyaana IRREECHAA kana irratti hafeeramtaniirtu.

Koottaa / dhyaadhaa waliin gammannaa!

Yoom:-
Gaafa 05/10/2014
Guyyaa Dilbataa

Bakka:- Burswood Park, Burswood

Yeroo:- Sa’aatii 11:00 AM irraa eegalee

Hubachiisa:-
– Hanga danda’ametti Uffannaa Aadaan midhaganii argamuun heddu feesisa.
– BBQ fi waanni dhugan nama maraaf tola.
– warra hin dhageenyeef dabarssaa.

Qopheessituu IRREECHA Magaalaa Western Australia (Perth) bara 2014

Gadaa.com

Plan of Event: Ayyaana Irreecha ,  Oromo Thanksgiving in Cairo, Egypt – on October 5, 2014

Ayyaana Irreecha | Oromo Thanksgiving in Boston/Cambridge, MA

Ayyaana Irreecha | Oromo Thanksgiving in Boston/Cambridge, MA

Akkam jirtu Oromoo Boston?

ODA Boston waggaa waggaadhaan laga Charles River, Cambridge kessatti argaamu irrati guyyaa Irreecha kabajaa turuun isaa ni yadatama. Haaluma Kanaan bara kanas gaafa guyyaa Fulbaana ykn September 28/2014 sa’ati 12:00pm irrati kabajuuf qophii irra jiraachu isaa gamachuudhan isin beekisisaa, akka irrati argamtan kabajaan isiin hafeerra.

Galatoomaa!

Koree ODA Boston

Ayyaana Irreecha | Oromo Thanksgiving in Helsinki, Finland – on October 4, 2014

Ayyaana Irreecha | Oromo Thanksgiving in Helsinki, Finland – on October 4, 2014
Posted: Fulbaana/September 28, 2014 · Finfinne Tribune | Gadaa.com

Event Details:

Date: 4th of October 2014
Time: from 12:00 to 5:00
Place: Kivikonkaari 11, Kivenkolo, Helsinki, Finland
Transport: Take Metro from Helsinki Railway Station to Kontula; From Kontula, take Bus 78. It is about 5 minutes.

BEEKSISA:
Oromoota magaalaa Nairobi fi naannawa isii jiraatan maraaf
DHIMMA: Ayyaana Irreechaa fi Hulluuqqoo, 2014

Ilmaan Oromoo hundi baga ganna bacaqii irraa gara booqaa birraatti nagayaan ceetan jechaa, ayyaanni Irreechaa fi Hulluuqqoo magaalaa Nairobitti Fulbaana 28, 2014 waan kabajamuuf, maatii fi hiriyyoota keessan wajjiin akka irratti hirmaattan kabajaan isin affeerra.

Bakka (Venue): Nairobi City Park
Yeroo: Ganama 8:00AM – 2:00PM

Ayyaana Irreechaa fi Hulluuqqoo sababeeffachuun barnootni:
~ aadaa fi argaa-dhageettii,
~ maalummaa Irreechaa fi Hulluuqqoo,
~ Seenaa fi amantii Oromoo ni kennama. Kana malees sagantaa nyaata aadaa Oromoo fi qophii bashannanaa waan qabnuuf ammas irra deebinee dhiyaadhaa isiniin jenna.

Odeeffannoo dabalataaf ammo karuma fuula facebook’n nu qunnamaa!
Koree Aadaa fi Argaa Dhageettii Oromoo, Nairobi

Ayyaana Irreecha | Oromo Thanksgiving in Denver, Colorado – Sept. 27, 2014

IrreechaDenverCO2014

Irreecha Bara 2014 | Kan Biyya Jarmaniitti | Fulbaana/Sept. 20, 2014

Waamicha Kabajaa Ayyaana Irreecha kan Bara 2014 Biyya Jarmanii keessatti qophaa’ee: Koree Qindeesitu Ayyaana Irreeschaa irraa Ilmaan Oromoo Biyya Jarmanii keessa jiraatan Maraaf – Frankfurt am Main, Germany

Kabajammo Ilmaan Oromoo,

hundaa duraan dursee nagaan rabii isin haagahu. Ashamaa ilmaan Oromoo kann biyya Jarmanii keessa jiraattan; obboleewwan keenya dhiira fi dubartiin, baga ayyaana Irreecha bara haaraa 2014 walumaan jala geenye. Ayaanni Irreecha jila (festival) waga/bara haaraatti cee’uumsaatti.

Ayyaanni Irreecha kan bara haaraa 2014 biyya Jarmaniitti kutaa magaalaa Frankfurt am Main “Bockenheim” (im Stadtteil Bockenheim) jedhamu keessatti Fulbaana (September) 20, 2014 kabajamuuf qophiin Koree Qindeessituu Ayyaana Irreescha xumuramee jira. Kanaaf Oromoon biyya Jarmanii keessa jiraatan kabajaa ayyaana Ireechaa kan bara 2014 irratti argamtannii waliin akka kabajnu ulfina guddaan isin afeerra.

Ayyaanni Irreecha kan bara haaraa 2014 Fullbaana (September) 20, 2014, guyya sambata xiqqaa(Saturday), sa’a 12:30 WB (PM) irra eegalee hanga (hama) sa’attii 18:00 WB (PM) Paarkii (iddoo namni itti haara galfatu) “Rebstockpark” jedhamu keessatti cinaa (bukkee) haroo (Weiher im Rebstockpark = Pond in Rebstockpark) ti kabajama.

Ayyaanni Irreecha guyyaa ilmaan Oromoo akka sabaatti heddomminaan walarganii dhimma har’a itti jiran waliif himan, waan hegeree immoo waliin qindeeffaatan, guyyaa waloomaa (day of joint action) Oromoo ti. Heddomminaan bahanii ayyaana Irreecha irratti aadaa fi duudhaa/jifuu (culture and tradition) ofii agarsisuunis mallattoo sabboonummaa saba Oromoo ti. Aadaa kana guddisuu fi muldhisuun eenyummaa Oromoo guddisuudha.

Ayyaanni Irreecha kan bara 2013 kan yeroo kamuu caala biyya keessaa fi alatti sirna ho’aa fi hamilee guddaan akka kabajame, odeeffannoo fi gabaasa bakka gara garaa irraa argaa fi dhagahaa jirra. Kun kan muldhisu, ayyaanni Irreecha guddina aadaa fi duudhaa/jifuu, akkasumas eenyummaa fi tokkummaa saba Oromoof utubaa ta’uu nu hubachiisa.

Koree Qindeesitu Ayyaana Irreescha akka waliin taanee ayyaaneefannu, irraa debi’ee gammachuudhaan waamicha Oromummaa kabajaan isiniif dhiyeessa.

Namoota odeeffannoo dabalataa feetanif, Koree Qindeesitu Ayyaana Irreescha waliin qunnamtii godhaa!

Namoota Koree Qindeesitu Ayyaana Irreescha irra odeeffannoo (information) dabalataa feetanif lakkoofsa bilbila (telefoona) kanatti bilbilsaa:
lakko.bil.:
+4917853498098
+4917680018430
+4915212252957

Ayyaanni Irreessaa yeroo duraatif Magaalaa “Frankfurt am Main” jedhamu keessatti guyyaa gaafa Fulbaana 20, 2014 qophaa’ee:

Sa’aatii/Time: 12:30 WB (PM) ‐ 18:00 WB (PM)
Iddoo/Place: Paarkii “Rebstockpark” jedhamu keessatti (im Rebstockpark), cinaa (bukkee) haroo (Weiher im Rebstockpark = Pond in Rebstockpark)

Daandi (kara)/Street: Am Römerhof, Max‐Pruss‐Straße
Geejiba/Transport: Baabura (tram) lakoofsa 17 (Straßenbahnlinie 17 vom Hauptbahnhof Frankfurt am Main bis zur Endehaltestelle “Rebstockbad”)

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UPDATED (Seattle): Workshop on Gadaa with A/G Bayyanaa Sanbatoo following Irreecha: Seattle, Washington (NW U.S. & British Columbia) – Fulb./Sept. 28, 2014

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Waamich Kabajaa Ayyaana Irreechaa – Nurnberg, Germany (Onk./Oct. 18, 2014)

Waamich Kabajaa Ayyaana Irreechaa – Nurnberg, Germany (Onk./Oct. 18, 2014)

Misensoota TBOJ fi Oromoo Biyyaa Jarmanii

Ayyaanni Irreechaa Gaafa 18.10.2014tti

Iddoo: Am Pegnitzwiese, Unter Jansenbrücke, 91207 Nürnbergtti
Sa’a: 13:00 irraa kaase akka Walin kabjanu kabajaan isinni affeerra.

Aadaakenya Eenyummaakenya!

Ulfaadhaa

UOSE-Germany

New Zealand: Affeerraa Kabajaa Ayyaana Irreecha Bara 2014 | National Holiday (Oromo Thanksgiving Festival) – Oct. 12, 2014

Hunda Dura Baga Nagaan Ayyaana Irreecha Bara Kanaan Isin Gahe!

IrreechaNZ2014

Ilmaan oromoo hundi jila duudhaa ganama kan ta’e, Aadaa Oromoo kana biyyaa keessaa fi alaa bakka jiran hundatti walitti dhufanii kabajata turan ittis jiru. Nutis Oromoonni biyyaa New Zealand magala Wellington keesa jirru bakka tokkotti walitti dhufnee guyyaa seena- qabeessa kana akka waliin kabajane oolluf waamicha guddaa isiniif goona.
Guyyaan isaa Onkoloolessa 12/10/2014 sa’aa1.00pm iratti oggaaa tahu, bakki: Otari Wilton Park, Wilton, Wellington (address: 160 Wilton Road)

Gaafa kana galgala isaa sagantaa qophii bashannanaa waan qabaannuuf jecha hundi keessan waareen booda sa’aa 4:pm irratti argamtanii nu Waliin akka bashanantan kabajaan isin afeerra.

Bakki isaa: Newtown Hall

HUBACHIISA: Guyyaa kana uffata Aadaa qabdan uffattanii maatii keessan waliin akka dhuftani siin yaadachiisna.

Gadaan roobaa fi gabbina!

WAAMICHA KOREE IRREECHA SWITZERLAND SABBOONTOTA OROMOO SWITZERLAND FI NAANNOO JIRAATANIIF!

Irreecha 2014 VI

Irreechi Switzerland kan bara 2014 Guyyaa 27.09.2014 Hora Ouchy, magaalaa Lausanne tti kabajama. Koottaa, hirmaadhaa! Aadaa keenya haa guddifnu! Oromummaa bakka jirru hunda tti haa jabeessinu! Aadaa keenya ijoollee keenya kan hegeree Oromoo fi Oromiyaa ta’an fi firoota Oromoo haa barsiifannu!

GUYYAAN: 27.09.2014

SA’A: 10:00 IRRAA KAASEE HAMMA GALGALAA TTI

BAKKI: HORA OUCHY, LAUSANNE, SWITZERLAND

UFFATA AADAA UFFADHAA KOOTTAA! GALATOOMAA!

KOREE IRREECHA OROMOO SWITZERLAND

Irreecha 2014 III

Ayyaana Irreecha | Oromo Thanksgiving in Edmonton, Canada – Sept. 27, 2014

Ayyaana Irreecha | Oromo Thanksgiving in Edmonton, Canada – Sept. 27, 2014

Guyyaan Fulbaana (September) 27, 2014
Yeroo (Time) 10:00 Am Irra Eegale (start)
Iddo: Hourlack Park (Heritage) kessatti Ayyaana Irreecha waan kabajjamuuf ummata Oromoo marratti akka dhamissa nu dabarrisiitaan kabajjaan isiin gaffana korree Ayyaana Irreecha magala Edmontonni, Kaanaaddaa (Canada)

Oromo Thanksgiving Day Celebration – September 27, 2014
Time: 10:00am start

Oddeffaano (Information call)
1) Nasser 7803945478
2) Amare 5879207786

Irreechi Irree uummata Oromootti!

IrreechaEdmonton2014

Gubaa, Daaraa Gabanna fi Irreecha 2014, Atlanta, Georgia , Onkoloolessa 3-4, 2014

Ayyaana Irreecha | Oromo Thanksgiving in Sydney, Australia – Sept. 27, 2014

SydneyIrreecha2014

Ayyaana Irreecha Bara 2014 | Oromo Thanksgiving in Los Angeles on Sept. 27, 2014

Ayyaana Irreecha Bara 2014 | Oromo Thanksgiving in Los Angeles on Sept. 27, 2014

Ayyaanni Irreecha bara 2014 Fulbaana 27 magaala Los Anjeles keessatti kabajaamuuf qophiin itti fufeera. Lammiiwwan Oromoo fi firoonni Oromiyaa Kaaliforniyaa fi Godina Ollaa keessa jiratan hundinuu koottaa waliin haa Irreeffannuu!

Qophiin sa’aa 11:00 WD jalqaba.

Bakkeen Qophii:
Kenneth Hahn State Recreation Area
4100 S. La Cienega Blvd
Los Angeles, CA – 90056

———————

The Oromo Thanksgiving Day will be celebrated on September 27, 2014. All Oromo citizens and friends of the Oromo nation cordially invited. Please join us on our highly celebrated Holiday.

Program begins at 11:00am
Location:
Kenneth Hahn State Recreation Area
Los Angeles, CA – 90056

Odeefatnoof:
951-400-3998, 951-488-8188, 951-316-4688, 213-985-6086

Ayyaana Irreecha Kan Bara 2014 | Oromo Thanksgiving in Columbus, Ohio – Sept. 28, 2014

Address: 213 Camrose Court, Gahanna, OH

Irreecha2014_Ohio

Ayyaana Irreecha | Oromo Thanksgiving in Leeds, the UK (Fulbaana/Sept. 27, 2014)

Mark your calendar; this year’s Irreecha celebration will be held in the city of Leeds, the UK, on Sept. 27, 2014. All Oromos and friends of the Oromo in the UK are invited.

Irreecha2014Leeds2

Wamicha Guyyaa Irreecha bara 2014 | London: Fulb./Sept. 27, 2014

Hawaasni Oromoo UK kessa jiraatu guyyaa Irreecha galata kennan bara 2014 Fulbaana 27, 2014 Magaala Londonitti ayyaneffata. Kanaf, guyyaa Oromon tokkummadhan uumaa galata galchatu kana irratti argamtani akka gammaddan Hawaasni Oromoo UK kabajaan isin aferra. Nyatnii fi dhugaatin gatii bayyessan ni jira.

Kottaa aadaa fi muziqaa Oromoo dhandhamadhaa!

Sagantaa:

A. Sagantaa Irreffachuu: 11:00wd-2:00
Bakka: Hampsted Heath Park Staff Yard, Parliament Hill Fields, High-gate Road, London NW5 1QR
Gejjiba: Atobusii: C2, C11, 214
Baabura: Bufata baaburaa Gospel Oak
Konkolaataa dhabuf sa’ati 2f £2.50 basisa

B. Yeroo gammachuu fi hawaasessuu – 3.00wb-10.30gg
Bakka: Whittington Park Community Centre, Yerbury Road, London N19 4RS
Gejjiba: Atobusii C11 gara bufata baaburaa Archway, 17, 43, 263, 271 (gara bufata baaburaa Upper Holloway Road)
Baabura: Bufata baaburaa Archway
Bufata baaburaa: Upper Holloway Road

Koree Hojii Geggessituu Hawaasa Oromoo UK

Hawaasni Oromoo UK kessa jiraatu guyyaa Irreecha galata kennan bara 2014 Fulbaana 27, 2014 Magaala Londonitti ayyaneffata. Kanaf, guyyaa Oromon tokkummadhan uumaa galata galchatu kana irratti argamtani akka gammaddan Hawaasni Oromoo UK kabajaan isin aferra. Nyatnii fi dhugaatin gatii bayyessan ni jira.

Kottaa aadaa fi muziqaa Oromoo dhandhamadhaa!

Sagantaa:

A. Sagantaa Irreffachuu: 11:00wd-2:00
Bakka: Hampsted Heath Park Staff Yard, Parliament Hill Fields, High-gate Road, London NW5 1QR
Gejjiba: Atobusii: C2, C11, 214
Baabura: Bufata baaburaa Gospel Oak
Konkolaataa dhabuf sa’ati 2f £2.50 basisa

B. Yeroo gammachuu fi hawaasessuu – 3.00wb-10.30gg
Bakka: Whittington Park Community Centre, Yerbury Road, London N19 4RS
Gejjiba: Atobusii C11 gara bufata baaburaa Archway, 17, 43, 263, 271 (gara bufata baaburaa Upper Holloway Road)
Baabura: Bufata baaburaa Archway
Bufata baaburaa: Upper Holloway Road

Koree Hojii Geggessituu Hawaasa Oromoo UK

Ayyaana Irreecha | Oromo Thanksgiving in Leeds, the UK (Fulbaana/Sept. 27, 2014)

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Ayyaanna Irreecha/ Oromo Thanksgiving in Calgary, Canada with Live Concert/ Sept./Fuul. 20, 2014

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Qophii Ayyaana Irreecha – Minneapolis – Fulbaana/Sept. 27, 2014

Waaqa Nu Uume Galateeffachuun ni Irreeffanna!

Aadaa Keenya ni Dagaagsina!

Ayyaanni Irreecha Minnesota (Magaalawwan Lakku) keessatti Minneapolisi Hora ykn Lake Nokomositti kabajamuuf deemaa jira.

Ayyaanni irreecha kan bara 2014 Fulbaana 27 bara 2014 ganama sa’aa 10:00 irraa jalqabee kabajama. Oromoo fi Firoottan Oromoo hundumtuu akka ayyaana kanarratti argamtanii waliin Irreeffannu koreen qindeesituu ayyaana Irreecha kabajaa fi ulfina guddaan isin affereera.

Bakki isaa:
Hora (Lake Nokomis)
5001 Lake Nokomis Pkwy W.
Minneaplois, MN 55417

Info:
Tel:
– Awash Nagawoo: 612-227-0712
– Biqilaa Deettii: 612-701-9834

Qophii Ayyaana Irreecha – Oslo, Norway – Fulbaana 27, 2014

“… birraan barihee dukkana nurra arihee
Ballammi haami jennaan haamee dhufe kuno
lammii kee waami jennaan waamedhufe kuno …”  Sirba Oromoo

Ayyaana Irreecha kan baranaa Fulbaana(September) 27 bara 2014biyyaa Norway, magaalaa Oslo, bakka hora Sognsvann jedhamutti waaree dura sa’ati 11:30 irraa eegalee kabajama. Ilmaan Oromoo kannen dhihoo fi fagoo jiraattan hundi jila dudhaa ganamaa kana irratti uffata aadaatiin of miidhagsitanii akka ayyaana kana irratti hirmaattan kabajaa guddaa wajjiin sin afeerra. Malkaa jilaa dhufuudhaaf, baabura lafa jalaa (Metro) laakkofsa3 (Sognsvann) gara kallattii lixaa deemu (westbound) yaabbadhaa; buufatni isaa kan maayyii Sognsvann suduudaan isin fida.

Erga qophiin Irreecha raawwatee booda qophii bashannanaa sa’aa 18:00 irraa eegalee qabna. Halkan guutuu waliin taphataa bulla.

Bakki qophiin bohaarsaa itti dhihaatu:
Simia-venner
Kristoffer Robins Vei 2 (Smedstua)
0978 Oslo

Bakka kana dhufuuf, magaala /Oslo S irraa baabura gara Lillestrøm deemuu qabattanii bakka Haugenstuastasjon jedhutti irraa bu’uun bakka Smedstua jedhu yoo iyyaafattani salphaatti achi geessu. Ykn Stovner Senter irraa bus 65 yoo qabattanii bakka Smedstua jedhutti irraa buutani, bakki qophichaa cinaadhuma sanatti argama.

Odeessii dabalataa yoo barbaaddan yookiin gaaffii yoo qabaattan bilbila harkaa laakkofsa

+47 951 88 081 / + 47 97964087 / irreechaa@gmail.com nuu qunnamaa.

Ana haadhufu!

Gadaan roobaa fi gabbina!

Koree Qindeessituu

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Irreechi Faajjii Keenya

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Irreech Mallattoo Tokkummaa fi Aadaa Oromooti!

Finfinne Tribune | Gadaa.com

Ayyaani Irreecha, guyyaa Oromoon malkaa ykn tulluutti bahee Waaqa isa uume, waan argateef kan galateeffatuu fi waan fuula dura hawwuu fi barbaadu itti kadhatudha. Irreechi ayyaana Oromoon ittiin beekamu, mallattoo Oromummaa fi Eenummaa isaa ibsu, calaqqee Aadaa fi Duudhaa keenya qofaa osoo hin ta’iin dhaalmayaa hambaa seenaa keenyaa ti. Kanuma mirkaneessuuf Oromoon biyya keenya Oromiyaa keessa jiraatu guyyaa ayyaana Irreecha waggaa waggaan bahaa fi dhihaa, kaabaa fi kibbaa walitti bahee osoo amantii, siyaasa fi kutaan walinqoodiin tokkummaan Ayyaana Irreecha kabajataa jira.

Ayyaani Irreecha Hora Arsadiitti qindoominaa fi hirmaannaa ummata bal’aan kabajamuu kan eegale bara 1997 irraa kaaseetu. Isa dura ummatuma naannoo sanaa fi keessattuu warra aadaa Waaqeffannaa hordofaniin ture. Bara 1997 keessa koreen tokko maqaa Guddinaa fi Dagaagina Aadaa Oromoo jedhuun WMT (Waldaa Maccaa-Tuulamaa) jalatti ijaaramtee Ayyaana Irreecha Bishooftuu kana ummata beeksisuu, barsiisuu fi qindoominaan guyyaa ayyaana kanaa bakka sanatti argamuun qalbii namaa harkisuu jalqabde. Ergasii waggaa waggaan achitti argamuun barumsaa fi dammaqiinsa kennameen sadarkaa har’a ummanni kumaa fi kitilaan herreegamu irratti argamee kabajaa jira. Kabajaa Irreecha Bishooftuu, kan Malkaa Arsadiitti kabajamu babal’achuun yeroo gara garaatti Oromiyaa bakka adda addaatti kabajamuun akka Ayyaana Biyyoolessa biyyaatti fudhatamaa jira.

Kana malees biyyoota alaa naannoo Oromoon heddumminaan qubatee jiruttis haala ho’aan kabajamuu erga eegalee bubbulee jira. Ayyaani Irreecha daran akka guddatuu fi babal’atu hawaasni Oromoo hubannoo gahaa qabaachuu qaba. Gaaffiilee Irreech Aadaa moo Amantiidha jedhuuf deebii argachuuf hayyoota aadaa afeeruun marii gochuu qaba. Hanga ammaatti kan beekamu Irreech Aadaa fi Duudhaa Oromoon waliin Waaqa kadhatu ykn galateeffatu ta’uun beekama. Kun ammoo amantii nama kamuu waan faallessu hin qabu.

Kanuma hubachuun Oromoon biyya keessaas ta’e biyya alaa jiraatan gamtaan bahuun Ayyaana Irreecha kabajuun aadaa fi eenymmaa isaa firaa fi alagaa akka beeksisu, akkasumas tokkummaa Oromoo haala kanaan akka mul’isu abdii qabna.

Ayyaani Irreecha bara 2014, Hora Arsadii Bishooftuutti kan kabajamu guyyaa 05.10.2014 yoo ta’u, biyyoota alaatti ammoo warri qophii xumuratanii fi sagantaa isaanii beeksisan kanneen armaan gadiiti.

• Hagaya/August 31,2014- Toronto, Canada

• Fuulbana/September 13, 2014 – Stockholm, Sweden
• Fuulbana/September 20, 2014 – Calgary, Canada

.Fuulbana/September 20, 2014- Adelaide, Australia

.Fuulbana/September 20, 2014- Cairo, Egypt

.Fuulbana/September 20, 2014-  Frankfurt Am Main, Germany

.Fuulbana/September 25, 2014- Las Vegas, USA

. Fuulbana/September 27, 2014 – Leeds, UK
• Fuulbana/September 27, 2014 – Bergen, Norway
• Fuulbana/September 27, 2014 – Oslo, Norway
• Fuulbana/September 27, 2014 – Switzerland
• Fuulbana/September 27, 2014 – Minneapolis, Minnesota
• Fuulbana/September 27, 2014 – Washington, DC
• Fuulbana/September 27, 2014 –Los Angeles,  California
• Fuulbana/September 27, 2014 – Finland

.Fuulbana/September 27, 2014- Sydeny, Australia

.Fuulbana/September 27, 2014-Edmonton, Canada

.Fuulbana/September 27, 2014- Denver, Colorado
•  Fuulbana/September 27, 2014 – London, England

. Fuulbana/September 28, 2014- Seattle, Washington (NW US and British Columbia)

.Fuulbana/September 28, 2014- Kenya, Nairobi

.Fuulbana/September 28, 2014- Boston/ Cambridge, MA, USA

.Fuulbaana/September 28, 2004-  Columbus, Ohio
• Onkoloolessa/October 4, 2014 – Amsterdam, Holland – Germany

.Onkoloolessa/October4, 2014- Helsinki, Finland

.Onkoloolessa/October4, 2014- Cairo, Egypt

.Onkoloolessa/October4, 2014- Perth, Australia
• Onkoloolessa/October 5, 2014 – Melbourne, Australia

.Onkoolessa/October 12, 2014-Wellington,   New Zeland

http://gadaa.net/FinfinneTribune/2014/09/irreech-mallattoo-tokkummaa-fi-aadaa-oromooti/

Welcoming the New Season; Announcing the Season’s First Irreecha Celebration (Toronto, Canada – August 31, 2014)

According to the Oromo culture writer, Ob. Anga’a Dhugumaa, the preparation for the spring Oromo holiday of Irreecha/Gubaa, which celebrates the transition from the rainy season to the bright season by giving Thanks to Waaqa, begins in mid-August, and mid-August is only a couple of weeks away from today; the mid-August celebration is calledTaaboree or Muka Dhaabaa.

Here is a quote from Ob. Anga’a Dhugumaa article on Gubaa/Irreecha:

“In the middle of August, a tall olive tree (Ejersa – Olea Africana) is cut, and all its branches removed except at its top. It is then erected (horduu, dhaabuu) on ground as a pole. The species of this tree has to be olive. Olive trees (Ejersa) are considered as holy trees among the Oromo. Its smoke is very sweet. Erecting such a tree at the peak of the rainy season symbolizes a wish for the Earth to get firm. It is a peak time for the ground to get wet or saturated with rainwater, and is too weak to stand heavy rain. This day, which is called Taaboreeor Muka Dhaabaa, is observed by the youth only.

“The final gigantic celebration takes place exactly five weeks later from this day. The five weeks are refereed to as the ‘five-finger rules’. One finger is equivalent to one week.” (Read more here: http://goo.gl/kGdVBD)

With that, Toronto is once again ready to hold the first Irreecha celebration, which will be held in Whitby, Canada, on August 31, 2014.

Irreecha2014_Toronto1

Gubaa/Ibsaa
—————–
Ayyaana Gubaa jechuun dukkanaafi booruu gannaa oofkalanii gara ifa ykn booqaa birraatti ce’uuf sirna gaggeeffamuudha. Akkasumas, mallattoo Waaqa galateeffannaas ni jedhama. Sababni isaa, booruu gannaa, lolaafi bubbee hamaa, bakakkaa, galaanaafi kkf nagaan oofkalanii ifa birraatti waan bahaniif gammachuu ofii ibsachuun Waaqa galateeffatu. Firoonnis walitti dhufanii wal gaafachuu calqabu, “Baga booruu gannaa oofkaltee booqaa birraatti baate” waliin jechuu eegalu.
Ayyaanni Gubaa kun ummata Oromoo biratti kabajaafi jaalala guddaa qaba. Dubartootas ta’ee dhiironni dursanii qophii adda addaa taasisu. Dhiironni osoo guyyaan Gubaa hin ga’in mukeen akka Sukaayee, Sokorruu, Qamaxxee, Tamsaasa, maxaaxee, daalachoo, dhangaggoo fi kkf ciranii goggogsuun gaafa gubaan dhiyaate Xomboora hidhu. Kunis baay’ina dhiirotaatin qophaa’a.
Guyyaa gaafa Xomboora gubanii muka dhaabaa(‘Daamaraa’)f ta’u kanneen akka Abbayyii, Hindhee, Soolee, Ejersa, Ceekaa, Daalachoo, Urgeessaa fi kkf qopheessanii dhaabu. Guyyaa kana mukti jabaaf ta’u kan akka Laaftofii Diddiksaa fa’a ni qophaa’u.
Haala kanaan Ayyaanni Gubaa Oromoo walakeessa baatii Hagayyaa keessa gubama. Ibsaan Oromoo gaafa Hagayya 15 galgala yoo ta’u, Hagayya 16 daaraa guddaa jedhama.. Akka Oromoon dhugeefatutti guyyaa kana Waaqni sibiila lafatti gadi darbata jedhama. Guyyaa kana irraa kaasee lafti jabaachaa adeema, lagni ni hir’ata, firris wal gaafii eegala. Guyyaa gaafa ibsaa kana horiin haalan marga quufanii yeroon galfamu, fardeen yaabbii dhiqanii haalan kunuunsu. Galgala erga horiin hundi galanii booda namoonni mijirii(‘Abdaarii’) tokkotti ibsaa waliin guban marti isaanii walitti yaa’anii iddoo mijirii kanatti wal ga’u. Akkaataa angafaa quxusuu isaanitti Waaqa kadhachuun boolla muka dhaabaa dongoru. Yeroo dongoran kanas “Hamaa keenya dongori” jechaa Waaqa kadhachaa dongoru.
Kadhannaan isaanis:
Ibsaan kun ibsaa nagaa nuuf haa ta’u
Ibsaa quufafi gabbinaa haa ta’uu
Booruu gannaa nu oofkalchee
Booqaa birraas nu haa oofkalchu
Wal bira oolchee nu haa bulchu
……
Abbaa biyyaa biyyarra haa bulchu
Barri quufa; Gadaan gabbina
Gabbis Waaqi…jechuun kadhatanii muka dhaabaa dhaabu.
Mukoota dhaaban kanas hidda cimaan mudhii isaa naannessanii waliti hidhu.
Mukoota dhaabaa kana yommuu dhaaban maqaa muka dhaabanii sana waamun Safuu ykn cimina mukti kun qabuun Waaqa kadhatu. Fakeenyaf
Warri Abbayyii dhaaban, “ Abbayyii ati Abbaa nuuf ta’I” jedhu.
Warri Ejersa dhaaban, “ Waaqayyo ati akka Ejersa kanaatti nu cimsi “ jedhu.
Warri Hindhee ykn Soolee dhaabanis, “ Waaqayyo akka Soolee ykn Hindhee kanaatti nu soroorsi “ jechuun kadhachaa muka dhaabaa kana dhaabu.
Erga muka dhaabaa dhaaban booda muka dhaaban kanatti naanna’uun Sirba Gubaa ykn Hiyyoolee akka armaan gadii kanatti sirbu.
Hiyyoo koo daraari yaa abaaboo koo
Ganni bahee daraari yaa abaaboo koo
Birraan bari’e daraari yaa abaaboo koo
Kan qincee nyaatanii daraari yaa abaaboo koo
Kan fira gaafatanii daraari yaa abaaboo koo
Geese yeroon wal yaadanii daraari yaa abaaboo koo
Ibsaa gubnaa daraari yaa abaaboo koo
Har’I kudha shanii daraari yaa abaaboo koo
Qalloo dangashee too daraari yaa abaaboo koo
Osoon kiyya jedhuu daraari yaa abaaboo koo
Narraa fudhatanii daraari yaa abaaboo koo
Keelloon daraartee daraari yaa abaaboo koo
Randa gamaatti daraari yaa abaaboo koo
Qeerroon maraattee daraari yaa abaaboo koo
Warra durbaatti daraari yaa abaaboo koo.
…………………………………………………………….. jechuudhan sirbu.
Kana booda gara manaatti galanii sirna jabaa gaggeessu. Sirni kunis dhadhaa muuddachuun Waaqa kadhatanii Jabaa ibddatti kaa’u. haalli kadhannaa kunis:
Kunoo jabaa siif dhaabnnee ati nu jabeessi
Muudaan siif dhiiyaatee dhaltii okooleerra bulchi
Qotiyyoo harqoota keessa bulchi
Farad kooraa jala bulchi
Walii galtee nuuf kenni
Walitti nu jaaladhu
Bara bara quufaa gadhi.
Jabaa beelaa nurraa qabi
Jabaa deegaa nurraa qabi
………………………… jechuun kadhatu.
Sirni Jabaa akkuma xumurameen sirna Xomboora qabsiisutu itti fufa. Kan qabsiifatanis warra dhiiraa qofa. Haati warraa akka hangafaa quxusuutin abbaa warraa ishee irraa calqabdee Xomboora kanatti qabsiiftif. Yeroo qabsiifatan kanas “ kan baranaan nu geesse bara egereenis nu ga’I “ jechuun qabsiifatanii gara muka dhaabatti ykn bakka Mijirii dhaqanii muka dhaabaa kanatti Xomboora qabsiisu. Yeroo itti qabsiisan kanas gara bahaatti garagalanii “ Nyaataa moraa waraani “ jechuun itti kaa’u.
Sirni gubaa kun iddoo tokko tokkotti galgala muka dhaabanii bulchuun ganama obboroo gubu.
Kana booda dargaggootni mana manarra deemun hiyyoolee sirbu….
(Barruu Gadaa ,2013,:4-6), Sisay Sarbesa

Welcoming the New Season and the Culture of Darabaa Herding Among the Oromo in Daraa, Oromiyaa

Welcoming the New Season and the Culture of Darabaa Herding Among the Oromo in Daraa, Oromiyaa

Darabaa herding, as practiced in the Daraa district of the North Shawaa Zone in Oromiyaa, involves the migratory herding of cattle in the backwoods of River Mormor (the Blue Nile) valley during the rainy season, when the ground in the village areas becomes too muddy for herding. As the rainy season winds down, and the herders and the cattle return home, the community celebrates the coming of the new season by thankingWaaqaa (God) as part of the Irreecha festival. http://gadaa.net/FinfinneTribune/2014/08/welcoming-the-new-season-and-the-culture-of-darabaa-herding-migratory-herding-in-the-backwoods-among-the-oromo-in-daraa-oromiyaa/

IRREECHI GAHEERA.

IRREECHILLEE GAHEE NUTOO MAALFAAN QOPHOOFNEE?
MEE HARDHA IRREECHARRAAN WAA XIQQOO SINIIF QOODA WARRA KEENYAA

Irreechi ammaan tana irraa xiqqoo haasahuuf yaalus Irreecha BIRRAA (GALATAA) ti.
Irreechi birraa kan galatataati.mallattoo MALKAA SAAQAAti.
DHAHA/TIBBA EERA.
OROMOON BOORUU GANNAA, BACCEE FI BACAQII, RAAREE  FI DHOOQQEE, MALKAA OBAA BOORAHEE FI LAGA GUDDAA FIRA ADDAAN KUTEE BOORUU GANNAA OROMOON LOON ISAA MALKAA HIN BUUSU HAMMA HAAYYOONNI FI AYYAANTUN DURA AANTEEN BOOQAA BIRRAA GAHUUSAA LABSANITTI.GAAFA DUR SAN IBSAA/GUBAA BARII OROMOON FARDASAA MIMMIIDHAGSEe  DIINASAATTI DUULA.
GUBAAN OROMOO INNI HAGAYYAA DACHEE GURRAATTIIN RANDAA JAJJABAACHUUSHEE, BOORRUN CALALAA FI TALIILAA DEEMUU,YEROON BOKKAA HAMAA, KAKKAWWISAA FI BAKAKKAADHAA DARBUU…booqan birraammoo,waan waqtii ARFAASAA WAAQASAANII BIRA OLKAAHATAN YKN GAAFATAN SANATU FAROON TOLEET,MILKIIN KEESSA WAAN HULLUUQEF GALATAAF MALKAA DEEMA.MALKAA SAAQUU …
YEROO KANA BOODA NAMAA SA’AAN, WALKEESSA DEDDEEMUUNIS NI JALQABAMA.
Akka walii galaatti, IRREECHI OROMOO FI AFRIKAANOTAAF DHIMMA 
HAWAAS DIINAGDEETI. MALLATTOO ARAARAATI. MARGI JIIDHAN MALLATTOO KA’UMSA LUBBUU QABIYYEETTI HERREEGAMA.

Irreechi kennaadhas, Kennaa KAA—KENNAA WAAQAA. RUDA JALA URJIITU JIRA BIIFTUTU JIRA
DACHEERRAA FI JALASHEES WAAN LUBBUU QABUU FI HIN QABNETU JIRA.
IRREECHI AMMALLEE ARAARAA EKERAATII.GAAFA GALATEEFFATANIS MAQAA WARRA DARBEE FI JIRUUTINIS GALATA BAASA.

Oromoon heeran bula. Malkaafi horris heeran bulee bulfata. Heera kanatu waliin ceeccatee, raaroo ulfaafii aadaan walyaasee cuftinuu waliin miila dheerata miila gabaabbata. Malkaan hora. Dawoomas qaba. Akka bishaan kaanii miti jedhama. Horri yeroo kaanis ‘XABALA’.

Irreechi birraa, yeroo dhaloonni, hiddaafi hiddiin wal dheebote itti wal arguudha.  Gaafa Oromoon garaan waliif fayyaa san Irreecchi ayyaana addaati qaba ture. Gammachuu fi galata addaati. Baras madaalliin uumamaas eeggamaa ture.
Oromoon dhugaarratti yakka waan heeran eeggatuuf gaafas rakkinas hin qabu. Hin rakkatus.
Yoo waa jallate garuu taa’et qorata.Seerri uumamaa akka hin goolamne godha.Maalif jennaan Namnis uumami biraas ni goolama waan taheef tiksuun heera diroo diroodhaa eeguufi tiksuudha. Ofis rakkinaa fi gadadoorraa of tiksuu isaati.
Gaafa Irreechaa, meeshaalee fi ulfaa nagaa ,hormaataa, ayyaantummaa fi ulfoo dhiiraa dhalaa, gadaa, qadaaddoo, yuubaa-ruufaa, ayyaantuufaatu baha.Wanti qara qabaa,wanti waraanaa lallabaa bakka san hin gahu, guyyaan kuni guyyaa gammachuu, guyyaa galataa, guyyaa dhiichisaa, guyyaa ragadaa, guyyaa geelloo fi guyyaa faaruuti, guyyaa jaalalaa fi kaadhimmannaati,  gaafa Oromoon Oromoon oromummaan guutuu san.

MALKAA IMMOO DUBARTIITU SAAQA. Haawwoliin keenyammoo kunoo akkas jechaa deemu:-
Hahoo yaa mareehoo
Hahoo yaa maree hoo
Maree hoo maree hoo
Ayyaana waggaa maree sitti marmaaree yaa mareehoo
Irreecha irree koo yaa maree sitti marmaaree hoo
Yaa waaqaa malkaa nuuf tolee yaa ayyolee koo
Yaa abbaa tulluu nutti toli yaa tolee koo

HAHOO YAA MAREE HOO?

MAREE HOO,MAREE HOO
YAA wAAQAA HUNDAAN OLII
YA WAAQA ABBAA HARDHAA BORII
NUUF ROOBIMEE SORII
……………………………………
HAHOO YAA MAREE HOO
MAREE HOO…MAREE HOO
Maree haadha deechuu
Maree haadha teechuu
Maree haadha saawwaa
Maree haadha fayyaa,yaa maree hoo
Wagga waggaan sitti deemna,yaa mareehoo
Kunoo dhufnee jiidhanoo sitti marmaarree hoo
……………………………………………….

HAHOO YAA MAREE HOO
Maree haadhaa loonii
Maree haadha waatii
Maree haadha maatii
Maree haadha gootaa
Maree haadha duulaa
Maree haadha fuulaa
Hahoo yaa maree hoo.
Mmaree hoo,maree hoo
Yaa malkaa tolii sitti marmmaarree
Ilmaa abbaan sitti marmaarree hoo
Kallachaa caaccuun sitti marmaamme hoo
Bukkuu dhuqqusaan sitti marmaarree hoo
Hoohoo…ohohoo!
Hahoo yaa maree hoo

Yaa abba kolbaa
Yaa abba kormaa
Yaa abba malkaa
Siiqqeef qadaaddoon sitti marmaarree hoo yaa ayyeelee hoo
Ulfaafi uumeen sitti marmaarree hoo
Birmaduu-dabballeen sitti marmaarre hoo
Bulaaf buulettiin sitti marmaarree hoo

Kooyaa birraa birraan barihe farda biti yaa gootaa…

Qeerroon fiigichaan dhiichisaa

Namoonni gurguddoon abbootii gadaafi warra ulfaa dabaltee dubartoota dabaalanii,
dhibaayyuu, coqorsa, muka ejersaa, dhallaaduufi muka jiidhaa akka ulmaayiifi abbayiis tahu qabatanii (garuu coqorsi irraa hafuu hin qabu yoollee dhibe saardoo) isaaniitiin gara Malkaatti dhiyaatan.
Irreecha coqorsa jiidhaa, ittacha, ulmaayii, allaaduufi kanneen biro baala muka qulqulluufi gaaroma qabuu qabatanii ulfoo uuman EEBBIFATANII DUBARTIIN MALKAA SAAQXI JECHUUDHA.
Faaruun jedhamaa deemus yeroo baay’ee Gabbisayyoo dha.

Mee gabbisayyoo naannoo Tuullamaa kana haa ilaallu:-
Gabbisayyoon kan faarfamuu yeroo irreechaaf gara malkaas tahee horaa ykn gara tulluutti deeman kadhaa Waaqayyoo bifa sagalee kilooleesanaan faarsaatii deemsa miilaa waliin riitimiin uumamaa qindaayet faarfama.
Gabbisayyoo jenna jedha tokko. Jalaa fuudhaniit sin gabbisaa gabbis jedhuun Akkasitti akka armaan gadii kanatti faarfama ykn gabbifama jechuudha.

Gabbisayyoo, lafa gabbisaa gadaan
Yaa waaq sorii nutti roobi
Oromoon korma qalee
Kormi isaa biyya falee
Yaa waaq sorii nutti roobii
Dhagaan daakuu akka daakuu
Gadaa aabboo kan akaakuu
Yaa waaq sorii nutti roobi
Dhagaa daakuun mirrigaa dhaa

Gadaa ooluun mirrigaadhaa
Yaa waaq sorii nutti roobii
Odaan nabee laga looyee
Waaq aabboo sitti booyee
Yaa Waaq sorii nutti roobi
Odaa Nabee gaaddisa koo
Gadaa aabboo yaa tuma koo
Yaa waaq sorii nutti roobi
Kallachaa caachuu yaa ulfaa koo
Gadaan dhugaa yaa dhugaa koo
Yaa Waaq sorii nutti roobii….. Jechaatii gara Malkaatti deemu.

MALKAA ERGA GAHANIIS, DURA HAAWWOLIIN, HAATI CAACCUU, HAATI SIIQQEE. HANGAFTITTIIN YKN HAATI MALKAA BISHAAN ADDAAN SAAQXI MARGA YKN COQORSAA FI WAAN JIIDHAA HARKAAN QABDUUN JECHUUDHA.
EEBBI HANGAFAA QUXISUUDHAAN EEBBIFAMA.
AMMAAF HAMMI KUNI ANAAF NI GAHA.

WARRI HUBANNOO NA CAALAA QABDAN BEEKUMSA KEESSAN NUUF QOODAA!!

NAGAA WALIIN!

Caalaa Haa Hiluu @FB

SEENAA Y.G(2005): Irreechi Mallattoo Tokkummaa Keenyaati!

Fulbaana/September 1, 2014 · Finfinne Tribune | Gadaa.com |

SEENAA Y.G(2005)*

Addunyaan keessa jiraannu kun, irra jireessa Seenaa Abbooti Biyyaa Saamanii kan kooti jechuun waan nu dursaniif malee, Itoophiyaanis taatu Addunyaan biraa akka nu duuba jiran ragaalee hedduu tarrisuu dandeenya. Har’a Gabrummaa jala waan jirruuf, haqa kana fudhachiisuun ni ulfaata ta’a. Gaafa jabaannee humna taanee garuu addunyaan waan har’a aguugdee irra teesse kana ifa baasuun waan hin hafne. Gadaa nuuti waraqaa fi Maanguddoota keenya irraa dhaga’uun ala hojiin hin mul’ifne ykn, Beektoonni keenyas baratanii ittiin eebbifamuu malee, hanga har’atti Gadaan akkamiin hojii irra akka ooluu danda’u qorannoo gaggeessanii dhalootaaf dhiheessuu dadhaban kun, Dimokiraasii Ameerikaa har’aaf ka’umsa ta’uu isaa, Gola-hambaa yk Muziyeemiin Ameerikaa keessaa adda addaa, waan Oromoo addatti Booranaa keessaa guurame hedduu akka qaban, warri carraa argatanii ijaan argan ni dubbatu.

Biyyi yk Ummati Walabummaaf of qopheessu tokko, ega Walaboomee booda miti waan Biyya isaa keessatti ijaarrachuuf deemu yk barbaadu qorachuu kan eegalu. Walabummaa booda isa har’a Gabrummaa jalaa ba’uuf tattaaffannu caalaa hojiilee jajjabduutu nu eeggata. Walbummaa keenya kana mirkaneessuuf waan itti qophoofnu hedduutu jira. Humnaanu Biyya keenya dhuunfannu, Qabsoon Wlabummaa keenya addunyaa fudhachiisuuf nu eeggatu lakkoofsa hin qabu. Ragaalee walitti qabachuun, waan addunyaa irratti ittiin falamannu qopheeffachuun, waan gaafataman sirreeffachuun kkf, har’a kan nutti hin mul’annee, dhiheenya keenyatti argannu, yeroo yeroon isaa ga’u of biraa dhabnu hedduutu jira. Addatti beektoonni keenya Dirree siyaasaa irratti wal qabuu irra, hojiilee suduudaan isaan ilaallatan ammumaa gurmaa’aanii fixachuu, ragaalee guurrachuu, hojiilee Dippilomaasii gaggeessuu, waan Ummati kun dur qaba jedhamu kana hundaa walitti fidanii, waan fooyyaa’uu qabu fooyyeessanii, Baraa fi Dhaloota kana waliin akka deemutti qopheessuun Abshaalummaadha. Mata duree kana irratti bal’inaan waan itti qophaa’een qabaa yeroo biraa itti deebi’a. Qoodi hojii odoo jiraatee Mooraa qabsoo illee tasgabbeessuu danda’a jedhee waan yaaduuf.

Ummati Oromoo Gabrummaan dura akkuma Gadaan hundee Tokkummaa isaa ta’ee beekamutti “AYYAANNI IRREECHAA”s mallattoo Tokkummaa Ummatichaa akka ta’ee, kanneen seenaa Ummata kanaa akka gaaritti beekan addunyaa irratti katabanii ragaa ba’aniiru. Mootootii Biyya isaaniif fakkeenyummaa keenya kaasanii gorsaa turuu, Gola hambaa Biyyootaa fi Yunivarstiilee addunyaa irraa bebbeekamootu of keessatti dhokfatee, bara jabaannee nu dubbachuuf eegaa jiru. Amantiileen Addunyaa dhunfatanii jiran kanneen dachee Oromotti osoo hin dhufiin Waaqeffannaan akka turee fi Amantiin Addunyaa kana irra jiru hundi Oromiyaa ega seenee illee, Ummati Oromoo, IRREECHA akka Mallattoo tokkummaa isaatti fudhatee hanga har’aatti waliin Guyyaa Galataa kana kabajachaa jiraachuu ragaa kan ba’an lakkoofsa hin qaban.

Irreechi Guyyaa Waaqa itti Galateeffatan. Guyyaan kun Warra Irreecha dhabamsiisuuf waggoota dheeraaf ifaajjan biratti hin beekamu. Oromoon isaan waliin jiraatu GUYYAA GALATAA jedhee yennaa kabajatu, warra mukattii sagaduu jedhanii isa balaaleffatu. Balaaleffachuu irra dabree hidhaa fi ajjeesaa turan. Addunyaan Oromoo booda dhiheenya kanaa kaaftee Guyyaa Galataa jettee yennaa xibaartu ammoo, amma danda’an lallabaniifii ibsafaa itti kennuu barbaadu. Waan maraafuu kan beekaa rafe … isa jedhan waan ta’eef qalbii isaaniif haa laatu jechuun ala waan jennuun hin qabnu. Fakkeenyaaf Guyyaa jaalalaa kan jedhan addunyaan akka haaraatti faarsiti. Nuuti garuu maqaa adda addaa Godinaalee keenya keessatti haa qabaatu malee Baatiin Birraa Oromoo biratti waan addunyaan akka haaraatti faarsitu kanaan beekama. Addunyaan biqiltuu itti dhaabanii fi naannoo kunuunsan jettee Doolaara Biliyoonaan ittin saaman, Oromoon garuu muka muruuf seera mataa isaa umama isaa kaasee qaba. Addunyaan har’a Guyyaa hundaa, guyyaa fayyaa, guyyaa maanguddoo, guyyaa dubartii, guyyaa daa’immanii kkf jettee reefuu ramadaa jirti. Biyyoota hedduutti ega eegalamees Umuriin dargaggeessa tokko hin caalu. Oromoo biratti garuu Guyyaan 30 maqaa mataa isaa fi hiikkaa mataa isaa qaba. Waa hedduu kaasuu dandeenya. Nuumatu dhimma keenya dhimma addunyaa gochuuf hin tattaafannu malee, ykn Seenummaa isaatti qofaa daangeessinee teenye gaabbiin dhumna malee, waan irratti hojjatamu qabu lakkoofsa hin qabu jechuufan kaasee.

Irreecha waggoota 20 asitti kabajamaa jiru ilaalchisee beektoonni Biyya alaas ta’ee, Ummati keenya yaada nama jajjabeessu heddu kennee jira. Irreechi Guyyaa Galataa irra dabree hiikkaa ykn Kaayyoo jajjabaa kan biraas ni qabaata. Waaqayyoo guyyaa kanaaf isa ga’ee ni galateeffatan. Hegareef illee akka karaa qajeelchuuf dhaammatan. Mallattoo Tokkummaa saba kanaa ta’uu isaa fi Tokkummaa saba kanaa jabeessuuf qooda ofii akka gumaachan kakuu haarofatan, garaa qulqulluu wal eebbisan, hammeenya wal irratti hojjatan waliif dhiisan, garaatti hammeenyaa fi quuqqaa qabaachaa wal hin eebbisan, Malkaa nu’uun dura waan kana fixatan, Gadaa fi Miraga Abbaa Biyyummaa Oromoof kabachiisuuf waadaa seenan, waaqinillee akka gargaaruuf kadhatan, Maanguddoof Umurii, Ga’eessaaf qalbii, Dargaggeessaaf Gootummaa, Ijoolleef guddachuu itti hawwanii eebbisan. Ebbi kun garaa qulqullun yoo ta’ee qabachuu dubbatan. Kun Iccitti muraasa Guyyaa Glataa kana keessa jiru Bara gugguffannaa kana keessa hin guuttatan. Irrumaa barachaa dhaloota Guutuu ta’uu uummachuuf hojjatan.

Irreechi kan Oromooti. Dhimma Oromooti. Dhimma nama dhuunfaa miti. Dhimma beektootaa ykn Namoota siyaasaa ykn dhaabbilee siyaasaa qofaa miti. Waldaalee adda addaa qofaas miti. Qaamoon kanneen, Irreecha kana bakkatti deebisuuf, ykn addunyaatti beeksiisuuf hojjachuu danda’u. Yennaa hojjatanis, kan Oromoo ta’uutti labsanii Ummaticha illee ittiin beeksisan. Kanaaf, Irreecha Mallattoo Tokkummaa keenyaa ta’uu mirkaneessuuf gama hundaa walitti dhufanii fi wal Afeeranii kabajuun, Dimokiraasiin nuuf Aadaa malee kan addunyaan jettu kana akka hin taane mirkaneeffannee, Addunyaatti of beeksiisuun ni dada’ama jedheen amana. Fincila diddaa Gabrummaa Biyya keessaa 2014 ilaachisee Abbootiin Amatii adda addaaHIRIIRA DEEGGARSAA fi gocha wayyaanee balaaleffachuu irratti Biyyoota alaatti argamanii akkuma qooda isaanii gumaachan, IRREECHA BARANAA irratti hirmaatanii Tokkummaa Ummata kanaaf lallaba dhageesisuun nu jabeessa malee nu hin laaffisu. Gama Siyaasaan kan jirrus, waan tokkummaa keenya mamii keessa hin galchine irratti waliin dhaabbachuun akka waliif naatoo qabaannu nu taasisee hegaree keenya waliin qajeelchuuf nu gargaaruun ala badii tokkollee hin qabaatu. Guyyaa waaqa itti galateeffatan qofaa waan ta’eef.

Dubbiin heddummaateef maalitti hin fe’anii jedhama. Lammiileen keenya addatti Dargaggoonni Bara 2014 kana Fincila Diddaa Gabrummaa irratti wareegaman irra jireessi isaanii Aadaa fi Seenaa Oromoof kabajaa guddaa kan qaban, IRREECHA OROMIYAA keessatti babal’isanii Tokkummaa Ummatichaa akka sibiilaa jabeessuuf kan hojjataa turan heddummiinaan keessatti argaman. Kaayyoo isaanii kana Galmaan ga’uuf waadaa keenya illee kan itti haaromsinu haa ta’u. Waan ofii keenyaa addunyaatti nu beeksisuu danda’an katabuu fi barachuu, akkasumas ittiin eebbifamuu qofaa odoo hin taanee, hojii irra oolchuuf irratti haa hojjannu. Kana hojjachuuf ilaalchi siyaasaa kkf nu daangeessu jedhee hin amanu. Seenaa, Aadaa, fi duudhaa Oromoo keessa jiru katabuu fi argaa dhageettin dhaloota lama dabarsinee jirra. Walii dabarsuu kana keessa waan itti dabalamuu fi hir’atu hedduun jiraachuu ni mala. Kanaaf akkaataa dhalooti itti aanu illee ittin jiraatu irratti haa hojjannu. Addunyaa irratti saba Seenaan isaa qofti dubbatamu taanee hafnaa? IRREECHII 2014 KAN MILKII NUUF HAA TA’U! KAN DABE ITTI QAJEELEE, OFITTUMMAAN ITTI DHABAMEE, FEDHIIN ILMAAN OROMOO ITTI QAJEELU HAA TA’U. GADAAN QUUFAA FI GABBINA.

GALATOOMAA!

HORAA BULAA!

* SEENAA Y.G (2005): Burqaa430@gmail.com

http://gadaa.net/FinfinneTribune/2014/09/seenaa-y-g2005-irreechi-mallattoo-tokkummaa-keenyaati/

Kitaaba Raayyaa Horoo
Bara 6500 A. L . W /2008 ALA

THEORIZING WAAQEFFANNAA: OROMIA’S INDIGENOUS AFRICAN RELIGION AND ITS CAPACITY AND POTENTIAL IN PEACEMAKING September 21, 2014

Posted by OromianEconomist in Africa, African Literature, Ancient African Direct Democracy, Ancient Egyptian, Ancient Rock paintings in Oromia, Ateetee, Ateetee (Siiqqee Institution), Black History, Chiekh Anta Diop, Culture, Cushtic, Humanity and Social Civilization, Irreecha, Irreecha (Irreesa) 2014, Irreecha (Irreessa) 2014, Irreecha Birraa, Kemetic Ancient African Culture, Meroetic Oromo, Oromia, Oromiyaa, Oromo, Oromo Culture, Oromo Identity, Oromo Nation, Oromo Social System, Oromo Wisdom, Oromummaa, Qaallu Institution, The Goddess of Fecundity, Waaqeffanna (Oromo ancient African Faith System).
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OTHEORIZING WAAQEFFANNAA: OROMIA’S INDIGENOUS AFRICAN RELIGION AND ITS CAPACITY AND POTENTIAL IN PEACEMAKINGThe article is Originally published by OromoPress @http://oromopress.blogspot.co.uk/2012/12/theorizing-waaqeffannaa-oromias.htmlSee  also Fulbaana/September 18, 2014 · Finfinne Tribune | Gadaa.comhttp://gadaa.net/FinfinneTribune/2014/09/oromopress-theorizing-waaqeffannaa-oromias-indigenous-african-religion-and-its-capacity-and-potential-in-peacemaking/

In most of Africa, indigenous African religions have been pushed to the margin because of a number of factors. The implied and open relegation of indigenous African religions to the levels of inferiority and inconsequentiality in world affairs by colonial powers and post-colonial contemporary African states not only undermines and stereotypes the examination of the unique contributions of these religions to peacemaking, but also discards with them unique mythologies, values, laws, cultures and meaning-making systems. I argue that applying North American conflict resolution models, without considering African religious values that existed for many millennia before the arrival of world religions, will be an enormous hindrance to building lasting peace from the bottom-up in the vastly rural and agrarian Africa that is still steeped in traditions and rituals.

Contributing to a range of negative stereotypes about African religions (example, uncivilized, barbaric and conflict-generating) is the fact that many of them have been orally transmitted from generation to generation and lack written major holy books unlike the world religions. The purpose of this paper is to shift attention from common misconceptions about African religions to a productive examination of the constructive roles they can be made to play.

I will focus on the case of Waaqeffannaa, an Oromo indigenous religion of East Africa, and its core values and laws. It will be significant to examine Waaqeffannaa’s complex concepts, such as concept and view of Waaqaa (God), Eebba (prayers and blessings), safuu (the place of all things and beings in the cosmic and social order), issues related to cubbuu (sin) and other religious and ritual practices. Although there is no holy book forWaaqeffannaa thus far, I will obtain my data from published ethnographic books, journal articles, periodicals, relevant reports and press releases. The interactions between Waaqeffannaa and other organized religions, such as Christianity and Islam, will be examined in context.

The paper will seek answers to three related questions:

What are the contributions or lack thereof orally transmitted values and laws of Waaqeffannaa to peacemaking and relationship-building? If there are any contributions, how can they be compared to other forms of conflict resolution? What will be the role of Waaqeffannaa in peacemaking in the ever changing global and local contexts of religious diversity and difference?

The Concept of God in Waaqeffannaa’s Monotheistic System

In order to examine the hermeneutic advantages and disadvantages of Waaqeffannaa and compare it to modern or Western conflict resolution methods, it is essential to examine the concept of God (Waaqaa) in the religion in its own right. There is a consensus among researchers and observers of Waaqeffannaa—the most prominent of whom are pre-colonial European missionaries, explorers and anthropologists and local religious leaders and scholars—that Waaqeffannaa is one of the ancient indigenous African monotheistic religions.[1] The Oromo, the Cushitic African people of Ethiopia, among whom this religion emerged and developed, call their one God Waaqaa or more intimately and endearingly Waaqayyoo (good God). It is difficult to capture with one definition the complexity of the ways in which the followers of this religion (Waaqeffataas) relate to God and make sense of God (not gendered) is hard to capture just with one definition. The question of ways of understanding and relating to God is a question of Waaqeffannaa’s worldview that is indigenous and unique, in some ways, and thus, different from ways in which followers of major world religions understand and relate to God.

While monotheism is a key similarity it shares with Judaism, Christianity and Islam, Waaqeffannaa has the following worldview of its own:

We believe in God who created us. We believe in Him (sic) in a natural way … We believe in God because we can see what God has done and what he does: he makes rains and the rains grow greenery, and crops that we consume. He lets the sun shine. So believing in him is instinctive and inbuilt. It is as natural as the desire we have for food and drink, and as natural as the reproduction of living things. We go to the nature, the nature that He created: mountains and rivers to praise and appreciate Him impressed by His works … [2]

This contemporary declaration of the faith centers on nature and creation that can be pragmatically seen and experienced in daily life. There is no mention of “heaven” and “hell” here. Concerning the followers’ perceptions of the residence of God, Bartels writes, “They do not visualize Waaqaa(sic) existing outside this world in time or space … In this sense Waaqaa is as much of this world as the vault of the sky.”[3] Bokku concurs with Bartels findings that God exists among people on earth, but Bokku makes a radically different claim as follows: “Waaqeffataas don’t [sic] believe in after life. They don’t believe that God would come in the future to judge people and send the righteous to heaven and the sinful to hell. God is with us always.”[4] Bokku’s claims can be controversial because in much of the literature I reviewed, I found that the question of “after life” is either overlooked or ambiguously treated, except in the work of Father De Salviac whose much older field research (1901) explicitly states the existence of the belief in life after death among Waaqeffataas in eastern Oromia as follows:

They acknowledge three places destined to receive the souls after death. The paradise, which they call: the ‘Happiness of God’,Ayyaana Waaqaa; or the: ‘Response of God’, Bayanacha Waaqaa; or even Jenneta Waaqaa; ‘Paradise of God’, is reserved for the just who go there to enjoy the company and infinite blessings of the Lord … they say of death ‘That he passed on to Waaqaa;’ – ‘That he entered into Waaqaa,’ – ‘That he went to his eternal house with Waaqaa’.[5]

Reference to life after death, punishments and rewards in hell and heaven respectively are very rare features of the religion. Nonetheless, the argument that De Salviac makes about the existence of the belief in life after death in Oromo society is enough to make Bokku and other writers’ denial of the existence of “life after death” contested and curious. The issue of justice and how people relate to each other may hold for every writer. The question of relationships between peoples, and nature and justice will be treated in later sections for safuu.

Waaqeffataas generally view and worship Waaqaa based on their amazement with the ingenious works of Waaqaa’s hands that they experience and find them overwhelming to comprehend and explain. Even family prayers around the hearth contains many such instances: “UNIQUE AND SO GREAT GOD SUPPORT WITHOUT PILLAR THE DOME OF THE BLUE SKY.”[6]

Waaqeffataas view the earth as one of the major ingenious works of God. The earth is viewed inseparably from God. The image that followers of this religion have of the relationship between Waaqaa and the Earth “comes close to that of a human couple”[7]: ‘the earth is Waaqaa’s wife—Lafa niti Waaqaa,’[8] According to Bartels, there are four manifestations of the close connection between Waaqaa and the earth in four spheres of theWaaqeffannaa religious life:[9]

  1. Blessings

May the Waaqaa and the earth help you.

May Waaqaa and the earth cause you to grow up (a blessing for children.) …

  1. Curses

Be not blessed either by Waaqaa or the earth.

May Waaqaa and the earth burn [make dry] your kidneys and your womb (the curse is addressed to a woman).

  1. Oaths

The man who takes the oath breaks a dry stick, saying:

‘May the earth on which I walk and Waaqaa beneath whom I walk do the same to me, if I have done such and such a thing.’

  1. Rituals

There are rituals of slaughtering a bull or sheep for Waaqaa and making libation (dhibayyuu) under a tree for the earth.[10]

Waaqeffannaa rituals honor both God and the earth. Followers of the religion seem to take cue from God Himself, who created the earth, to inform their ways of relating to Waaqaa and earth (lafa). Evidence that suggests a relationship based on fears, intimidations or punishment between God and persons is less prevalent than those that are mostly based on respect for God, one another and for the earth. Waaqeffataas embrace and celebrate the egalitarian view of God and the diversity of names people call God. Despite some differences among people, research points to followers’ similar attitudes towards God. “… it has become clear that their attitude towards him [sic] is not only inspired by awe but also marked by familiarity and even, from time to time, by lack of respect. In his despair, a man may claim: ‘Waaqaa does not exist!’”[11] This just showsWaaqeffataas have a more liberal relationship with God. It does not mean that they are less pious as there is enough evidence to suggest many magnificent examples of humility, piety and obedience.

The question of Waaqeffataas’ acknowledgement of the oneness of God and the multiple names various religions call Him does not only show the openness of the concept of God to various interpretations, but it also shows the religion’s acceptance of religious diversity. It is easier to engage in interfaith or other conflict resolution activities when such an acknowledgement is extant than when religions claim “my way or the highway.” The ways some prayers are rendered testify to this progressive values of Waaqeffannaa: “O Black God who created the dark sky and the clean waters, who is one but called by multitudes of names, who has no competitor, the omniscient, the omnipotent, the omnipresent, who is eternal and ever powerful, whose power can never decline.”[12] Because of the view of God described here, Waaqeffataas believe that God is patient and that it is not in His nature to become angry if people believe in other things abandoning Him. Bokku holds the Waaqeffannaa God is too self-confident to be angered into punishing people who do not obey or defect to other religions.[13]

Prayers and Blessings

Boran society sometimes appears to float on a river of prayers and blessings…

Paul T. Baxter.[14]

Common to private, collective and family prayers is the focus of Oromo/Waaqeffataas’ prayers on the material conditions and well-beings of the self, the family and the group. Prayers mediate conditions of people to God so he can intervene and alter their current conditions.[15] The faithful pray for peace, health, deliverance from wrongdoing and harmful sprits and things, human and livestock fertility, growth of babies (little ones), long life for adults, for the goodness of the inside and the outside, rain, harvest and development, inter alia.

The Waaqeffannaa prayer is barely about inheriting the kingdom of heaven nor is it about seeking the help of God in a battle against Satan and sin. Evidence suggests that the concept of Devil/Satan does not exist in Waaqeffannaa while spirits that cause all kinds of suffering and misfortune or harm (ayyaana hamaa) are believed to exist.[16] Instances of talk about Devils by Waaqeffataas are generally understood as the borrowing of a religious vocabulary from the adjacent/co-existing major faiths, such as Christianity and Islam. For instance, Waaqeffataa pray to God to prevent them from wrongdoing and errors committed in ignorance. The religion has no room for addressing anxieties and fears arising from the imaginary realm of the devil/evil. For instance, words used in prayers include, “Prevent us from wrongdoing …” (dogogora nu oolchi). In terms of how people experience and understand misfortunes and fortunes (good things) Oromo proverbs capture the peoples’ dependence on Waaqaa. Indeed, the proverbs below indicate how Waaqaa is perceived as the source of good and bad things that happen in real life:[17]

A house that is built by Waaqaa will be completed.

It is Waaqaa who brings hunger;

It is Waaqaa who brings a full stomach.

The one Waaqaa clothes will not go naked.

Who trusts on Waaqaa will not lack anything.

Man wishes, Waaqaa fulfills.

Waaqaa is there [therefore] the sun rises.

It is Waaqaa who makes a person sick;

It is Waaqaa who restores him to health.

Waaqaa is never in a hurry;

But he is always there at the proper time.

There are standard prayers that have been codified in oral tradition and bequeathed down to generations. The codification of prayers, rituals and ceremonies in oral traditions serve the purpose of making Oromo worships definite and unarbitrary. The question of precise transmissions of spoken messages are always up for debates as there are obviously some room for improvisation and modification as the word of mouth (message) travels through time and space. I believe that the improvisation aspect of oral narratives will add an interesting dimension of dynamism to the hermeneutics of Waaqeffannaa.

De Salviac praises the endurance of Waaqeffannaa for many millennia in spite of the oral mode of transmission. De Salviac aptly critiques the West for generally believing that the sole sources of “valid” or “authentic” knowledge are written texts (books) as follows: “We, accustomed to the cycle of knowledge by turning pale over the books, our careless memory resting on the permanence of typography, we hardly take into account the power of tradition, which sufficed, for centuries, for the civilization of many peoples. With the Oromo, religious and secular traditions are formulated in thousands of short sentences …”[18]

What I understand from De Salviac is that Western or modern industrialized societies privilege written knowledge. His critique is on tangent because preference for written and formal communication in the West will certainly shape intervention policy-making, official diplomacy and the attitudes of interveners towards indigenous cultures. Third party interveners with fixed or rigid approaches are not only likely to disrespect and shun local knowledge systems, but they are also likely to impose rigid and unproductive conflict resolution processes developed in the context of limited civilizations.

One can only anticipate the stiff resistance that locals are likely to put up against Western models in today’s Africa where there is an increasing awareness about the importance of self-reliance and going back to the roots in order to solve indigenous problems. The true superficiality of strict Western models of dialogue, mediation, problem-solving workshop can be revealed by observing how in most of Africa’s peripheries cut of modern laws, bureaucracies and infrastructures, people thrive on the strong indigenous knowledge systems. This is how most conflicts are resolved and how people do communal work in either irrigating the land or protecting the environment. In the contexts of corrupt and partisan politics, these efforts by local people to overcome the daily challenges must be given credit because some of them are providing themselves important social services that that their governments have failed to provide them. In any effort of conflict resolution or peacemaking in such dire circumstances, it is imperative to bring local knowers (the wise men and women) into the sphere of diplomacy and peacemaking.

Prayers, sometimes synonymously called blessings or benedictions, in the form of litany and chants are integral parts of indigenous communities. Every communal activity whether it is weddings, funerals or dances and music begins with blessings or prayers. Eebba is aimed moderating the way people relate to each other at certain venues and beyond. They are about building constructive relationships even in times of wars. Here are some examples of Oromo prayers/blessings of different periods and crowds’ responses.

Pre-colonial prayers[19]:

Ya Waaq, have pity on us;              Yes, yes, have pity on us

Ya Waaq, bless us;                          Yes, yes, bless us.

Ya Waaq give us happy days;             Yes, yes, happy days.

Ya Waaq in our discussions inspire us;  Yes, yes, inspire us.

Ya Waaq in our counsel give us light;            Yes, yes, give us light.

Ya Waaq bring back rebellious son to his father; Yes, yes, bring back.

Ya Waaq bring back unruly son to his mother;   Yes, yes, bring back.

Ya Waaq to good man give cows;                  Yes, yes, give.

Ya Waaq preserve our house from ruin;                     Yes, yes preserve.

Contemporary prayers:[20]

Yes! Yes! Yes!

God of Nature and of Creations;

Waaqaa who created the Haroo Walaabuu (lake)[21];

Waaqaa who let us spend the night in peace;

Let us spend the day in peace;

Prevent us from entering into fatal errors;

Guard us against straying from the right path;

Guard us against mistakes/wrongdoings;

May the Creator we pray to hear us!

May Waaqaa guard us against the harmful!

May Waaqaa bring good things our way!

May children (the little ones) grow up!

May the grown-ups live longer!

May the ignorant know!

May experts/the wise last!

May Kormaa (uncustrated bull) reproduce!

May pregnancies stay healthy and hold!

Let Him keep away harmful things!

Gadaa (social system) is the system of rain and peace!

The year is the year of abundance/development and full stomach.

These contemporary prayers cited from the Waaqeffannaa magazine are powerful. They are usually used in order to open any public/communal gatherings secular and spiritual. This is how things are called to order. The religious prayers give authority or credibility to whatever event that is to take place. At the center of this messaging is reaching the hearts and minds of parties to an event by cleansing the air of any hard feelings and ensuring that the heart and minds are softened and ready for the secular or non secular events and exchanges that will proceed from that.

Historically, Oromos made ecumenical pilgrimages to holy sites of Abbaa Muudaa, Spiritual Father,[22] in order to receive blessings for them and to bring back blessings into their communities with them. Blessings are still considered serious religious activities that serve as glues of social life. Spiritual Fathers can give blessings to people on a range of personal and communal matters: such as long life, being alive, more property and wealth, peace in the household, on productions (calves, children, crops).

I have not come across modern mediation, negotiation or other third party intervention processes that start with prayers. Obviously, if blessings are not built into the processes, an attempt at conflict resolution in African societies, such as the Oromo, will be in vain. In the first place, people will not recognize what is not authorized and endorsed by their own knowledge system. Most importantly, empowering and funding Abbaa Mudaas or elders to engage in conflict resolution is likely to be accepted and bear fruit because of the tremendous reputations these people wield in society. They are highly regarded in society and leaving them out of official processes simply works against peace.

In Waaqeffannaa, one sees from the content of the payers and blessings above that most of them take on the nature of what Gopin succinctly characterizes as “Premordial prosocial moral/spiritual values.”[23] Although many of the conflicts in Ethiopia (Africa) are not religiously driven, the application of religious values will have a huge impact on conflicts driven by ethnicity, nationalisms and competition over resources and power. People listen when one reaches out and talks to them at their own level. Gopin provides a detailed critique of why current modern conflict resolution approaches fail to understand the importance of using prosocial religious values in the context of the Arab/Israel conflict in the Middle East, but his appraisal also holds true for the Horn of Africa region, where the volatility and intractability of conflicts are comparable to the ones in the Middle East. Among the important reasons Gopin cites are the West’s refusal to recognize non-Western models and knowledge systems. Gopin articulates the consequences of modern cultures failure to reckon with indigenous religious and cultural systems as follows:

As religion becomes more important in the lives of hundreds of millions of people, the political power generated by this commitment will either lead to a more peaceful world or to a more violent world, depending on how that power is utilized … Methods of peacemaking that continue to focus only on political and intellectual elites or that fail to address the broadest possible range of religious believers are leading to systematic and potentially catastrophic diplomatic failures in key areas of the world … [24]

Survival through Religious Diversification and Rituals

It is accurate that Waaqeffannaa and similar Africa indigenous religions are being reincarnated and are slowly starting to become explicitly important in the lives of so many people. Religious traditions, including those from indigenous religions, form the bedrock of the values of those Africans who converted to Christianity and Islam. Often these values moderate the foreign values associated with the cultures from which these major religions originated. It is not just the Waaqeffataas who only follow the indigenous religion, but a swathe peoples seem to have accepted double or triple religious lives. They shuttle between various religious and cultural values in their daily decision-makings so as to adapt to changing socio-economic circumstances. Pointing to the loose nature of individual’s and group’s negotiations between multiple religious identities, Aguilar[25] presents a case of the importance of “religious diversification for survival” among the Kenyan Boran/Oromo in northern Kenya. Aguilar provides the best illustration for survival and adaptation by accepting diverse religious values. He cites how Muslim and Waaqeffaannaa parents send their children to Catholic schools in northern Kenya and that the children do perfectly well shuttling between religious worldviews without facing physical dangers.[26] The same religious rituals performed by followers of Waaqeffannaa form the cores of the rituals and daily cultural practices of the followers of Islam and Christianity, as a mechanism of preserving and transmitting their identity. For instance, some of the religious traditions and rituals kept by Oromo communities who converted to major religions in north Kenya include similar types of blessings, prayers, and peacemaking through rituals of coffee beans-slaughtering and symbolic prayers.[27] These subtle practices of syncretism not only form the core identity of Oromo in north Kenya and connect them to the mainland (Oromia-Ethiopia), but they also play stabilizing roles in a families and communities there.[28]

The phenomenon of syncretism/ “religious diversification” serves as a survival strategy where minority communities cut off into another country from the mainstream because of colonial map-making try to cope with the alien majority they are swallowed up by. The case of Kenyan Oromos imitating the Waaqeffannaa values of the mainland is an example of such an essential survival strategy. Aguilar puts this as, “It is clear that the strategy of diversification provides the household (and a manyatta [place of settlement]) with security should something happen to either of the herds.”[29]

It is no accident that somebody whom an outsider may perceive as a follower of one religion is actually found at the crossroads of multiple religious values. It takes a deeper look to discern such subtle and significant dynamics. For an intervener who has no interest or who is not patient to take time and learn, the subtlety of the power of tradition will ever remain inaccessible. Because one has no access to the right cultural tools, the very people he/she trying to reach and help will become inaccessible and unresponsive, especially if one attempts to impose some ivory-tower (imported) conflict resolution framework or process on local situations. People have been handling their affairs everyday for centuries independently of outsiders. To assume that they somehow do not or their methods are not in par with modern approaches will defeat the purpose of thinking to help others in the first place.

Safuu in Peacemaking and Social Harmony

This section analyzes the role of Safuu as one of the key elements of Waaqeffannaa. Safuu is a prosocial variable that needs a deeper analysis to see its roles in indigenous peacebuilding. Safuu is a broad concept that governs relationship in and between families, communities, national groups and relationship between people and nature and things.

Bartels provides a nuanced anthropological definition of the term Safuu:[30]

Saffu is a fundamental and all-pervading concept in the Matcha’s [Oromo] life. It implies that all things have a place of their own in the cosmic and social order, and that they should keep this place. Their place is conditioned by the specific ayana [good spirit] each of them has received from Waaqaa. Every creature, and especially man, has to act according to its own ayana and to respect the others’ ayana. Saffu implies both rights and duties. In the people’s eyes wisdom is ‘knowing saffu and abide [sic] by it.’

Gemetchu Megerssa, a leading Oromo anthropologist and former research assistant to Lambert Bartels, probably influenced by Bartels himself, states that safuu is one of the key founding concepts in Oromo culture and Waaqeffannaa tradition.[31] Bartels’ definition is more encapsulating, while it shares one central common feature with Megerssa’s definition, “… the concept of saffu(mutual relationship between elements of the social and cosmic orders) which maintains practice obligatory [sic] through ethical conduct.” They both agree that safuu governs relationships between people and people, and people and nature, but Megersa introduces a newer and more specific idea of safuu as “an ethical conduct.”

Another leading expert on Waaqeffannaa, Bokku quotes Bartels directly and extends the concept of Safuu to broad areas of “morality”, “norm” and “laws” that govern social and ecological order.[32] Bokku states his extended definition building on Bartels: “Safuu is the understanding of differences and appreciation of differences for the peaceful coexistence of all natural things.” For Bokkuu, as opposed to man-made laws “safuu is not subject to change.” He concludes that safuu as laws of nature is necessary for the “smooth operation of life”, which is harmony. Everyone invokes the notions that Safuu owes its authority over social relationship because it derives from the will or the spirit of God (ayyaanaa). Thus, experts agree that Safuuis one of the fundamental principles of Oromo culture that governs relationships and keeps society together.

In Waaqeffannaa in particular and Oromo culture in general, it is believed that “breaking safuu would cause some sort of trouble.”[33] Breaking safuulaws is seen as committing sin. The consequences of breaking various categories of safuu are understood as generating unhappy reactions from God. In Waaqeffannaa when someone sins, God turns His back on him/her. The meaning behind this is that if one misses the face of God, it means that one lacks ayyana (a guardian, blessings or will of God). This core law encourages people to maintain friendly relationships between themselves and with nature. Safuu is a law of rights and obligations. Since Safuu is not something in people, but something between them, it is assumed to promote collective harmony. Paying attention to the concept of “sin” in the meaning system of Waaqeffannaa is important because it comes from the Oromo word, “‘balleessuu’, which actually means ‘to destroy, to damage, to spoil’”[34]

When one engages in destructive activities one is considered to be destroying, damaging, and spoiling relationships between at least three parties: God, creation (nature) and other human beings. In Oromo life, not damaging relationship between oneself and creations is given more importance than not damaging relationship between human and God.[35]

The Dynamisms of the Indigenous Faith System

It is hard to understand how one can be effective in conflict resolution in Africa without having at least the working knowledge of important key principles governing all-rounded relationships, such as safuu. Religious values of Waaqeffannaa may not require so much hermeneutic transformation because they already exist in pro-social form. Keeping natural and social orders is already a stringent requirement on top of acceptance for differences of any sort.

In Waaqeffannaa, destroying (for example killing humans in conflict) is prohibited by the religion’s laws. Those who violate traditional laws and destroy anything will face alienation and banning from God as well as from fellows humans. They are denied opportunities to sit and eat at a table with family members and others; they become social outcasts. My evidence does not suggest any anti-social principles/laws in the Waaqeffannaaworldview so far. Even some of the curses that are put on people have the goal of ensuring social harmony and can be viewed positively. If I had come across anything that says, “if you kill your enemy or someone, God will reward you with heaven or sainthood or some other rewards,” I would have paused and thought, this is a justification for war and destruction that needs to be hermetically transformed. Transformation may be due if violence is made into something sacred. In my opinion the values of this religion particularly those about safuu are poised to play important peacebuilding and relationship-building roles at least in Ethiopia and the Horn of Africa.

One can think of the lack of written scriptures (there are oral ‘scriptures’) for African religion as both advantages and disadvantages. In terms of the creativity and improvisation of transmissions of oral values/laws, the lack of written scriptures is an advantage because followers or leaders of indigenous religions will have the ability to interpret the concepts in ways that meet the physical and spiritual needs of their time. But that can also be a disadvantage since some lament that African could not have converted to Christianity and Islam if they had written scriptures and transformed their religions into organized faith systems.[36]

The question of whether Africans had concepts of God or not or whether they were ‘pagan hordes’ as the colonialists viewed them is now an outdated and irrelevant question because a number of scholars have produced research revealing that indeed Africans had believed in one God even before the advent of Middle Eastern religions.[37] Mbiti’s findings are credible because he stayed in Africa for 15 years and conducted studies on about 300 African communities and their belief systems.

Because indigenous African religions, including Waaqeffannaa, lack written scriptures, culturally biased scholars who judge everything according to Western standards may think religions, such as Waaqeffannaa, are inferior, static and things of the past. In rebuttal, one can respond to that arguing that oral mode of transmission makes African religions dynamic, ever-changing and ever-adapting to social changes even after some converted to other faiths. This happens because African religions do not punish defections and because their religious leaders are less likely to make claims to the permanence of specific oral texts or think of the values/traditions of their religion as the only “Truth” to die for.

About the locus of the existence of African religions, Mbiti writes, “Religion in African societies is written not on paper but in people’s heart, minds, oral history, rituals, and religious personages like the priests, rainmakers, official elders … African religions have neither founders nor reformers.”[38]Mbiti’s notion of the lack of founders and reformers can be contested because it could be that founders and reformers might have existed millennia ago and simply no written records were kept about them. The key point here is that words of mouth are dynamic. The best way to reach the hearts and minds of the vast peoples of rural Africa should be through oral traditions and spoken language. The prevalent practice by third party interveners shows an opposite tendency of bureaucratizing everything and transmitting messages via the written medium (forms and documents) through the agency of “rational professionals”.

Authors caution against viewing Waaqeffannaa religious traditions as part of a static tradition of the past[39], and encourage us to view them as dynamic traditions that are continually changing based on wider experiences that are part of their present. Aguilar is succinct about the advantages of the dynamism of Waaqeffannaa’s hermeneutics: “… traditions are transmitted, never as static forms but as changeable manifestations of an Oromo religion [Waaqeffannaa] that interacts [sic] with other traditions and other ethnic groups, and therefore becomes capable of reshaping society itself.”[40]

Lessons for Conflict Resolution

The values and laws of Waaqeffannaa identified and analyzed in this research suggest the importance of recognizing African indigenous religious systems and the prosocial contributions of their values and laws to conflict resolution.

I deliberately tried not to impose a theoretical framework over my analysis although my approach was influenced by hermeneutics.[41] Engaging in peacemaking in indigenous African communities requires the use of what Gopin, drawing on Lederach, calls “elicitive and cross-cultural methods.”[42] Concepts such as safuu, the Waaqeffannaa worldview, prayers, blessings, harmony are predominantly about building relationships between people and people, and them and nature. The most effective way of arriving at these principles and using them in interventions is to do one’s best to involve indigenous peoples, religious leaders, elders and parties to conflict and to elicit from them the best practices they have evolved over centuries in peacemaking.

Indigenous African religions are caught up in multipronged challenges, such as lack of recognition from interveners, states and richer and more organized religions despite their prevalence and appeal to many African communities. Established conflict resolution methods, such as mediation, negotiation, facilitation, problem-solving workshop and dialogue, are often too Western, rationalistic, elitist and foreign to accommodate other grassroots approaches to peacemaking, such as obeying safuu. If we look at official mediation, for instance, we find the reliance on rigid processes and professionals as its main features. Such formal stages may include collecting data, building hypothesis about a conflict, searching for theories, selecting theory, making intervention, and verifying and nullifying hypothesis.[43] It is not necessarily bad to prepare for mediation in stages, but when everything is prefigured, there is a danger of learning very little on the field while doing the intervention itself. In most rationalistic conflict resolution methods listed above, the immediate settlement of conflict is desired. This may turn out to be a shortcoming because long-term relationship-building and peacemaking, which is the hallmark of indigenous systems, are and sidelined.

Limitation of the Indigenous Religion

The most important limitation of many African indigenous religious values and traditions, including Waaqeffannaa, is that the practice of peacemaking is inbound to groups in which these traditions originated. There are also perceptions and tendencies to associate the good prosocial aspects of religious principles this religion with ethno-nationalist competitions of the day, and therefore, to readily dismiss them as unrepresentative of the whole. A much productive approach, however, is to see the commonalities of multiple African religious traditions and to take key principles from each of them and combine them in order to make everyone feel good about their faiths. There is so much to learn from this culture if one is willing to follow the elicitive path to conflict resolution.

The second obvious limitation is the lack of written scriptures and the challenges of accessing oral scriptures for outsiders due to language barriers, but which can still be overcome with translators and interpreters.

Thirdly, African indigenous religions have not been given the places they deserve in some continental interfaith organizations whose member religions tend to be organized and rich major religions. For instances, the United Religious Initiative (URI) Africa chapter, an international faith network that operates in 25 African countries, professes that it aims to look for solutions to Africa’s challenges at community levels in the areas of corruption, human rights violation, poverty and HIV/AIDs[44], but unfortunately no indigenous African religious tradition from any community is represented by such an important organization. The network carries it activities in Africa through major faiths, such as Christianity and Islam. Another domestic (Ethiopian) interfaith network, Interfaith Peace-building Initiative (IPI), a member of the URI, has no indigenous Ethiopian religions (Waaqeffannaaincluded) as its members.

The problem with URI and IPI is not only a simplistic and envious question of who is represented or who is not, but it appears that the mentioned interfaith networks have been systematically coopted and used to advance the interests of the Ethiopian state since Ambassador Mussie Hailu is serving simultaneously as the Regional Director of URI and the Board Chair of IPI.[45] The more intractable and absurd aspect of IPI is that it is an interfaith organization as far as the major religions are concerned, but the founders and its leaders are members of a single ethno-national group who are publicly known to lean toward the ruling party from the same group. This is a clear negative messaging to others in Ethiopia where the issues of ethnicity are sensitive. To be sure, it is possible to have an interfaith organization with wonderful goals like IPI, but with ethno-nationalist ideological agenda at same time. That will do more to keep peoples apart than bring them together.

Despite its growing popularity in Oromiya regional state, the most populous in Ethiopia, Waaqeffannaa’s attempts to transform itself into an organized religion have failed many times so far because the Ethiopian state has first denied and then revoked the license of the group citing that its leaders sympathize with the Oromo Liberation Front[46], a secular rebel group in conflict with the government on the question of autonomy and self- determination for Oromiya.

Conclusion

Waaqeffannaa’s pro-social principles, laws and values did and will contribute to building constructive relationships between communities. In addition to improving human relations, laws, such as safuu, that emphasize the need to maintain good relationship with nature, can be extended and used in areas of environmental conflict resolution, specially where climate change is threatening pastoralist and agrarian communities in many observable ways today.

I explored and discussed the ways in which the egalitarian but respectful views of God by Waaqeffataas can be helpful in curbing extremist tendencies. Neither oral scriptures of the religion nor its leaders condone acts of violence as something leading to rewards or sainthood. Prayers and blessings function as authoritative moderators and they can be used in opening and closing any intervention efforts. Waaqeffannaa is a very pragmatic religion whose most themes are linked to and earthbound to the material conditions of people. Therefore, people in conflict may have the same questions they want answered through prayers to be answered through interventions.

The potential and capacity of the religion in national or regional peacemaking is promising if it be recognized and the multi-pronged obstacles in its way are removed.

=======================================

References

Abu-Nimer, Mohammed. Nonviolence and Peace Building in Islam: Theory and Practice. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2003.

Aguilar, Mario I. The Politics of God in East Africa: Oromo Ritual and Religion. Trenton, N.J.: The Red Sea Press, 2009.

Appleby, Scott R. “Retrieving the Missing Dimension of Statecraft: Religious Faith in the Service of Peacebuilding.” In Faith-Based Diplomacy: Trumping Realpolitik, ed. Douglas Johnston, 2003. Oxford: OUP.

____ The Ambivalence of the Sacred: Religion, Violence and Reconciliation. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2000.

Bartels, Lambert. Oromo Religion: Myths and Rites of the Western Oromo of Ethiopia-An Attempt to Understand. Berlin: Dietrich Reamer Verlag, 1983.

Bokku, Dirribi Demissie. Oromo Wisdom in Black Civilization. Finfinne, Ethiopia: Finfinne Printing & Publishing S.C., 2011.

De Salviac, Martial. An Ancient People: Great African Nation: the Oromo. Translation from the 1901 original French edition by Ayalew Kanno. Paris, the French Academy, 2005.

Douglas, Johnston. Faith-Based Diplomacy: Trumping Realpolitik. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003.

Gopin, Marc. Between Eden and Armageddon: The Future of World Religions, Violence and Peacemaking. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000.

____ Holy War, Holy Peace: How Religion Can Bring Peace to the Middle East. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002.

Megerssa, Gemetchu. “Oromumma: Tradition, Consciousness and Identity.” In Being and Becoming Oromo: Historical and Anthropological Enquiries, Edited by P.T.W. Baxter, Jan Hultin and Alessandro Triulzi. Lawrenceville, N.J.: The Red Sea Press, 1996.

Montville, Joseph V. “Psychoanalytic Enlightenment and the Greening of Diplomacy.” In The Psychodynamics of International Relationships, Eds. Vamik D. Volkan, Demetrios A. Julius, and Joseph V. Montville. Lexington Mass.: Lexington Books (1990-1991): 177-192.

Moore, Christopher W. The Mediation Process: Practical Strategies for Resolving Conflict. 3rd Ed. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2003.

MTA. Waaqeffannaa: Ayyaana Irreechaa Birraa, 2010.Vol. V. No. 1. Finfinnee: MTA, 2010. (trans. Waaqeffannaa: Thanksgiving Holiday of Fall 2010.)

Sandole, Dennis J.D. “Paradigm, Theories, and Metaphors in Conflict and Conflict Resolution: Coherence or Confusion?” In Conflict Resolution Theory and Practice, Ed., Dennis Sandole. Manchester and New York: Manchester University Press, (1993): 3-24.

Stenger, Mary Ann. “Gadamer’s Hermeneutics as a Model for Cross-Cultural Understanding and Truth in Religion.” In Religious Pluralism and Truth: Essays on Cross-Cultural Philosophy of Religion, Ed., Thomas Dean. New York: State University of New York Press, (1995): 151-168.

Volkan, Vamik D. “Psychological Processes in Unofficial Diplomacy Meetings.” In The Psychodynamics of International Relationships, Eds. Vamik D. Volkan, Demetrios A. Julius, and Joseph V. Montville. Lexington Mass.: Lexington Books (1990-1991): 207-219.

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Footnotes

[1] De Salviac, 1901:43; Bartels, 1983:89; Bokku, 2011: 54). The two previous books on Oromo religion (now named Waaqeffannaa) by European missionaries are widely regarded as authoritative secular scholarly sources closest to the source ever to be published on an indigenous African religion of antiquity. Bokku adds his own recent perspectives on the religion and revises his predecessors’ perspectives without altering the essence of their work.

[2] Bokku, 2011:54.

[3] Bartels, 1983:91.

[4] Bokku,2011:73.

[5] De Selviac, 1901;155.

[6] De Selviac, 1901:173, emphasis in the original.

[7] Bartels, 1983:108

[8] Haberland 1963 in Bartels, 1983:108.

[9] Bartels, 1983:108-109.

[10] Bartels, 1983: 109.

[11] Bartels, 1983;107

[12] Bokku, 2011: 66. The quote was an English translation the author provides from the Afaan Oromoo (Oromo language) version, which runs:“Gurraacha garaa garbaa, leemmoo garaa taliilaa, tokkicha maqaa dhibbaa, guddicha hiriyaa hinqabne, kan waan hundaa beeku, kan waan hundaa gochuu danda’u, kan bakka maraa jiru, kan hinkufine, kan hinduuneefi kan hincabne.”

[13] see footnote number 11.

[14] P.T.W. Baxter, Age, Generation and Time, 155 in Aguilar, 2009:13).

[15] De Salviac, 1901:153, 163; Bartels, 1983:96; Bokku, 2011:66-67; Megerssa, 1996:92-103.

[16] De Salviac, 1983:120; Bokku, 2011: 67.

[17] Bartels, 1983:95.

[18] De Salviac

[19] De Salviac, 1901:163.

[20] Translated by me from Afaan Oromoo into English from the Waaqeffannaa magazine, p i.

[21] Haroo Walaabuu is considered the origin of Oromo community and the source of all walking humans on earth. It plays an important symbolic/mythic role in standard prayers. Water bodies are considered sources of life.

[22] De Salviac, 1901:177.

[23] Gopin, 2000:84.

[24] Gopin, 2000:35.

[25] Aguilar, 2009:13-32.

[26] Aguilar, 2009:28.

[27] See footnote 24

[28] Augilar, 2009:

[29] Ibid., p.27.

[30] Bartels, 1983:170.

[31] Megersa, 1996:96-97.

[32] Bokku, 2011:75.

[33] See footnote 31.

[34] Bartels, 1983:339, Bokku, 2011:76.

[35] Bartels, 1983:339.

[36] Bokku, 2011: 61.

[37] Mbiti, 1992:29.

[38] Mbiti, 1992:4.

[39] Megerssa, 1996:98; Aguilar, 2009:5.

[40] Aguilar, 2009:5

[41] Stenger, 1995.

[42] Gopin, 2000:60-61.

[43] Moore,2003:66

[44] URI. “Purposes and Activities.” http://www.uri.org/cooperation_circles/explore_cooperation_circles/region/africa

[45] IPI Ethiopia. http://www.ipiethiopia.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=111&Itemid=110

[46] U.S. Department of State on Religious Freedom in Ethiopia, 2010: 4.

Qaallu Institution: A theme in the ancient rock-paintings of Hararqee—implications for social semiosis and history of the Oromo (#Oromia) September 11, 2014

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Qaallu Institution: A theme in the ancient rock-paintings
of Hararqee—implications for social semiosis and
history of Ethiopia

Dereje Tadesse Birbirso (PhD)*

International Journal of Archaeology Cultural Studies Vol. 1 (1), pp. 001-018, September, 2013. Available online at http://www.internationalscholarsjournals.org © International Scholars Journals
This article critically analysed some of the ancient rock paintings of Hararqee of Eastern Oromia/Ethiopia with the intention to understand and explain the social epistemological and rhetorical structures that underlie beneath these social ‘texts’. It did so through using sub-themes in the ancient Qaallu Institution of the Oromo as analytical devices. Multi-disciplinary approach that combined concepts from various disciples was adopted as a guiding theoretical framework, while the Eurocentric approach that de-Ethiopinizes these historic heritages was rejected. Field data was collected from various sites of ancient rock paintings in Hararqee. Archival data
were also collected. Two informants expert with wisdom literature were selected in order to consolidate the multi-disciplinary approach adopted with the interpretive framework of the traditional, local social epistemology. The results of the analysis revealed both substantive and methodological insights. Substantively, it suggests that the Oromo Qaallu Institution fundamentally underlies the social semiotic, linguistic and epistemological structures communicated by means of the rock painting signs or motifs. Some of these are the Oromo pre-Christian belief in Black Sky-God, pastoral festival in the praise of the cattle and the
fecundity divinity and genealogico-politico-identification structures. Methodologically, the unique Oromo social semiotical and stylystical rhetorics which could be referred as ‘metaplasmic witticism’ and the role of Qaallu Institution sub-themes as sensitizing devices and the emergent directions for future research are all presented in this report.

 

INTRODUCTION

Hararqee, the vast land in Eastern Ethiopia, is where over 50% of Ethiopia’s (possibly including Horn of Africa)
rock paintings are found (Bravo 2007:137). Among these is the famous Laga Oda Site “dating to at least 16,000
BP” (Shaw and Jameson 1999:349) and comprising depictions of bovines and many different types of  animals. This vast land of Hararqee is settled by the Oromo, the largest tribe of the Cushitic stock, and hence it is part of the Oromia National State. The Oromo people, one of the richest in ancient (oral) cosmogonal- social history , literature and especial owners of the unique socio-philosophico-political institution known as Gada or Gada System, consistently insist that theirs as well as human being’s origin is in the Horn of Africa specifically a place known as Horra βalabu/Ŵolabu ‘the Place of Spring-Water of Genesis of Humanity’ (Dahl and Megerssa 1990).

This and a plethora of Oromo social epistemology has been studied by the plausible Oromo historians (Gidada 2006, Hassen 1990, to mention a few) and non-biased European theologico-ethnologists (Krapf 1842; De Abbadie 1880; De Salviac 1980, Bartels 1983, to mention a few). Similarly, social semiosis is not new to the Oromo. Although Eurocentric archaeologists rarely acknowledge, “the identification of cultural themes and symbolic interpretation has revealed affinities between contemporary Oromo practices and those of other East African culture groups, both ancient and modern (Grant 2000: np.).In like manner, the Classical Greek philosophers wrote that the Ancient Ethiopians were “inventors of worship, of festivals, of solemn assemblies, of sacrifice, and of every religious practice” (Bekerie, 2004:114). The oral history of the Oromo states that it was Makko Billii, whom Antonio De Abbadie, one of the early European scholars who studied and lived with the Oromo, described as “African Lycurgus” (Werner 1914b: 263; Triulzi and Triulzi  1990:319; De Abbadie 1880) and son of the primogenitor  of the Oromo nation (Raya or Raâ), who hammered out the antique, generation-based social philosophy known as Gada System (Legesse 1973, 2006; Bartels 1983; Gidada 2006). A key ingredient in Gada system is the  For Oromo, the first Qaallu “Hereditary ritual officiant” and “high priest” was of “divine origin” and, as the myth tells us, “‘fell from the sky itself’…with the first black cow” and he was the “‘eldest son of Ilma Orma’” (Hassen 1990:6; Baxter, Hultin and Triulzi 1996:6). In its “dual[ity] nature”, Waaqa, the black Sky-God “controlled fertility, peace, and lifegiving rains… [hence] prayers for peace, fertility, and rain” are the core recursive themes in Oromo religion (Hassen 1990:7). Hence, the concept/word Qaallu refers at large to “Divinity’s fount of blessings in the world” (Baxter, Hultin and Triulzi 1996: 1996: 21). As De Salviac (2005 [1901]: 285) explicated “The Oromo are not fetishists. They believe in Waaqa took, a unique universal creator and master. They see His manifestations in great forces of nature, without mistaking for Him.” As a result of  this ‘pre-historic’, Spinozaean like social epistemology, but unlike Martin Heideggerean “ancients” who never  dared questioning or confronting ontology but endorsed only veneering it, for the Oromo social semiosis has never been new since time immemorial. Despite all these antique history and tradition, it is  unfortunatel, the so-far few studies made on the  Ethiopian ancient rock paintings and rock arts never consider—sometimes apparently deliberately isolate–the  social history, tradition, culture or language of the Oromo people as a possible explanatory device. What the  available few studies usually do is only positivist  description of the paintings (types, size and/or number of  the signs) rather than inquiry into and explanation of the  social origin and the underlying social meaning, praxis or  worldview. Partly, the reason is the studies are totally  dominated by Eurocentric paradigms that de-Africanize and extrude the native people and their language,  religion, social structure, material cultures and, in general, their interpretive worldview. Besides, some of  the native researchers are no different since they have unconditionally accepted this Eurocentric, hegemonic epistemology (Bekerie 1997; Smith 1997; Gusarova 2009; Vaughan 2003). As a result, we can neither  understand the social origin of these amazing ‘texts’ nor  can we explain the underlying social semiosis.. Equally, under this kind of mystification or possible distortion of  human (past) knowledge, we miss the golden opportunities that these ancient documents offer for  evolutionary, comparative and interdisciplinary social science research and knowledge. Above all, the old Eurocentric view narrowed down the sphere of semiotics  (archaeological, social) to only ‘the sign’, extruding the  human agents or agency and the social context.

The aim of this paper is to use the ancient Qaallu Institution of Oromo as analytical ‘devices’ in order to  understand and explain the underlying social  epistemological, semiotical and rhetorical structures, i.e., expressed in all forms of linguistic and non-linguistic structures. In sharp contrast to the aforementioned  positivist, narrow, colonial semiotics, in this analysis,
Theo van Leeuwen’s postmodern and advanced approach to social semiotics is adopted. Primarily, Van  Leeuwen (2005: 3) expands “semiotic resource” as  involving “the actions and artefacts we use to communicate, whether they are produced physiologically – with our vocal apparatus…muscles…facial expressions  and gestures, etc. – or by means of technologies – with pen, ink and paper…computer hardware and software…with fabrics, scissors and sewing machines.”
Van Leeuven (2005: xi) introduces the changing  semiosphere of social semiotics:

 Just as in linguistics the focus changed from the ‘sentence’ to the ‘text’ and its ‘context’, and from
‘grammar’ to ‘discourse’, so in social semiotics the focus changed from the ‘sign’ to the way people use semiotic
‘resources’ both to produce communicative artefacts and  events and to interpret them;

 Rather than constructing separate accounts of  the various semiotic modes – the ‘semiotics of the  image’, the ‘semiotics of music’, and so on – social semiotics compares and contrasts semiotic modes, exploring what they have in common as well as how they differ, and investigating how they can be integrated in multimodal artefacts and events.

Indeed, the Classical Western dualism which separates the linguistic from the non-linguistic, the literary from the
non-literary, the painting from the engraved, the notional from the artefactual must be eschewed, especially when
we build evolutionary  perspective to analyzing pre-historic arts.

CLEARING SOME CONFUSIONS

Scholars have already explicated and explained away the old de-Ethiopianization historiographies in social sciences
(Bekerie 1997; Smith 1997; Gusarova 2009; Vaughan 2003), humanities (Ehret 1979) and archaeology
(Finneran 2007). Therefore, there is no need to repeat this here. But, it is necessary to briefly show disclose some

veils pertaining to Hararqee pre-historic paintings. As  usual, the ‘social’ origin of ‘pre-historic’, Classical or Medieval era Hararqee rock paintings is either mystified or hailed as agentry “Harla” or “Arla” (Cervicek and  Braukämper 1975:49), an imaginary community:
According to popular beliefs Harla generally refers to a mysterious, wealthy and mighty people, (frequently even
imagined as giants!), who had once occupied large  stretches of the Harar Province before they were  destroyed by the supernatural powers through natural  catastrophies as punishment for their inordinate pride. This occurred prior to the Galla (Oromo) incursions into  these areas during the 16th and 17th centuries” (Cervicek  and Braukämper 1975: 49; emphasis added).

In footnote, Cervicek and Braukämper (1975:49) quote Huntingford (1965:74) to on the identity of the Harla: “The
name “Harla” is first mentioned, as far as we know, in the  chronicle of the Ethiopian Emperor ‘Amda Seyon in the
14th century (Huntingford 1965:74).” It is clear that this mystification prefigures in the usual  gesture of de-Africanizing civilization of Black Africans to justify the so-called Hamitic myths, as explained well in  the works of the aforementioned post-modern scholars. Thanks to Professor Claude Sumner (Sumner 1996: 26), today we know the fact of the matter, that it was not Huntingford who composed about the imaginary “Harla”. It was the French Catholic missionaries by the name
François Azais and Roger Chambard who reconstructed to fit it to their interest the imaginary ‘Harla’ (spelling it
rather as “Arla”) from an oral history told to them by an Oromo old man from Alla clan of Barentuu.The story itself
is about a “wealthy” Oromo man called “Barento” who was “very rich but very proud farmer” (Sumner 1996: 26).
For it is both vital and complex (in its ironic message, which cannot however be analyzed here) we have to
quote it in full:

There was in the Guirri country, at Tchenassen [Č’enāssan], an Oromo, a very rich but very proud farmer called Barento. A cloth merchant, an Arab who was also very rich, lived a short distance from there at Derbiga. The merchant’s daughter went one day to see the farmer and told him: “I would like to marry your son.”—“Very well, I shall give him to you,” he answered. The merchant in turn, gave his daughter and made under her daughter’s steps a road of cloth, from Derbiga to Tchenassen, residence of the rich farmer. The tailor replied to this act by making a road of dourah and maize under his son’s steps, from Tchenassen to Derbiga. But God was incensed by this double pride and to punish him, shaked Tchenassen Mountain and brought down a rain of stones which destroyed men and houses; it was then that the race of Arla [Alla] was destroyed (Sumner 1996: 26). Confirming the antiquity and unity of this story and the Oromo, similar story is found in Western Oromo as far closer to the Southern Sudan: “in interpreting certain of their [Oromo] myths about the beginning of things, it was because of man’s taking cultivation and pro-creation toomuch into his own hands, that Waqa[Waaqa] withdrew from him–a withdrawal resulting in a diminution of life on earth in all its forms” (Bartels 1975:512). As a part of the general social semiotics adopted in this study, onomasiology (the scientific analysis of toponyms, anthroponyms,ethnonyms as well as of semiotic metalanguages) is considered as important component for evolutionary social semiosis, particularly for any researcher on Oromo since these are coded or they code social epestemes, are cyclical, based on the principles of  Gada System’s name-giving tradition, and, hence, are resistant to change (for detail on this see Legesse 1973). For instance, Cervicek and Braukamper (1965:74) described the Laga Gafra area and its population as: “The area of the site is part of the Gafra Golla Ḍofa village, and the indigenous Ala [Oromo] call it Gada Ba’la (“large shelter”)”, but appropriately, Baalli Gada. Here, let us only remember that Alla and Itťu clans are two of the Hararqee Oromo self-identificating by Afran Qalloo

(literally the Quadruplets, from ancient sub-moiety) who “provide[d] a basis for…construct[ing] models for
prehistoric land and resource use” (Clark and Williams:

Social semiosis, language and reality in the ancient ‘texts’ Social semiosis might be considered as old as homo
sapiens sapiens. But, for our analytical purpose, it is logical to begin from the Ancient Black Africans that some
19th century European missionaries and researchers  referred to as ‘Ancient Egyptians’ (although still others
refer to them by Ancient Cushites, Ancient Ethiopians, Ancient Nubians or Meroes), who are the originators of
the first writing systems known as ‘hieroglyphics’. Chiekh Anta Diop (Diop 2000), Geral Massey (Massey 1907)
and other scholars have illuminated to us a lot about  hieroglyphics. Initially, hieroglyphics was pictogram or semagram. That is, pictures of real world were ‘painted’ to communicate a  sememe or motif, the smallest meaningful structure or concept, for instance, a picture of sitting man for their  word equivalent to the English ‘sit’; a picture of man stretching his/her arms to the sky for ‘pray’; a lion for ‘great man’, etc., all or some of which is determined by
the lexical structures (phonological, syllabic, semantic, imagery they arise, etc) of their respective words. Based
on their social philosophy/paradigm, literary/figurative  symbolism, and/or their word’s/language’s phonology/syntax, for instance, equivalent to the English ‘woman’, they might have also depicted a picture of a pigeon, or an owl or a cow. This zoomorphic mode of representation as the ‘Sign-Language of Totemism and Mythology’ was the first and early writing system in human history. The Ancient Egyptians used the principles of, among others, sound-meaning association, semantic and ontologic (what something/somebody can cause) similarization, physical resemblance, grouping (duplication or triplication of the same pictograms to represent meaning), aggregation (pictograms are combined in or around a spot or a pictogram is duplicated as many as necessary and congregated in or around a spot), sequencing vertically or horizontally (representing lexico-grammatic, syntactic, semotactic or stylistic structure) and so forth.

Some of these or similar principles or ‘stylistic features’ are observed, particularly, in the Laga Oda painting styles. Cervicek (1971:132-133 122-123), for instance, observed in Laga Oda paintings such stylized ‘discourse’ as ‘group of horseshoe-like headless bovine motifs’, ‘paired ‘soles of feet’ from Bake Khallo [Bakkee Qaallu ‘Sacred Place for Qaallu Ritual]’, ‘oval symbo accompanied as a rule by a stroke on their left side’, sun-like symbol, in the centre with animal and anthropomorphic representations grouped around it’, paired ‘soles of feet’, carefully profiled styles (overhead, side, back point-of-view of bovines), zooming (large  versus small size of bovine motifs), headless versus headed bovines, H-shaped anthropomorphic
representations with raised hands’, superimposition and so forth. Any interpretation that renders these as isolated
case, arbitrary or pointless marks can be rejected outright. Some of these ‘early spelling’ are found not only across the whole Horn of Africa but also in Ancient Meroitic-Egyptian rock paintings, hieroglyphics and, generally, organized social semiosis.By the same token, Oromo social semiotical ‘texts’, like any ancient texts, textures “intimate link…between form,
content and concrete situation in life” (Sumner 1996:17-18). Professor Claude Sumner, who produced three volume analysis of Oromo wisdom literature (Sumner 1995, 1996, 1997), sees that like any “ancient texts”, in Oromo wisdom literature, “a same unit of formal characters, namely of expressions, of syntactic forms, of vocabulary, of metaphors, etc., which recur over and over again, and finally a vital situation…that is a same original function in the life of [the people]” (Sumner 1996:19). An elderly Oromo skilled in Oromo wisdom speaks, to use the appropriate Marxian term, ‘historical materialism’, or he speaks “in ritual language, as it was used in old times at the proclamation of the law” (Bartels 1983:309).
Moreover, he speaks in rhythmatic verses, full of “sound parallelism” (Cerulli 1922), “parallelism of sounds” or
“image” or “vocalic harmony” (Bartels 1975: 898ff). Even Gada Laws used to be “issued in verse” (Cotter 1990:
70), in “the long string of rhyme, which consists of  repeating the same verse at the end of each couplet” or  “series of short sententious phrases” that are “disposed  to help memory” (De Salviac 2005 [1901]: 285). The  highly experienced researchers on the ancient Oromo system of thought, which is now kept intact mainly by the Booran Gada System, emphasize that “‘the philosophical concepts that underlie the gadaa system’…utilize a  symbolic code much of which is common to all Oromo” (Baxter, Hultin and Triulzi 1996: 21). Long ago, one scholar emphatically stated, this is a feature “surely has developed within the [Oromo] language” and “is also only imaginable in a sonorous language such as Oromo” which “as a prerequisite, [has] a formally highly developed poetical technique” (Littmann 1925:25 cited in Bartels 1975:899).

Claude Sumner formulates a “double analogy” tactic as prototypical feature of Oromo wisdom literature, i.e., “vertical” and “horizontal” parallelism style (Sumner 1996:25), known for the most part to linguists, respectively, as ‘paradigmatic’ (‘content’ or ‘material’) and ‘syntagmatic’ (‘form’ or ‘substance’) relations or in both literature and linguistics, as contextual-diachronic and textual-synchronic, relations. Oromo social epistemological concepts/words/signs offers important data for historical and evolutionary social sciences for they recycle and, consequently, are resistant to change  both in form and meaning (Legesse 1973). In the same way, in this analysis of the ancient rock paintings of Hararqee, an evolutionary and multidisciplinary analysis of the interrelationship among the traditional ‘semiotic triangle’—the sign (sound or phonon, word or lexon, symbol or image), the signified (the social meaning, ‘semon’, episteme or theme) and the referent (cultural-historical objects and ritual-symbolic actions)——and among the metonymic complex (referring here to layers and clusters of semiotic triangles in their social-natural contexts) is assumed as vital meta-theoretical framework.

METHODS AND THE SEMIOTIC RESOURCES

For this analysis, both archival and field data or semiotic resources are collected. In 2012 visits were made to the
some of the popular (in literature) ancient rock painting sites in Hararqee (Laga Oda, Goda Agawa, Ganda Biiftu,
etc.; comprehensive list of Ethiopian rock painting sites is presented by Bravo 2007). Also, field visits were made to
less known (in literature) ancient to medieval era painting sites were made in the same year (e.g., Goda Rorris,
Huursoo, Goda K’arree Ǧalɖeessa, Goda Ummataa, Goda Daassa, etc). Huge audiovisual data (still and
motion) of both paintings and engravings were collected, only very few of which are used in this paper. On the one
hand, the previously captured data (as photos, sketches or traces) from some of the popular sites, for instance
Laga Oda and Laga Gafra (as in Cervicek 1971; Cervicek and Braukamper 1975), are sometimes found to be
preferably clearer due to wear-off or other factors. On the other hand, from the same sites, some previously
unrevealed or undetected motifs (painted or engraved) were collected. Therefore, both field and archival data are
equally important for this analysis. However, since the Qaallu Institution , and its sub-themes, is used as sensitizing device or a means rather than end— hence is capitalization upon social semiotic and linguistic aspects–there is an inevitable risk of undermining these complex philosophical notions. Yet, for the pertinent (to Qaallu Institution) anthropological-ethnological archivals used as additional secondary data or, to use Theo van Leeuwen’s term, as “semiotic resource”, original and influential references are indicated for further reading. More importantly, two old men skilled in Oromo social epistemology, customarily referred to as ‘walking libraries’, are used as informants. Taaddasaa Birbirsoo Mootii, 87, from Wallagga, Western Oromia (Ethiopia) and Said Soddom Muummee, 85, from Hararqee Eastern Oromia (Ethiopia). Mootii, Addoo Catholic Church Priest (‘Catechist’ is the word they use), was one of the infor- mants and personal colleagues of Father Lambert Bartels, who studied in-depth and wrote widely on Oromo religion, rituals and social philosophy. His scholarly and
comparative (with Biblical) analysis of Oromo religion and world view, child birth custom, praise song for the cow,
Qaallu Institution, Gada system geneaological-social hierarchy are among his seminal works. Although Bartels
only indicated Mootii as “one priest”, he and his colleague Shagirdi Boko (one of the Jaarsa Mana Sagadaa ‘Old
Men of Church’) were among his informant colleagues. Muummee, is not only well seasoned wiseman, but he
still celebrates and identify himself as Waaqeeffata—believer, observer and practitioner of the pre-Christian
Oromo religion founded on Waaqa, the Black Sky-God.

ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION

Qaallu Institution and the praise to the cattle Above, under Introduction section, we briefly touched upon the mythical-social origin of the Qaallu Institution and its relation with genesis and cow-milk. Qaallu comes from the gerundive qull (qul’qullu, intensive) ‘pure, holy, sacred, blameless; being black, pretty, neat’, pointing to the color and quality of Waaqa (see Bartels 1983; Hassen 1990 for detail).. The “ancient” Qaallu Institution of Oromo (Baxter 1987: 168 quoted and elaborated in Gidada 2005: 146-147) had been widely practiced in Eastern, Hararqee Oromo until the first half of the 20th century. It is as much cosmogonal, cosmological and ideological (identificational) as it is theo-political to the Oromo nation, in particular, and, at large, the pre-colonial (pre-Christian, pre-Islam) Cushite who uniformly believed in Water, as a source of life and on which life is unilaterally dependent, and in Waaqa–a concept/word that means, on the one hand, the abstract ‘Supreme Being, God, Devine, Heave’ and, on the other, the ‘concrete’ ‘Sky, Divinely Water (rain)’. For Oromo, the first Qaallu “a high priest”, the “spiritual leader” was of “divine origin”, as the myth tells us, “ ‘fell from the sky itself’…with the first black cow” and he was the “‘eldest son of Ilma Orma’” and in its “dual nature”, Waaqa, the black Sky-God “controlled fertility, peace, and lifegiving rains…[hence] prayers for peace, fertility, and rain” are the core recursive themes in Oromo religion (Hassen 1990: 6-7). For more on Oromo genealogical tree and history, see Gidada (2006), Bartels (1983), BATO (1998), to mention a few.

The Booran Oromo, who still retains the Qaallu
Institution ‘unspoiled’:

The Booran view of cosmology, ecology and ontology is  one of a flow of life emanating from God. For them, the benignancy of divinity is expressed in rain and other conditions necessary for pastoralism. The stream of life flows through the sprouting grass and the mineral waters [hoora] of the wells, into the fecund wombs and generous udders of the cows [ɢurrʔ
ú]. The milk from the latter then promotes human satisfaction and fertility (Dahl and Megerssa 1990: 26).

In this worldview, the giant bull (hanɡafa, hancaffa) is a symbol of angaftitti “seniority of moieties: stratification
and imbalance” (Legesse 2000: 134). Hence, the separation of the most senior or ancient moieties or the cradle land imitates hariera ‘lumbar and sacral vertebrae’ (other meaning ‘queue, line, suture’) or horroo ‘cervical vertebrae’ of the bull.

The primogenitors (horroo) of the Oromo nations (mainly known as Horroo, Raya, Booro) set the first ßala ‘moiety, split (from baɮ ‘to flame, impel, fly; to split, have bilateral symmetry’) or Ẃalaßu ‘freedom, bailing, springing’. The formation of moieties, sub-sub-moieties grew into baɭbaɭa‘sub-sub-sub-etc…lineages’ (also means ‘door, gate’; the reduplication showing repetitiveness). Jan Hultin, an influential anthropologist and writer on Oromo, states “Among the Oromo, descent is a cultural construct by which people conceive of their relations to each other and to livestock and land; it is an
ideology for representing property relations” (Hultin 1995: 168-169). The left hand and right hand of the bovine always represent, in rituals, the “sub-sections of the phratry” (Kassam 2005:105). That is, as the tradition sustains,
when the ancient matrilineal-patrilineal moieties sowed, dissevered (fač’á) from the original East (Boora), the
Booreettúma (designating matrilineality, feminine soul) took or went towards the left hand side, while the Hoorroo
(also for unclear reason βooroo, designating patrilineality, masculine soul) took the right hand side. Both correspond, respectively, to the directions of sunrise and sunset, which configure in the way house is constructed: Baa, Bor ‘the front door’ (literally ‘Origin, Beam, morning twilight’) always faces east, while the back wall (Hooroo) towards west (also Hooroo means ‘Horus, evening twilight’). This still governs the praxis that the backwall “is the place of the marriage negotiations and of the first sexual intercourse of sons and their bride [i.e., behind the stage]” (Bartels 1983: 296). For this reason, Qaallu Institution has had a special Law of the Bovine as well as Holiday of the Cattle/Bovine, Ǧaarrii Looni (Legesse 1973:96; Dahl and Megerssa 1990). On Ǧaarrii Loonii, cattle pen are renovated and embellished, and festivities and dances with praise songs to cattle was chanted (for more, Bartels 1975; Wako 2011; Kassam 2005). An excerpt from the praise song ‘talks’ about them with admiration (See also Bartels 1975: 911):

Chorus: Ahee-ee
Soloist: Sawa, sawilee koo–Cows, o my cows,
Bira watilee koo–and also you, my calves.
Ǧeɗ’e malee maali–Could I say otherwise?
Yá saa, yá saa—o cattle, o cattle!
saa Humbikooti–cattle of my Humbiland,
Saa eessa ǧibbu?–What part of cattle is useless?
Saa qeensa qičču–Our cattle with soft hoofs,
koṱṱeen šínii ta’e—from their hoofs, we make coffee-cups
gogaan wallu ta’e—from their skins, we make wallu
[leather cloth]
gaafi wanč’a ta’ee, — from their horns, we make wáɳč’a
[large beer cup]

faɭ
ʔ
anas ta’a!—as well as spoons! [See Fig.1A, B, C, D,
E]

Chorus: Ahee-ee

Lambert Bartels, a Catholic Father and scholar lived with  the Oromo, writes “When they bless, they say: ɡurrači
ɡaraa ǧ’abbii siif ha kenu ‘May the dark one [God] with hail under his abdomen give you all (good things)’
(Bartels 1983:90-91). Cervicek (1971:124 Fig.10) wonders about the unexplained but recurrent “oval
representations… painted black [and] white-dotted” and consistently painted “below” the cow udder (see Fig.2B).
This can be compared with wáɳč’a ‘drinking horn-cup’ or č’óč’oo, č’iič’oo ‘milking (horn-)cup’ (see Fig.1D). On
Irreečča ritual of Thanking Waaqa the Black Sky-God, a line of the doxology mentions, among others, “Waaqa

č’iič’oo gurraattii” ‘God of the dark č’iič’oo milking-cup’ (Sabaa 2006:312). The deadjectival č’óč’orree means ‘white dotted (black background); turkey or similar white dotted bird’, while Waaɳč’ee is a proper name for white-dotted cow.

Qaallu as ecotheological concept

Qaallu is also an ontological concept referring to the spirit that resides in sacred realities, the mountain hills, seas, river
beds, pasture land, etc. As an important place for ritual place for immortalizing (primogenitors, ancestors), blessing
(children, the young), initiations (to Gada classes, power take-over), praying (for fertility, abundance, fortune, rain),
and praising (God, nature, cattle), the sacred land of spirituality must be mountain foot (goda) where there must
be, naturally, laga ‘lagoon, river’, č’affee ‘marshy area with green grasses’ (symbol of the parliamentary assembly),
χaɭoo ‘pasture land’, and the evergreen oɖaa fig sycamores. Oɖaa serves not only as “a depiction of a political power”,
but “is also a centre of social and economic activities” and “symbolizes the entire corpus of their activities, history,
culture and tradition” (Gutamaa 1997:14). Five Qaallu centres are known in Booran sub-moiety: (1) Qaallu Odiituu, (2) Qaallu Karrayyuu, (3) Qaallu Matťarii, (4) Qaallu Karaar, (5) Qaallu Kuukuu, (10) Qaallu Arsii (Nicolas 2010). These centers are like cities of (con-)federal states and simultaneously are (sub-)clan names. These names are codes and decoders of not only genealogical and landscapes, but also of ancient (sub)-moieties and settlement patterns. Since they are cyclical, based on the principles of Gada System’s name-giving principle, they are widespread across Oromia and resistant to change. Werner (1915:2) observed that in Booran Oromo, “every clan has its own mark for cattle, usually a brand (ɢuʋa [ɡuƀá ], which is the name of the instrument used, is an iron spike fixed into a wooden handle)”, a fact which is
significated in other parts of Oromia with different signifiers, for instance, pattern of settlement, which is determined by a
korma karbaʑaa ‘bull that bulldozes jungles’ or korma qallaččaa ‘kindling bull’ (Gidada 2006: 99-100) or bull’s
anatomy (BATO 1998). For instance, quoting Makko Billii, the ancient Gada System law maker, the Wallaga Oromo
recite their settlement pattern in the anatomy of Korma the virile ‘buffalo-bull’ or ‘macho man’: Sibuun garaača. Haruu č’inaacha, Leeqaan dirra sangaati, ‘The Sibuu [Sabboo] clan is the abdomen, the Haruu [Hooroo] is the ribs, and Leeqaa is the chuck of the bull’ (BATO 1998:164).

Qallačča bull as a kindler is related defined qallačča “a white patch between the horns of a cow running back down the
two sides of the neck; a charm” (Foot 1913:33). See Fig.2 A, B, C and D . It is the symbol of a Qaallu’s qallačča, here
meaning, an inherited, from ancestors, spiritual and intellectual grace or sublimity. This is quite related to of
book’a ‘a black cow or bull or ram that has a white mark upon the forehead’ (Tutschek 1844:135-136), a natural
phenomenon considered as a good omen. Adda isá book’aa qaba ‘his forehead has a blaze’ is an idiom appropriately
meaning the person has the natural capacity, inherited from ancestors, to prophesize, foreknow. For this reason, “white-headedness” or wearing white turban is a symbol of (passage to) seniority or superordinate moiety (Kassam 1999). As usual, there is “intimate link…between form, content and concrete situation in life” (Sumner 1996:17-18).

Qallačča as a mysterious metal

Qallačča is a key concept in Qaallu Institution. One instantiation of this complex concept is that it is a mysterious
sacred material culture (Fig.3). Informants tell us that true. qallačča worn on the forehead by the Qaallu was made of

iron that fell from sky as qorsa (comet, metorite); it was only  recovered after pouring milk of a black cow on the specific
spot it dropped. For some ethnologists/anthropologists, it is a “white metal horn which is worn on the forehead” and is
“horn-symbolism” for “every man is a bull”, a symbol of virility (Bartels 1983: 146). For others it is just a ‘white
metal horn’ which is a symbol of fertility or just is “phallic ornament” (Haberland 1963:51 quoted in Bartels
1983:146). These argumentations share the root qaɾa ‘horn (sharp and tall), acute; graining fruit, granulate,
shoot’ and the inavariable qaɾ-ɳî ‘sex (characteristics)’. The very Oromo word for ‘sex (intercourse)’, namely
saala, also designates ‘horn, oryx, penis; awe, honor, esteem; shame, shameful’. But, these notions are only
part of the polysemantic and complex concept of qallačča. Amborn (2009: 401) might be wrong when he completely
rejects the “phallisphication” of qallačča by “some anthropologists”. He is right that qallačča is also a symbol
of “socio-religious mediator which is able to bundle positive and negative “cosmic” (for want of a better word)
energies” and rather “symbolizes a link between the human and the supernatural world; its function is to open
up this connection between different spheres.” Knutsson (1967:88-90 quoted in Bartels 1983:145) describes
qallačča as “a conically formed ‘lump’ of black iron…brought from the heaven by the lightening.” Plowman (1918:114), who took a sketch of qallačča (Fig.3 D), described it as “emblem” of the Qaallu “Chief  Priest” or of the retired Abba Gadaa ‘the president’. Plowman fleshes out the components of qallačča: (1) “seven bosses superimposed on a raised rim running
round the emblem”; (2) “upright portion made of polished lead”; (3) “circular base of white polished shell-like substance resembling ivory”; (4) “leather straps for  fastening emblem to forehead of weaver” (Plowman 1918:114). This mysterious cultural object has multifunction. Taaddasa Birbirsso Mootii, who is not only an informant, but, in the expression of the locals, ‘a man who has sipped mouthful’ (of Oromo traditional wisdom) explains the social epistemological structure underlying qallačča: During the time of Gada System, government by the people’s justice, the Waaqeeffataa used to pour out milk of black cow on Dibayyuu ritual and discover/see their qallačča [truth and abundance]. For it is a sacred object,
qallačča never moved [transported, communicated] withoutsacrificial blood of bulls. It must be smeared on
the forehead [See Fig.3A and P7B on the forehead]. How can urine/semen without water, child without blood, milk
without udder/teats be discovered [gotten]? In the aftermath of lengthy drought, too, they used to take
qallačča to depression/ford and hill-top to pray with one stomach [unanimously] to God with Qaallu the Spiritual
Father. Immediately, qallačča [God’s riposte] reconciled streaming milk from the sky [rains]. Hence, qallačča was
used for collective welfare. Qallačča is God’s qali ‘alethic truth, promise’. Note that from Laga Oda Cave, archaeologists (Brandt 1984:177) have found “‘sickle sheen’ gloss and polish”, which helped archaeologists to recover “possible
indications of intensive harvesting of wild grasses as early as 15, 000 B. P.”; “one awl”, “one endscraper” and
“one curved-backed flake” all “dated 1560 B.C.”; and, “a few microliths that show evidence of mastic adhering
close to the backed edges” which “strongly suggests” that by “1560 B.C…stone tools were being used (probably as components of knives and sickles).”

Qallačča and Gadaa—the generation-age-based
sociopolitical system

Baxter (1979:73, 80) calls it “phallic” or “ritual paraphernalia”, which is worn on the head “by men at crucial stage in the gaada [gadaa] cycle of rituals”. Informants make distinction between two types of qallačča: qallačča laafa (of the soft, acuminous), which is worn by the Qaallu or Abba Gadaa; and qallačča korma  (of the virile man or bull, macho). Viterbo (1892) defines “kallaéccia”, qallačča as ‘disciple, pupil’, which cuts para-llel with the anthropologist Baxter (1979: 82-84) who
states that, in Oromo Gada System, a young man’s grown tuft (ɡuuɗuu; see Fig.3D; we shall come back to Fig.3A in the final part of the discussion) is “associated symbolically with an erect penis” and discourses that he is “guutu diira”, which means a “successful warrior”, the one who has reached a class of “member of political adulthood”, for he has “become responsible for the nation”. At this age, Baxter adds, “each of its members puts up a phallic Kalaacha”, a “symbol of firm but
responsible manliness.” The feminine counterpart to  ɡuuɗuu hairstyle is “ɡuɖeya” (Werner 1914a: 141), guʈʈiya (literally go-away bird or its tonsure) or qarré ‘tonsure’ (literally, ‘kite’ or similar bird of prey) (Bartels 1983:262), while of the masculine qallačča head-gear is the feminine qárma (literally ‘sharpened, civilized’). In Gada System, this age-class is called Gaammee  Gúɖ’ɡuɖá (reduplication ɡuɖá ‘big’) ‘Senior Gamme III’, the age of at which the boys elect their six leaders to
practice political leadership (Legesse 2006:124-125).

Bokkuu: Insignia of power, balance and light of
freedom

Hassen (1990:15) discusses that bokkuu has “two meanings”. One is “the wooden scepter kept by the Abba
Gada in his belt during all the assembly meetings”, an “emblem of authority…the independence of a tribe,
and…a symbol of unity, common law and common government” (Fig.4). De Salviac describes it “has the
shape of a voluminous aspergillum (a container with a handle that is used for sprinkling holy water) or of a mace
of gold of the speaker of the English parliament, but in iron and at the early beginning in hard wood” (De Salviac
2005 [1901]: 216). Legesse (2006: 104) describes it as “a specially curved baton”, which shows that there are two
types in use. The second meaning of bokkuu is, “it refers to the keeper of the bokkuu—Abba Bokkuu” (Hassen
1990:15), or in plural Warra Bokku “people of the scepter” (Legesse 2006: 104). Hence, after serving for full eight year, Abba Bokkuu must celebrate Bokkuu Walira Fuud’a (literally to exchange the scepter bokkuu), a Gada system concept
that refers to two socio-political “events as a single act of “exchange”” (Legesse 1973:81): (1) the event of power
“take over ceremony”, i.e., the symbolic act of “the incoming class” and (2) the event of power “handover
ceremony”, i.e., the symbolic act of “the outgoing class”. This power-exchange ceremony is also called Baalli
Walira Fud’a “Power Exchange” or “transfer of ostrich feathers” (Legesse 1973: 81-82; 2006: 125). Here, baalli
refers not only ‘power, authority, responsibility’ (Stegman 2011: 5, 68), but also ‘ostrich feather’ and ‘twig
(leaved)’, both of which are used as symbolic object on the Baalli power transfer ceremony. De Salviac (2005 [1901]: 216) witnessed “the power is transferred to the successor by remittance of the scepter or bokkuu.” After power exchange ceremony, the ‘neophyte’ Abba Bokkuu: “falls in his knees and raising in his hands the scepter towards the sky, he exclaims, with a majestic and soft voice: Yaa Waaq, Yaa Waaq [Behold! O, God!] Be on my side…make me rule over the
Doorii…over the Qaallu…make me form the morals of the youth!!!…” (De Salviac 2005 [1901]: 213). See Fig.4B.
Then, the new Abba Bokkuu takes possession of the seat and “immolates a sacrifice and recites prayers to obtain
the assistance of On-High in the government of his people….The entire tribe assembled there, out of breath
from emotion and from faith” (De Salviac 2005 [1901]: 212). Above we raised that two symmetrical acts/concepts are
enfolded “as a single act [or word] of “exchange”” is performed by exchanging the Bokkuu scepter during
Baalli ceremony (Legesse 1973:81). That is, when the scepter is the one with bokkuu ‘knobs’ on each edge, it
suffices to enfold it ‘Bokkuu Baalli’ since the symmetricality principle of the act of reciprocal remittance
or power exchange is as adequately abstracted in the phrase as in the iconicity of the balanced bokkuu. Besides, the horooroo stick with a knob (bokkuu) on one side and a v-/y-shape (baalli) on the other side is a semagram and semotactic for the same concept of symmetricality principle, i.e., Bokkuu Baalli.

Ateetee in Qaallu Institution: Fertility symbolism

Cerulli (1922:15, 126-127) “Atētê …the goddess of fecundity, worshipped by the Oromo” and adds that “the
greatest holiday of the [Oromo] pagans is the feast of Atetê”; she is “venerated” by “even the Mussulmen”; she
is referred to “in the songs ayô, ‘the mother,’ often with the diminutive ayoliê, ‘the little mother’”. Women sing

“songs asking the goddess to grant them fecundity and lamenting the woes which are caused by sterility.” Long
before Cerulli, Harris (1844:50) wrote as follow: “when sacrificing to Ateti, the goddess of fecundity, exclaiming
frequently, “Lady, we commit ourselves unto thee; stay thou with us always”.”
The symbolic material cultures pertaining to Aɖeetee are important for our purpose in this paper. Bompiani
(1891:78) saw the Oromo on their “long journeys to visit  Abba Múdā” who, “as a sign of peace they make a sheep
go before them on entering the village… and instead of a lance carry a stick, upon the top of which is fixed the horn
of an antelope” (this is well known Ancient Egyptian hieroglyph). Indeed, sheep (ḫooɭaa), common in ancient
rock paintings of Hararqee, is also the favorite for sacrificial animal for Qaallu institution of “peacemaking
and reconciliation”, particularly black sheep, “a sheep of peace” (hoolaa araaraa)” (Gidada 2001: 103). In fact, the
word ḫooɭaa for ‘sheep’ and rêeé, re’ee for ‘goat’ (re’oṱa, rooɖa, plural) have meronymic relationship. The semantic

structure underlying both is ‘high fertility rate’ (arareessá, from ɾaɾí ‘ball, matrix; pool, rivulet’). The “antelope” that Bompaini names is in fact the beautifully speckled ʂiiqqee ‘klipspringer’ (Stegman 2011:45, 35), common in Laga Oda and other paintings along with ‘fat-tailed’ sheep. At the same time, ʂiiqqee (literally, ‘splendid, lustrous, graceful’) is, according to the
Aṱeetee Institution, a sacred, usually tall and speckled, “stick signifying the honor of Oromo women…a blessing… a ceremonial marriage stick given to a girl…a religious stick Oromo women used for prayer” (Kumsaa 1997:118). Kumsa observed that “the very old, the very young and all women, in the Gadaa system, are considered innocent and peace-loving” and quoted the renowned anthropologist Gemetchu Megerssa who expressed that in Oromo Gada tradition women “were also regarded as muka laaftuu (soft wood–a depiction of their liminality) and the law for those categorized as such
protected them” (Kumsa 1997:119). Concentric or circular or ‘sun-burst’ geometric motifs are as abundant as ‘udder chaos’ in the Hararqee and Horn of African ancient rock paintings (Fig.5C from Qunnii or Goda Ummataa; A and B Goda Roorris traditionally known as ‘Errer Kimiet’; G from Goda K’arree Ğaldeesaa or Weybar in Č’elenqoo; E Laga Oda from Cervicek
1971). Bartels (1983) studied well about another symbolic object in Aɖeetee Institution, namely ɡuɳɖo, a grass-plate, made from highly propagative grasses, plaited in a series of concentric-circles (see Fig.5D). It is used to keep bîddeena ‘pizza-like circular bread’ and fruits. Bartels (1983: 261) documented that, on her wedding day: [T]he girl has with her a grass-plate (gundo), which she made herself. This gundo is a symbol of her womb [ɡaɖāmeʑa]. Since…she is expected to be a virgin
[ɡuɳɖúɖa],  nothing should have been put in in this grass plate beforehand. Gundo are plaited [with an awl] from
outside inwards, leaving a little hole in the centre [ɡuɖé, qaa]…this little hole is not filled in by the girls themselves,
but they ask a mother of a child to do it for them. If they do it themselves, they fear they will close their womb to
child-bearing (Square brackets added).While, ɡuɳɖó stands for a woman’s gadameʑa ‘womb’ (from gadá ‘temple; generation, time-in-flow), the concentricity of the plaits (marsaa, massaraa, metathesis) is a symbol of the ‘recyclers’ of generations, namely mûssirró ‘the bride-woman’ and marii ‘bride-man’ (marii also means ‘cycle, inwrap, plait’). A bigger
cylindrical ɡuɳɖó with cover called suuba is particularly given as hooda ‘a regard’ to the couples (on their good
ethos, virginity) and is a symbol of súboo ‘the newly married gentlemen, the prudential gentlemen’. Father Lambert Bartels (Bartels 1983: 268) wrote that a buffalo-killer would bring a special gift for his mother or wife from the wilderness: namely, elellee (elellaan, plural) from his buffalo skin” Elellee and č’aačč’u refer to a string of cowries (of snail shells, obsidian rocks or fruits of certain plant called illilii) and festooned to a sinew cut from a sacrificial animal (Fig.5F). They are worn only by
women on the breastplate or forehead or worn to č’ooč’oo, č’iič’oo milk-pots, symbol of “a woman’s sexual and reproductive organ” (Østebø 2009: 1053). See also Fig.5F and G.
We need to add here a praise song to a beauty of woman, which symbolizes her by élé ‘circular cooking pot or oven made of clay’ and bede smaller than élé (Sumner  1996: 68): Admiration is for you, o <ele>… <But> I take out of <bede>…
Admiration is for you, moon shaped beauty. Rightly, Sumner (1996:68) states élé symbolizes “the mother, of woman” while bedé symbolizes “daughters” or the “moon [báṱí] shaped beauty”, i.e., her virginity (ɡuɳɖuɖa), uncorruptedness (baʤí) combined with ethos of chastity (aɖeetee). Woman is expressed arkiftu idda mačč’araa literally ‘puller of the root of one-body/-person’,a paraonomastic way to say circulator, recycler or propagator of the genealogy of Oromo moieties, namely
Mačč’a and Raya/Raã. Here, it is fascinating to observe the unique social semiosis at work—selecting and stitching (qora) the language and world according to the semblance and image the reality (world) offers as a cognitive possibility to operate upon. cowries of “giant snail shells…kept with a string made.

Spear piercing coffee bean

According to the Aṱeetee tradition, on her wedding ritual, the bride “hands her gundo to her mother-in-law who puts
some sprouting barley-grains in it. They are (a symbol of) the children Waqa will give her if he will’’ (Bartels 1983:
261). The mother-in-law will, according to the long tradition, adds some coffee-beans (coffee-beans and
cowries are look-alike, Fig.5 F from Cervicek 1971 and H); “coffee-beans are a symbol of the vagina,
representing the girl to be a potential mother. The beans are children in the shell at this moment, protected and
inaccessible as a virgin’s vagina” (Bartels 1983:261). Later on during the ritual, the elderly bless her: “May
Waqa cause the womb [gundo] sprouts children [grains]! Let it sprout girls and boys!” Amid the ceremony, the
bride “gives the gundo to her groom’s mother. She herself now takes his [bridegroom’s] spear and his stool.
She carries the stool with her left hand, holding it against her breast. In her right hand she grasps the spear….”
The spear, a representation of the male organ, is expressed in the Girl’s Song:

O sheath [qollaa] of a spear,
Handsome daughter,
Sister of the qaɽɽee [us colleagues of marriage-age]

Let us weep for your sake
The buna qalaa ‘slaughtering of coffee fruit’, which reflexes, in direct translation, the ‘slaughtering’ (qaɭa) the
virgin is “a symbol of procreation” (Bartels 1975: 901). The bride “puts the coffee-fruits from the gundo in butter
together with others and put them over the fire” (Bartels  1983: 263). Butter (ɗ’aɗ’á) is a symbol of fecundity
(ṯaɗ’āma) while the floor of the fire, or hearth (baɗ’ā) is a  symbol of the nuclear family that is taking shape
(Legesse 1973:39). While, all this was captured by Bartels in the late 20th century in Wallagga, Werner (1914
b: 282) captured similar events a thousand or so kilometers away at Northern Kenya with the Booran:
On the wedding morning, a woman (some friend of the  bride’s mother) hangs a chicho [č’iič’oo, č’ooč’oo] full of
milk over the girl’s shoulder….The bridegroom, carrying  his spear and wearing a new cloth and a red turban, goes
in at the western gate of the cattle-kraal and out at the  eastern, and then walks in a slow and stately way to the
hut of his mother-in-law, where the bride is waiting for him. They sit down side by side just within the door; after
a time they proceed to the cattle-kraal, where his friends are seated. She hands him the chicho and he drinks
some milk, and then passes it on to his friends, who all drink in turn.

In general, matrix-shape, milk-pots, sprouting beans all  symbolizes feminineness quality, the natural power to
‘reproductive faculty’ (ʂaɲɲí), a capacity to generate many that, yet, keep alikeness or identity (ʂaɲɲí).

Woman and a cow and infant and a calf

Cows are “a symbolic representation of women” (Sumner 1997: 193; Bartels 1975: 912) because both are equally
haaɗ’a manaa ‘the flex of the home/house’:
Sawayi, ya sawayi—o my cow, o my cow [too high
hypocorism]
ʼnīṱī abbaan gorsatu–a wise man’s wife/a wife of wisest
counselor husband
amali inmulattu–her virtues are hidden;/is virtuous and
has integrity;
saa abbaan tiqsatu–o careful owner’s cow/ similarly, cow
that the owner himself
shepherds/feeds
č’inaači inmuľaṱu–her ribs are hidden/her hook bone is
invisible (full and swollen).
Saa, saa, ya saa–cattle, cattle, o cow,
ya saa marī koo–o cow, my advisor/darling
ţiqē marartu koo–good in the eyes of your herdsman/am
overseeing you spitefully.
(Bartels, 1975: 912)
Likewise, an infant and a young calf are not only congruous, but also sung a lullaby to comfort them:
Sleep, sleep!
My little man slobbers over his breast.

The skin clothes are short.
The groin is dirty
The waist is like the waist of a young wasp
The shepherd with the stick!
Sleep, sleep!
He who milks with the ropes!
Sleep, sleep!
He who takes the milk with the pot!
Sleep, sleep!
The cows of Abba Bone,
The cows of Dad’i Golge:
They’ve gone out and made the grass crack;
They’ve [come home] again and made the pot.
(Sumner 1997: 181)

Basically, there is no difference between a newborn calf  and an infant; no need of separate lexisboth is élmee—
diminutive-denominative from elma ‘to milk’. Young calves or children are worn kolliʥa ‘collar’, ǧallattii
‘diadem, crown, tiara’ or č’allee ‘jewelry’ wrapping around their necks, all of whose semiotic significance is to
express ǧalla, ǧallačča ‘love’ and protection from ɡaaɖiɗú ‘evil spirit’ that bewitches not only infants and young of
animals, etc (Bartels 1983: 284-285, 196-197). The first meaning of ɡaaɖiɗú, gádíṱú is ‘silhouette’ or ‘human
shadow’ (see also Tutschek 1844: 54), but, in this context it refers to an evil spirit that accompanies or inhabits a
person. The evil spirit comes in a form of shadow and watches with evil-eye, hence it is also called, in some areas, ɮaltu, ilaltu ‘watcher (wicked)’. All these concepts are common motifs in Hararqee rock paintings (Cervicek 197). See
Fig.6 especially the silhouette-like background and in C an evil-eye motif is seen watching from above.
In accordance with the Qaallu Institution, the Qaallu (or Qaalličča, particulative) receives and embraces new
born children, giving them blessings, buttering their  heads and ɡubbisaa ‘giving them names’, literally,
‘incubating’ from ɡubba ‘to be above, over’ or ɡuƀa ‘to brand, heat’ (Knustsson 1967). Women call this process of entrusting children to the Qallu ‘aɖɖaraa ol kaa’, literally ‘Putting/Lifting up oath/children to the topmost (related to the prayer epithet Áɖɖaraa ‘Pray! I beseech you!’). Or, they call it Ők’ubaa ɢalča, literally ‘entering/submitting the Őq’ubaa’, which refers to “the act of kneeling down and raising one’s hands with open fingers towards the sky (Waaqa) and thus submitting oneself to Waaqa” (Gidada 2006:163), from the prayer epithet: Őq’uba ‘Pray!, Prayer!’, literally,
‘Take my fingers!’ A “perfect attitude at prayers in the Oromo’s eyes is to lift the hands towards heaven”
(Bartels 1983: 350). An unfortunate Oromo father/mother has to but say élmee koo ana ǧalaa du’e, literally ‘my offspring/child died from under/underside me’ while an unfortunate child would say abbo/ayyo koo ana’irraa du’e ‘my dear dad/mum died from above/over me’. Some lines from a song for a hero illustrate caressing and kissing the belly of his mother (Cerulli 1922: 48):

The belly which has brought you forth,
How much gold has it brought forth?
Who is the mother who has given birth to you?
If I had seen her with my eyes,
I would have kissed her navel.

These symbolic-actional rhetorical organizations are most probably the underlying ‘grammar’ of the recurrent
anthropomorphic signs, along with a newborn calves, ‘embracing’ the belly, navel of a cow (Fig.6CandD from
Cervicek 1971). Culturally, cows are given as an invaluable gift to an adoptee child, so that she/he never
sleeps a night without a cup of milk. The gift-cow is addressed by hypocoristic aɳɖ’úree ‘navel, umbilical cord’
(aɖɖ’oolee, plural, by play on word ‘good parous ones, the gray/old ones’), which means ‘dear foster-mama’
symbolizing cordiality, wish to long-life and strong bond, protection of the child (see also Hassen 1990: 21).
Earlier in this paper, we saw how matrilineal-patrilineal and moiety phratry are represented partly by bovine
anatomy. As recorded by the Catholic Father Lambert Bartels and others, Waaqa ‘Devine, God, Sky’
symbolizes Abbá, Patriarchic-side of the cosmos or Father or Husband “who goes away” while, Daččee
‘Earth’ symbolizes, the Matriarchic-side, Mother or Wife who “is always with us” (Bartels 1983: 108-111) and
“originally, Heaven and Earth were standing one next to the other on equal terms” (Haberland 1963: 563 quoted in
Bartels 1983: 111). As we observe the Laga Odaa pictures (see Fig.5A), we consistently also find another
interesting analogy–bulls are consistently drawn above the cows. In Oromo worldview, a bull represent ßoo
‘sacred domain of the male’ (vocative form of bâ ‘man, subject, being, masculine 4th person pronoun’), while a
cow (saa, sa’a) represent çâé, îssi ‘sacred domain of the female’ (also ‘feminine 4th person pronoun’) (Kassam
1999:494). From this worldview comes Oromo concept of Ḿootumma ‘rule, government, state, kingdom’:[Ḿootumma comes] from moo’a, autobenefactive: moo’ď/ʈ, is a cattle image. For example, Kormi sun him moo’a, “that bull is in heat” and sa’a sun iti moo’a ‘he is mounting that cow’. With reference to human beings, the implication is not necessarily sexual, but can denote superiority or dominance in general. An moo’a, an mooti is a formula of self praise by a new Abba Gada during his inauguration (Shongolo 1996: 273).

Qallačča and Qaallu: A jigsaw motif
In this last section of this analysis, we must consider the  symbolic significance of what an old man skilled in
Oromo oral history says is tremendously important: The Qaallu did this. For the daughter/girl of Ǧillee
[eponymous clan name] he took a heifer; for the daughter/girl of Elellee [eponymous clan name] he also
took a heifer. Then, for the Elellee girl he erected the  heifer of Elellee in such a way that her (the heifer’s) head
is faced upwards. For the Ǧillee girl, he erected the heifer of Ǧillee in such a way that her (the heifer’s) is faced
downwards. The girl of Ǧillee too siiqqee stick and hit the Mormor River; then, the Mormor River split into two
(BATO 1998:75; My translation).

This story offers us a tremendously important insight.It corresponds with the amazing critical observation and re-interpretation of my informant Muummee. Muummee rotated 90oCW Cervicek’s (1971) Laga Oda Figure 47 (=
Fig.7 A) and got Fig.7B after rotating. In this motif, the Qaallu , with his qallačča headgear, is at the centre. We
can observe one heifer above the Qaallu (perhaps Ǧillee heifer) her head inverted, serving as qallačča headgear,
and behind him to the right handside, two heifers (cattle, one headless), both of whose heads are facing
downwards but in between them and the qallačča cattle is one anthropomorphic motif, unlike on the lefthand
where there are many, possibly a chorus in praise of the sublime black cow and of the reverenced Qaallu. We also
observe, a heifer (cow?) whose head is faced upwards (possibly Elellee heifer).

As usual, it is likely also that this  style is as much for  associal-epistemological as is it for grammatical- semotactical reason.  The downward-faced heifer or Ǧillee (hypocoristic-diminutive from ǧiɭa ‘ritual ceremony, pilgrimage’), which is equivalent to qallačča headgear of the Qaallu anthropomorphic, is a signification of the semantic of ɡaɮa ‘to safely travel away and come home (or ɢaɮma ‘the Sacred Temple of Qaallu’)’ by the help of the Qallačča the providence of God. Thus, the collocation
forming gaɮa-gaɮča gives the polysemous metonymic senses: (1) to invert, make upside down, (2) one who causes safe home-come i.e., Qallačča. The same ‘play on word’ is true of Elellee: (1) reduplication (emphasis) of ēɮ, éla ‘spring up; well (water)’, and (2) őɮ literally ‘go up; upwards; spare the day peacefully, prevail’. “Őɮa!” is a farewell formula for ‘Good day!’ (literally ‘Be upward! Be above! Prevail!’).Yet, the most interesting aspect lies beyond the lexico-syntactic or semotactic motives. If we look carefully at this motif, the head of the Qaallu and the foreparts of the downwards (ɡaɗi) Ǧillee heifer merge, which makes the latter headless (ɡaɗooma). The Elellee heifer apparently with only one horn but full nape (bok’uu)
appears to be another jigsaw making a thorax (ɡûɗeɫča) of the Qaallu, possibly because in the “Barietuma” Gada
System, the Qaallu are “central”, i.e., “occupy a special position, and their members act as “witnesses” (Galech)
on the occasion of weddings or other important transaction” (Werner 1915:17, 1914a: 140; See also Legesse 2006: 104, 182, for “Gada Triumvirate System”). This is not arbitrary, but is stylized so that the notions of seniority are textured simultaneously, in caput mortuum. Pertaining to the “seven bosses” of the qallačča (Plowman 1918:114) ) is possibly equivalent to Cervicek’s (1971:192) description of this same motif: “Seven animal representations, painting of a symbol ((cen-tre) and pictures of H-shaped anthropomorphic figures…Painted in graphite grey, the big cattle picture a
little darker, the smaller one beneath it in caput mortuum red.” While we can consider, following Dr. Gemetchu Megerssa, anthropology professor, that the seven bosses might stand for the seven holes of human body (above the neck) which still stand for some mythical concepts we cannot discuss here, it is also possible to consider the (related) socio-political structure of the democratic Gada System. They must stand for what Legesse (1973: 82, 107) calls “torban baalli” “the seven
assistants” of Abba Gada in “power” (his in-powerness is makes him Abba Bokkuu, ‘Proprietor/Holder of the
Scepter’). Long before Legesse’s critical and erudite study of Gada System, Phillipson (1916) wrote:

The petty chiefs act in conjunction with the king. These  are, however, appointed by election of officers called Toib
[Tor b] or Toibi (= seven councilors or ministers). These are men of standing and character…. They are governed
by, and work in unison with, the head. These officers are appointed by the king, and each of the seven has an
alternative, so that the number is unbroken. Their office is to sit in council with the king, hear cases, administer
justice, and in the king’s absence they can pass sentence  in minor cases; but all they do is done by his authority.
For all that, this may act as a check if the king inclines to  despotism. There is no such thing as favoritism; the Toibi
stands in the order elected: 1, 2, and c (Phillipson 1916:180). These seven high ranking officials (aɡaoɗa) are
purposely represented by forepart of bovine body (agooda), because this is the strongest and most
powerful part. Ól, literally ‘up, upwards, upper’ is a metaphoric expression for those “On-High in the
government of his [Abba Bokkuu] people” (De Salviac 2005 [1901]: 212). Cervicek (1971:130) is accurate when he theorized “anthropomorphic representations do not seem to have been painted for their own sake but in connection with the cattle and symbolic representations only.” Despite the guttural sounds dissimilarization, as in the expression
ɢaɮčaan naaf ɡalé ‘I understood it by profiling. i.e., symbolically (i.e., from the gerundive ɢaɮču, kalču ‘profiling, aligning, allying’, or kaɬaṯṯi ‘perspective, façade’, or the base kala, χala ‘to construct, design’; see Stegman
2011:2, 17), the very word qallača itself is a metasemiotic language, meaning ‘symbolic interpretation’.

*Dereje Tadesse Birbirso (PhD) is Assistant Professor, School of Foreign Language, College of Social Science and Humanities, Haramaya University

Read full article @ http://internationalscholarsjournals.org/download.php?id=275978303829134960.pdf&type=application/pdf&op=1

‘Nagaa Oromoo’ from Raya to Mombasa as We Welcome New Season, Irreecha 2014! September 2, 2014

Posted by OromianEconomist in Africa, Ancient Egyptian, Ateetee (Siiqqee Institution), Boran Oromo, Gabra Oromo, Irreecha, Irreecha (Irreesa) 2014, Irreecha (Irreessa) 2014, Meroetic Oromo, Munyoyaya Oromo, Orma Oromo, Oromia, Oromiyaa, Oromo, Oromo Culture, Oromo Nation, Oromummaa, Rayya Oromo, Waata Oromo, Wardei Oromo.
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‘Nagaa Oromoo’ from Raya to Mombasa as We Welcome New Season, Irreecha 2014!

Finfinne Tribune | Gadaa.com |

From the Gadaa.com Editor’s Notebook

While researching about the Oromo tribes in Kenya, we ran into a video of Orma Oromo men engaged in friendly fighting competitions, where two men fight to see who will tackle their opponent first. Such a fighting match does also exist as a proud cultural element of the Raya Oromo, who nowadays speak Tigrigna or Amharic, which they have picked up from their neighbors in the North and West, respectively.

Gadaa.com

It’s to be noted that there are at least five Oromo tribes, in addition to the Borana and Garba, which call Kenya home. These five tribes, including their traditional homes, are listed below (alphabetically).

These tribes have been given many names over the last century-and-half by several authors, mainly without asking the people the name refers to (the same way the derogatory name for the Oromo made its way into academic works). The reason for this mix-up was primarily as a result of the use of second-hand sources, instead of the people themselves. It’s the task of the OromoQeerroo to conduct the researches on its own to learn about its own people’s history and roots.

Krapf, one of the early European travelers to Central Oromia (near the Tulama-land) and the southern Oromo tribes north of the Mombasa in the Tana Delta region in the 1850′s, had studied extensively about the Oromo on both sides of the border; he had published one of the early dictionaries of Oromo – one for each Oromo dialect. The dictionary by Krapf in Kenya was with Swahili and Afan Oromo. Unlike Krapf, many Kenyans do not have any idea about the ingenious Oromos who call Kenya home, and who are also their fellow citizens, in the Tana River, Isiolo and Marsabit regions; their only exposure to ‘Oromo’ is through the Ethiopian regime’s propaganda of the violence it inflicts in southern Oromia.

Reclaiming ‘Nagaa Oromoo’
Qeerroo (of both sides of the border) is at a historic position to reclaim the lost ‘Nagaa Oromoo’across the East African region; this historic mission will lead not only to the revival of Oromummaain the region, but also to the renaissance of Cushitic peoples in East Africa. ‘Nagaa Oromoo’ was disrupted by the invasion of Abyssinian warlords and the subsequent aggression of Abyssinian warlords – which still continues to this day. ‘Nagaa Oromoo’ is not only for Oromo; the Oromo people believe that, if their neighbor is not at peace, they are not at peace. ‘Nagaa Oromoo’ is not only for humans, but also for other living things and the environment. There is no peace when other living things and the environment where one thrives on and lives with – are exploited and polluted by reckless actions, like the one imposed on the Oromo Nation by Woyane thugs. ‘Nagaa Oromoo’from Raya to Mombasa as we welcome the new season, Irreecha 2014!

The Oromo Nation opposes the TPLF Ethiopian regime’s Addis Ababa Master Plan to annex the Oromo-land in Central Oromiyaa and to demographically alter the ethnic makeup of the region. Such genocidal campaigns disturb ‘Nagaa Oromoo’, and the Oromo people (old and young) will fight to regain ‘Nagaa Oromoo’ in the region.

The five tribes (in addition to the Borana and Garba) in Kenya:

1) Munyoyaya: live in the Tana River County near Garissa, Anole and Kora, and adjacent to the Orma tribe. One can listen to “Afan Munyoyaya” here; the linguistic similarity with Afan Oromo is unmistakable at a glance; more studies need to be conducted.

2) Orma: live in the Tana River County, north of the Galana River and West of the Tana River. Linguists have studied the Orma dialect of Afan Oromo, and some dictionaries are also available.

3) Waata: live in the Tana River County (a sub-group of Orma); live near the Kipini area by the Indian Ocean (by the north of Mombasa).

4) Wardei: live in the Tana River County; though Wardeis speak mainly Somali, they believe they are Oromo. As in the case of the Raya and Wollo of northern Oromia, Wardei have adopted their neighbor’s language; however, Wardeis trace their ancestry to Oromo.

Report on Wardei in Swahili:
5) Waso Boran: live in the Isiolo County. According to the book, “Being Oromo in Kenya” by Mario Aguilar, Waso Boran have still maintained many of the cultural elements of Oromummaa.

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The following map below is from early 2000′s and shows the approximate distributions of Oromo in the Ethiopian Empire and Kenya:

Distribution of Oromo in Ethiopia & Kenya

‘Nagaa Oromoo’ from Raya to Mombasa as we welcome the new season, Irreecha 2014!

 

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Waaqeffannaa (Amantii Oromoo):The traditional faith system of the Oromo people August 10, 2014

Posted by OromianEconomist in Ancient Egyptian, Ateetee (Siiqqee Institution), Black History, Chiekh Anta Diop, Culture, Development & Change, Finfinnee, Gadaa System, Irreecha, Kemetic Ancient African Culture, Language and Development, Macha & Tulama Association, Meroe, Meroetic Oromo, Nubia, Oromia, Oromiyaa, Oromo, Oromo Culture, Oromo First, Oromo Identity, Oromo Social System, Oromummaa, Prof. Muhammad Shamsaddin Megalommatis, Safuu: the Oromo moral value and doctrine, State of Oromia, The Oldest Living Person Known to Mankind, The Oromo Democratic system, The Oromo Library, Wisdom.
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Waaqeffannaa (Amantii Oromoo), the traditional faith system of the Oromo people, is one version of the monotheistic African Traditional Religion (ATR), where the followers of this faith system do believe in only one Supreme Being. African traditional religion is a term referring to a variety of religious practices of the only ONE African religion, which Oromo believers call Waaqeffannaa (believe in Waaqa, the supreme Being), an indigenous faith system to the continent of Africa. Even though there are different ways of practicing this religion with varieties of rituals, in truth, the different versions of the African religion have got the following commonalities:

 

– Believe in and celebrate a Supreme Being, or a Creator, which is referred to by a myriad of names in various languages as Waaqeffataa Oromo do often say: Waaqa maqaa dhibbaa = God with hundreds of names and Waaqa Afaan dhibbaa = God with hundreds of languages; thus in Afaan Oromoo (in Oromo language) the name of God is Waaqa/Rabbii or Waaqa tokkicha (one god) or Waaqa guraachaa (black God, where black is the symbol for holiness and for the unknown) = the holy God = the black universe (the unknown), whom we should celebrate and love with all our concentration and energy

 

– No written scripture (ATR’s holy texts are mostly oral), but now some people are trying to compose the written scripture based on the Africans’ oral literature.

 

– Living according to the will of the Supreme Being and love also those who do have their own way of surviving by following other belief systems, which are different from that of the Waaqeffannaa. It includes keeping both safuu (virtues) and laguu (vices); i.e. to love safuu as well as to hate and abhor cubbuu (sin).

 

– Correspondence with the Supreme Being in times of a great need (i.e. in times of natural calamities, unexplained deaths) and try to walk always on the karaa nagaa (on the way of peace = on the way of righteousness, on the road of truth).

 

– Having a devout connection with ancestors; in case of Oromo, the ancestors are all ways blessed and celebrated for the good inheritance we got from them, but not worshiped as some people want to mis understand.

 

The word “culture” is most commonly defined as the set of shared attitudes, values, goals, and practices that characterizes an institution, organization or group; different cultures are the distinct ways that classified people living in different parts of the world, that represented their experiences and acted creatively. African peoples have got our own culture, which distinguish us from other parts of the world, of course also having our own sub-cultures among ourselves. Aadaa Oromoo (Oromo culture) being one part of the Cush culture is one of the sub-cultures within the common African culture, which consists also the faith system of Waaqeffannaa as part and parcel of the Oromo/African culture.

 

Waaqeffannaa’s interaction with other religions

According to the expert opinions written up to now, the concept of monotheism is the whole mark of African Traditional Religion including the faith system of the Cush nations. It seems that this concept of monotheism have moved from Cushitic black Africans (including the Oromo) first to ancient Egypt, secondly, further to Israel of the Bible and lastly to the Arab world of Koran. The experts tell us that Moses was not the first monotheist, but Akhenaten was the first revolutionary monotheist; they even claim that Moses might have been black. It is also argued that Moses was an Egyptian Pharaoh known as Akhenaten before the exodus. Additionally, they do argue that Akhenaten’s monotheism revolution in Egypt was not inspired from inside, but induced from outside by the Cushites, i.e. Akhenaten might have derived his monotheism concept from Africa’s/Oromo’s concept of Waaqa tokkicha in a form of “Waaq humna malee bifa hin qabu (God has no physical form, but power).” This concept may have been misinterpreted so that the other religions later started to talk about God with a physical form.

 

It is also interesting to observe many similarities between some old Egyptian words and Afaan Oromo words; for instance, the similarities of the ancient Egyptian words “Anii and Matii” with the Oromo words of “Ana (Ani) and Maatii.” Anii of Egyptians, which means I (I am who I am), that is equivalent to God is similar to the Oromo word Ani, which also means I and refers to the first person singular (the actor = the main character of GOD). Matii being the designation of God’s congregation and the Oromo word Maatii for the family which is the “congregation” of ani (first person = God) are surprisingly the same. This is only one of many similarities between Oromo and Egypt registered by experts till now. It is not my intention to talk about this historical relationship here, but just to show the relation between Oromo’s traditional religion and the three Abraham religions, even though Judaism is not part of the current religions practiced by the Oromo. It means the new acceptance of both Christianity and Islam by Africans is the coming back of the same belief in Waaqa tokkicha to Africa in different forms.

 

This historical relation between Amantii Oromoo and the two big religions of the world suggests that Waaqeffannaa is the older version of monotheism and humanism. Waaqeffannaa as a faith system and Irreechaa as a major national celebration were part and parcel of Oromo public life. Now, some Oromo nationals prefer the name Amantii Oromo/Amantii Africa to Waaqeffannaa. It is important if we all can agree to call the Oromo traditional religion as Amantii Oromo/Amantii Africa, just like we agreed on calling our language Afaan Oromo and our country Biyya Oromo. So in short, we can say: Our land is Biyya Oromo, our language is Afaan Oromo and our religion is Amantii Oromo. It is known that some people may argue by saying “how can we call it Amantii Oromo, when we do see that more than half of the Oromo nowadays have Christianity and Islam as their religion?” Are Oromo with other first language rather than Afaan Oromo not Oromo, despite their lost Afaan Oromo? Should we say just because of these Oromo, who nowadays speak only English, German, Amharic, etc., that Oromo language is not Afaan Oromo? The same way, it is not logical not to call Oromo religion as Amantii Oromo because of the Oromo who overtook other religions. Actually, the designation Waaqqeffannaa (believing in and living with Waaqa) can also be applied to Christian Oromo and Islam Oromo even though most of the Islam Oromo prefer the name Rabbii to the name Waaqa. They all are believers in Waaqa = God = Allah = Rabbii. Amantii Oromo differs only because of its specificity for it is the older Oromo faith embedded in only Oromo/African culture without any influence from alien culture.

 

The fact to be accepted here is that God is universal even though we call HIM Waaqa, Rabbii or Allah. But, Amantii Oromo is the way how our forefathers believed in this universal Waaqa of humankind. We don’t have God or Waaqa, who is specific only to Oromo/Africa and doesn’t care for other nations. Waaqa is the God of nations. But, we Oromo do have a specific way and culture regarding how we do practice our belief in Waaqa. This way of practicing our faith is what we call Amantii Oromo. Amantii Oromo is simply the Oromo way of practicing the faith in the universal Waaqa. It is part of the Oromo way of dealing with the problems of life (it is part of Aadaa Oromo). Accordingly, aadaa (culture) can also be defined as the way, in which a certain collective or group of people deals with its own life problem.

 

The difference between this Amantii Oromo and the other two big religions practiced by Oromo is that the other two got not only the faith in one God, but also the elements of cultures from the people in which they first emerged. We can see here the Arabs accepted the concept of Waaqa tokkicha while still keeping pre-Mohammad Arab culture in Islam, which is far different from Oromo/from African culture, but Islam practiced by Oromo in Oromia is colored by Arab culture for it is adopted from there. Interestingly, this is the difference between Islam Arab and Islam Oromo; Islam Arabs adopted only the concept of Waaqa tokkicha from Cush of Africa/Egypt/Israel, but don’t seem to exercise alien culture from these areas, whereas Islam Oromo tend to adopt both the faith and the culture from Arabs. Egyptians and Israelis, who accepted the concept of the same Waaqa tokkicha, also do practice their faith being colored by their own previous culture; they don’t seem to practice Cush culture; but again Christianity practiced in Oromia is mostly colored by the culture of the Israelis, the Habeshas as well as by that of the Western world for Christian Oromo tend to adopt not only the faith, but also the alien culture.

 

That is why it is not actually bad that some Oromo nationals accept and believe in the two monotheist religions (Christianity and Islam) per se, but not good is giving more value to the culture of the nations from which the religions come to us, at the cost of the very valuable Aadaa Oromo. Of course, good elements of foreign cultures can be accommodated without damaging the good elements of our own. For instance, the similarity between dibbee Qaallu (Qaallu’s drum) and the beat of Tigrinya music shows how Tegarus have inherited and kept some elements of Oromo’s culture. This can verify that the suggestion of Donald Levine, who in his book called Greater Ethiopia wrote that “Tegarus are part of the Cushites of the Old Testament who denied their identity”, may be true. After all, why do they call their mother Aadde? Where does the name Barentu in Eritrea come from? Are they only inheritance of names or were they part of the lost Oromo/Cush? Anyways, it is good to follow the advice given once by Luba Shamsadin. He said (paraphrased here), when we try to accept religions from other nations, we have to identify and separate “the bone of the fish from the meat”; i.e. we need to identify and leave the unnecessary cultural elements of other nations, which are usually mixed with their religions we Oromo do tend to accept and adopt.

 

So as it is put here in short,

Waaqeffannaa (believe in one Waaqa of the universe) is practiced not only among the Cush nations, but also among almost all African nations. This faith system of Africans including Waaqeffannaa has been devalued as something “paganism, barbarism, religionlessness, uncivilization, Godlessness, animism, primitivism, etc”. The black color, which is the symbol of holiness in Waaqeffannaa was/is demonized as a symbol for Satan. All the blessing ceremonies of Waaqeffannaa and the utensil used for the blessings are condemned as a service, an instrument and worshiping of demons/Satan. Despite this denigration, the current revival of Waaqeffannaa and the celebration of Irreechaa in Oromia can be a good example-setting for the other African nations to revive their hitherto devalued and almost lost culture and religion.

 

To serve this purpose of revival, the right way of Waaqeffannaa (believing in, celebrating of and living with Waaqa) must be cleaned from alien non-constructive elements as well as from non-productive practices and rituals like that of “qaalichaa” (infiltrating idolatry), which are not serving the purpose of Waaqa in our personal or national life. That means, we have to differentiate Waaqeffachuu (realizing God’s purpose in our life) from waaqessuu (serving alien gods). Waaqeffachuu is applying Waaqa’s goodwill in our practical life, whereas waaqessuu is making someone or something be our Waaqa, i.e. practicing idolatry. The Oromo people in general have never had an idol to worship, but always had only one Waaqa to believe in and to celebrate. Of course, there are very few Oromo individuals nowadays tending to practice waaqessuu. Such purification of the African faith system from unimportant and useless elements must be done in all versions of the practices and rituals among all African nations.

 

Concept of God in Waaqeffannaa

To make Waaqeffannaa a little bit clear, here is a short narration about this faith system in practice. Oromo nationals practicing this faith do talk about Waaqa tokkicha, which is one of the evidences for the faith to be monotheism, just as the Christianity and Islam are. The concept of God among these believers is summarized by their usual saying: “Waaq humna malee bifa hin qabu.” These believers do not misinterpret Waaqa tokkicha as an expression of physical form for even the whole nature as a physical form is also an expression of his power. The believers and the Qaalluu or Qaallitti (local spiritual leader) are usually very lovely; specially the leaders are simply like a love in person. All their followers are selfless people full of good deeds and love; they do talk about Waaqa, calling him as abbaa koo (my father), and they usually do pray for children saying: “akka ijoollee keenyaa eebbisuuf abba keenya gaafanna (let’s ask our father to bless our children),” they usually don’t say “abba keenya kadhanna (let’s beg our father).”

 

Whenever they are challenged by life problems, they do assert by saying: “Waaq abbaan keenya eessa dhaqeetu (our God is not far away)”, denoting that Waaqa is always ready to help his children. They some times also talk as prophets in a way: “Abbaan keenya akkas jedha, ani sin wajjin jira, ani nan sin gargaara (our father says, I am with you and I will help you)”. According to them, the spiritual father is Waaqa garaa gurraachaa, i.e. Waaqa with holy heart, symbolized with black color, most of whose holiness is unknown to humans. Knowledgeable believers do tell that the concept “Waaqa gurracha garaa garba (black God with heart like ocean)” actually refers to the unknown future. What Waaqa may bring in the future is unknown, and that is signified by black color. Here, garaa garba is also about the unknown. One couldn’t know what is inside the body of water from afar. This point of view seems to be the reason for the color black in the Oromo tricolor to signify the unknown future.

 

In some regions of Oromia, there are a lot of congregations visited by Oromo at some big houses called gimbi (galma) which have got different names: gimbii diloo, maram, abbaa jama, hiike, etc; the spiritual practices done there include the following: dalaguu (dancing), irreenssa kennu (green leaf as a gift), wareeguu (offerings), hammachiisaa (blessing babies), gashaa (delicious food brought to gimbi), etc. Actually, people go to such gimbi regularly carrying green leaves of Irreensaa. In this culture, green grass or green leaf is a powerful symbol for life and prosperity, and it is an element present in all public rituals of Waaqeffataa Oromo, including funerals and prayers of remembrance, during which grass is spread on the ground or grave. The above listed different names of gimbi are Oromo spiritual holy places and palaces, which are equivalent to temple, church and mosque. In all the places mentioned, everyone prays to Waaqa. The practices mentioned above are just variations of spiritual practice to Waaqa.

 

It is also to be observed among the practicing Waaqeffattaa how balanced is their way of discussion and relationship. During sorts of discussions, they often discuss very wisely. For example, when they give comments, here is a sample of how they do: “Ilaa, kanaa fi sana waan gaarii jette. Haa ta’u malee, kunimmoo otoo akkana ta’e wayya (here and there you said good, but it is better if this one be so and so)”. They do not denigrate the opinion of the other side, but tell the better alternative to the opinion they do disagree with. They do tolerate the mistake of others and just tell the consequence of the mistake. As far as they are concerned, there is always cubbuu (sin) in their consciousness, but no concept for hell or condemnation after death. This simply implies that we all do experience the consequence of our trespasses regarding the safuu (virtues) and laguu (vices) expected from us during our life time.

 

Not to suffer such consequences of cubbuu, Waaqeffattaa Oromo have got a lot of very well said prayers in their practical life activities. The following are very few of the impressive prayers in the day to day life of the Oromo, which need to be presented here as examples. They are usually heard from the believers of Amantii Oromo, and they are almost similar to what the believers in Christianity and Islam do pray, let alone the similarity of the greatly formulated prayers we do hear during Irreechaa celebration with what the Christian Qesis and the Islam Sheiks usually do pray:

 

– Yaa Waaq kan dubbatee nu dubbachiisu fi kan hamaa nutti yaadu nurraa qabbi (God keep us from those who speak evil and make us speak the same).

 

– Yaa Waaq mirga nu oolch (help us to walk on the right way); hamaa nurraa qabi (protect us from evil).

 

– Yaa Rabbii, ilmi ga’e haa fuudhu (Oh God, let the young man be married), dubarri geesse haa heerumtu (let the young woman be married), this prayer shows howimportant family building for human blessing is.

 

– Yaa Waaq, ani galee, kan galee hin rafne narraa qabi; ani rafee kan rafee hin bulle narra qabi (I am now at home to sleep, save me from the evil ones who didn’t yet be at their home and didn’t sleep).

 

– Yaa Waaq galgala koo hin balleessiin (let my old age not be cursed), this is related with the conse -quence of cubbuu. The believers are asking Waaqa to help them stay away from cubbuu so that their “galgala (late age)” will not be bad/painful. Here we see something similar with the native American’s culture. They say: “when you came to this world, you cried and everybody else laughed; live your life so that when you leave this world, you laugh and everyone else cries”; i.e. to say live your life free from cubbuu and its conse -quence (suffering), the life style which leads you to the blessing in your old age.

 

This prayers indicate the fact on the ground how Oromo look at Waaqa and at the human-being. Waaqa is conceived as a holy father with whom we can correspond during our day to day life problems or when ever we face calamities or difficulties for his will is always good, whereas human-beings can be with either bad or good intention in relation to each other. Both Gadaa and Qaalluu institutions look at all individuals as human with equal rights in front of Waaqa; that is why there is no a “respect form” of addressing human-being or God in Afaan Oromo, just as there is non in English language. After losing our sovereignty, the Oromo people had to learn how to “respect” authority figures. For there is no such option in Afaan Oromo, we had to use plural verbs to address the authority figures. Even Abbaa Gadaa (chief of the government) and Abbaa Mudaa (the spiritual leader) were addressed as “ati = you in a singular form,” not as “isin = you in a plural form.” Today, we have to address our fellow human being with certain authority as “isin” to show “respect.” It is not bad if such addressing would have been mutual/symmetrical as for instance it is in German language. But such “respect,” which we are now applying is asymmetrical (only the authority figure is addressed with the “respect” form, whereas the authority figure can address the other person without using the “respect” form. Where it is the reality that we don’t use the “respect” form during addressing our Waaqa, as seen in the above prayers, why should we bother to use it in addressing our fellow human being? It would be better if we leave this culture, which we adopted from others with authoritarian culture in contrast to our own egalitarian one. Our concept of Waaqa doesn’t allow us to behave so submissively to any human being, who is equal to us.

 

Virtues and Vices of Waaqeffannaa

Here in short, safuu (virtue) can be defined as the “to do list” in order to serve Waaqa and to achieve his kaayyoo/goal in our personal and national earthly life; whereas laguu (vice) is the “not to do list” or the taboo, so that we can refrain from doing such activities diverting us from the kaayyoo Waaqa for our life. Cubbuu (sin) then in short includes both not doing the safuu and doing the laguu. Just as an example, if we take bilisummaa (national freedom) as Waaqa’s kaayyoo for the Oromo nation, what are the safuu and the laguu to be respected? If the kaayyoo of Waaqeffannaa is individual healing from any sort of illness, what are the safuu and the laguu, which both the healer and the sick person should respect?

 

In order to look at the virtues and vices of the traditional Oromo/African belief system for our earthly life, let us now try to describe Waaqeffannaa as we experienced it and knew it. Note that all the descriptions and notions we try to put here on paper are based on our own argaa-dhageetti (based on our own perception), which may differ from that of the other Oromo nationals. For instance, we could observe that Oromo is a nation filled with celebrations of eebba (blessing), who do have different celebrations for almost everything and everybody related to our life. For instance, taaboree as a blessing ceremony for young boys; ingiccaa for blessing young girls; ayyaana abbaa for blessing the ancestors for the good inheritance we got from them; ateetee for blessing our women; borantichaa for blessing adult men; jaarii looni for blessing our useful animals; jaarii qe’e or jaarii kosii for blessing our residence area; jaarii midhaani to bless our farms; garanfasa mucucoo as a celebration of the rainy season and, of course, gubaa and irreechaa for celebration of the coming birraa (the coming spring season) etc. We hope that Oromo students of anthropology, sociology and theology will make a scientific research on these blessing ceremonies and tell us the constructive and non-constructive elements of the activities in them.

 

But, let us mention few of the virtues (positive aspects) of Waaqeffannaa in our earthly life time. Here the reference point to judge certain elements as negative or positive is the position of the purpose, which Waaqa do have for our personal and national life, i.e. based on the kaayyoo (goal) our Waaqayyoo do have for us. To elaborate this relationship between kaayyoo and Waaqayyoo, we can ask: is Waaq-aayyoo our ka-ayyoo / is our ka-ayyoo the Waaq-ayyoo? It is about knowing what purpose we do serve in our daily life both cognitively and behaviorally, as individuals or as a nation. Be it that we do think and walk at political, religious or private level, we do try to serve certain purpose in life. In order to identify that purpose, we only need to be conscious about it, reflect on it and ask our selves: whom do we privately or collectively serve in our endeavors? Do we serve Waaqa’s purpose for us or that of the others’? Simply put, which purpose should we serve? Fortunately the hitherto cumulative knowledge and wisdom of different societies in general and that of the Oromo society in particular tell us what we ought to serve: i.e. to serve Waaqa’s purpose which is good for us as an individual and as a collective. This good purpose is given a sacred name and it seems to be what people call the will of Waaqa.

 

As a support for this assertion, we can look at an example written in the Bible of Christians, that states : “God is my objective”. Is this to be understood also as: “my objective is God”? Can we say that our good personal or political purpose is the will of Waaqa, whom we ought to serve? To comprehend this, it is no where clearly written other than in Afaan Oromo. Surprisingly the words kaayyoo and Waaqayyoo in our language do indicate to have the same source. As we know, the short word KA is the name given by our Cushitic ancestors to God and the word aayyoo is, of course, the name given to a mother, who does wish all good things for her children and does plan and try to fulfill it. So KA can be defined as the Supreme Being, which has good purpose for ayyoo’s children. This purpose is the “Goodness” for her children. So KA-ayyoo is God’s will (his good objective to her beloved children). The term Waaqayyo is the short form of waan-KA-ayyoo (what is planned from KA for aayyoo and for her children). So we can see that the good end, we have to serve, can be called kaayyoo from Waaqa. So the will of Waaqa is simply to be defined as the good end we should choose to serve as part of the balanced universe created by HIM.

 

To fulfill this service to the good end, fortunately the best thing we do observe among Waaqeffataa Oromo is the work-ethics they do have to achieve the purpose of Waaqa in their earthly life, specially in the life areas of career and family. They do love to be the best in both life areas; they love their family and most of them are very enthusiastic to be successful in their profession. They usually say “Waaq taa’i taa’i namaan hin jedhin (let HE not make us idle);” simply put, diligence is part of safuu and to be idle and lazy is part of laguu. We know that there are certain contamination from other cultures to be practiced as rituals contradicting this virtue and which are not serving the purpose of Waaqa for us. That is why we do recommend not only the revival of this marvelous belief system, which was the creation of our forefathers, but also we do suggest a necessary reformation to make the faith system to be fit, so that it can help us to cope with the 21st century challenge and situation. Waaqa’s creation and his keeping the balance of the universe is still going on, so that HE demands also a dynamic creative work from his creature, from the human being. Another impressive virtue of Waaqeffannaa necessary to be mentioned is its relation with nature and its persuasion to help us keep the environment healthy; it is the faith system which is simply through and through green.

 

Waaqeffannaa’s position on the life after death

According to this belief system, we all will live further after death as ekeraa (in a form of soul/spirit) with our father, with Waaqa, without any possibility of punishment in hell. We recently read Martial De Salviac’s translated book, in which he wrote “Oromo invariably believe that they will go to heaven.” So, the consequence of our cubbuu is not losing eternal life, but suffering in our earthly life. To Waaqeffataa Oromo, Waaqa is the one who wants us not to do a collective cubbuu, but expects us to protect the balanced nature, in which HIS power is manifested. The wisdom that guides Waaqeffataa Oromo in fulfilling this mission seems to be our arga-dhagetti (believe and act on a principle of reality, i.e. based on what we see and hear).

 

According to argaa-dhageetti, the concepts like “cubbuun ni qabdi (sin has got consequence), cubbuun ni sirriqxi (the consequence of sin can be inherited), cubbu abbaatu eeggata or cubbuu irra abbaatu uf eega (everyone should keep him-/herself from committing sin and everybody is responsible for the consequences of the sin he/she commit)” are nice and practical. What we liked most from the principles of Waaqeffannaa is this concept of cubbuu. The consequences of cubbuu are only to be seen here on this earth, not in the coming life after death. There is no hell that Waaqayyoo has prepared to punish the people with cuubbu. This is hilarious and very healing for those who always have to live with the fear of hell or punishment after death.

 

Another interesting aspect of Waaqeffannaa is that we never heard from the practicing believers that they are believing in the presence of an evil spiritual power in the form of Satan, which acts and lives against the almighty power of Waaqa. Accordingly, there is only one sovereign power doing and undoing all things in a universe, that is Waaqa. Unfortunately, the concept Satan is now already spread among the whole Oromo population as a contamination taken from other religions. Waaqeffataa Oromo do believe that the evil things we do experience in life are due to the imbalance of nature as a result of the unwise or wicked deeds of humans as collective, i.e. it is a human cubbuu with its consequences on the earth. That is why they usually ask their Waaqa for wisdom to keep the balance of nature and that HE lead them to only those with good intention and protect them from those with bad intention, for example, in a prayer like: “yaa Waaq tolaa nutti qabi, hamaa irraa nu eegi (God lead who is good to us and keep away who is evil from us). Here it seems that good is someone, who works to keep the balance of nature; and evil is the contrary.

 

According to the faith system of Waaqeffannaa, there is nothing we have to do now to earn eternal life after death; life after death is simply a free gift we got from our father, Waaqayyoo, whom we just need to celebrate and thank as we do daily and during the yearly celebrations like Irreechaa. We also don’t need a savior, who has to suffer and die for us, so that we can get life after death. The only area where we have to work on is trying to live the quality life (the character of the eternal life) according to the will of Waaqa here on earth. To live this quality life, we need to activate our potentials given to us from Waaqa and then walk on the karaa nagaa towards the kaayyoo Waaqa for our life, being free from cubbuu by keeping both safuu and laguu.

 

Further recommendation

The very important aspect of Waaqeffannaa as part of Oromo/African culture is its principle of argaa-dhaggeetti (it is relatively an evidence based faith system, possibly trying to be free from superstition). This principle is about reading the real situations at hand and finding the appropriate solutions for the situations. Waaqeffannaa teaches that only Waaqa is not prone to change for HE is perfect, but all his creature and all the situations are changing with time; that is why his creative action is still going on and that we also need to be in a position to find new solutions for the changed situations. In short, we need to be situation oriented, time oriented and live accordingly. That means, it is good to know the past version of aadaa and Amantii Oromo/Africa; but better is to live and practice the present version of aadaa and Amantii Oromo; of course the best is to create the most beneficial version of aadaa and Amantii Oromo as well as to inherit it to our coming generation. So let’s learn from the past version, live the present version and love to create the future verion of aadaa Oromo in general, and Amantii Oromo in particular.

 

This article is of course coloured by subjective perceptions, so that Oromo nationals are welcome to complement or contradict it. All the sub-titles given in this article need a further meticulous research and study. Through scientific studies, it can be possible to cleanse Waaqeffa -nnaa from certain meaningless rituals adopted from the other sub-cultures, e.g rituals like that of “qaalichaa” (idolatry), xinqolaa (sorcery), etc, where the practitioners are actually making business in the name of the religion. Waaqeffannaa needs not only revival, but also reformation as part and parcel of the ongoing liberation from such sensless practices. Elements, which are against the will of Waaqa for all human-being in general and for African nations in particular must be removed, so that we can say Waaqa bless Oromia/Africa and then live accordingly. Adopting good elements, which serve the will of Waaqa for us, from other cultures and faiths is not bad as it is usually said: “waan gaariin bade hundi kan Oromo ti” (every good thing lost belongs to Oromo). Again, good and bad is defined from the position of the will of Waaqa for our life, i.e. from the position of his kaayyoo in our life, which is always a good purpose.

 

So, only celebrating the holidays and reviving the religion are not enough, if we want to be fit for the present 21st century situation and for the situation in which our future generation will live. Our forefathers created a faith system as part of the solution to their situation; we also need to do the same. So let’s not try to use the same key used by our forefathers in the past to open doors with totally different keyholes at the present and the future or we don’t need to ride a donkey at this age of driving a limousine; in short we need a right solution for the present and the future situations. Our next generation need to inherit from us the latest and modern model/edition/version of our faith system, Waaqeffannaa, which they also can reform, edit and secure for their children and grand children, so that we human-being continue to be as creative as our father, Waaqa.

 

Let’s give a simple suggestion as an example in the required reforming: why can’t we use bundle of flowers for Irreechaa, instead of only grass used by our forefathers? Why don’t we use water or oil, instead of butter to anoint others during the blessing ceremonies just for the sake of hygiene? Why don’t we use candle light or the modern beautifully colored electric light decorations instead of bonfire during wa-maraa (demera)? etc. Now it is a time to have Waaqeffannaa free from non-productive and untimely elements, so that it will be a faith system, which will be accepted and believed by the enlightened and informed Oromo in particular as well as by Africans in general (so that it will be a faith system serving the will of Waaqa for Oromia in particular, and for Africa in general).

 

Last but not least, Waaqeffataa Oromo need to be creative in realizing the will of Waaqa in our life, which is the only way to “evangelize” and convert others to the “karaa nagaa (to the right way) HE wants us to walk. We need to learn from the past (the known part of life, which is symbolized by white color), live the present (the challenging part of life symblized by red color) and love to know the future (the unknown part of life symbolized by black color). The karaa nagaa at this particular era/time includes the virtue of a passinate struggle in life both individually and collectively, not an attitude of the pacifistic stoicism. Waaqeffannaa doesn’t persuade us to do things to secure life after death, but it tells us that our effort and enthusiasm are part of the safuu we have to keep and implement in order to make our life here on earth the excellent success story.

Read the full article from original source @http://gihonpostsite.wordpress.com/2014/08/07/waaqeffannaa-the-african-traditional-faith-system/

 

 

Oromo: “For a people facing complete erasure, survival itself is a revolutionary act”, IOYA’s Former President Ayantu Tibeso at the Macha-Tulama Association’s 50th Anniversary Celebration August 7, 2014

Posted by OromianEconomist in Aannolee and Calanqo, Ateetee (Siiqqee Institution), Ayantu Tibeso, Colonizing Structure, Ethiopia's Colonizing Structure and the Development Problems of People of Oromia, Afar, Ogaden, Sidama, Southern Ethiopia and the Omo Valley, Ethnic Cleansing, Finfinne is Oromia's land, Finfinnee is the Capital City of Oromia, Finfinnee n Kan Oromoo ti, Free development vs authoritarian model, Human Rights, Human Rights Watch on Human Rights Violations Against Oromo People by TPLF Ethiopia, Janjaweed Style Liyu Police of Ethiopia, Jen & Josh (Ijoollee Amboo), Knowledge and the Colonizing Structure. African Heritage. The Genocide Against Oromo Nation, Land and Water Grabs in Oromia, Language and Development, Macha & Tulama Association, Musicians and the Performance of Oromo Nationalism, Nimoonaa Tilahun, Oromians Protests, Oromo Protests in Ambo, Self determination, The Colonizing Structure & The Development Problems of Oromia, The Mass Massacre & Imprisonment of ORA Orphans, The Tyranny of Ethiopia, Tyranny, Undemocratic governance in Africa, Waldaa Maccaa fi Tulamaa.
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The fact that we are gathered here today to honor the founding of Macha Tulama 50 years ago speaks to the fact that despite all odds, we, as a people are survivors. Ethiopian history is full of attempts to annihilate the Oromo—culturally, politically, socially, economically, in all and every ways possible.Oromos — cast as foreign, aliens to their own lands, have been the targets of the entire infrastructure of the Ethiopian state since their violent incorporation. Our identity, primarily language, religion and belief systems and cultural heritage have been the main targets of wanton destruction.   Oromo and its personhood were already demonized, characterized as embodiments of all that is inferior, shameful and subhuman from the beginning. Oromo people were economically and politically exploited, dominated and alienated.

Ayantu Tibeso

Meroe, Oromo and Old Nubian: Solving the Mystery of Meroitic Language July 23, 2014

Posted by OromianEconomist in Afaan Publication, Ancient African Direct Democracy, Ancient Egyptian, Ateetee (Siiqqee Institution), Black History, Chiekh Anta Diop, Cushtic, Gadaa System, Irreecha, Kemetic Ancient African Culture, Language and Development, Meroe, Meroetic Oromo, Oromia, Oromo Culture, Oromo Identity, Oromo Nation, Oromummaa, Prof. Muhammad Shamsaddin Megalommatis, Sidama, State of Oromia, The Goddess of Fecundity, The Oromo Democratic system, The Oromo Governance System.
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Meroe, Oromo and Old Nubian: Solving the Mystery of Meroitic Language
By Dereje Tadesse Birbirso (PhD),  College of Social Science and HumanitiesHaramaya University, Ethiopia
Abstract
 
 Meroitic language is one of the most controversial ancient languages but one of the few having advanced writing systems. Some classify it Asian, European, non-African, Semitic,or ‘unclassified’. This paper contends Meroe, similar to their Cushitic friends, are left victims of preconceived ideas based on an entirely argument from silence, an hegemonic epistemology that elevates a single perspective and silences other(s). This paper, thus,comparatively analyzes Meroitic and Old Nubian lexical and grammatical items with corresponding Oromo, a Cushitic family which, 
a Cushitic family which,vocabulary possibly the Ancientlanguage of the Nile Valley and/or Horn of Africa. Meroitic and Old Nubian lexical, grammatical and epigraphic data were collected from secondary sources by Meroitic researchers. Oromo corpora are obtained both from classical and modern descriptions and native-speakers. Results indicate Oromo lexemes show significant level of cognates with not only Meroitic and Old Nubian, but also with the Ancient Egyptian to their northern part.
Keywords:  Oromo, Meroe, Nubian, Ancient Egyptian, Cushitic, Chiekh Anta Diop
 Related Reference:
The Meroitic Ethiopian Origins of the Modern Oromo NationBy Prof. Dr. Muhammad Shamsaddin Megalommatis

This paper deals, among others, with the development of Meroitic studies, the Meroitic civilization, the destruction of the city of Meroe, the dispersal of the Meroitic people after the collapse of their state, the Christianization of the post Meroitic states, the migration of the remnants of the Meroitic people in the direction of the Blue Nile and their possible relation of ancestry with the modern Cushitic language speaking Oromo nation. It must be stated clearly at the outset that the issue of Meroitic ancestry of the Oromo nation has not been considered, much less published in an academic journal or scholarly books. The paper was first presented in an academic conference organized by the Oromo Studies Association. Footnotes have been added recently.

1. The Development of the Meroitic Studies, the History of Kush and Meroe, and the Efforts to Decipher the Meroitic Scripture

Interest in what was Ethiopia for the Ancient Greeks and Romans, i.e. the Northern territory of present day Sudan from Khartoum to the Egyptian border1, led to the gradual development of the modern discipline of the Humanities that long stood in the shadow of

Egyptology: the Meroitic Studies.

Considerable advances had been made in academic research and knowledge as the result of the exploratory trips of the Prussian pioneering Egyptologist Richard Lepsius2 (1842 – 1844) that bestowed upon modern scholarship the voluminous ‘Denkmäler aus Aegypten und Aethiopien’ (Monuments from Egypt and Ethiopia), and the series of excavations by E. A. Wallis Budge3 and John Garstang4 at Meroe (modern Bagrawiyah) in the first years of the twentieth century, Francis Llewellyn Griffith5 at Kawa (ancient Gematon, near modern Dongola, 1929 – 1931), Fritz Hintze6 at Musawwarat es Sufra, Jean Leclant7 at Sulb (Soleb), Sadinga (Sedeinga), and Djebel Barkal (ancient Napata, modern Karima) in the 1950s and the 1960s, D. Wildung8 at Naqah, and Charles Bonnet at Kerma. . The pertinent explorations and contributions of scholars like A. J. Arkell9, P. L. Shinnie10 and Laszlo Torok11 that cover a span of 80 years reconstituted a large part of the greatness and splendor of this four-millennia long African civilization.

Yet, due to the lack of direct access to original sources and genuine understanding of the ancient history of Sudan, the legendary Ethiopia of the Greeks and Romans, which also corresponds to what was ‘Kush’ of the Hebrews Bible and ultimately ‘Kas’ of the ancient Egyptians12, we face a serious problem of terminology. We are confined to such terms as Period (or Group) A (3100 – 2700 BCE),13 Period B14 (2700 – 2300 BCE that starts with Pharaoh Snefru’s expedition,15 and the beginning of time-honored enmity between Egypt and Kush), Period C16 (2300 – 2100 BCE, when we have no idea to what specific ethnic or state structures the various Egyptian names Wawat, Irtet, Setjiu,Yam, Zetjau, and Medjay refer)17, Period Kerma18 (2100 – 1500 BCE, named after the modern city and archeological site, 500 km in the south of the present Sudanese – Egyptian border). What we know for sure is that, when the first Pharaohs of the New Empire invaded and colonized the entire area down to Kurgus19 (more than 1000 km alongside the Nile in the south of the present Sudanese – Egyptian border), they established two top Egyptian administrative positions, namely ‘Viceroy of Wawat’ and ‘Viceroy of Kush/Kas’. Wawat is the area between Aswan and Abu Simbel or properly speaking, the area between the first and the second cataracts whereas Kas is all the land that lies beyond. With the collapse of the Kerma culture comes to end a first high-level culture and state in the area of Kush.

We employ the term ‘Kushitic Period’20 to refer to the subsequent period: a) the Egyptian annexation (1500 – 950 BCE) that was followed by a permanent effort to egyptianize Kush and the ceaseless Kushitic revolutions against the Pharaohs;

b) the Kushitic independence (950 – 800 BCE, when a state is formed around Napata21, present day Karima, 750 km in the south of the Sudanese – Egyptian border);

c) the Kushitic expansion and involvement in Egypt (800 – 670 BCE, which corresponds mostly to the XXVth – ‘Ethiopian’ according to Manetho22 – dynasty of Egypt, when the Theban clergy of Amun made an alliance with the Kushitic ‘Qore’ – Kings of Napata, who had two capitals, Napata and Thebes);23 and d) the Kushitic expulsion from Egypt (following the three successive invasions of Egypt by Emperors Assarhaddon24 in 671 BCE, and Assurbanipal25in 669 and 666 BCE, and of Assyria, who made an alliance with the Heliopolitan26 priesthood and Libyan princes against the Theban clergy and the Kushitic kings), and gradual decline (following the invasions by Psamtik/Psammetichus II27 in 591 BCE, and the Achaemedian28 Persian Shah Kambudjiyah/Cambyses29 in 525 BCE) until the transfer of the capital far in the south at Meroe, at the area of present day Bagrawiyah (at the end of the reign of Qore Nastasen30between335 and 315 BCE).

We call ‘Meroitic’ the entire period that covers almost 700 years beginning around 260 BCE with the reign of the successors of Nastasen (Arkamaniqo / Ergamenes31 (the most illustrious among the earliest ones and the first to be buried at Meroe / Bagrawiyah), down to the end of Meroe and the destruction of the Meroitic royal cities by the Axumite Abyssinian Negus Ezana32 (370 CE). It is easily understood that ‘Kushitic’ antedates ‘Meroitic’, but the appellations are quite conventional.

The Ancient people of Kush (or Ethiopia) entered into a period of cultural and scriptural radiation and authenticity relatively late, around the third century BCE, which means that the development took place when Meroe replaced Napata as capital of the Kushites / Meroites. Before that moment, they used Egyptian Hieroglyphic scripture for all purposes of writing, administrative, economic, religious and/or royal. The introduction of the Meroitic alphabetic hieroglyphic writing spearheaded the development of a Meroitic cursive alphabetic scripture that was used for less magnificent purposes than palatial and sacred relief inscriptions. The first person to publish Meroitic inscriptions was the French architect Gau33, who visited Northern Sudan in 1819. Quite unfortunately, almost two centuries after the discovery, we risk being left in mysteries with regard to the contents of the epigraphic evidence collected in both scriptural systems.

The earliest dated Meroitic hieroglyphic inscriptions belong to the reign of the ruling queen Shanakdakheto34 (about 177-155 BCE), but archaeologists believe that this scripture represents the later phase of a language spoken by Kushites / Meroites at least as far back as 750 BCE and possibly many centuries before that (hinting at a Kushitic continuity from the earliest Kerma days). The earliest examples of Meroitic cursive inscriptions, recently found by Charles Bonnet in Dukki Gel (REM 1377-78)35, can be dated from the early second century BCE. The latest text is still probably the famous inscription from Kalabsha mentioning King Kharamadoye (REM 0094)36 and dated from the beginning of the fifth century AD, although some funeral texts from Ballana37 could be contemporary if not posterior.

Despite the fact that F. L. Griffith has identified the 23 Meroitic alphabetic scripture’s signs already in 1909, not much progress has been made towards an ultimate decipherment of the Meroitic38. Scarcity of epigraphic evidence plays a certain role in this regard, since as late as the year 2000 we were not able to accumulate more than 1278 texts. If we now add to that the lack of lengthy texts, the lack of any bilingual text (not necessarily Egyptian /Meroitic, it could be Ancient Greek / Meroitic, if we take into consideration that Arkamaniqo / Ergamenes39 was well versed in Greek), and a certain lack of academic vision, we understand why the state of our knowledge about the history of the Meroites is still so limited.

Linguistics and parallels from other languages have been repeatedly set in motion in order to help the academic research. Griffith and Haycock40 tried to read Meroitic using (modern) Nubian. K.H. Priese41 tried to read the Meroitic text using Eastern Sudanese (Beja42 or Hadendawa43); and F. Hintze44, attempted to compare Meroitic with the Ural-Altaic group. Recently Siegbert Hummel45, compared the “known” Meroitic words to words in the Altaic family which he believed was a substrate language of Meroitic. At times, scholars (like Clyde Winters46) were driven to farfetched interpretations, attempting to equate Meroitic with Tokharian, after assuming a possible relationship between the name Kush and the name Kushan47 of an Eastern Iranian state (of the late Arsacid48, 250 BCE – 224 CE, and early Sassanid49, 224 – 651 CE, times)! However, one must state that the bulk of the researchers working on the Meroitic language do not believe that it was a member of the Afro-Asiatic group.

So far, the only Meroitic words for which a solid translation had been given by Griffith and his successors are the following: man, woman, meat, bread, water, give, big, abundant, good, sister, brother, wife, mother, child, begotten, born, feet. The eventual equivalence between Egyptian and Meroitic texts was a strong motivation for any interpretational approach, recent or not. More recent, but still dubious, suggestions are the following: arohe- «protect», hr- «eat», pwrite «life», yer «milk», ar «boy», are- or dm- «take, receive», dime «cow», hlbi «bull», ns(e) «sacrifice, sdk «journey», tke- «love, revere», we «dog». It is clear that vocalization remains a real problem50.

Through the aforementioned we realize why collective works, like Fontes Historiae Nubiorum. Textual Sources for the History of the Middle Nile Region (vols. I – IV, edited by T. Eide, T. Hägg, R.H. Pierce, and L. Török, University of Bergen, Bergen 1994, 1996. 1998 and 2000), are still seminal for our – unfortunately indirect, as based on Ancient Egyptian, Greek, Latin and Coptic texts – knowledge of Meroe.

2. The End of Meroe

Amidst numerous unclear points of the Kushitic / Meroitic history, the end of Meroe, and the consequences of this event remain a most controversial point among scholars. Quite indicatively, we may mention here the main efforts of historical reconstitution.

A. Arkell, Sayce and others asserted that Meroe was captured and destroyed, following one military expedition led by Ezana of Axum.

B. Reisner insisted that, after Ezana’s invasion and victory, Meroe remained a state with another dynasty tributary to Axum.

C. Monneret de Villard and Hintze affirmed that Meroe was totally destroyed before Ezana’s invasion, due to an earlier Axumite Abyssinian raid.

D. Torok, Shinnie, Kirwan, Haegg and others concluded that Meroe was defeated by a predecessor of Ezana, and continued existing as a vassal state.

E. Bechhaus- Gerst specified that Meroe was invaded prior to Ezana’s raid, and that the Axumite invasion did not reach lands further in the north of Meroe51

With two fragmentary inscriptions from Meroe, one from Axum, two graffitos from Kawa and Meroe, and one coin being all the evidence we have so far, , we have little to reconstruct the details that led to the collapse of Meroe. One relevant source, the Inscription of Ezana (DAE 11, the ‘monotheistic’ inscription in vocalized Ge’eze),52 remains a somewhat controversial historical source to be useful in this regard. The legendary Monumentum Adulitanum53, lost but copied in a confused way by Cosmas Indicopleustes54, may not shed light at all on this event. One point is sure, however: there was never a generalized massacre of the Meroitic inhabitants of the lands conquered by Ezana. The aforementioned DAE 11 inscription mentions just 758 Meroites killed by the Axumite forces.

What is even more difficult to comprehend is the reason behind the scarcity of population attested on Meroitic lands in the aftermath of Ezana’s raid. The post-Meroitic and pre-Christian, transitional phase of Sudan’s history is called X-Group55 or period, or Ballana Period and this is again due to lack to historical insight. Contrary to what happened for many centuries of Meroitic history, when the Meroitic South (the area between Shendi56 and Atbara57 in modern Sudan with the entire hinterland of Butana that was called Insula Meroe / Nesos Meroe, i.e. Island Meroe in the Antiquity) was overpopulated, compared to the Meroitic North (from Napata / Karima to the area between Aswan58 and Abu Simbel59, which was called Triakontaschoinos60 and was divided between Meroe and the Roman Empire), during the X-Group times, the previously under-populated area gives us the impression of a more densely peopled region, if compared to the previous center of Meroitic power and population density. The new situation contradicts earlier descriptions and narrations by Dio Cassius 61 and Strabo.62

Furthermore, the name ‘Ballana period’ is quite indicative in this regard, Ballana being on Egyptian soil, whereas not far in the south of the present Sudanese – Egyptian border lies Karanog with its famous tumuli that bear evidence of Nubian upper hand in terms of social anthropology. The southernmost counterpart of Karanog culture can be found in Tangassi (nearby Karima, which represented the ‘North’ for what was the center of earlier Meroitic power gravitation)

In addition, in terms of culture, X-Group heralds a total break with the Meroitic tradition, with the Nubians and the Blemmyes/Beja outnumbering the Meroitic remnants and imposing a completely different cultural and socio-anthropological milieu out of which would later emanate the first and single Nubian state in the World History: Nobatia.

Much confusion characterized modern scholars when referring to Kush or Meroe by using the modern term ‘Nubia’. By now it is clear that the Nubians lived since times immemorial in both Egypt and the Sudan, being part of the history of these two lands. But Nubians are a Nilo-Saharan ethnic / linguistic group different from the Khammitic Kushites / Meroites. At the times of X-Group and during the long centuries of Christian Sudan, we have the opportunity to attest the differences and divergence between the Nubians and the Meroitic remnants. The epicenter of Nubian center, the area between the first (Aswan) and the third (Kerma) cataracts, rose to independence and prominence first, with capital at Faras, nearby the present day Sudanese – Egyptian border, around 450 CE. Nobatia institutionalized Coptic as religious (Christian) and administrative language, and Nubian language remained an oral only vehicle of communication. The Nobatian control in the south of the third cataract was vague, nominal and precarious. Nobatia was linked with the Coptic – Monophysitic Patriarchate of Alexandria.

The Meroitic remnants underscored their difference from the Nubians / Nobatians, and the depopulated central part of the defunct state of Meroe rose to independence in the first decades of the sixth century. Its name, Makkuria, is in this regard a linguistic resemblance of the name ‘Meroe’ but we know nothing more. The Meroitic remnants inhabited the northern circumference of Makkuria more densely, and the gravitation center turned around Old Dongola (580 km in the south of Wadi Halfa), capital of this Christian Orthodox state that extended from Kerma to Shendi (the area of the sixth cataract), so for more than 1000 km alongside the Nile. But beyond the area of Karima (750 km in the south of Wadi Halfa) and the nearby famous Al Ghazali monastery we have very scarce evidence of Christian antiquities. The old African metropolis Meroe remained at the periphery of Makkuria, Alodia and Axumite Abyssinia.

Makkurians highlighted their ideological – religious divergence from the Nubians, by adopting Greek as religious language. They even introduced a new scripture for their Makkurian language that seems to be a later phase of Meroitic. Makkurian was written in alphabetic Greek signs, and the Makkurians preferred to attach themselves to Christian Orthodoxy, and more particularly to the Greek Patriarchate of Alexandria.

Alodia has long been called the ‘third Christian state’ in Sudan, but recent discoveries in Soba, its capital (15 km at the east of Khartoum), suggest that Alodia rose first to independence (around 500 CE) and later adhered to Christianity (around 580 – 600 CE) following evangelization efforts deployed by missionary Nobatian priests (possibly in a sort of anti-Makkurian religious diplomacy). We know nothing of an Alodian scripture so far.

The later phases of the Christian history of Sudan encompass the Nobatian – Makkurian merge (around 1000 CE), the islamization of Makkuria in 1317, and finally the late collapse of Christian Alodia in 1505. The question remains unanswered until today:

What happened to the bulk of the Meroitic population, i.e. the inhabitants of the Insula Meroe, the present day Butana? What occurred to the Meroites living between the fourth and the sixth cataracts after the presumably brief raid of Ezana of Axum, and the subsequent destruction of Meroe, Mussawarat es Sufra, Naqah, Wad ben Naqah and Basa?

3. Reconstruction of the Post-Meroitic History of the Kushitic Oromo Nation

Certainly, the motives of Ezana’s raid have not yet been properly studied and assessed by modern scholarship. The reasons for the raid may vary from a simple nationalistic usurpation of the name of ‘Ethiopia’ (Kush), which would give Christian eschatological legitimacy to the Axumite Abyssinian kingdom, to the needs of international politics (at the end of 4th century) and the eventuality of an Iranian – Meroitic alliance at the times of Shapur II (310 – 379), aimed at outweighing the Roman – Abyssinian bond. Yet, this alliance could have been the later phase of a time honored Meroitic diplomatic tradition (diffusion of Mithraism as attested on the Jebel Qeili reliefs of Shorakaror). What we can be sure of are the absence of a large-scale massacre, and the characteristic scarcity of population in the central Meroitic provinces during the period that follows Ezana’s raid and the destruction of Meroe.

The only plausible explanation is that the scarcity of population in Meroe mainland after Meroe’s destruction was due to the fact that the Meroites in their outright majority (at least for the inhabitants of Meroe’s southern provinces) fled and migrated to areas where they would stay independent from the Semitic Christian kingdom of Axumite Abyssinia. This explanation may sound quite fresh in approach, but it actually is not, since it constitutes the best utilization of the already existing historical data.

From archeological evidence, it becomes clear that during X-Group phase and throughout the Makkurian period the former heartland of Meroe remained mostly uninhabited. The end of Meroe is definitely abrupt, and it is obvious that Meroe’s driving force had gone elsewhere. The correct question would be “where to?”

There is no evidence of Meroites sailing the Nile downwards to the area of the 4th (Karima) and the 3rd (Kerma) cataracts, which was earlier the northern circumference of Meroe and remained untouched by Ezana. There is no textual evidence in Greek, Latin and/or Coptic to testify to such a migratory movement or to hint at an even more incredible direction, i.e. Christian Roman Egypt. If we add to this the impossibility of marching to the heartland of the invading Axumites (an act that would mean a new war), we reduce the options to relatively few.

The migrating Meroites could go either to the vast areas of the Eastern and the Western deserts or enter the African jungle or ultimately search a possibly free land that, being arable and good for pasture, would keep them far from the sphere of the Christian Axumites. It would be very erroneous to expect settled people to move to the desert. Such an eventuality would be a unique oxymoron in the history of the mankind. Nomadic peoples move from the steppes, the savannas and the deserts to fertile lands, and they settle there, or cross long distances through steppes and deserts. However, settled people, if under pressure, move to other fertile lands that offer them the possibility of cultivation and pasture. When dispersed by the invading Sea Peoples, the Hittites moved from Anatolia to Northwestern Mesopotamia; they did not cross and stay in the small part of Anatolia that is desert. The few scholars who think that Meroitic continuity could be found among the present day Beja and Hadendawa are oblivious to the aforementioned reality of the world history that was never contravened. In addition, the Blemmyes were never friendly to the Meroites. Every now and then, they had attacked parts of the Nile valley and the Meroites had had to repulse them thence. It would rather be inconceivable for the Meroitic population, after seeing Meroe sacked by Ezana, to move to a land where life would be difficult and enemies would wait them!

Modern technologies help historians and archeologists reconstruct better the ancient world; paleo-botanists, geologists, geo-chemists, paleoentomologists, and other specialized natural scientists are of great help in this regard. It is essential to stress here that the entire environmental milieu of Sudan was very different during the times of the Late Antiquity we examine in our approach. Butana may look like a wasteland nowadays, and the Pyramids of Bagrawiyah may be sunk in the sand, whereas Mussawarat es Sufra and Naqah demand a real effort in crossing the desert. But in the first centuries of Christian era, the entire landscape was dramatically different.

The Butana was not a desert but a fertile cultivated land; we have actually found remains of reservoirs, aqueducts, various hydraulic installations, irrigation systems and canals in Meroe and elsewhere. Not far from Mussawarat es Sufra there must have been an enclosure where captive elephants were trained before being transported to Ptolemais Theron (present day Suakin, 50 km in the south of Port Sudan) and then further on to Alexandria. Desert was in the vicinity, certainly, but not that close.

We should not imagine that Ezana crossed desert areas, moving from the whereabouts (vicinities?) of Agordat, Tesseney and Kessala to Atbarah and Bagrawiyah, as we would do today. And we should not imagine the lands in the south of present day Khartoum, alongside the White Nile, were easy to cross in the antiquity. In ancient times, impenetrable jungle started immediately in the south of Khartoum, and cities like Kosti and Jabalayn lie today on deforested soil. At the southernmost confines of the Meroitic state, pasturelands and arable land could be found alongside the Blue Nile Valley.

Since jungle signified death in the antiquity, and even armies feared to stay overnight in a forest or even more so in the thick African forest, we have good reason to believe that, following the Ezana’s raid, the Meroites, rejecting the perspective of forced christening, migrated southwestwards up to Khartoum. From there, they proceeded southeastwards alongside the Blue Nile in a direction that would keep them safe and far from the Axumite Abyssinians whose state did not expand as far in the south as Gondar and Tana lake. Proceeding in this way and crossing successively areas of modern cities, such as Wad Madani, Sennar, Damazin, and Asosa, and from there on, they expanded in later times over the various parts of Biyya Oromo.

We do not imply that the migration was completed in the span of one lifetime; quite contrarily, we have reasons to believe that the establishment of Alodia (or Alwa) is due to the progressive waves of Meroitic migrants who settled first in the area of Khartoum that was out of the westernmost confines of the Meroitic state. Only when Christianization became a matter of concern for the evangelizing Nobatians, and the two Christian Sudanese states were already strong, the chances of preserving the pre-Christian Meroitic cultural heritage in the area around Soba (capital of Alodia) were truly poor; then another wave of migrations took place, with early Alodian Meroites proceeding as far in the south as Damazin and Asosa, areas that remained always beyond the southern border of Alodia (presumably around Sennar). Like this, the second migratory Meroitic (Makkurian) wave may have entered around 600 CE in the area where the Oromos, descendents of the migrated Meroites, still live today.

A great number of changes at the cultural – behavioral levels are to be expected, when a settled people migrates to faraway lands. The Phoenicians had kings in Tyre, Byblos and their other cities – states, but introduced a democratic system when they sailed faraway and colonized various parts of the Mediterranean. The collapse of the Meroitic royalty was a shock for the Nile valley; the Christian kingdoms of Nobatia, Makkuria and Alodia were ruled by kings whose power was to great extent counterbalanced by that of the Christian clergy. With the Meroitic royal family decimated by Ezana, it is quite possible that high priests of Apedemak and Amani (Amun) took much of the administrative responsibility in their hands, inciting people to migrate and establishing a form of collective and representative authority among the Meroitic Elders. They may even have preserved the royal title of Qore within completely different socio-anthropological context.

4. Call for Comparative Meroitic-Oromo Studies

How can this approach, interpretation, and conclusion be corroborated up to the point of becoming a generally accepted historical reconstitution at the academic level? On what axes should one group of researchers work to collect detailed documentation in support of the Meroitic ancestry of the Oromos?

Quite strangely, I would not give priority to the linguistic approach. The continuity of a language can prove many things and can prove nothing. The Bulgarians are of Uralo-Altaic Turco-Mongolian origin, but, after they settled in Eastern Balkans, they were linguistically slavicized. Most of the Greeks are Albanians, Slavs, and Vlachians, who were hellenized linguistically. Most of the Turks in Turkey are Greeks and Anatolians, who were turkicized linguistically. A people can preserve its own language in various degrees and forms. For the case of languages preserved throughout millennia, we notice tremendous changes and differences. If you had picked up Plato and ‘transferred’ him at the times of Linear B (that was written in Mycenae 800 years before the Greek philosopher lived), you should be sure that Plato would not have understood the language of his ancestors with the exception of some words. Egyptian hieroglyphics was a scripture that favored archaism and linguistic puritanism. But we can be sure that for later Pharaohs, like Taharqa the Kushite (the most illustrious ruler of the ‘Ethiopian’ dynasty), Psamtik, Nechao, Ptolemy II and Cleopatra VII, a Pyramid text (that antedated them by 1700 to 2300 years) would almost be incomprehensible.

A. National diachronic continuity is better attested and more markedly noticed in terms of Culture, Religion and Philosophical – Behavioral system. The first circle of comparative research would encompass the world of the Kushitic – Meroitic and Oromo concepts, anything that relates to the Weltanschauung of the two cultural units/groups under study. A common view of basic themes of life and a common perception of the world would bring a significant corroboration of the Meroitic ancestry of the Oromos. So, first it is a matter of history of religions, African philosophy, social anthropology, ethnography and culture history.

B. Archeological research can help tremendously too. At this point one has to stress the reality that the critical area for the reconstruction suggested has been totally indifferent for Egyptologists, Meroitic and Axumite archeologists so far. The Blue Nile valley in Sudan and Abyssinia was never the subject of an archeological survey, and the same concerns the Oromo highlands. Certainly modern archeologists prefer something concrete that would lead them to a great discovery, being therefore very different from the pioneering nineteenth century archeologists. An archeological study would be necessary in the Blue Nile valley and the Oromo highlands in the years to come.

C. A linguistic – epigraphic approach may bring forth even more spectacular results. It could eventually end up with a complete decipherment of the Meroitic and the Makkurian. An effort must be made to read the Meroitic texts, hieroglyphic and cursive, with the help of Oromo language. Meroitic personal names and toponymics must be studied in the light of a potential Oromo interpretation. Comparative linguistics may unveil affinities that will lead to reconsideration of the work done so far in the Meroitic decipherment.

D. Last but not least, another dimension would be added to the project with the initiation of comparative anthropological studies. Data extracted from findings in the Meroitic cemeteries must be compared with data provided by the anthropological study of present day Oromos. The research must encompass pictorial documentation from the various Meroitic temples’ bas-reliefs.

To all these I would add a better reassessment of the existing historical sources, but this is not a critical dimension of this research project.

I believe my call for Comparative Meroitic – Oromo Studies reached the correct audience that can truly evaluate the significance of the ultimate corroboration of the Meroitic Ancestry of the Oromos, as well as the magnificent consequences such corroboration would have in view of

a) the forthcoming Kushitic Palingenesia – Renaissance if you want – in Africa,

b) the establishment of a Post – Colonial African Historiography, and – last but not least –

c) the Question of the Most Genuine and Authoritative Representation of Africa in the United Nations Security Council.

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NOTES

1. To those having the slightest doubt, trying purely for political reasons and speculation to include territories of the modern state of Abyssinia into what they Ancient Greeks and Romans called “Aethiopia”, the entry Aethiopia in Pauly-Wissowa, Realenzyklopadie der klassischen Altertumwissenschaft consists in the best and irrevocable answer.

2. http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/information … karl.html; http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Karl_Richard_Lepsius; parts of the Denkmaeler are already available online: http://edoc3.bibliothek.uni-halle.de/bo … start.html. Also: http://encyclopedia.jrank.org/LEO_LOB/L … 1884_.html. The fact that the furthermost point of ‘Ethiopia’ he reached was Khartoum is of course quite telling.

3. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/E._A._Wallis_Budge; he wrote among the rest a book on his Meroe excavations’ results, The Egyptian Sudan: its History and Monuments (London, 1907).

4. Mythical figure of the British Orientalism, Garstang excavated in England, Turkey, Syria, Palestine, Egypt and the Sudan; Albright, William Foxwell: “John Garstang in Memoriam”, Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research, No. 144. (Dec., 1956), pp. 7–8. Garstang’s major articles on his Meroe excavations are the following: ‘Preliminary Note on an Expedition to Meroë in Ethiopia’, Annals of Archaeology and Anthropology 3 (1911 – a), ‘Second Interim Report on the Excavations at Meroë in Ethiopia, I. Excavations’, Annals of Archaeology and Anthropology 4 (1911 – b), ‘Third Interim Report on the Excavations at Meroë in Ethiopia’, Annals of Archaeology and Anthropology 5 (1912), ‘Forth Interim Report on the Excavations at Meroë in Ethiopia’, Annals of Archaeology and Anthropology 6 (1913), and ‘Fifth Interim Report on the Excavations at Meroë in Ethiopia’, Annals of Archaeology and Anthropology 7 (1914). His major contribution was published in the same year under the title ‘Meroë, the City of Ethiopians’ (Oxford). A leading Meroitologist, Laszlo Torok wrote an entire volume on Garstang’s excavations at Meroe: Meroe City, an Ancient African Capital: John Garstang’s Excavations in the Sudan.

5. Griffith was the epigraphist of Grastand and had already published the epigraphic evidence unearthed at Meroe in the chapter entitled ‘the Inscriptions from Meroë’ in Garstang’s ‘Meroë, the City of Ethiopians’. After many pioneering researches and excavations in various parts of Egypt and Northern Sudan, Faras, Karanog, Napata and Philae to name a few, he concentrated on Kerma: ‘Excavations at Kawa’, Sudan Notes and Records 14.

6. Basically: www.sag-online.de/pdf/mittsag9.5.pdf; among other contributions: Die Inschriften des Löwentempels von Musawwarat es Sufra, Berlin (1962); Vorbericht über die Ausgrabungen des Instituts für Ägyptologie der Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin in Musawwarat es Sufra, 1960-1961 (1962); ‘Musawwarat es Sufra. Preliminary Report on the Excavations of the Institute of Egyptology, Humboldt University, Berlin, 1961-1962(Third Season)’, Kush 11 (1963); ‘Preliminary Note on the Epigraphic Expedition to Sudanese Nubia, 1962’, Kush 11 (1963); ‘Preliminary note on the Epigraphic Expedition to Sudanese Nubia, 1963’, Kush 13 (1965).

7. As regards my French professor’s publications focused on his excavations at Sudan: Soleb and Sedeinga in Lexikon der Ägyptologie 5, Wiesbaden 1984 (entries contributed by J. Leclant himself); also J. Leclant, Les reconnaissances archéologiques au Soudan, in: Études nubiennes I, 57-60.

8. His recent volume Sudan: Ancient Kingdoms of the Nile, Paris/New York (1997) contains earlier bibliography.

9. Some of his most authoritative publications: ‘A History of the Sudan from the Earliest Times to 1821’, 1961 (2nd Ed.), London; ‘’The Valley of the Nile’, in: The Dawn of African History, R. Oliver (ed.), London. Arkell is mostly renowned for his monumental ‘The Royal Cemeteries of Kush’ in many volumes.

10. Presentation of his ‘Ancient Nubia’ in:

http://www.keganpaul.com/product_info.p … cts_id=33; for a non exhaustive list of Shinnie’s publications:http://www.arkamani.org/bibliography%20 … ia2.htm#S; see also a presentation of a volume on Meroe, edited by Shinnie et alii:http://www.harrassowitz-verlag.de/mcgi/ … 1163879905{haupt_harrassowitz=http://www.harrassowitz-verlag.de/acgi/a.cgi?alayout=489&ausgabe=detail&aref=353.

11. Many of his publications are listed here:

http://www.arkamani.org/bibliography%20 … ia2.htm#S; also here: http://www.arkamani.org/bibliography%20 … ypt4.htm#T. In the Eighth International Conference for Meroitic Studies, Torok spoke about ‘The End of Meroe’; the speech will be included in the arkamani online project, here:

http://www.arkamani.org/arkamani-librar … -meroe.htm.

12. Useful reading: http://www.culturekiosque.com/art/exhib … souda.htm; also: http://www.nubianet.org/about/about_history4.html; see also the entry ‘Kush’ in Lexikon der Aegyptologie and the Encyclopedia Judaica. More specifically bout the Egyptian Hieroglyphic and the Hebrew writings of the name of Kush: http://www.specialtyinterests.net/journey_to_nubia.html. For more recent bibliography:http://blackhistorypages.net/pages/kush.php. Also: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cush%2C_son_of_Ham.

13. Basic bibliography in:

http://www.arkamani.org/bibliography%20 … y_a_b.htm; http://oi.uchicago.edu/OI/PROJ/NUB/NUBX … chure.html.

More particularly on Qustul, and the local Group A Cemetery that was discovered in the 60s by Dr. Keith Seele:http://www.homestead.com/wysinger/qustul.html (by Bruce Beyer Williams). Quite interesting approach by Clyde Winters as regards an eventual use of Egyptian Hieroglyphics in Group A Nubia, 200 years before the system was introduced in… Egypt:http://www.geocities.com/Tokyo/Bay/7051/anwrite.htm.

14. Brief info: http://www.nubianet.org/about/about_history3_1.html; see also: http://oi.uchicago.edu/OI/IS/RITNER/Nubia_2005.html; more recently several scholars consider Group B as an extension of Group A (GRATIEN, Brigitte, La Basse Nubie à l’Ancien Empire: Égyptiens et autochtones, JEA 81 (1995), 43-56).

15.Readings:http://www.cartage.org.lb/en/themes/geoghist/histories/oldcivilization/Egyptology/Nubia/nubiad1.htm;http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sneferu;ht … %20Snefrue),%201st%20King%20of%20Egypt’s%204th%20Dynasty.htm (with bibliography);http://www.narmer.pl/dyn/04en.htm; for the Palermo stone inscription where we have the Nubia expedition narrative:http://www.britannica.com/ebi/article-9332360; http://www.ancient-egypt.org/index.html (click on the Palermo Stone);http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Palermo_stone (with related bibliography).

16. Readings: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/C-Group; http://www.numibia.net/nubia/c-group.htm; http://www.gustavianum.uu.se/sje/sjeexh.htmand http://www.hp.uab.edu/image_archive/ta/tae.html (with designs and pictures); http://www.ancientsudan.org/03_burials_02_early.htm(with focus on Group C burials and burial architecture). See also: http://www.ualberta.ca/~nlovell/nubia.htm;http://www.dignubia.org/maps/timeline/bce-2300a.htm;

17. References in the Lexikon der Aegyptologie. See also: http://www.nigli.net/akhenaten/wawat_1.html; one of the related sources: The Story of an Egyptian Politician, published by T. G. Allen, in: American Journal of Semitic Languages and Literatures, Vol. 38, No. 1 (Oct., 1921), pp. 55-62; Texts relating to Egyptian expeditions in Yam and Irtet: http://www.osirisnet.net/tombes/assouan … rkouf.htm;http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Medjay; more in ‘Ancient Nubia: Egypt’s Rival in Africa’(Paperback) by David O’ Connor,