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Oromia: Knoweldge and Society: Mammaaksa Oromoo March 4, 2017

Posted by OromianEconomist in 10 best Youtube videos, 25 killer Websites that make you cleverer, Afaan Oromoo, African Literature, Black History, Chiekh Anta Diop, Culture, Cushtic, Indigenous People, Kemetic Ancient African Culture, Khemetic Africa's culture, Oromia, Oromiyaa, Oromo, Oromo Art, Oromo Literature, Oromo Wisdom, Uncategorized.
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OOromianEconomist
True Knowledge is wisdom.  The Oromo value wisdom to the highest degree: ‘Rather than to be kissed  by foolish man, I prefer to slapped by  a wise man.’ How is true knowledge acquired?  The Oromo proverbs  answers: By inference, by study, through suffering, by moulding another person, by heart. ‘  One who does not  understand  an inference  will never  understand  the thing as it is.. …  But the great school of knowledge is  experience, long life and old age. … The Oromo proverb  offers  no definition of  knowledge; they are not interested so much in nature of knowledge  as the type of knowledge  they propose  as  a model for  man-in-society, and  it is clearly  a knowledge  obtained through  experience through proximity  to the object, as ‘the calf  is known by the enclosure to have become a bull.’ See  Claud Summer, Ph.D., Dr.h.c (1995), Oromo Wisdom Literature,  Volume I , Proverbs Collection and Analysis.

Makmaaksa Oromoo (Oromo proverbs):

Abba hin qabdu akaakyuuf boochi
Abbaa iyyu malee ollaan namaa hin birmatu
Abbaan damma nyaateef ilma hafaan hin mi’aawu
Abbaatu of mara jedhe bofti hantuuta liqimsee
Abjuun bara beelaa buddeena abjoota
Addaggeen hamma lafa irra ejjettu nama irra ejjetti
Afaan dubbii bare bulluqa alanfata
Afaan gaariin afaa gaarii caala
Afaanii bahee gooftaa namaa ta’a
Akka madaa qubaa, yaadni garaa guba
Akka abalun sirbaan boquu nama jallisa
Akkuma cabannitti okkolu
Akukkuun yeroo argate dhakaa cabsa
Alanfadhuuti gara fira keetti garagalii liqimsi
ama of komatu namni hin komatu
Amartiin namaa hin taane quba namaa hin uriin
Ana haa nyaatuun beela hin baasu
Ani hin hanbifne, ati hin qalbifne
arrabni lafee hin qabdu lafee nama cabsiti
Asiin dhihoon karaa nama busha
“Aseennaa natu dide, kennaa warratu dide otoo nabutanii maal ta’a laata”,jette intalli haftuun
Badduun fira ishee yoo hamattee, baddubaatuun niiti ishee hamatti
Bakkka oolan irra bakka bulan wayya
Bakka kufte osoo hin taane, bakka mucucaatte bari
Balaliitee balaliite allaattiin lafa hin hanqattu

Bara bofti nama nyaate lootuun nama kajeelti!!
Bara dhibee bishaan muka namatti yaaba
Bara fuggisoo harreen gara mana, sareen gara margaa
Barri gangalata fardaati
Beekaan namaa afaan cufata malee hulaa hin cufatu
Biddeena nama quubsu eelee irratti beeku
Billaachi otoo ofii hin uffatiin dhakaatti uffisti
Bishaan gu’a gahe nama hin nyaatiin, namni du’a gahe si hin abaariin
Bishaan maaltu goosa jennaan waan achi keessa jiru gaafadhu jedhe
Bishingaan otoo gubattuu kofalti
Boru hin beekneen qad-bukoon ishee lama
Boftii fi raachi hanga ganni darbutti wal faana jiraattu
Bulbuluma bulbuli hangan dhugu anuu beeka
Buna lubbuuf xaaxa’u warri naa tolii kadhatu
Cabsituun tulluu amaaraatiin giraancee jetti
Citaan tokko luqqaasaniif manni hin dhimmisu
Dabeessa uleen (jirmi) shani
Daddaftee na dhungateef dhirsa naa hin taatu jette sanyoon
Dawaa ofii beekan namaa kudhaamu
Deegan malee waqayyo hin beekani
dhalli namaa otoo nyaattu diida laalti
Dhirsi hamaan maaf hin nyaatiin jedha niitii dhaan
Dhirsaa fi niitiin muka tokko irraa muramu
Dugda hin dhungatan, hunda hin dubbatani
Durbaa fi jiboota garaa gogaa lenjisu
Iyyuuf bakkeen naguma, dhiisuuf laphee na guba
Dhuufuun waliin mari’atanii dhuufan hin ajooftu
Diimina haaduun nyaatani,diimaa arrabaan nyaatu
Dinnichi bakka gobbitetti hordaa cabsiti
Doqnaa fi garbuu sukkuumanii nyaatu
Du’aan dhuufaa jennaan kan bokoke dhiisaa jedhe
Dubbii baha hin dhorkani galma malee
Dubbii jaarsaa ganama didanii galgala itti deebi’ani
Duulli biyya wajjinii godaansa
Eeboo darbatanii jinfuu hin qabatani
Edda waraabessi darbee sareen dutti
Fagaatan malee mi’aa biyyaa hin beekani
Farda kophaa fiiguu fi nama kophaa himatu hin amaniin
Firri gara firaa jennaan kal’een gara loonii jette
Foon lafa jira allaatti samii irraa wal lolti
foon lakkayi jennaan rajijjin tokko jedhe
fokkisaan nama qabata malee nama hin kadhatu
Fuula na tolchi beekumsi ollaa irraa argamaa jette intalli
Gaangeen abbaan kee eenyu jennaan eessumni koo farda jette
Gaangoonn haada kutte jennaan oftti jabeessite jedhani
Gabaan fira dhaba malee nama dhabinsa hin iyyitu
Galaanni bakka bulu hin beekne dhakaa gangalchee deema
Gaalli yoom bade jennaan, gaafa morma dheeratu bade

Gama sanaa garbuun biile (asheete) jennan warra sodaanne malee yoom argaa dhabne jedhe  jaldeessi
Gamna gowomsuun jibba dabalachuu dha
Ganaman bahani waaqa jalaahin bahani
Gara barii ni dukkanaa’a
Garaa dhiibuu irra miila dhiibuu wayya
Garbittii lubbuuf walii gadi kaattu, warri qophinaafi se’u
Jaalalli allaatti gara raqaatti nama geessa
Gaashatti dhuufuun daalattii dha
Gogaa duugduun yoo dadhabdu saree arisaa kaati
Gola waaqayyoo itti nama hidhe lookoo malee ijaajju
Goomattuuf goommanni hin margu
Goondaan walqabattee laga ceeti
Gowwaa wajjin hin haasa’iin bakka maleetti sitti odeessa, karaa jaldeesaa hin hordofiin halayyaa nama geessa
Gowwaan ballessaa isaa irraa barat, gamni balleessaa gowwaa irraa barata
Gowwaan bishaan keessa ijaajjee dheebota
Gowwaan gaafa deege nagada
Gubattee hin agarre ibiddatti gamti
Guulaa hin bitiin jiilaa biti
Gowwaa kofalchiisanii, ilkee lakawu
Gowwaa fi bishaan gara itti jallisan deemu
Haadha gabaabduu ijoolleen hiriyaa seeti
haadha laalii intala fuudhi
Haadha yoo garaa beekan ilmoo jalaa qabani
Halagaa ilkaan adii, halangaan isaa sadi
Hanqaaquu keessa huuba barbaada
Haati ballaa (suuloo) ya bakkalcha koo jetti
Haa hafuun biyya abbaa ofiitti nama hanbisa
Haati hattuun intala hin amantu
Haati hattuun intala hin amantu
Haati kee bareeddi jennaan, karaa kana dhufti eegi jedhe
Habbuuqqaa guddinaaf hin quufani
Hagu dhiba jette sareen foksoo nyaatte
Hagu dhiba jette sareen foksoo nyaattee
Halagaa gaafa kolfaa fira gaafa golfaa

Hantuunni hadha ishee jalatti gumbii uruu bartii

Harka namaatiin ibidda qabaa hin sodaatani
Harki dabaruu wal dhiqxi
Harkaan Gudunfanii, Ilkaaniin Hiikkaa Dhaqu
Harree ganama badee, galgala kur-kuriin hin argitu
Harree hin qabnu, waraabessa wajjin wal hin lollu
Kan harree hin qabne farda tuffata
Harreen nyaattu na nyaadhu malee bishaan ol hin yaa’u jette waraabessaan
Harreen yoo alaaktu malee yoo dhuuftu hin beektu
Hidda malee xannachi hin dhiigu
Hidda mukaa lolaan baaseetu, hidda dubbii farshoo (jimaa)n baase
Hidhaa yoo tolcha, gadi garagalchanii baatu

hin guddattuu jennaan baratu dhumee jedhe
Hiriyaa malee dhaqanii gaggeessaa malee galu
hiyyeessaf hin qalani kan qalame nyaata
Hoodhu jennaan diddeetu lafa keenyaan hatte
Hoolaan abbaa abdatte, diboo duuba bulchiti
Hoolaan gaafa morma kutan samii(waaqa) arkiti
Ija laafettiin durbaa obboleessaf dhalti
Ijoollee bara quufaa munneen ibidda afuufa
Ijoollee hamtuun yoo nyaataaf waaman ergaaf na waamu jettee diddi
Ijoolleen abaa ishee dabeessa hin seetu
Ijoolleen quufne hin jett, garaatu na dhukube jetti malee
Ijoolleen quufne hin jettu beerri fayyaa bulle hin jettu
Ijoolleen niitii fuute gaafa quuftu galchiti
Ijoollee qananii fi farshoo qomocoraa warratu leellisa
Ijoollee soressaa dhungachuun gabbarsuu fakkaatti
Ilkaan waraabessaa lafee irratti sodaatu
Ilmi akkoon guddiftu dudda duubaan laga ce’a
Intalli bareedduun koomee milaatiin beekamti
Intallii haati jajju hin heerumtu
Itti hirkisaan kabaa hin ta’u
Ittiin bulinnaa sareen udaan namaa nyaatti
Jaamaan boru ijji keen ni banamti jennaan, edana akkamitin arka jedhe
Jaarsi dhukuba qofaa hin aaduu, waan achisutu garaa jira
Jaarsii fi qalqalloon guutuu malee hin dhaabatu
Jabbiin hootu hin mar’attu
Jaalalli jaldeessa yeroo fixeensaa garaa jalatti, yeroo bokkaa dugda irratti nama baatti
Jaalala keessa adurreen ilmoo nyaatti
Jaalalli allaatti gara raqaatti nama geessa
Jarjaraan re’ee hin horu
Jarjaraan waraabessaa gaafa ciniina
Jibicha korma ta’u elmaa irratti beeku
Jiraa ajjeesuun jalaa callisuu dha
Kadhatanii galanii weddisaa hin daakani
Kan abbaan gaafa cabse halagaan gatii cabsa

Kan abbaan quba kaa’e oromi(namni, halagaan) dhumdhuma kaa’a
Kan afaanii bahee fi kan muccaa bahehin deebi’u
Kan bishaaan nyaate hoomacha qabata
Kan citaa qabaa tokko namaa hin kennine mana bal’isii gorsiti
Kan dandeessu dhaan jennaan gowwaan galee nitii dhaane Adaamiin ollaa hagamsaa jiru bara baraan boo’aa jiraata
Kan gabaa dhagahe gowwaan galee niitii dhokse
Kan hanna bare dooluutu sosso’a
Kan hordaa natti fiiges, kan haaduun natti kaates bagan arge jette saani du’uuf edda fayyitee booda
Kan humnaan lafaa hin kaane yaadaan Sudaanitti nagada
Kan ilkaan dhalchu kormi hin dhalchu
Kan namni nama arabsi irr, kan abbaan of arabsutu caala

kan qabuuf dabali jennaan harreen laga geesse fincoofte
Kan of jaju hin dogoggoru
Kan quufe ni utaala, kan utaale ni caba
Kan tolu fidi jennaan, sidaama biyya fide
Kan tuffatantu nama caala, kan jibbanitu nama dhaala
Kan tuta wajjin hin nyaanne hantuuta wajjin nyaatti
Kan waaqni namaa kaa’e cululleen hin fudhattu
Karaa foolii nun hin jedhani jette wacwacoon
Karaan baheef maqaan bahe hin deebi’u
Karaan sobaan darban, deebi’iitti nama dhiba
Karaa dheeraa milatu gabaabsa, dubbii dheeraa jaarsatu gabaabsa
Karaa fi halagaatu gargar nama baasa
Keessummaan waan dhubbattu dhabde mucaa kee harma guusi jetti
Keessummaan lolaa dha abbaatu dabarfata
Keessa marqaa boojjitootu beeka
Kijiba baranaa manna dhugaa bara egeree wayya
Kokkolfaa haati goota hin seetu
Kormi biyya isaatti bookkisu biyya namaatti ni mar’ata
Kursii irra taa’anii muka hin hamatani
Lafa rukuchuun yartuu ofiin qixxeessuu dha
Lafa sooriin du’e baataatu garmaama
Lafaa fuudhuutti ukaa nama bu’a

Lafti abdatan sanyii nyaatee namni abdatan lammii nyaate
Laga marqaa jennaan ijoolleen fal’aanaan yaate
Lama na hin suufani jette jaartiin qullubbii hattee
Leenci maal nyaata jennaan, liqeeffatte jedhe, maal kanfala jennaan, eenyu isa gaafata jedhe
Lilmoon qaawwaa ishee hin agartu, qaawwaa namaa duuchiti
Lukkuun(hindaaqqoon) haatee haateealbee ittiin qalan baafti
Maa hin nyaatiin jedha dhirsi hamaan
Maal haa baasuuf dhama raasu
Mammaaksi tokko tokko dubbii fida tokko tokko dubbii fida
Mana haadha koon dhaqa jettee goraa bira hin darbiin
Mana karaa irra kessumaatu itti baayyata
Manni Abbaan Gube Iyya Hin Qabu
Maraataa fi sareen mana ofii hin wallalani
Maraatuun jecha beektu, waan jettu garuu hin beektu
Marqaa afuufuun sossobanii liqimsuufi
Marqaan distii badaa miti, irri ni bukata, jalli ni gubata
Marxoon otoo fiiganii hidhatan otuma fiiganii nama irraa bu’a
Mataa hiyyaassaatti haaduu baru
Midhaan eeguun baalatti hafe
Mucaa keetiin qabii mucaa koo naa qabi jettehaati mucaa
Muka jabana qabu reejjiitti dhibaafatu
Morkii dhaaf haaduu liqimsu
Nama foon beeku sombaan hin sobani
Namni akka fardaa nyaatu, gaafa akka namaa nyaate rakkata
Namni beela’e waan quufu hin se’u
Namni dhadhaa afaan kaa’an, dhakaa afaan nama kaa’a
Namni gaafa irrechaa duude, sirba irreechaa sirbaa hafa
Namni guyyaa bofa arge halkan teepha dheessa
Namni hudduu kooban galannii isaa dhuufuu dha
Namni mana tokko ijaaru citaa wal hin saamu
Namni nama arabsu nama hin faarsu
Namni badaan bakka itti badutti mari’ata
Namni gabaabaan otoo kabaja hin argatiin du’a
Namni qotiyyoo hin qabne qacceen qalqala guutuu dha
Nama kokkolfaa nama miidhuu fi bokkaan aduu baasaa roobu tokko
Niitiin dhirsaaf kafana
Niitiin marii malee fuudhan marii malee baati
Niitiin afaan kaa’aami’eeffatte yoo kabaluuf jedhan afaan banti
Nitaati jennaan harree qalle, hin tatuu jennaan harree ganne, qoricha jennaan isuma iyyuu dhaqnee dhabne
Obboleessa laga gamaa mannaa gogaa dugduu(faaqqii) ollaa ofii wayya
Obsaan aannan goromsaa dhuga
Obsan malee hn warroomani
Ofii badanii namaa hin malani
Of jajjuun saree qarriffaan udaani

Ofi iyyuu ni duuti maaliif of huuti
Ofii jedhii na dhugi jedhe dhadhaan
Okolee diddu okkotee hin diddu
Ollaa araban jira akkamittin guddadha jette gurri
Ollaan akkam bultee beeka, akkatti bule abbaatu beeka
Ollaafi garaan nama hin diddiin
Ollaa fi kateen nama xiqqeessiti
Ol hin liqeessiin horii keetu badaa, gadi hin asaasiin hasa’aa keetu bushaa’a
Otoo beeknuu huuba wajjin jette sareen
Otoo garaan tarsa’e jiruu, darsa tarsa’eef boossi
Otoo farda hin bitiin dirree bite
Otoo fi eegeen gara boodaati
Otoo garaan dudda duuba jiraate, qiletti nama darbata
Otoo sireen nama hin dadhabiin tafkii fi tukaaniin nama dadhabdi
Qaalluun kan ishee hin beektu kan namaa xibaarti
Qaban qabaa hin guunnee gad-lakkisan bakkee guutti
Qabbanaa’u harkaan gubnaan fal’aanan
Qabanootuharkaa, hoo’itu fal’aanaan
Qabeenyi fixeensa ganamaati
Qalloo keessi sibiila
Qalladhu illee ani obboleessa eebooti jette lilmoon
qaaqeen yoo mataan ishee marge bade jetti
Qarri lama wal hin waraanu
Qeesiinwaaqayyoo itti dheekkam, daawwitii gurgurtee harree bitatte
Qoonqoon darbu, maqaa hin dabarre nama irra kaa’a
Qoonqoon bilchina eeggattee, qabbana dadhabde
Qorichaofii beekan namaa kudhaamu
Qotee bulaa doofaan, miila kee dhiqadhu jennaa, maalan dhiqadha borus nan qota jedhe
Qurcii dhaan aboottadhu jennaan, qophoofneerra jedhe
Raadni harree keessa ooltedhuufuu barattee galti
Sa’a bonni ajjeese ganni maqaa fuudhe
Saddetin heerume jarjarrsaa akka baranaa hin agarre jette jaartiin, salgaffaa irratti waraabessi bunnaan
Salphoo soqolatte soqolaa gargaaru
Saree soroobduun afaan isheef bukoo ykn. dudda isheef falaxaa hin dhabdu
Sabni namatti jiguu irra gaarri (tulluun) namatti jiguu wayya
Sareen duttu nama hin ciniintu
Sanyii ibiddaa daaraatu nama guba
Sareen warra nyaattuuf dutti
Seenaa bar dhibbaa baruuf bardhibba jiraachuun dirqama miti
Shanis elmamu kudhanis, kan koo qiraaciitti jette adurreen
Sirbituu aggaammii beeku
Sii uggum yaa gollobaa, anaafoo goommani ni dorroba inni gurr’uu soddomaa jette jaartiin horii ishee gollobaan fixnaan
Sodaa abjuu hriba malee hin bulani
Soogidda ofiif jettu mi’aayi kanaachi dhakaa taata
Sombaaf aalbee hin barbaadani
Suphee dhooftuun fayyaa gorgurtee, cabaatti nyaatti
Taa’anii fannisanii dhaabatanii fuudhuun nama dhiba
Takkaa dhuufuun namummaa dh, lammmeessuun harrummaadha
Tikseen dhiyootti dhiifte fagootti barbaacha deemti
Tiksee haaraan horii irraa silmii buqqisaa oolti
Tokko cabe jedhe maraataan dhakaa gabaatti darbatee
tokko kophee dhabeetu booha, tokko immoo miila dhabee booha
Tufani hin arraabani
Udaan lafatti jibban funyaan nama tuqa
Ulee bofa itti ajjeesan alumatti gatu
Ulee fi dubbiin gabaabduu wayya
Ulfinaa fi marcuma abbaatu of jala baata
Waa’een garbaa daakuu fi bishaani
Waan ergisaa galu fokkisa
Waan jiilaniin kakatu
Waan kocaan kaa’e allaattiin hin argu
Waan namaa kaballaa malee hin quufani
Waan samii bu’e dacheen baachuu hin dadhabu
Waan uffattu hin qabdu haguuggatee bobbaa teessi
Waan warri waarii hasa’aan, Ijoolen waaree odeesiti
Wadalli harree nitii isaa irraa waraabessa hin dhowwu
Wal-fakkaattiin wal barbaaddi
Wali galan, alaa galan
Wallaalaan waan beeku dubbata, beekaan waan dubbatu beeka
Waaqaaf safuu jette hindaaqqoon bishaan liqimsitee
Warra gowwaa sareen torba
Waraabessi bakka takkaa nyaatetti sagal deddeebi’a
Waraabessi biyya hin beekne dhaqee gogaa naa afaa jedhe
Waraabessi waan halkan hojjete beekee guyyaa dhokata
Yaa marqaa si afuufuun si liqimsuufi
Yoo ala dhiisan mana seenan, yoo mana dhiisan eessa seenan
Yoo boora’e malee hin taliilu
Yoo ejjennaa tolan darbatanii haleelu
Yoo iyyan malee hin dhalchanii jedhe korbeesi hoolaa kan re’eetiin
Yoo suuta ejjetan qoreen suuta nama waraanti
yoo dhaqna of jaalatan fuula dhiqatu
Yoo namaa oogan eelee jalatti namaa marqu
yoo ta’eef miinjee naa taata jette intalli


Mammaaksota Dubartootaa Oromoo

1.     Heeruma dharraanee(hawwinee) heerumnaan rarraane (rakkannee)

2.     Asuu oolle jette tan heerumaaf muddamte”

3.     Takkattii qayyannee taduraa hanqannee  ykn takkaa qayyannee lukaa gubanne

4.     Bakka dhiiganii hin fiigan.

5.     Kana muranii kamiin fincaayan jette haati manaa inni ofirraa mura jennaan.

6.     Kaanittuu abbaa argadhu jette haati intalaan.

7.     Intalti ariifattuun haadha ciniinsuubarsiifti

8.     Akka beekutti dhalaa(dahaa) nadhiisaa jette intalti harka namaa diddu

9.     Sirbaaf bayanii morma hin dhofatan jettee intalti waa hin saalfannee.

10.  Akka ebaluutti sirbaan morma nama jallifti jette intalti qalbii qabdu.

11.  Mucaa deenna malee mucaa hin geennu jette intalti of tuffatte.

12.  Wol  akkeessee ollaan marqa balleesse jette intalti ofiin bultun .

13.  Akka aadaa teennaa gaara gubbaa baanee teenna jedhe harmi dubartootaa.

14.  Ati baldi ta dhiirsa ka’imaa jette intalti abbaan manaa isii jaarsaa.
(Baldu : ashuu,qoosuu,taphachuu, busheesuu)

15.  Har’allee moo jette haati ijoolleen beelofne (shoomofne) jennaan isiin bakka cidhaatii quuftee waan galteef

16.  Ani ufiif hin jennee, mucaan keessan ka hangafaa sun fuudha hin geennee? jette intalti mucaa kajeelte.

17.  Soddaa fi dayma hin duudhatan.

18.  Osoo dhukubsataan jiru, fayyaalessi du’a.

19.  Ana bakki na dhukubu asii mitii maraafuu bakkuma gooftaan kiyya jedhe san kooba jette bookeen.

20.  Makkitu malee makkaa hin hajjan

(Makkitu : naamaaf mijooftu/mijaa’u)

21.  Akka dida’aa fi akka didanaatti na galchi

22.  Daalun xaraan kaanu tara.

Qopheessan : Abdii Boriiti

Source: http://opride.com/hamba/?p=231


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Beekan Guluma Erena Short biography

By  Sabboontuu Inkoosaa,   gibetube.com

Beekan Guluma Erena was born in April 24, 1984 at West Oromia, East Wollega zone, in a district called Nunu Kumba. He was born in a very extended family. His father had three wives of which Beekan’s mother was the third. Finally, he had 16 children from those three wives. There were only few children that got educational opportunity. Most of them remained farmers.  Beekan faced many ups and downs of life due to the number of his brothers and sisters and unbalance of resource with the number of family households.11700626_458769627635233_5656259770064106142_o

Most of the time, his brothers and sisters had continues conflict on the issue of land. This made Beekan face great challenges until he joined Jimma University, Ethiopia for his BED degree. He even remembers that there was a time at which he was forced to drop his education because he couldn’t continue. He was educated without the support of his family.

When he was primary school student, he used to purchase commodities like coffee, salt, lemon and so on and bring them to the market from a distant area walking more than 30 kilo metres on his feet. The he sells the commodities and makes use of its benefit. He spend some years on street with homelessness.

After he joined University to attend higher education, somebody gave his a photo camera called “Yashka.” This was good opportunity for Beekan. Then he used the device for commercial purpose in the campus free times and this was the only financial source he had in the University.

Beekan was medium student at primary education level. Though he made sure that he had educational potential, the bad situation he lived in restricted his ability not to be released. Whatever his situation was, he firmly believed that the best tool to eradicate poverty is education.beeee

He had many memories of what he contributed for his society. To mention one, when he was grade 9 student, he made a tent whose width was only about 2 metres and began to teach uneducated people in his area. Because most of his students were farmers, the only conducive time for this activity was from 5:00 am to 6:30 am. He taught more than 78 people who never got the education opportunity to go to school. At last, 40 students could successfully be promoted to grade two. Now they are in the university. The local government that understand his innovative works supported him by providing him necessary materials like chalk and books. Finally, Mr. Guluma Erena—Beekan’s father—disallowed him not to teach people in his compound because he was afraid that the government may take the land from him and build school there. He got a certificate for this contribution. Finally, Beekan disappear from the area for the difficulties he face many times. Then after his mother passed away and he grown up without family.

Beekan had a dream to be lecturer when he was only grade 7. Fortunately, his childhood dream was realised and he became a lecturer in Ambo University, Ethiopia. Having taught for one years in Ambo University, he was sent to Addis Ababa University to pursue his second degree. He received his M. ED by Oromo language teaching and literature from there and got back to Ambo University. Based on his successful performance, the University after teaching three years sent him again to Addis Ababa for for his PhD education. He is one of the students from the department of Documentary Linguistics and Culture. He is conducting research on a title called ‘Documenting oral poetry and its semantic analysis.

Besides his teaching profession, he is also successful writer. He remembers that he used to write what was in his mind during his primary education. He wished to be a good writer and now he has realised that. Currently, he wrote and published 28 books in his mother tongue that is Oromo. He has been edited more than 60 books which also written in Afaan Oromo. His literary focus is politics, language skills and indigenous oral tradition.  His contribution in Oromo literature is bidirectional. First, he wrote many books and made it available for the Oromoo people. Second, he has motivated and supported hundreds of young people to write what is in their mind. As a result, many young people became good writers. Most of his books were published by businessmen and Beekan got no financial support from them. This is because of his financial limitation. Whatever it is, he is happy to give his books to business men because his attention is to help his people rather getting money.bekan

Finally, Beekan has received many trainings and certificates for his multidirectional contribution for his people in one way or another (see his CV attached). But due to his scholarship and cultural and literary activism, the leading political party in Ethiopia has placed him on a blacklist. The current Ethiopian government heavily censors Oromo writers from writing about the political circumstances of the Oromo people. He currently living under a lot of mental and emotional stress and worrying about his safety and life because of the threats he has been receiving from different individuals. These threats to his safety and life are hindering his Ph.D studies at Addis Ababa University. He cannot focus on his studies. He feel afraid and terrorized and he do not move around freely. Sometimes he   leave home and go home in a very timely manner out of fear that something will happen to him. Those who are threatening him believe that there is nothing he can do to defend himself from them, and so they continue to threaten. It is as if these men have been appointed official judges and have passed a death sentence on him, without any interrogative examination or involvement of the court. Currently, he is on writing ofNovels, short stories and reference books in Afan Oromo (his mother tongue).

all of his books are available at www.borofa.com. You can order them now.

Original Post at www.gibetube.com

 

 

SEENAA JIREENYAA BARREESSAA BEEKAN GULUMMAA IRRANAA

Sabboontuu Inkoosaatiin,    gibetube.com

Hojii inni hamma ammaatti hojjete umurii isaa waliin wal hin simu. Dargaggoon waggaa 30 kitaabota Afaan Oromoo 29 barreessee, kitaabota 85 ol akkasumas barruulee adda addaa gulaaleera jechuun waan ulfaatuuf, namoonni yeroo hedduu akka waan inni jaarsa ta’eetti yaadu. Yeroo jalqabaaf yommuu isa argan wanti gaaffii namootatti ta’u umurii isaa kana waan ta’eef, “Ani dargaggoo akkanaa si hin seene!” isaan jedhu. Yeroo isaatti haalaan fayyadamuun beekama. Isaaf tokkoo tokkoon daqiiqaa sa’atii keessa jirtuu, tokko tokkoon sa’atii guyyaa keessa jirtuu, tokkoo tokkoon guyyaa torban keessa jirtuu, tokkoo tokkoon torban ji’a keessa jirtuu, tokkoo tokkoon ji’a waggaa keessa jirtuu hiika addaa qabdi. Nan boqodha jedhee hiriyyoota waliin taa’ee utuu bashannanuu hin argamu. Guyyaanis—isaaf—halkanis yeroo hojiiti. Hojiif ilaalcha adda ta’e qaba. Dadhabbii fi nuffa malee yeroo dheeraa taa’ee hojjechuun hojii ajaa’ibsiisaa hojjeteera. Ofii barreessuu isaa qofa miti wanti nama ajaa’ibu. Dhaloota qubee keessaa barreessitoota hedduutti hamilee taasisuun, jajjabeessuun, hojii isaanii harkaa fuudhee toora qabsiisuun, onnachiisuun hedduu isaanii kaaseera.bekan

Lixa Oromiyaa, Godina Wallagga Bahaa, aanaa Nuunnuu Qumbaatti maatii qonnaan bulaa irraa kan dhalate Beekan Gulummaa Irranaa, yeroo ijoollummaa isaa rakkoo gurguddaa dabarseera. Abbaan isaa obbo Gulummaa Irranaa dubartoota sadii qaba ture. Isaan keessaa harmeen Beekan sadaffaa yoo taatu, abbaa isaaf ijoollee lama (dhiira tokkoo fi shamara tokko qofa) deessee boqotte. Abbaan isaa garuu ammallee lubbuudhaan ni jira.

Abbaan Beekan—obbo Gulummaan—walumaa galatti ijoollee 17 waan qabaniif ijoollee isaanii keessaa carraa barnootaa kan argate muraasa qofadha. Kaan isaanii hojii qonnaa irratti bobba’anii jiru. Walii galteen gidduu isaaniitii hagas mara dhibuu isaaf tarii baay’inni isaanii sababa ta’uu akka hin oolle shakka.

…Sababa baay’ina keenyaa haa ta’u hin beeku walii galteen nu gidduu hagas mara hin jiru…

Ijoolleen obbo Gulummaa Irranaa deddeebi’anii dhimma lafaa irratti wal lolu turan. Kun immoo hanga gaafa Yuunivarsiitii seenuutti Beekan gidiraa gurguddaa akka dabarsu taasiseera. Rakkina irraa kan ka’e yeroon inni itti barnoota isaa addaan kutellee akka ture yaadannoo isaati. Sababa walii galteen maatii isaa keessa hin jirreef gargaarsa maatii malee barate jechuun ni danda’ama. Gabaa keessa foqoqee kanneen akka ashaboo, buna, loomii fi kanneen biroollee bitee gurguruudhaan akkasumas fageenya KM 20 oliirraa midhaan garaa garaa bituudhaan mataatti baatee daldalee bu’aa sana irraa argamuun barnoota isaa sadarkaa tokkoffaa fi lammaffaa barate. Erga Yuunivarsiitii seeneehoo akkamitti barate jettanii gaafattu ta’a. Seenaa kana barreessuuf yeroon odeeffannoo walitti qabachaa ture gaaffii fi deebiin isa waliin taasise keessatti natti himeera. Anis darbee darbee jechoota isaa kallattiidhaan nan fayyadama. Waa’ee barnoota isaa Yuunivarsiitii Jimmaa akkana naan jedheera:

….Ergan Yuunivarsiitii galees kaameraa “Yaashikaa” jedhamu namni naaf biteetu, yeroo boqonnaa koo Yuunivarsiitii Jimmaa keessaa suura kaasee dhiqsiisee gurguruunan baradhe. Kaamerattiin ammayyuu ni jirti…beeee

Kutaa gadiittii barnoota isaatti barataa giddu galeessa ture. Dandeettii (potential) qabaatullee, ijoollummaa isaatii ka’ee yaadnii fi yaaddoon isa xuuxaa waan tureef, samuu isaatti haalaan fayyadamuu dadhabuu isaarraa kan ka’e dandeettiin yaaduu isaa yeroo irraa yerootti gad bu’aa deema ture. Ta’ullee, kellaan hiyyummaa qabsoo barnootaatiin akka diigama jala muree beeka ture. Barnoonni humna dhokataa keessoo keenyaa karaa ittiin ifa taasisnu akka ta’e ni amana ture. Barnoonni gosa lama qaba: idilaawaa fi mit-idilaawaadha. Barnoonni mit-idilaawaan maatii fi naannoo irraa yommuu argamu idilaawaan immoo mana barnootaatii argama.

Ilmi namaa kallattii hedduun barnoota akka gonfatu beekamaadha. Maatii irraa, naannoo irraa, mana barnootaa fi muuxannoo/mudannoo jiruu fi jireenyaa keessa isaatti walitti qabame irraa ta’uu danda’a. Uummanni Oromoo bara dheeraaf barumsa karaa mit-idilaawaa ta’e waan dubbatamuun (oral) muuxannoo bara dheeraa walitti dabarsaa tureera. Har’a garuu maddoonni beekumsa irraa argannu baay’achaa jiru.

…Isuma dur afaaniin darbaa turetu gara barruutti dhufuu danda’e/a. Saayinsaawaa ta’eetu falaasamni keessaa waraabama. Qabeenyumti uummatichaayyuu falaasama!…

Beekan Gulummaa gumaachawwanii fi mudannoowwan hedduu qaba. Gumaachawwan inni taasise keessaa mee tokko haa ibsu. Barataa kutaa 9 fi 10 yeroo ture mana citaa dhumdhuma 4 taatu ijaaree ijoollee naannoo sana jiran keessatti barsiisuu eegale. Yeroo sana humni ibsaa naannoo sana waan hin qaqqabneef faanosii tokko bitatee boba’aa itti guuttatee barsiisa ture. Hojii qonnaa waliin deemuuf yeroon barumsichaaf mijataa ta’e ganama obboroo sa’a 11:00-12:30 qofa ture.beeekaanKanaafuu, yeroo hundumaa ganama ganama barsiisee akkuma hojii barsiisuu isaa xumureen gara hojii qonnaatti bobba’a jechuudha. Hojii kanaan ijoollee carraa barnootaa tasuma hin arganne 78 barsiisuudhaan isaan keessaa namoota 40 ol gara kutaa lammaffaatti dabarseera. Waajjirri barnootaa aanichaa kana dhaga’uun deggersa barbaachisaa kanneen akka kitaabotaa fi boronqii taasiseef. Gumaacha kanaaf Waraqaa Ragaa inni yeroo lama fudhate hanga ammaatti harka isaa jira. Suurri barattoota sanaas muraasni yaadannoof isa bira jiru. Hojii gaariin inni eegale sun yeroo inni barnoota sadarkaa lammaffaaf gara Arjoo deeme achuma irratti dhaabate. Itti dabalees addaan cituu hojichaaf sababa kan ta’an wantonni biroon turaniiru. Fakkeenyaaf, abbaan isaa obbo Gulummaan namoonni waajjira barnootaa aanaa irraa deddeebi’anaa daw’achaa fi jajjabeessaa akka turan argee mootummaan lafa isaa waan irraa fudhatu itti fakkaannaan sodaatee achii isaan ari’uudhaan lammaffaa akka isaan wal hin barsiifne taasiseera. Namoonni Beekan barsiisaa ture kanneen umuriin isaanii barnoota irra darbee fi gurguddoo waan turaniif, hawaasi naannoo ijoolleen isaanii hojii qonnaa dhiisanii barnootatti waan jalaa goran itti fakkaannaan itti gumguman. Sababoonni kunneen walitti ida’amanii hojii baruu fi barsiisuu mana citaa dhumdhuma 4 keessatti eegalamte addaan kutan.

…Humna dhabee malee ammallee mana barnootaa daa’immanii adda ta’e tokko utuun hundeessee baay’een dheebodha. Namni barate nama kamiifuu garba hin ta’u…

Dhalootumaan mul’anni uumaa biraa namaaf kennamu ni jira. Beekan barataa kutaa 7 yommuu ture barsiisaa ta’uuf akka jiru ni beeka ture. Gaafa guddate naal ta’uu akka inni barbaadu namoota isa gaafatan maraaf deebiin isaa tokkoo fi ifaa ture: Barsiisaa sadarkaa ol-aanaa ta’uu! Hawwiin isaa ganamaa milkaa’eefii amma sadarkaa ol aanaarra barsiiseera. Yuunivarsiitii Ambootti barsiisaa Afaan Oromoo fi Oguma (Literature) ta’ee hojjechaa tureera. Barsiisuutti dabalee, barreessuunis mul’ata isaa ganamaa akka ture ni yaadata. Yeroo barataa ture walaloowwan hedduu fi wantota sammuu isaa keessa dhufan mara waraqaa irratti barreessee ol kaa’aa ture. Wanti barreeffame tokko gara kitaaba ta’uutti akka dhufu garuu yeroo sana waan isaaf hin galiiniif wantota yeroo sana barreesse amma argachuu hin dandeenye. Amma garuu bokokni keessa isaa jiru futtaafachuu waan eegale fakkaata.beekaan

Jalqaba akkuman ibse hanga ammaatti kitaabota 24 barreessee maxxansiiseera. Kitaabota hedduu immoo barreessee gulaalee maxxansaaf qopheessee jira. Beekan xiyyeeffannoon isaa hojii mataa isaa qofa irra miti. Barreessitoota biroo kaasuu fi deggeruun beekama. Kanaafuu, kitaabota hedduu gulaaleera. Qabiyyeen kitaabota inni barreessee fi gulaalee walumaa galatti asoosamoota, kitaabota walaloo, kitaaba xiin-sammuu, kitaabota seenaa fi kan barnootaati.

Beekan kitaabota isaa keessaa harka caalaa akka isaan tola maxxanfataniif namootaaf kennaa ture. Kun sababni isaa dhabinsa maallaqaati. Kaayyoon isaa kitaabota isaa irraa maallaqa argachuu irra ni caala.

…Kaayyoon koo inni guddaan maallaqa argachuu utuu hin taane, qaawwaa ogbarruu Oromoo duuchuudha…

Kitaabota isaa fi kan namoota inni gulaaleefii—karaa isaatiin—kitaabonni kooppii 130,000 ol ta’an guutummaa Oromiyaa irra rabsamaniiru.

Barreessaa fi barsiisaa Beekan Gulummaa dhaloota qubee keessaa barreessitoota hedduu of duukaa hiriirsee jira. Barreessitoonni isa waliin hiriiranii jiran kunneen guutummaa Oromiyaa irraa kan argaman, akkasumas laga gamallee kan jiraniidha. Dhugumaaf taataan, namoonni isa waliin hiriyyaa ta’an hedduun waa barreessu. Yeroo murtaa’eef erga waliin haasa’ee booda namichi yaadaan kan bilchaate ta’uu isaa yoo argate akka inni barreessuuf jajjabeessa. Beekumsi namoonni qaban ukkaamfamee akka isaan keessatti hafu hin barbaadu. Hamma dandeenyu dhalootaaf qooduun bu’aa malee miidhaa akka hin qabne ni amana. Keessumaa hayyoonni dhaloota haaraa kana keessaa ka’aa jiran hamma malee akka isa gammachiisan deddeebi’ee dubbata.beekaann

….Oromiyaan hayyoota amma ka’aa jiran kanaan boonuu qabdi…

Ijoollee kanaaf ogummaa tolaa fi gargaarsa hayyummaa isaa yeroo qoodu gammachuun isaa daangaa hin qabu. Qabeenyi isaa isaanuma akka ta’e dhugaa ba’a.

Kitaabota isaa maxxansiisuu keessatti gufuuwwan isa mudatan maal maal akka ta’an akka naaf ibsuuf gaaffii ani gaafadheef deebii naaf kennee jira. Gufuuwwan hedduun akka jiran ibsa. Rakkoolee ilaalchaa tokko tokko (namni kitaaba Afaan Oromoo bitus ta’e gurguru doorsifamuu fi reebamuu isaa), rakkoo mana maxxansaa Oromoo bal’inaan dhabuu fi qaalawuu gatii maxxansaa, rakkoo raabsaan wal qabatee jiru, rakkoo qeeqxota barruuwwan kanaa dhabuu, rakkoo imaammata afaanii fi sirna barnootaa faana wal qabate, rakkoo deggersa dhabuu, dhaabbata giddu gala waa’ee afaanii, seenaa fi aadaa Oromoo qoratu dhabuu, hojii hojjetamaa jiru kana fuudhee sabaan kan nuuf ga’u miidiyaa dhabuu, rakkoo Oromoo fi Oromoon wal hubachuu dhabuu fi aadaan dubbisuu saba keenyaa gidduutti akka mucaa reefuu daa’imtuu ta’uu isaati.bookaa

Ilaalcha siyaasaa inni qabu akka naaf himuuf gaaffii ani gaafadheef deebii bilchaataa naaf kenne:

…Barreessaan garee siyaasaa kamiyyuu miti. Giddu gala taa’ee waan haqaa fi dhugaa ta’e loogii tokko malee barreessuutu irraa eegama…

Sadarkaa yaadaatti garuu gama haqaaf hojjetu cina hiriiruun dirqama sammuu akka taatu amana. Haalli qabsoo guyyuu namni guyyaa guyyaatti keessa jiraatuyyuu siyaaasa akka ta’etti  yaada. Namni siyaasa irraa bilisa ta’ee kan hin jiraanne yoo ta’es, siyaasa wal-qixxummaa fi haqaa akkasumas jijjiiramaaf hojjetu ni ajaa’ibsiifata. Gama Oromummaatti yoo deebine immoo, eenyummaan Oromoo Oromummaa isaa akka ta’e jala muree dubbata. Saba biraa irraa adda nu taasisee, Oromoo akka jedhamnu kan nu taasise Oromummaa keenyadha. “Nuti Oromoodha” kan ofiin jennu, yookaan ormi “Isaan Oromoodha” kan nuun jedhuuf Oromummaan keenya ibsituu eenyummaa keenyaa waan ta’eefidha. Kun immoo kan itti dhalanneedha.

…Kan Oromummaa isaan hin boonne garbicha, bitamaa fi isa wallaalchifameedha. Amantii, kutaa fi gosaan gargar ba’uu malla. Oromummaan garuu maqaa fi qabeenyaa Oromoon marti waliin qabuudha…

Walumaa galatti, Beekan Gulummaa Irranaa Yuunivarsiitii Jimmaa irraa akkuma eebbifameen dorgomee Yuunivarsiitii Ambootti barsiisaa Afaan Oromoo ta’ee ramadame. Yeroo xiqqoo erga barsiisee booda Yuunivarsiitii Finfinneetti ergamuudhaan barumsa digirii lammaffaa Afaan Oromoo fi Ogumaan eebbifame. Sana booda gara Yuunivarsiitii Ambootti deebi’ee barsiisuu fi qorannoowwan adda addaa qorachuu eegale. Ammas baay’ee utuu hin turiin digirii sadaffaa (doktorummaaf) gara Yuunivarsiitii Finfinneetti deebi’e. Yeroo ammaa kana muummee “Documentary Linguistics and Culture” jedhamu keessaa barataa Ph. D waggaa sadaffaati. Mata duree “Documentation and semantic analysis of some selected Oromo Oral Poetry” jedhamuun qorannoo isaa hojjechaa jira.beeeaaak

Barnoota isaa barachuutti dabalee kitaabota Uummata Oromoo biratti bal’inaan beekamoo fi jaallatamoo ta’an hedduu barreessee maxxansiiseera, ammas barreessuutti jira. Hanga ammaatti hojiiwwan hojjeteef akkasumas leenjiiwwan yeroo adda addaatti fudhateef waraqaalee ragaa fi badhaasawwan hedduu argatee jira. Kanneen keessaa muraasa caqasuuf, Waraqaa ragaa qophii kitaabota barnootaa kutaalee 5-8; Hirmaannaa guddina afaanii fi aadaa Oromoo irratti taasiseef Yuunivarsiitii Amboo irraa waraqaa ragaa; Bara 2011 leenjii bu’uraa Kompiyuutaraa fudhateef dippiloomaa; Hirmaannaa dagaagina afaanii fi aadaa Oromoo irratti taasiseef Biiroo Aadaa fi Tuuriizimii Oromiyaa irraa waraqaa ragaa; Leenjii poolisiiwwan mootummaa federaalaa Itoophiyaa irratti; Bara 2010 leenjii sagantaa fooyya’insa afaan Ingilizii barsiisotaaf kenname; Bara 2006 Tokkummaa Barattootaa Kiristaana Oromoo leenjisuu, barsiisuu fi geggeessuu; Hojii fi sochii barsiisummaa keessatti Fiixaan Ba’umsa guddaa taasiseef Yuunivarsiitii Ambootti waraqaa galataa; Peedaagoojiitti dippiloomaa ol-aanaa, Yuunivarsiitii Finfinneetti tola ooltummaa taasiseef waraqaa tajaajilaa; Yuunivarsiitii Jimmaatti Tokkummaa Barattoota Yuunivarsiitichaa tajaajiluuf waraqaa ragaa (1998); Sagantaa Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) jedhamu irratti hirmaannaa taasiseef waraqaa ragaa; kanaa fi kanneen kana fakkaatan hedduu argatee jira.

Kanatti dabalees, rakkoolee baruu fi barsiisuu hedduu furuuf yeroo adda addaatti qorannoolee hedduu taasiseera. Moojuloota barnootaas kan qopheesse hedduu qaba.

Dhugaaf taanaan dargaggoon kun ogummaa fi kaka’umsa qabu walitti fiduun gara fuula duraattis hojiiwwan gurguddoo hojjechuuf akka jiru hin shakkisiisu.

Kitaabootaa isa www.borofa.com irrati argaachuu nii dandeesuu.

    • DIINQA KEENYA: Bissii Walaloo 2015
    • CAFII: Oguma Oromoo 2015
    • BISSII FOOKILOORII; Afoola Oromoo 2015
    • KIKIKSABaacoo Gaggabaaboo Oromoo 2015
    • QASAATII: Baacoo Oromoo, 2015
    • DIMDIMOO: Seenaa Ce’umsa Barruu Oromoo, 2015
    • DANBALII: Oguma Afaanii, 2014
    • GIIMII: Asoosama Dheeraa, 2014
    • HIRQINFUU: Kuusaa Walaloo, 2014
    • KOOMTOO; Documentation of Oral Tradition, 2014
    • HAANQUU; Kuusaa walaloo, 2014
    • KOOTICHA KOTA’AME: Asoosama Dheeraa.2014 Finfinnee.Eleni Printing Press.2013. Novel.
    • LOOKOO JAALALAA: Asoosama Dheeraa.Finfinnee. Subi Printing Press.
    • MUDATA: Baacoowwan Gaggabaaboofi kan biroo: Finfinnee, Subi Printing Press.
    • GAACHANA DHOMMOQE, Asoosama Dheeraa. (2013). Finfinnee,  Subi Printing Press.
    • GUUBOO SEENAA: 2013. Asoosama Dheeraa.
    • BU’UURA BARUMSA AFAAN OROMOOfi AFOOLA OROMOO. (2013). Finfinnee, Subi Printing Press.
    • IMAANAA JIREENYAA. 2013. Book.
    • BAKKALCHA: Oduuu Durii Oromoofi kan biroo;. (2013). Finfinnee. Subi Printing Press.
    • HAMUUMMANNAA: Kuusaa Weedduu Oromoo.(2013). Finfinnee, Subi Printing Press.
    • OONNATA: Geerarsa Oromoofi kan biroo.2013.  Finfinnee, Subi Printing Press.
    • DHIKKIFANNAA:KuusaaWalaloofiSaayinsiisaa. Finfinnee. Subi Printing Press.
    • GUUBOO SEENAA: 2012. Gaaffii Deebii Dhabe. FinfinneeSubi Printing press (Asoosama Dheeraa)
    • BIIFTUU: GuddinaAfaanii; 2012 SubiFinfinnee
    • WAL’AANSOO: Gorsa Dhalootaa; 2012 , SubiFinfinnee
    • YANDOO: Ogumaafi Ogwalaloo Oromoo 2012 Finfine
    • NAATOO: DuudhaaGaa’eelaOromoo 2011, Finfinnee
    • KATTAA: OgummaaBarreessuu 2011 Finfinnee
    • SANYII: OgummaaDubbisuu; 2011, Finfinnee
    • DILBII:Bu’uuraAfoolaa,OgafaaniifiAfwalalooOrom:
    • DIMDIMOO: Oromo Cultural Book
    • NADHII: OROMO JOKES AND HUMBORS
    • GINDILLAA: NOVEL
    • SEENAA BARRESSITOOTA OROMOOFI HAAROMSA OGBARRUU OROMOO WAGGAA 120 ASII
                     …kan itti fufuudha….

 

 

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The Sumerians, Kemetic and Oromo April 9, 2015

Posted by OromianEconomist in Africa, African American, African Literature, Ancient African Direct Democracy, Ancient Egyptian, Ancient Rock paintings in Oromia, Chiekh Anta Diop, Language and Development, Meroe, Meroetic Oromo, Oromo, Oromo Culture, Qubee Afaan Oromo.
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” “Assyrians themselves are shown to have been of a very pure type of Semites, but in the Babylonians there is a sign of Kushite blood. … There is one portrait of an Elmite king on a vase found at Susa; he is painted black and thus belongs to the Kushite race.” The myths, legends, and traditions of the Sumerians point to the African Cushite as the original home of these people (see. Perry, 1923, pp. 60-61). They were also the makers of the first great civilisation in the Indus valley. Hincks, Oppert, unearthed the first Sumerian remains and Rawlinson called these people Kushites. Rawlinson in his essay on the early history of Babylonian presents that without pretending to trace up these early Babylonians to their original ethnic sources, there are certainly strong reasons for supposing them to have passed from Cushite Africa to the valley of the Euphrates shortly before the opening of the historic period: He is based on the following strong points: The system of writing, which they brought up with them, has the closest semblance with that of Egypt; in many cases in deed the two alphabets are absolutely identical. In the Biblical genealogies, while Kush and Mizrain (Egypt) are brothers, from Kush Nimrod (Babylonian) sprang. With respect to the language of ancient Babylonians, the vocabulary is absolutely Kushite, belonging to that stock of tongues, which in postscript were everywhere more or less, mixed up with Semitic languages, but of which we have with doubtless the purest existing specimens in the Mahra of Southern Arabia and the Oromo.”
https://oromianeconomist.wordpress.com/…/oromia-untwist-th…/

The Sumerians were one of the earliest urban societies to emerge in the world, in Southern Mesopotamia more than 5000 years ago. They developed a writing system whose wedge-shaped strokes would influence the style of scripts in the same geographical area for the next 3000 years. Eventually, all of these diverse writing systems, which encompass both logophonetic, consonantal alphabetic, and syllabic systems, became known as cuneiform.

It is actually possible to trace the long road of the invention of the Sumerian writing system. For 5000 years before the appearance of writing in Mesopotamia, there were small clay objects in abstract shapes, called clay tokens, that were apparently used for counting agricultural and manufactured goods. As time went by, the ancient Mesopotamians realized that they needed a way to keep all the clay tokens securely together (to prevent loss, theft, etc), so they started putting multiple clay tokens into a large, hollow clay container which they then sealed up. However, once sealed, the problem of remembering how many tokens were inside the container arose. To solve this problem, the Mesopotamians started impressing pictures of the clay tokens on the surface of the clay container with a stylus. Also, if there were five clay tokens inside, they would impress the picture of the token five times, and so problem of what and how many inside the container was solved.

Subsequently, the ancient Mesopotamians stopped using clay tokens altogether, and simply impressed the symbol of the clay tokens on wet clay surfaces. In addition to symbols derived from clay tokens, they also added other symbols that were more pictographic in nature, i.e. they resemble the natural object they represent. Moreover, instead of repeating the same picture over and over again to represent multiple objects of the same type, they used diferent kinds of small marks to “count” the number of objects, thus adding a system for enumerating objects to their incipient system of symbols. Examples of this early system represents some of the earliest texts found in the Sumerian cities of Uruk and Jamdat Nasr around 3300 BCE, such as the one below. http://www.ancientscripts.com/sumerian.html

Sumerians, Kemeticand Oromo

The In-Between: Book Signing and Panel Discussion with Seenaa G-D Jimjimo February 20, 2015

Posted by OromianEconomist in African Literature, Oromiyaa, Oromo, Oromo Literature, Oromo women, Oromummaa, Seenaa G-D Jimjimo, The In-Between.
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O

Book Signing and Panel Discussion with Seenaa G-D Jimjimo

ayyaantuu.com

 

jimjimoTitle: The In-Between
Author: Seenaa Jimjimo
On February 23, 2015 at  5:30pm-7:30pm CST
Venue:  THE ART MART, 422 E. Monroe St., Springfield, IL, 62702, Phone: 217-744-3301

February 20, 2015 (Illinois Times) — iOut of Africa Heritage Center (OOAHC), an art gallery featuring an eclectic mix of hand-crafted African sculptures, paintings, books, and crafts created by local African-American artists, is pleased to announce that visiting author and University of Illinois Chicago graduate. Ms. Jimijimo will be conducting a book signing and cultural discussion regarding the relationships, American experience, and cultural divide between African’s and African American’s from an African-Oromo woman’s point of view.

The book signing/panel discussion will be held February 23, 2015 starting promptly at 5:30pm-7:30pm CST. In The Art Mart located at 422 E. Monroe Street Springfield, Illinois 62702.

Seena Godano-Dulla Jimjimo was born in Adaba in Bale Zone. From a very young age, she felt grieved over the injustices she saw perpetrated against Oromo, particularly against Oromo-Arsi women. Wanting to help, she studied political science, public administration, and public health at University of Illinois in Chicago as well as in Springfield. While there she was Senator at Large and treasurer for the African Student Organization. Ms. Seenaa is a dedicated human right activist. She is most proud of founding the Danboboodu Scholarship Foundation, dedicated to educating women in Africa.

“While the purpose of OOAHC is to highlight unknown or relatively-known African-American artists, individuals from all social and cultural backgrounds are invited and welcome to join in the efforts to bridge cultural divides while celebrating the arts. “We are honored and fortunate to have such a dynamic accomplished visiting young author being part of the artistic partnering and community outreach initiative” says Williamson.

Anyone interested in joining our artisan initiatives or attending any workshop/class should email Lynn Williamson at outofafricahertiate@yahoo.com . For more information about the Out of Africa Heritage Center, please visit the website at http://www.outofafricaheritage.org, or call 678.851.8888. The Out of Africa Heritage Center is a member of the Springfield Business Chamber of Commerce and a proud addition to the downtown Springfield business and artisan community.

Source: Illinois Times


image1

 


Finance Girls’ Education in Africa

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZEun0p-jWYE  [click on the link, embedding is disabled to view her]

My name is Seenaa Jimjimo. I  established Danboobiduu Foundation  in 2014 to promote education in a community where girls are often neglected to take part in the decision making process. In rural parts of Oromia such as Bucha-Rayya, young girls are recruited and many times sent to labor at very young ages. Those who managed to stay in school will more than likely drop out at some point before they graduate from secondary school. As we know all too well, girls’ education is not only important for themselves but for the whole family and the entire community. Danboobiduu’s Foundation mission is to promote and finance girls’ education and to provide an after-school program where girls are taught a life sustaining skills.

For more information Visit
http://abdiinfo.com/main/dfoundation

https://www.facebook.com/pages/Danboobduus-Foundation/546240112185076

 

Source: gofundme 

 

http://ayyaantuu.com/horn-of-africa-news/oromia/book-signing-and-panel-discussion-with-seenaa-g-d-jimjimo/

Indigenous Langauge And Development: Toltu Tufa of Afaan Publications (Afaan Oromoo Developer) Met Large Audience On The Occasion of The Launch of The Afaan New Books February 15, 2015

Posted by OromianEconomist in 10 best Youtube videos, 25 killer Websites that make you cleverer, Afaan Oromoo, Afaan Publication, African Literature, Culture, Language and Development, Oromiyaa, Oromo, Oromummaa.
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???????????afaan

 

 A native African language has been brought to the pages of children’s textbooks for the first time by a Melbourne educator. More than 40 million people speak the Oromo tongue but, until now, it’s been largely passed down by word-of-mouth.

http://www.sbs.com.au/news/video/399415363938/Aussie-educators-quest-to-document-an-African-Lang

http://www.afaan.com.au/#campaign

Oromo Literature: Qubee, Walaloo (poems), Mammaaksa, Books and more January 30, 2015

Posted by OromianEconomist in African Literature, Ideas, Language and Development, Mammaaksa Oromoo, Oromo Literature, Walaloo (Poems), Wisdom.
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OWelcome to Oromo dictionary. Oromia/ African language http://www.oromodictionary.com/

Oromo Literature: Qubee, Walaloo (poems), Mammaaksaa, Books & More and More to Come

 

Icciiticha. New Afaan Oromo book. Interesting to read

New  Afaan Oromo books Ceremony. New Oromo books published Ayyaana ebba macaafota haaraa maxnsamanii Oromia, Africa

 

DabballeeToltu Afaan books

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Exclusive: Qubee-Based Afan Oromo Children’s Textbook from 1980 (Used in OLF-Liberated Parts of Oromia)

Finfinne Tribune | Gadaa.com

http://finfinnetribune.com/Gadaa/2014/11/exclusive-qubee-based-afan-oromo-childrens-textbook-from-1980-used-in-olf-liberated-parts-of-oromia-1980-1991/

Qubee Afaan Oromoo Waggaa 35 Har’aa

Seenaa barnoota qubee afaan Oromoo keessatti ABOn dirree dhihaa fi bahaa keessatti daa’imaa fi gaheessa dirree bilisoomtee fi jireenya baqaa irra turan biyyoota ollaa keessatti barsiisaa ture, waraana dabalatee jechuu dha. Kitaabotii ABOn ittiin barsiisaa ture hedduu hedduu dha. Ammoo akka fakkeenya kitaabota ABOn bara 1980 keessa ijoollee ittiin barsiisaa ture har’aaf  isinii erge. Kun har’a waggaa 34 ta’e jechuu dha. KITAABA IJOOLLEE Barreeffama Lammaffaa gara page 100 ol qaba ture keessaa hamma tokko kunoo siif erge.

Kana yeroon ergu kitaabni ijoolleen dirree turan waggaa 35 dura ittiin barachaa turan kana qofa jechuu osoo hin taane hedduu hedduu dha.

1. Quuluu Bareedaa
2. Hilleessa,
3. Abbaa guddoo
4. Barreeffama qubee jedhchootaa
5. Qubee Afaan Oromoo sadarkaa 1ffaa, sadarkaa 2ffaa hamma 5ffaa fi kaanis hedduu hedduutu jira.

fi kkf hedduu ture. Yaadatnoof jecha gama keessan dabarse.

I.U.Of!

Qubee Afaan Oromoo bara 1980 ABO_1Qubee Afaan Oromoo bara 1980 ABO_2

 

 

Qubee Afaan Oromoo bara 1980 ABO_4

 

 

Qubee Afaan Oromoo bara 1980 ABO_3

 

 

 

Qubee Afaan Oromoo bara 1980 ABO_6

 

Qubee Afaan Oromoo bara 1980 ABO_7

 

 

 

 

 

Qubee Afaan Oromoo bara 1980 ABO_8

 

 

 

Qubee Afaan Oromoo bara 1980 ABO_9

 

 

 

Qubee Afaan Oromoo bara 1980 ABO_10

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Introduce yourself

 

opposite words

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

FruitsfeelingIt wordsInsectsKitchen verbs

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

magaalaCity

 

 

 

 

vegetables

 

 

AfaanOromoEnglishBifa

 

 

Colour fm

grammar

 

 

Describbing weather

Afaan Oromo and English languages. Learn and teach. Africa. Oromia. World languages http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Afaan_Oromo

 

 

qh

 

 

http://www.oromooliterature.com/?page_id=74

”Y O O M  DH U F T A A  G U G E E K O O !!”

Mallattoo nagaakoo yaa baattuu nageenyaa
Quba qabdaa laataa nu siyaaduu keenyaa

Sibirroota birootti makamtemoo laataa?
Waadaa fuutee baate isa guyyaa qaataa?

Garaa nama nyaattaa qalbii keenya hattee
Seenaa waliin qabna kanaaf numararte

Gonfoo walqixxummaa madaallii qajeelaa
Hawwinee dheebonnee yaadaan sikajeellaa.

Qalbiin hunkuramnee hafuuraa ciccinnee
Waliin dudubbannee abdiiyyuu kutannee

Adurreen adalli wicii baay’ee fixxe
Dukkanaan da’attee fuutee boollaan lixee

Arraagessi budaan innichi adda booqaa
Adalicha faana tokkoomuuf carraaqa

Isaan lamaaniyyuu dhiiga xuuxaa ooluu
Qabeenyaa Gugeerratti yeroo hundaa walloluu

Risaafi ruumuichi Joobirris kaateetuu garaa Waaqaa keessa
Cabsee alanfatee balleessuu barbaadee gayyaafatee qeensaa

Lukkuun jinnii kaatee isheen jibbisiistuun ilma namaaf diinaa
Huummoon raqa nyaattuu ilbisa bosonaa hundumashee beeknaa

Simbirri daaloteen gamanaa fooriccee nagaa booressitee
Oduu hololaafi isa madda hinqabne walitti odeessitee

Hurunguun bosona keessaa ol dachaatee maasii keessa guuttee
Simbirri halkanii dukkanaan da’attee adalaaf wallaatte

Cirriin saawwan keenya ittuma ejjettee dhiiga isaanii xuuxxu
Warreen nuguggubdu nurraan galagaltuu ykn nurraa hincittuu?

Jetteetu gugeenkoo gugeen miilla calii dubbatti gaararraa
Dhufunshee dirqama faajjii fannifattee teessee adda leencaarraa

Gugeen yoomuma dhufti faajii bilisummaa ciniintee baadhattee
Ijoolleen kee marti dhufaatiikee dhaggeefatu gurri dhadhaabbatee!

Qalbii cabe suphuuf kutannoon hojjettee
Ilbiisota mara boollatti ukkaamsitee kaanis injifattee

Simbirroon dhokattuun maqaanshee jibbame mormi jalli diimaa
Magariisa uffattee odaan faayamteetu labsii nagaa himaa

Yaadaan burjaaja’aa qalbiin namiidhameen hubamee keessikoo
Qara ilaalaan hafamoo dafteetu naadhuftaa bareedduu Gugeekoo!!
***///***
Gugee koo gugeekoo gugee lammii keenyaa,
Dafiitii nuuf koottu dheeboonnee si eegnaa,
Baay’ee si dheeboonnee dheebuu nama maraa,
Si hin argiinaan du’aa addunyaa kanarraa?,

***///***
Nagaan boqonnaakee addunyaa danboobsaa
Eebbi sirraa burqu hinqabuum lakkoofsa

Kanaafuu naaf dafi maaloo an muddamee
Erga duriin jooraam hinuma naaf gamee

Akkakee kaachuudhaaf samii Waaqaa keessaa
Giidoo bututaakoo humna nadaangessaa

Dheebuu cimaan qabaam beekuuf argamakoo
Si eegaanoo jiraa yoom dhuftaa Gugeekoo?
****/////*****
naanjedhaniim….

Gugeen ati eeguu isheen bara sanaa,
Yaadaan gadi hin teenye hin dhiisni maassana,

Lakki hindagatne waadaa fuutee baate,
Addunyaatti dhugaa jiru himuuf beellama itti taate

Gargaarsas nifeeti kan keessaa fi alaa
Waanta salphaa miti jireenyi halaalaa

Gugittii kaleessaa haadha wucii hoomaa
Furmaanni hin argamu eeguu qofaan homaa

Wucooliinshee kitilaan har’a guddatanii
Dhufaatii haadhasaanii kanneen eeggatani

Akka daftee dhuftuuf yoo ariifatani,
Galma sirreessanii haala haamijeessani

Yoos dafee nita’a dhumaatiin barichaa,
Abdii hin kutatiin yaa dhala Oromtichaa,

ammas naan jedhani…….

Dhugaadha nan fayyee aannanuman dhugee
Maalin dubbiseeree Akka harma haadhaan itti jedhe luugee….
Beekantu akkas godhee natti kaasee Gugee

Dhaggeeffattee laataa maaloo Gugeen keenyaa.
Abdi irraa qabna kanaaf karaa eegna.
Dhaga’uu baattuyyuu garaahoo wal beekna.
Barrisii nuuf kottu maaloo Gugee keennaa!

Atis nu jiraadhuu Beekan yaa beekaa koo hayyuu bara qubee
Dubbiin Gugee kanaa hundaa garaa gubee
Abdiidhumaan eegna gaaf tokko yoo dhufeeee.

Beekan Gulummaa Irranaa Mardaasaa, 2014
***///****

*** KUN BU’AA SUKKUUMMII SAMMUU KEESSANII DABALATEETU!!**

Photo

 

Jaldeessi Maal argee?

Haata’u jedheetu jaldessi dhagaa galagalchee
Qubakoo itti hinbuusuu maaltu ana galchee

Maafan dhagaa kana sosochoosuu dhaqaa
Kan sammuukoo duwwaa anoo fooni raqaa

Haata’u matumaa waatu keessa jiraa
Waan dhoksaan eegmu morma keenya diraa

Maafan garagalchaa dhagaan nacaccabsaa
Mataa gadi qabadheen baricha dabarsaa

Dhgaan oo’aa hinqabu narra garagalaa
waanan isa miidheef tarii du’aan nawaxalaa

Tarii raammoo guddaa dhagaa jala jiru
Bofa marmaratee ilbiisota ciru
wayii yaa jaldeessaa…….

Tarii boqoolloofaa dhabemoo qoonqoosaaf
Aalgeeshee caccabsee karaatti hambisuudhaaf

Moo jaldeessi kun waa dhokseera laata?
Dhagaas garagalchee maaf kaa’ee baqataa?

Gurmuu gurmuun yaa’ee dhagaas dadarbataa
Kaanis garagalchee maaf fiigee baqataa?

Maalumaa dhoksaansaa maaf iccitaan kaa’e
Isumayyuu hincabsuu dhagaan irraan ba’ee?

Barri dhufuu hin oolu dhagaan aaga margee
Yaa qomookoo maaloo jaldeessi maal argee?

Beekan Gulummaa Irranaa Mardaasaa, 2014

 

 

DAANGAA DARBE

Meeqan miidhamaa?
meeqa, meeqataman miidhamaa
meeqataman onnee madeeffamaa?
meeqataman ganama
meeqan gaddarbamaa
meeqanan dhidhiittamaa?
waraabeessi ana nyaatu
ykn qorkee nanfixuu
yookin tuffatees nan gatuu
kiyya kuni anumaa raajee
kanatu soora sarees waaje.

meeqan abdadhee
meeqan ganamee
meeqan jaaladhee
meeqan jibbamee
dhuuga dhuugatama
dhibba kumataamaa.

onneen na bokoktee
gammachuun dhiitoftee
lapheen na xillibbooftee
gammachhuun qacaaltee
abdiin guuttamtee
egere qaba jettee
daddee gammaddee
halkan abjuun aaddee
kolfitee bohaartee
nam-guutuu nagootee
nawaliin bashaantee
keessoo olee kootii
sadoodhaan habuurtee
dada koorra dabartee
keenyaf faloo taatee
irbuudhaan garmaamte.

Ani meeqa meeqan ganamaa
meeqa meeqan jaalladhee
meeqatamaan jibbamaa?
abaarsamoo eebbaa
maaltu fura dhaaqaba
maaltu dawaa,maaltu furmaataa
maaltu hiikoo fidaa?
sardas dhabu dhawaata
maaltu irraa na oolchaa
du’a,dhaba awwaalchaa?

Imimmaan koon coba
akkasumaan na soba,
akkaa adaammii ollaa hagamsaa
xuqaatu dhiddhiigsaa.
utuun inbeekinin yaadumaan collooqsaa
kunoo namni hin arguu
keessoo koottan jijjigsa
dhageettis hin qabu,
koo akkasumaan coccobsa.

hin qooru ijjiuu cimmantee walitti duuftee
cuunnoftee ciniintee
inbooha inbobboohaa
falasaatu dhibe
kan tahu waan falaa
anoo guuteen hafe qofaa
guutee guuteen qeenxomaa
jaallee jaalleen jibbamaa
amanee.amaneen ganama
ammoo daangaa darbee,
koo falli maalumaa?

27/08/2014

Caalaa Haahiluu

 

”””””””””””HANDHUURA!””””””””
Nuti handhuura qabna magarsitu
Kan namaa hin barbaannu maseensitu
Mukeenii fi gaarreewwan hundaan badhaatu
Lageenii fi allaattiwwan hundaa kan hawwatu
Kana hundaa ilaaltee halkanii fi guyyaa
Gurra qeensita akka ilmoo iyyaa
Ni bashannanta godaan baatee gubbaa
Ni elenfatta waan qabnu hundaa
Rakkinakee hubannee si jalaa callisnee
Har’a bor galta jennee hafnee si ciibsinee
Homaa siif galuu dide akka horii hormaa
Gola keessa deemta akka saree ollaa
===/////=============/////=====
Hantuunni maraatte adurree dhungatti
Lafan fudhadha jettee abjuu dhumaa abjootti
Harki hanna bare dooluu isaatu munyuuqa
Ati kan jalqabde jaarraa hedduun duuba
===/////=============/////=====
Sanyiikootu dhaabe handhuura maccaa fi tuulamaa
Akkamitti waliin jiraata hafuurri hadhaa fi gumaa
Seenaan si haa gaafatu inni beeku waan hundaa
===/////=============/////=====
Amma sittan hima mee dhiisi oduu
Sirriitti ilaalladhu arrabakee sobduu
Asuma baafadhu waanta qabdu oduu
Ittanaa ooltu, intalli heeruma hin ooltu
Jaallattus jibbitus ‘’Plan’’ hojii irra hin ooltu!
“””””””””””””””HANDHUURA!”””””””””””””
Yooseef Hambaa 26 /08/ 2014.

 

***********NAASUU! **********
Qilleensa jabaa kan kibbaa fi kaabaa
Kakawwee hamaa kan dhihaa fi bahaa
Danbalii fi yaa’a kan handhuura lafaa
Didachanii dhufani nagaa wal gaafachaa
Mee natti himi karaa malattu
Gurras na buusi maal akka yaaddu
Of hin beeknee kan baraa dhufaa yartuu
Sitti fakkaanne kan of hin beekne raatuu
Eessa abbaakee dhaqxa barana hin baatu

Nutis si barreerra atis nu barteetta
Naasuu fi sodaakee nutis hubanneerra
Beekaan si ilaalee addaan si baafate
Cabsee si ilaale dugugguruu lafeeke
Barataanis hubatee kaayyoo fi mul’atakee
Sobaa fi dinagdee waliin fakkeessitee
Naasuun si qabatee olii gadi kaattee
Barataa fi maatii addaan fageessitee
Kutaa fi gandaan gargar faffacaastee
Barumsamoo siyaasaa kan ati qindeessite?

Dirqamni maali mirgis maali?
Heerri maali seerris maali?
Ani kana hundaa hin deebisu
Keeyyannikee siif haa deebisu
Maaliif wal fakkeessitaa adii fi gurraacha?
Maaliif walitti maktaa sobaa fi dhugaa?
Naasuu si qabateef jettee muka sagal hin korin
Qaaniif yeellookee dhoksuuf jettee laga sagal hin ce’in

Kaleessa bineensa har’a miseensa
Agaazii fi loltuu walfaana itti roobsa
Rasaasaa fi dullaa akka bokkaa roobsa
Kana hundaa dagattee akka harmee batattee
Dhiiga irra adeemta akka ishee of dagattee
Safuu! Safuu! Mee of ilaali eessa akka jirtu
Bitaa fi mirga ilaallaan warra gumaa gidduu
Olii fi gadi ilaallaan safuu yaa dhiiga iyyuu
Kun hunduu ragaadha egaan hin milkooftu
***********NAASUU! ***************
Walaleessaa: Yosef Hamba

 

 

 

 

Hirmaata Dubbii Afaan Oromo Oromo Grammar by Haile Fida, 1973 http://gadaa.com/oduu/20278/2013/06/17/seenaa-barreefama-afaan-oromootiifi-shoora-dr-sheek-mahammad-rashaad/hadhooftuuNew Oromo novel  book (Asoosama) MudaamuddiiMaal kolfa dhaloonni Creative writing (asoosama), in Afaan Oromo by Lata Qana'ii AagaaOromo Alphabet Book, Oromo Cultural and Literacy Organization (also has books on numbers, shapes and colors, opposites and comparisons)Oromititti by Belletech DheressaFinifinnee Tribune   A monthly bilingual electronic newsletter (e-newsletter ) covers community and civic topics that are relevant to the Oromo nation and the Horn of African region. The e-newsletter is named FinfinneTribune, and presents information in English & Oromo.    Read/share/print/distribute/email now: click here to get the first edition of FinfinneTribune (Vol. 01, No. 01, March 2013, Bitootessa 2013) - https://p2.secure.hostingprod.com/@gadaa.com/ssl/FinfinneTribune_Vol01No01.pdf

Finifinnee Tribune A monthly bilingual electronic newsletter (e-newsletter ) covers community and civic topics that are relevant to the Oromo nation and the Horn of African region. The e-newsletter is named FinfinneTribune, and presents information in English & Oromo. Read/share/print/distribute/email now: click here to get the first edition of FinfinneTribune (Vol. 01, No. 01, March 2013, Bitootessa 2013) – p2.secure.hosting…

Legesse brings into sharp focus the  "multi-headed" system of government of the Oromo, which is based on clearly defined division of labor and checks and balances between different institutions. Revealing the inherent dynamism and sophistication of this indigenous African political system, Legasse also shows in clear and lucid language that the system has had a long and distinguished history, during which the institutions changed by deliberate legislation, and evolved and adapted with time.An introduction to the History of the Oromo people, and lists of other related books: http://www.oromostudies.org/default/featureddbooks.phpBorana Bible / Kitaaba Waaqa Ka Afaani Boranatini Taafani - The Bible in Borana Language / 053P Borana is a variety of Oromo spoken in Southern Ethiopia and northern Kenya by the Borana peopleBible in Oromo Language / Macaafa Qulqulluu / Afaan Oromoo / Hiikan Haaran / New Translation in Latin Script CL043LTNew Oromo  book. Must read  Conquest and resistance in the Ethiopian Empire, 1880-1974

New Oromo book. Must read Conquest and resistance in the Ethiopian Empire, 1880-1974

Borana Bible / Kitaaba Waaqa Ka Afaani Boranatini Taafani - The Bible in Borana Language / 053P Borana is a variety of Oromo spoken in Southern Ethiopia and northern Kenya by the Borana peopleSocio-political study on Oromo nationOromo Wisdom in Black Civilization

Oromo -English dictionary, 1842  http://gadaa.com/OromoStudies/wp-content/uploads/2012/11/Vocabulary_of_the_Oromo_Language_Krapt1842.pdf

 

 

Seenaa Oromo: Oromo History (1570-1860) by Mohammed Hassen

 

Collections of literatures of Oromian studies

 

 

Creative (novel) writing in Oromo, Jinnii Nyaaraa

Creative (novel) writing in Oromo  Mudata

hora obaa

madaa qubaa

Creative (novel) writing in Oromo    Galaa Egeree

 

Creative (novel) writing in Oromo    Himala Jireenyaa, Journey of Life

 

Creative (novel) writing in Oromo, Jinnii Nyaaraa

Dilbii  New book in Afaan Oromo

 

New novel in Afaan Oromo. Sookoo jaalala by Badhaasaa Gabbisaa Aagaa. Finfinnee Oromiyaa

 

New Afaan Oromo books

 

 

 

Poems, Walaloo in Afaan Oromo. Tokkotu lamadha. One is two.

 

 

Guboo, New  book (novel) in Afaan Oromo

 

 

Poems, Walaloo Afaan Oromo Maal jennuu? What can we say?

 

 

Poems in Afaan Oromo. Walaloo. Simanii

 

 

 

Poems in Afaan Oromo. Walaloo Afaan Oromo. Jaalala, love

 

 

 

Poems in Oromo. Walaloo Afaan Oromo. Dugdi garaadha. The back is the front.

 

 

Poems in Oromo. Walaloo Afaan Oromo. Gorsa jeejee

 

Kudhaama Seenaa Afaan Oromo new book

Safuu New book in Afaan Oromo Oromia literary works

Cancala New novel, book in Afaan Oromo

 

 

 

 

Irreecha Hora Harsadii

 

 

 

 

Chaltu as Helen The story of Oromo Girl. Chaltu’s is a truly Oromo story. Chaltu is a single character in Tesfaye’s book  http://www.opride.com/oromsis/news/horn-of-africa/3718-chaltu-as-helen-an-everyday-story-of-oromos-traumatic-identity-change

Chaltu as Helen The story of Oromo Girl. Chaltu’s is a truly Oromo story. Chaltu is a single character in Tesfaye’s book www.opride.com/…

(OPride) – Author and novelist Tesfaye Gebreab released his eighth book “Ye Sidetengaw Mastawesha” – an immigrant’s memoir ­– online, as a free PDF, after an alleged fallout with his publisher, Netsanet Publishing Agency (NPA). The dramatic decision to distribute the book for free – at an estimated loss of $30,000 – came, according to Tesfaye’s people, after NPA leaked a doctored copy of the book following the author’s refusal to omit two controversial chapters, one of which is about Oromo. Tesfaye is not new to controversy, especially one involving the divergent Oromo and Ethiopian narratives. His well-received book, YeBurqa Zimita – the silence of Burqa – is the first major work of contemporary Amharic fiction with main Oromo characters based on a true story. Tesfaye, who is of an Eritrean descent, grew up in Bishoftu in Oromia, central Ethiopia. He identifies himself as “Ijjoollee Bushooftu” meaning a proud Bishoftu native. His third major novel “Ye Bishoftu Qorxoch” and two subsequent memoirs, although less controversial, dealt with the plight of Oromo people under successive Ethiopian regimes. Suffice to say, over the years, Tesfaye had distinguished himself as a controversial, introspective, and critical novelist by going against the tide of mainstream Ethiopianist narrative. For this, he’s been accused of many things, like being a paid Eritrean spy. In the latest disputed book, one of the chapters that the publishers allegedly sought to censor was “Chaltu as Helen”, which is based on a novelized story of Chaltu Midhaksa, a young Oromo girl from Ada’aa Barga district, also in central Oromia. Born to a farming family in Koftu, a small village south of Addis Ababa near Akaki, Chaltu led an exuberant childhood. Raised by her grandmother’s sister Gode, a traditional storyteller who lived over 100 years, the impressionable Chaltu mastered the history and tradition of Tulama Oromos at a very young age. Chaltu’s captivating and fairytale like story, as retold by Tesfaye, begins when she was awarded a horse named Gurraacha as a prize for winning a Tulama history contest. Though she maybe the first and only female contestant, Chaltu won the competition by resoundingly answering eleven of the twelve questions she was asked. Guraacha, her pride and constant companion, became Chaltu’s best friend and she took a good care of him. Gurraacha was a strong horse; his jumps were high, and Chaltu understood his pace and style. A masterful rider and an envy to even her male contemporaries, Chaltu soon distinguished herself as bold, confident, outspoken, assertive, and courageous. For this, she quickly became a household name among the Oromo from Wajitu to Walmara, Sera to Dawara, Bacho to Cuqala, and Dire to Gimbichu, according to Tesfaye. Chaltu traces her lineage to the Galan, one of the six clans of Tulama Oromo tribe. At the height of her fame, admirers – young and old – addressed her out of respect as “Caaltuu Warra Galaan!” – Chaltu of the Galan, and “Caaltuu Haadha Gurraacha!” – Chaltu the mother of Gurraacha. Chaltu’s disarming beauty, elegance, charisma, and intelligence coupled with her witty personality added to her popularity. Chaltu’s tattoos from her chin to her chest, easily noticeable from her light skin, made her look like of a “Red Indian descent” (Tesfaye’s words). As per Tesfaye’s account, there wasn’t a parent among the well-to-do Oromos of the area who did not wish Chaltu betrothed to their son. At 14, Chaltu escaped a bride-kidnapping attempt by outracing her abductors. Chaltu’s grandfather Banti Daamo, a well-known warrior and respected elder, had a big family. Growing up in Koftu, Chaltu enjoyed being surrounded by a large network of extended family, although she was the only child for her parents. Recognizing Chaltu’s potential, her relatives suggested that she goes to school, which was not available in the area at the time. However, fearing that she would be abducted, Chaltu’s father arranged her marriage to a man of Ada’aa family from Dire when she turned 15. Locals likened Chaltu’s mannerism to her grandfather Banti Daamo, earning her yet another nickname as “Caaltuu warra Bantii Daamo” – Chaltu of Banti Daamo. She embraced the namesake because many saw her as an heir to Banti Daamo’s legacy, a role usually preserved for the oldest male in the family. Well-wishers blessed her: prosper like your grandparents. She embraced and proudly boasted about continuing her grandfather’s heritage calling herself Chaltu Banti Daamo. Others began to call her Akkoo [sic] Xinnoo, drawing a comparison between Chaltu and a legendary Karrayu Oromo woman leader after whom Ankobar was named. Chaltu’s eccentric life took on a different trajectory soon after her marriage. She could not be a good wife as the local tradition and custom demanded; she could not get along with an alcoholic husband who came home drunk and abused her. When Chaltu threatened to dissolve the marriage, as per Oromo culture, elders intervened and advised her to tolerate and reconcile with her husband. Rebellious and nonconformist by nature, Chaltu, who’s known for challenging old biases and practices, protested “an alcoholic cannot be a husband for Banti Daamo’s daughter!” Soon she left her husband and moved to Addis Ababa, Ethiopia’s capital, to attend formal education and start a new chapter in life. Trouble ensues. In Addis Ababa, her aunt Mulumebet’s family welcomed Chaltu. Like Chaltu, Mulumebet grew up in Koftu but later moved to Addis Ababa, and changed her given name from Gadise in order to ‘fit’ into the city life. Subsequently, Mulumebet sat down with Chaltu to provide guidance and advice on urban [Amhara] ways. “Learning the Amharic language is mandatory for your future life,” Mulumebet told Chaltu. “If you want to go to school, first you have to speak the language; in order to learn Amharic, you must stop speaking Afaan Oromo immediately; besides, your name Chaltu Midhaksa doesn’t match your beauty and elegance.” “I wish they did not mess you up with these tattoos,” Mulumebet continued, “but there is nothing I could do about that…however, we have to give you a new name.” Just like that, on her second day in Addis, Caaltuu warra Galaan became Helen Getachew. Chaltu understood little of the dramatic twists in her life. She wished the conversation with her aunt were a dream. First, her name Chaltu means the better one, her tattoos beauty marks. She quietly wondered, “what is wrong with my name and my tattoos? How can I be better off with a new name that I don’t even know what it means?” Of course she had no answers for these perennial questions. Most of all, her new last name Getachew discomforted her. But she was given no option. The indomitable Chaltu had a lot to learn. A new name, new language, new family, and a whole new way of life, the way of civilized Amhara people. Chaltu mastered Amharic in a matter of weeks. Learning math was no problem either, because Chaltu grew up solving math problems through oral Oromo folktale and children’s games like Takkeen Takkitumaa. Chaltu’s quick mastery amazed Dr. Getachew, Mulumebet’s husband. This also made her aunt proud and she decided to enroll Chaltu in an evening school. The school matched Chaltu, who’s never set foot in school, for fourth grade. In a year, she skipped a grade and was placed in sixth grade. That year Chaltu passed the national exit exam, given to all sixth graders in the country, with distinction. But her achievements in school were clouded by a life filled with disappointments, questions, and loss of identity. Much of her troubles came from Mulumebet packaged as life advice. “Helen darling, all our neighbors love and admire you a lot,” Mulumebet told Chaltu one Sunday morning as they made their way into the local Orthodox Church. “There is not a single person on this block who is not mesmerized by your beauty…you have a bright future ahead of you as long as you work on your Amharic and get rid of your Oromo accent…once you do that, we will find you a rich and educated husband.” Chaltu knew Mulumebet had her best interest at heart. And as a result never questioned her counsel. But her unsolicited advises centered mostly on erasing Chaltu’s fond childhood memories and making her lose touch with Oromummaa – and essentially become an Amhara. Chaltu spent most of her free time babysitting Mulumebet’s children, aged 6 and 8. She took care of them and the kids loved her. One day, while the parents were away, lost in her own thoughts, Chaltu repeatedly sang her favorite Atetee – Oromo women’s song of fertility – in front of the kids. That night, to Chaltu’s wild surprise, the boys performed the song for their parents at the dinner table. Stunned by the revelation, Mulumebet went ballistic and shouted, “Are you teaching my children witchcraft?” Mulumebet continued, “Don’t you ever dare do such a thing in this house again. I told you to forget everything you do not need. Helen, let me tell you for the last time, everything you knew from Koftu is now erased…forget it all! No Irreechaa, no Waaree, no Okolee, no Ibsaa, No Atetee, and no Wadaajaa.” Amused by his wife’s dramatic reaction, Getachew inquired, “what does the song mean, Helen?” Chaltu told him she could not explain it in Amharic. He added, “If it is indeed about witchcraft, we do not need a devil in this house…Helen, praise Jesus and his mother, Mary, from now on.” “Wait,” Getachew continued, “did you ever go to church when you were in Koftu? What do they teach you there?” Chaltu acknowledged that she’s been to a church but never understood the sermons, conducted in Amharic, a language foreign to her until now. “Getachew couldn’t believe his ears,” writes Tesfaye. But Getachew maintained his cool and assured Chaltu that her mistake would be forgiven. Chaltu knew Atetee was not a witchcraft but a women’s spiritual song of fertility and safety. All Oromo women had their own Atetee. Now in her third year since moving to Addis, Chaltu spoke fluent Amharic. But at school, in the market, and around the neighborhood, children bullied her daily. It was as if they were all given the same course on how to disgrace, intimidate, and humiliate her. “You would have been beautiful if your name was not Chaltu,” strangers and classmates, even those who knew her only as Helen, would tell her. Others would say to Chaltu, as if in compliment, “if you were not Geja (an Amharic for uncivilized), you would actually win a beauty pageant…they messed you up with these tattoos, damn Gallas!” Her adopted name and mastery of Amharic did not save Chaltu from discrimination, blatant racism, hate speech, and ethnic slurs. As if the loss of self was not enough, seventh grade was painfully challenging for Chaltu. One day when the students returned from recess to their assigned classes, to her classmate’s collective amusement, there was a drawing of a girl with long tattooed neck on the blackboard with a caption: Helen Nikise Gala – Helen, the tattooed Gala. Gala is a disparaging term akin to a Nigger used in reference to Oromos. As Chaltu sobbed quietly, their English teacher Tsige walked in and the students’ laughter came to a sudden halt. Tsige asked the classroom monitor to identity the insulting graffiti’s artist. No one answered. He turned to Chaltu and asked, “Helen, tell me who drew this picture?” She replied, “I don’t know teacher, but Samson always called me Nikise Gala.” Tsige was furious. Samson initially denied but eventually admitted fearing corporal punishment. Tsige gave Samson a lesson of a lifetime: “Helen speaks two language: her native Afaan Oromo and your language Amharic, and of course she is learning the third one. She is one of the top three students in the class. You speak one language and you ranked 41 out of 53 students. I have to speak to your parents tomorrow.” Athletic and well-mannered, Chaltu was one of the best students in the entire school. But she could not fathom why people gossiped about her and hurled insults at her. Banned from speaking Afaan Oromo, Chaltu could not fully express feelings like sorrow, regrets, fear and happiness in Amharic. To the extent that Mulumebet wished Chaltu would stop thinking in Oromo, in one instance, she asked Chaltu to go into her bedroom to lament the death of a relative by singing honorific praise as per Oromo custom. Chaltu’s break came one afternoon when the sport teacher began speaking to her in Afaan Oromo, for the first time in three years. She sobbed from a deep sense of loss as she uttered the words: “I am from Koftu, the daughter of Banti Daamo.” Saying those words alone, which were once a source of her pride, filled Chaltu with joy, even if for that moment. Chaltu anxiously looked forward to her summer vacation and a much-needed visit to Koftu. But before she left, Mulumebet warned Chaltu not to speak Afaan Oromo during her stay in Koftu. Mulumebet told Chaltu, “Tell them that you forgot how to speak Afaan Oromo. If they talk to you in Oromo, respond only in Amharic. Also, tell them that you are no longer Chaltu. Your name is Helen.” Getachew disagreed with his wife. But Chaltu knew she has to oblige. On her way to Koftu, Chaltu thought about her once golden life; the time she won Gurracha in what was only a boys’ competition, and how the entire village of Koftu sang her praises. Her short stay in Koftu was dismal. Gurraacha was sold for 700 birr and she did not get to see him again. Chaltu’s parents were dismayed that her name was changed and that she no longer spoke their language. A disgruntled and traumatized Chaltu returns to Addis Ababa and enrolls in 9th grade. She then marries a government official and move away from her aunt’s protective shield. The marriage ends shortly thereafter when Chaltu’s husband got caught up in a political crosshair following Derg’s downfall in 1991. Chaltu was in financial crisis. She refused an advice from acquintances to work as a prostitute. At 24, the once vibrant Chaltu looked frail and exhausted. The regime change brought some welcome news. Chaltu was fascinated and surprised to watch TV programs in Afaan Oromo or hear concepts like “Oromo people’s liberation, the right to speak one’s own language, and that Amharas were feudalists.” Chaltu did not fully grasp the systematic violence for which was very much a victim. She detested how she lost her values and ways. She despised Helen and what it was meant to represent. But it was also too late to get back to being Chaltu. She felt empty. She was neither Helen nor Chaltu. She eventually left Addis for Koftu and asked her parents for forgiveness. She lived a few months hiding in her parent’s home. She avoided going to the market and public squares. In a rare sign of recovery from her trauma, Chaltu briefly dated a college student who was in Koftu for a winter vacation. When he left, Chaltu lapsed back into her self-imposed loneliness and state of depression. She barely ate and refused interacting with or talking to anyone except her mother. One afternoon, the once celebrated Chaltu warra Galaan took a nap after a coffee break and never woke up. She was 25. The bottom line: Fictionalized or not, Chaltu’s is a truly Oromo story. Chaltu is a single character in Tesfaye’s book but lest we forget, in imperial Ethiopia, generations of Chaltu’s had to change their names and identity in order to fit in and be “genuine Ethiopians.” Until recently, one has to wear an Amhara mask in order to be beautiful, or gain access to educational and employment opportunities. Likewise, in the Ethiopia of today’s “freedom of expression advocates” – who allegedly sought to censor Tesfaye – it appears that a story, even a work of fiction, is fit to print only when it conforms to the much-romanticized Ethiopianist storyline. So much has changed since Chaltu’s tragic death a little over a decade ago, yet, clearly, much remains the same in Ethiopia. Honor and glory to Oromo martyrs, whose selfless sacrifices had allowed for me to transcribe this story, the Oromo today – a whole generation of Caaltuus – are ready to own, reclaim, and tell their stories. Try, as they might, the ever-vibrant Qubee generation will never be silenced, again. — *The writer, Tigist Geme, is a DC-based citizen journalist and an Oromo rights activist. Editor’s note: the above cover photo by William Palank is not in any way related to Chaltu or Geme’s story. It is used here only as a place holder.

“Amna Dheeraa” – A New eBook   As Afan Oromo literature continues to burgeon in Oromiyaa and beyond, the online digital shelf is also filling up fast with Afan Oromo eBooks. The newest addition to this digital shelf is Daani’eel Tafarraa Dibaabaa’s “Amna Dheeraa” with editor Jaalala Biyyaa

Amna Dheeraa” – A New eBook As Afan Oromo literature continues to burgeon in Oromiyaa and beyond, the online digital shelf is also filling up fast with Afan Oromo eBooks. The newest addition to this digital shelf is Daani’eel Tafarraa Dibaabaa’s “Amna Dheeraa” with editor Jaalala Biyyaa

Afaan Oromoo Book New Book in Oromo Quuqama

 

 

 

 

Dubbistootni kitaaba Quba Qubeelaa, yaadi keessan hamileekoo jabeessee, peennaankoo rasaasaa dhugaa dhukaasuu akkaa hin dhaabne waan godheef kunoo kitaabakoo lammaffaa isiniin ga’eera! Kitaabni kun fulbaana kudhanirraa eegaltee gabaarra ni oolti. Namoonni dhugaaf ciniinsifattan kitaaba kana dubbisaame…….Asoosama dheeraadha!…..
Abbayya keessi naachaa
Bishaansaa kanaaf gurraacha
Gowwaan qurxummiif didichaa
Dhumnisaa garuu boo’ichaa!
Warquu Guddinaa baayyannaa…..bara 2014

 

 

Photo: ''Bu’aa Bayii Qabsoo uummata Oromoo Siirna garbuamaa irraa gara Bilisummaatti''</p><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br />
<p>Kitaabni kun qabiyyee kallattii hedduutiin kan guutedha. Kan barreeffames akka lakk. Awurooppaatti bara 2007 dha. Kaayyoon Kitaaba kanaa inni guddaan hacuuccaa, roorroofi hammeenya saba Oromoo irratti raawwatame waggaa 130 olii gadi fageenyaan xiinxalee sabichaaf ifa gochuudha. Kitaabonni kana dura sinoota Nafaxanyaatiin kijiba dawoo godhatanii sammuu dhaloota qubee kana nujalaa booressan marti akka toora sirrii qabatuufani itti yaadee barreesse.   Dhaloonni ammaa kun dammaqaa waan jiruuf lammata akka wanjoo nafaxanyaatiin hinqabamnes abdii waanan qabuufi.  Kana booda Oromoo luugamuun hindanda'amu.  Oromoon utuu haala mijataa eeguu kunoo bara 2014 gahee jira.  Waggaa torba fuula dura kan raawwatamanillee bal'inaan kitaaba kana keessatti kaafamaniiru.  Qabiyyee hedduu aammachiisuu waanan barbaadeefan kitaabni kun gara fuula 900 ol ta'e.  Qabiyyeen kitaaba lammaaffaaf kaa'amn malee kan qophaa'an fuula 1500 ol ta'u.    </p><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br />
<p>Ani gamakootiin akkan xiinxalee jirutti siyaasni Nafxanyootaafi oduun ETV % 90 ol dhugaa irratti kan hin hundoofnedhan jedha.  Ragaa sobaa Nafxanyoonni barreessan maqaa Waaqa isaaniilee dhahaniitu seenaa sobaa Oromoorra tuulan. Nafxanyoonni kitaabota isaanii maddi dhara ta'e sana barreessuu keessatti uummata Oromoo maqaa xureessaa, balleessaa turan. Kanaaf ammoo barruun isaanii ''RAA' MAARIYAAM'' jedhu Oromoo dabalatee saba cunqurfamaa biyya Itoophiyaa keessa jiru hunda kan arrabsedha.  Barruun kun ammayyuu jira.  Soba kanammoo saaxiluun dirqama natti ta'ee jira.  Kana booda uummanni Oromoo Seenaa faaltii abashootaatiin gowwoomfamuu hindanda'u.  </p><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br />
<p> Kitaabni guddichi kun kutaa gurguddoo afur kan of jalatti qabiyyee hedduu qabuutiin qindaa'e.  Kutaa Jalqabaa keessatti, Xiyyeeffannoonsaa guddaa rakkoo uummata Oromoorra ture ifa baasuudha.   Sirnoonni abashootaa moofaan Tiwoodiroos, Yohaannis, Minilikiifi Haayilesillaasee keessatti Oromoon akkamiin akka cabetu ibsame. Sirni abbaa lafaa qabsaa'otaafi gootota Oromootiin gaggalalaglus ammayyuu sirni Nafxanyootaa waan mumul'achaa jiruuf Warra sirna moofaa sana duuba deebi'anii tuttuquu barbaadan sana dhabamsiisuuf yaada kennametu qindaa'e.   </p><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br />
<p>Kutaa lammaffaa keessatti ammoo gocha sirni Wayyaanee yakka Suukkaneessaa, ajjeechaa qaroo Oromoo ol  adeemtotarratti taasistee jirtutu ifa baafame. Saamicha qabeenyaa Oromoo irratti taasifames saaxiluuf yaaleera.   Akkasumas filannoo bara 2005/1997 keessa ta'iiwwan duguuggaa sanyii taasifametu barreeffame.  Wayyaaneen seenaa dhala namaa booressuufi keessumattuu qaroo Oromoo dhabamsiisurraatti gocha isheen taasiftetu dhaloonni akka beekuu qabuuf barreeffame.  Dhaloonni kun ammayyuu itti fufee barreessaa jira. Kanaafan gocha Wayyaanee gadifageenyaanan ibse. </p><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br />
<p>Kutaa sadaffaa keessatti ammoo hanqinoota beekumsaafi dandeettii dhabuurran kan ka'e miidhama guddaa waajjiroolee Oromiyaa keessatti argamantu xiinxalame.  Rakkoo qofa utuu hintaane falas duukaa eeruuf yaaleera. Kanaafis dargaggoonni, hawaasniifi qaamni baratee jiru maal gochuu akka qabutu ibsameera. </p><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br />
<p>Kutaan arfaffaan ammoo bara uummanni Oromoo hiree ofiisaa ofiin murteeffatutti maal gochuu akka qabutu gadi fageenyaan ilaalame.  Kana keessattis, Jireenya uummata Oromoo akkamiin akka fooyyeessuu qabnu, gaheen hayyoota Oromoo amma burqaa jiran kanaa maal akka ta'e, Oromiyaafi Oromoo guddatee addunyaarratti beekamtii argatu akkamiin ijaaruu akka qabnuufi waan Oromoon qabu mara qorannoodhaan deggaruun akka mul'isuu qabnun lafa kaa'e.  </p><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br />
<p>Walumaagalatti, kitaabni kun kan abbaa seenichaa kan OROMOOti. Kan seenaa kana nabarsiises muuxannoofi mudannoo ani uummatakoo keessatti argadhe wan ta'eef abbummaan kan saba guddichaati.  Kanaafuu sabni bal'aan kun ergaa guutummaa kitaabicha keessatti argamuu dubbisee xiinxaluun yaada ijaarsaa, qeeqaafi kallattii qorannoo birootiif ka'umsa akka ta'uuf kan itti yaadamedha. Ani akka barreessaa kitaaba kanaatti nama dhuunfaa yookaan dhaaba kamuu jeequuf yookaan balleessuuf utuu hintaane, qaamni kamuu dogoggora jiru mara sirreeffatee Oromoo garbummaa jalaa akka baasuuf malee.  Oromoon walhubachuu qabna.  Garaagarummaa ilaalachaa hedduu yoo qabaannes maddi keenyaaf galmi hawwii keenyaa tokkuma.  Kanaafuu kanaan boonuu qabna. Tumsa nurraa eegamu maras taasisuu qabna.   Ammas seenaan keenya dhokateefi ukkaamfamaa ture ifa ba'uu qaba.  Dargaggoonni amma ka'aa jiran; keessumattuu dhalootni qubee haqni isaan bobeessaa jiru jajjabeeffamuufi kunuunfamanii nuuf guddachuu qabu.  Gola seenaan hinseenne hinjiru yaa uummata Oromoo.<br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br />
*****////////*****//////*****</p><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br />
<p>Getachew Jigi Demekssa (PhD)

 

 

”Bu’aa Bayii Qabsoo uummata Oromoo Siirna garbuamaa irraa gara Bilisummaatti”

Kitaabni kun qabiyyee kallattii hedduutiin kan guutedha. Kan barreeffames akka lakk. Awurooppaatti bara 2007 dha. Kaayyoon Kitaaba kanaa inni guddaan hacuuccaa, roorroofi hammeenya saba Oromoo irratti raawwatame waggaa 130 olii gadi fageenyaan xiinxalee sabichaaf ifa gochuudha. Kitaabonni kana dura sinoota Nafaxanyaatiin kijiba dawoo godhatanii sammuu dhaloota qubee kana nujalaa booressan marti akka toora sirrii qabatuufani itti yaadee barreesse. Dhaloonni ammaa kun dammaqaa waan jiruuf lammata akka wanjoo nafaxanyaatiin hinqabamnes abdii waanan qabuufi. Kana booda Oromoo luugamuun hindanda’amu. Oromoon utuu haala mijataa eeguu kunoo bara 2014 gahee jira. Waggaa torba fuula dura kan raawwatamanillee bal’inaan kitaaba kana keessatti kaafamaniiru. Qabiyyee hedduu aammachiisuu waanan barbaadeefan kitaabni kun gara fuula 900 ol ta’e. Qabiyyeen kitaaba lammaaffaaf kaa’amn malee kan qophaa’an fuula 1500 ol ta’u.

Ani gamakootiin akkan xiinxalee jirutti siyaasni Nafxanyootaafi oduun ETV % 90 ol dhugaa irratti kan hin hundoofnedhan jedha. Ragaa sobaa Nafxanyoonni barreessan maqaa Waaqa isaaniilee dhahaniitu seenaa sobaa Oromoorra tuulan. Nafxanyoonni kitaabota isaanii maddi dhara ta’e sana barreessuu keessatti uummata Oromoo maqaa xureessaa, balleessaa turan. Kanaaf ammoo barruun isaanii ”RAA’ MAARIYAAM” jedhu Oromoo dabalatee saba cunqurfamaa biyya Itoophiyaa keessa jiru hunda kan arrabsedha. Barruun kun ammayyuu jira. Soba kanammoo saaxiluun dirqama natti ta’ee jira. Kana booda uummanni Oromoo Seenaa faaltii abashootaatiin gowwoomfamuu hindanda’u.

Kitaabni guddichi kun kutaa gurguddoo afur kan of jalatti qabiyyee hedduu qabuutiin qindaa’e. Kutaa Jalqabaa keessatti, Xiyyeeffannoonsaa guddaa rakkoo uummata Oromoorra ture ifa baasuudha. Sirnoonni abashootaa moofaan Tiwoodiroos, Yohaannis, Minilikiifi Haayilesillaasee keessatti Oromoon akkamiin akka cabetu ibsame. Sirni abbaa lafaa qabsaa’otaafi gootota Oromootiin gaggalalaglus ammayyuu sirni Nafxanyootaa waan mumul’achaa jiruuf Warra sirna moofaa sana duuba deebi’anii tuttuquu barbaadan sana dhabamsiisuuf yaada kennametu qindaa’e.

Kutaa lammaffaa keessatti ammoo gocha sirni Wayyaanee yakka Suukkaneessaa, ajjeechaa qaroo Oromoo ol adeemtotarratti taasistee jirtutu ifa baafame. Saamicha qabeenyaa Oromoo irratti taasifames saaxiluuf yaaleera. Akkasumas filannoo bara 2005/1997 keessa ta’iiwwan duguuggaa sanyii taasifametu barreeffame. Wayyaaneen seenaa dhala namaa booressuufi keessumattuu qaroo Oromoo dhabamsiisurraatti gocha isheen taasiftetu dhaloonni akka beekuu qabuuf barreeffame. Dhaloonni kun ammayyuu itti fufee barreessaa jira. Kanaafan gocha Wayyaanee gadifageenyaanan ibse.

Kutaa sadaffaa keessatti ammoo hanqinoota beekumsaafi dandeettii dhabuurran kan ka’e miidhama guddaa waajjiroolee Oromiyaa keessatti argamantu xiinxalame. Rakkoo qofa utuu hintaane falas duukaa eeruuf yaaleera. Kanaafis dargaggoonni, hawaasniifi qaamni baratee jiru maal gochuu akka qabutu ibsameera.

Kutaan arfaffaan ammoo bara uummanni Oromoo hiree ofiisaa ofiin murteeffatutti maal gochuu akka qabutu gadi fageenyaan ilaalame. Kana keessattis, Jireenya uummata Oromoo akkamiin akka fooyyeessuu qabnu, gaheen hayyoota Oromoo amma burqaa jiran kanaa maal akka ta’e, Oromiyaafi Oromoo guddatee addunyaarratti beekamtii argatu akkamiin ijaaruu akka qabnuufi waan Oromoon qabu mara qorannoodhaan deggaruun akka mul’isuu qabnun lafa kaa’e.

Walumaagalatti, kitaabni kun kan abbaa seenichaa kan OROMOOti. Kan seenaa kana nabarsiises muuxannoofi mudannoo ani uummatakoo keessatti argadhe wan ta’eef abbummaan kan saba guddichaati. Kanaafuu sabni bal’aan kun ergaa guutummaa kitaabicha keessatti argamuu dubbisee xiinxaluun yaada ijaarsaa, qeeqaafi kallattii qorannoo birootiif ka’umsa akka ta’uuf kan itti yaadamedha. Ani akka barreessaa kitaaba kanaatti nama dhuunfaa yookaan dhaaba kamuu jeequuf yookaan balleessuuf utuu hintaane, qaamni kamuu dogoggora jiru mara sirreeffatee Oromoo garbummaa jalaa akka baasuuf malee. Oromoon walhubachuu qabna. Garaagarummaa ilaalachaa hedduu yoo qabaannes maddi keenyaaf galmi hawwii keenyaa tokkuma. Kanaafuu kanaan boonuu qabna. Tumsa nurraa eegamu maras taasisuu qabna. Ammas seenaan keenya dhokateefi ukkaamfamaa ture ifa ba’uu qaba. Dargaggoonni amma ka’aa jiran; keessumattuu dhalootni qubee haqni isaan bobeessaa jiru jajjabeeffamuufi kunuunfamanii nuuf guddachuu qabu. Gola seenaan hinseenne hinjiru yaa uummata Oromoo.
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Getachew Jigi Demekssa (PhD)

 

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THE FOLK-LITERATURE OF THE OROMO

BY ENRICO CERULLI. 1917,  HARVARD AFRICAN
STUDIES
VOLUME III.   COPYRIGHT. 1922, BY THE
AFRICAN DEPARTMENT OF THE PEABODY MUSEUM
OF HARVARD UNIVERSITY

http://scans.library.utoronto.ca/pdf/4/30/variaafricanai503peabuoft/variaafricanai503peabuoft.pdf

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Waaqa Garaa Gurraachaa. #Oromia #Oromo December 25, 2014

Posted by OromianEconomist in 10 best Youtube videos, Africa, African Beat, African Literature, Culture, Mammaaksa Oromoo, Oromo Culture, Qaallu Institution, Safuu: the Oromo moral value and doctrine, Seera Yaayyaa Shananii, The Oromo Theory of Knowledge, Waaqeffanna (Oromo ancient African Faith System).
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O

 

Waaqa Garaa Gurraachaa

Dhufeeraa Birraasaa irra

@ Finfinne Tribune,  Gadaa.com

Waaqa garaa gurraachaa, tokkicha maqaa dhibbaa jechuun abbootii fi haadholii keenya taranii fi jiran gidduutti beekamaadha. Garuu Oromoon keenya heedduun baroottan dhihoon asitti ‘Waaqa garaa gurraachaa’ jecha jedhu lagatee akka Waaqa tolfamaatti utuu abaaruu nidhageenya.

Waaqayyo tokkichuma, maqaansaa garuu heedduudha. Oromoof ‘Waaqa garaa gurraachaa’ jechuun ‘Waaqa garaa qulqulluu’ jechuu waliin walqixxeedha. Fakkeenyaaf:

1. Ani bishaan gurraacha malee wanta tokkollee hindhugne
2. Irra deebi’een ija gurraachaan ilaala
3. Daa’ima garaa gurraachaa hinsookka’in

Kanaafuu ‘Waaqa garaa gurraachaa’ keessatti ‘garaa gurraachaa’ kan jedhu eenyummaa Waaqayyoo kan ibsuudha malee Waaqa tolfamaa miti.

Waaqa Garaa Gurraachaa

Gaaffii sammuu namaa Waaqa dhibdee furu
Kan sooressaaf deegaan itti hirkatee bulu
Hiyyeessi fala dhabe kan itti kufee ‘ncabne
Waaqa garaa gurraachaa qulqulluu dhibee ‘nqabne

Waaqa ‘bbaa kootii, abbaa Qajeelaaf Margaa
Abbaa Tulluuwwanii, abbaa Malkaa
Qulqulluu ta’uu kee kaanaafan faarfadhe
Ibsa maqummaa kees kaanaafan jaalladhe

Warra hinbeeknetu haxxummaa nacaalee
Ija beekumsa koo ukkaamsee awwaale
Hinbeektu jennaanan barnoota eegale
Gowwummaa jaraatu natti galagale

Yemmuu hongeen horii koo akka malee qunciste
Bokkaa kee naaroobsitee daa’imakoo guddiste
Waaqa ‘nbeektu jedhanii maaliif sammuu najeequ
Tokkicha maqaa dhibbaa akkamittan sihinbeeku?

Aannan, itittuu, cuukkoo fi caccabsaa
Ancootee, marqaa, cumboo fi burqumsaa
Akkuman warra koorraa Waaqummaa kee baradhe
Gaarummaa keen raja kanan qabu qabadhee

Mana koorraa deebisi awwaaldiigessaaf fuutuu
Karaa kee maalan dhabe yaabbaa hundumaan guutuu
Kan ati biqilchite hojii harka kee keessaa
Irreessa koo qabadheen galata siidhiheessa

Abjuu gadhee baqii hirkatanii mugu
Garaa ofii shakkii heexoo itti dhugu
Garaa koo caalaayyuu angaraa kee fedhee
Waaqa garaa qulqulluu kanaafan siin jedhe

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Dhufeeraa Birraasaa irra

@ Finfinne Tribune,  Gadaa.com

http://finfinnetribune.com/Gadaa/2014/12/dhufeeraa-birraasaa-waaqa-garaa-gurraachaa/

 

 

Professor Ali Mazuri: Pre-eminent African Scholar, OSA Member and 2008 OSA Conference’s Keynote Speaker October 30, 2014

Posted by OromianEconomist in Africa, African Literature, Oromo Studies Association, OSA, Professor Ali Mazuri.
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The following is a statement from the Oromo Studies Association (OSA) on the passing away of Prof. Ali Mazuri.

 

With great sadness, members of Oromo Studies Association, along with all who are interested in African studies, heard about the passing on October 12, 2014 of Ali Mazrui. At the end of his life, he held the position of Albert Schweitzer Professor in the Humanities and Director of the Institute of Global Cultural Studies at Binghamton University, New York. He was a towering intellectual, a giant, a versatile and erudite scholar whose work played a major role not only in shaping Africans’ perception of themselves, but also the view of Africans in the eyes of the world. Ali Mazrui was unmatched in his influence on African scholarship from the 1960s to the time of his death. He travelled the globe as a teacher, filmmaker, speaker and author. He was the first African scholar to publish three books in a single year (1967); he stood out as a very creative political scientist, able to express his ideas with eloquence and charm, and he was also a courageous scholar who, among other challenges, publicly criticized Idi Amin, the brutal dictator of Uganda in 1972, while others remained silent. Professor Mazrui was teaching at Makerere University in Kampala, Uganda in those years. Bonnie Holcomb, one of the founders of OSA, was at Makerere at that time and an eyewitness to his brave public speeches in opposition to Amin.

Professor Ali Mazrui was the most prolific scholar. His expertise was broad – including African politics, international political culture, political Islam, globalization and Africa’s relations with other continents, especially with Europe and Asia. He was also a highly-successful film maker. His 1986, nine-part television series, entitled The Africans: A Triple Heritage, was extremely popular and influential. In this series and in its accompanying book, Professor Mazrui demonstrated that Africans have been among the most dehumanized and exploited people in human history due to a combination of the slave trade, the ravages of colonialism, and the global racial discrimination to which Africans had been subjected as the legacy of the colonial era.

While Professor Mazrui did not reflect upon the Oromo condition in Ethiopia in his television series – only mentioning them briefly in the book that accompanied the series – he publicly expressed regret for this lapse in 2008 when he addressed the members of the Oromo Studies Association as a Keynote speaker. As a newcomer to the field of Oromo studies, Professor Mazrui was eager to learn about Oromo society. It was an OSA member, Professor Seifudein Adem, who introduced Professor Ali Mazrui to Oromo studies, after which Mazrui delved into Oromo issues.

It was in a spirit of seeking to understand Oromo issues and correcting his previous scholarship of the region, that he warmly accepted the Oromo Studies Association invitation to be Keynote speaker at its 2008 annual conference.. He delivered an impressive address at OSA in Minneapolis, MN on July 26, 2008. It was at that time that he became a member of OSA, demonstrating his genuine commitment to learning about the Oromo society. The 2009 Journal of Oromo Studies (Volume 16, Number 1, distributed by The Red Sea Press) featured his remarks at the OSA conference and focused on aspects of his scholarship which impacted Oromo Studies.

Ali Mazrui authored more than 30 books and hundreds of articles writing extensively on African politics, political economy, modernity, state building and nation building, violence, political instability, and Africa’s vulnerability to foreign domination and exploitation. He always wrote in lucid and entertaining prose, using spicy turns of phrase to reduce complex ideas and numerous facts into accessible food for thought. His fascinating interpretation of historical events, his thought-provoking generalization about the African condition and his optimism about the capacity of Africans, including the Oromo, to shape their own future, left behind an unparalleled legacy of impressive scholarship. He was a stellar African scholar who was well-known and well-connected around the globe. He wrote in English for the purpose of presenting Africa to Africans and to the world.

Ali Mazrui, this most famous global African scholar, was buried in Mombasa, Kenya, the place where he had been born on February 24 in 1933, 81 years ago and where his umbilical cord lies buried. He was laid to rest at his family’s graveyard on October 20, 2014. His death is a great loss to his vast extended family and to all who cherish the flourishing of African studies. The OSA Board of Directors and Executive Committee, on behalf of OSA members, express their deepest condolences to his family members and all those who have been nourished by his extensive scholarship as well as his infectious love for debate. He respected the opinions of all people, even those who challenged him, even those who unkindly and unfairly attacked him. May his soul rest in peace. May our Waaqa comfort his family members and all those who knew the great scholar and shared his strong optimism about the capacity of Africans, including the Oromo, to improve their condition.

Despite his passing away, his writings, his elegant prose, poetic language and his powerful ideas, will continue inspiring and informing current and future generations.

May his soul rest in peace!

The Oromo Studies Association

 

Related Articles:

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/oct/20/ali-mazrui

https://www.facebook.com/pages/Dr-Ali-Mazrui/28889396430

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ali_Mazrui

Oromia: Celebrate Qubee & Afan Oromo: 23 Years of Success Since the Nov. 3, 1991 Adoption of Qubee October 26, 2014

Posted by OromianEconomist in African Literature, Ancient Rock paintings in Oromia, Language and Development, Mammaaksa Oromoo, Oromia, Oromo Literature, Qubee Afaan Oromo.
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Celebrate Qubee & Afan Oromo: 23 Years of Success Since the Nov. 3, 1991 Adoption of Qubee

CelebrateAfanOromoQubee2014CelebrateAfanOromoQubee2014_4

As November 3 (Qubee Day) is fast approaching, it’s important to celebrate and understand the significance of November 3, 1991 – the day Qubee was adopted as the alphabet of Afan Oromo, after being endorsed by Oromo as well as other international linguists. WithQubee, Afan Oromo, the language so many fought and died to keep alive and legal, was sprung into its current revival period.

Afan Oromo is Africa’s fourth most widely “spoken” language, and since the November 3, 1991 adoption of Qubee, it’s also becoming one of the top “written” languages in Africa.

The history of Oromo shows that the Abyssinian successive ruling classes, emboldened by ignorance and arrogance, had the mission to wipe out this language; and their mission failed by the relentless national struggle of many Oromo generations before 1991 and after 1991.

When November comes, we are also reminded of the sacrifices paid by the Oromo youth during the 2005 FDG, which broke out on November 9, 2005 to fight against the subjugation of the Oromo people by the Tigrean TPLF regime.

The sacrifices of the Oromo youth have been seared into the Nation’s memory forever. Kabada Badhassa, Jagama Badhane, Alemayehu Garba, Gaddisa Hirphasaa, Morkata Idosa, Gemechu Benesa Bula, Lelisa Waqgari Bula, Yaasiin Muhaammad, Dirribee Jifaar, Simee Tarrafaa, Shibbiruu Damisee and many many others – died for Oromo’s national liberation and national pride, and to uphold Oromo’s national heritage, such as Qubee, the Gadaa System, Aaddaa Oromoo, to mention just a few of the Oromo national heritage.

See more @  Gadaa.com & Ayyaantuu.com

http://finfinnetribune.com/Gadaa/2014/10/celebrate-qubee-and-afan-oromo-23-years-of-success-since-the-november-3-1991-adoption-of-qubee/

http://ayyaantuu.com/horn-of-africa-news/oromia/celebrate-qubee-afan-oromo-23-years-of-success-since-the-nov-3-1991-adoption-of-qubee/

 

THEORIZING WAAQEFFANNAA: OROMIA’S INDIGENOUS AFRICAN RELIGION AND ITS CAPACITY AND POTENTIAL IN PEACEMAKING September 21, 2014

Posted by OromianEconomist in Africa, African Literature, Ancient African Direct Democracy, Ancient Egyptian, Ancient Rock paintings in Oromia, Ateetee, Ateetee (Siiqqee Institution), Black History, Chiekh Anta Diop, Culture, Cushtic, Humanity and Social Civilization, Irreecha, Irreecha (Irreesa) 2014, Irreecha (Irreessa) 2014, Irreecha Birraa, Kemetic Ancient African Culture, Meroetic Oromo, Oromia, Oromiyaa, Oromo, Oromo Culture, Oromo Identity, Oromo Nation, Oromo Social System, Oromo Wisdom, Oromummaa, Qaallu Institution, The Goddess of Fecundity, Waaqeffanna (Oromo ancient African Faith System).
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OTHEORIZING WAAQEFFANNAA: OROMIA’S INDIGENOUS AFRICAN RELIGION AND ITS CAPACITY AND POTENTIAL IN PEACEMAKINGThe article is Originally published by OromoPress @http://oromopress.blogspot.co.uk/2012/12/theorizing-waaqeffannaa-oromias.htmlSee  also Fulbaana/September 18, 2014 · Finfinne Tribune | Gadaa.comhttp://gadaa.net/FinfinneTribune/2014/09/oromopress-theorizing-waaqeffannaa-oromias-indigenous-african-religion-and-its-capacity-and-potential-in-peacemaking/

In most of Africa, indigenous African religions have been pushed to the margin because of a number of factors. The implied and open relegation of indigenous African religions to the levels of inferiority and inconsequentiality in world affairs by colonial powers and post-colonial contemporary African states not only undermines and stereotypes the examination of the unique contributions of these religions to peacemaking, but also discards with them unique mythologies, values, laws, cultures and meaning-making systems. I argue that applying North American conflict resolution models, without considering African religious values that existed for many millennia before the arrival of world religions, will be an enormous hindrance to building lasting peace from the bottom-up in the vastly rural and agrarian Africa that is still steeped in traditions and rituals.

Contributing to a range of negative stereotypes about African religions (example, uncivilized, barbaric and conflict-generating) is the fact that many of them have been orally transmitted from generation to generation and lack written major holy books unlike the world religions. The purpose of this paper is to shift attention from common misconceptions about African religions to a productive examination of the constructive roles they can be made to play.

I will focus on the case of Waaqeffannaa, an Oromo indigenous religion of East Africa, and its core values and laws. It will be significant to examine Waaqeffannaa’s complex concepts, such as concept and view of Waaqaa (God), Eebba (prayers and blessings), safuu (the place of all things and beings in the cosmic and social order), issues related to cubbuu (sin) and other religious and ritual practices. Although there is no holy book forWaaqeffannaa thus far, I will obtain my data from published ethnographic books, journal articles, periodicals, relevant reports and press releases. The interactions between Waaqeffannaa and other organized religions, such as Christianity and Islam, will be examined in context.

The paper will seek answers to three related questions:

What are the contributions or lack thereof orally transmitted values and laws of Waaqeffannaa to peacemaking and relationship-building? If there are any contributions, how can they be compared to other forms of conflict resolution? What will be the role of Waaqeffannaa in peacemaking in the ever changing global and local contexts of religious diversity and difference?

The Concept of God in Waaqeffannaa’s Monotheistic System

In order to examine the hermeneutic advantages and disadvantages of Waaqeffannaa and compare it to modern or Western conflict resolution methods, it is essential to examine the concept of God (Waaqaa) in the religion in its own right. There is a consensus among researchers and observers of Waaqeffannaa—the most prominent of whom are pre-colonial European missionaries, explorers and anthropologists and local religious leaders and scholars—that Waaqeffannaa is one of the ancient indigenous African monotheistic religions.[1] The Oromo, the Cushitic African people of Ethiopia, among whom this religion emerged and developed, call their one God Waaqaa or more intimately and endearingly Waaqayyoo (good God). It is difficult to capture with one definition the complexity of the ways in which the followers of this religion (Waaqeffataas) relate to God and make sense of God (not gendered) is hard to capture just with one definition. The question of ways of understanding and relating to God is a question of Waaqeffannaa’s worldview that is indigenous and unique, in some ways, and thus, different from ways in which followers of major world religions understand and relate to God.

While monotheism is a key similarity it shares with Judaism, Christianity and Islam, Waaqeffannaa has the following worldview of its own:

We believe in God who created us. We believe in Him (sic) in a natural way … We believe in God because we can see what God has done and what he does: he makes rains and the rains grow greenery, and crops that we consume. He lets the sun shine. So believing in him is instinctive and inbuilt. It is as natural as the desire we have for food and drink, and as natural as the reproduction of living things. We go to the nature, the nature that He created: mountains and rivers to praise and appreciate Him impressed by His works … [2]

This contemporary declaration of the faith centers on nature and creation that can be pragmatically seen and experienced in daily life. There is no mention of “heaven” and “hell” here. Concerning the followers’ perceptions of the residence of God, Bartels writes, “They do not visualize Waaqaa(sic) existing outside this world in time or space … In this sense Waaqaa is as much of this world as the vault of the sky.”[3] Bokku concurs with Bartels findings that God exists among people on earth, but Bokku makes a radically different claim as follows: “Waaqeffataas don’t [sic] believe in after life. They don’t believe that God would come in the future to judge people and send the righteous to heaven and the sinful to hell. God is with us always.”[4] Bokku’s claims can be controversial because in much of the literature I reviewed, I found that the question of “after life” is either overlooked or ambiguously treated, except in the work of Father De Salviac whose much older field research (1901) explicitly states the existence of the belief in life after death among Waaqeffataas in eastern Oromia as follows:

They acknowledge three places destined to receive the souls after death. The paradise, which they call: the ‘Happiness of God’,Ayyaana Waaqaa; or the: ‘Response of God’, Bayanacha Waaqaa; or even Jenneta Waaqaa; ‘Paradise of God’, is reserved for the just who go there to enjoy the company and infinite blessings of the Lord … they say of death ‘That he passed on to Waaqaa;’ – ‘That he entered into Waaqaa,’ – ‘That he went to his eternal house with Waaqaa’.[5]

Reference to life after death, punishments and rewards in hell and heaven respectively are very rare features of the religion. Nonetheless, the argument that De Salviac makes about the existence of the belief in life after death in Oromo society is enough to make Bokku and other writers’ denial of the existence of “life after death” contested and curious. The issue of justice and how people relate to each other may hold for every writer. The question of relationships between peoples, and nature and justice will be treated in later sections for safuu.

Waaqeffataas generally view and worship Waaqaa based on their amazement with the ingenious works of Waaqaa’s hands that they experience and find them overwhelming to comprehend and explain. Even family prayers around the hearth contains many such instances: “UNIQUE AND SO GREAT GOD SUPPORT WITHOUT PILLAR THE DOME OF THE BLUE SKY.”[6]

Waaqeffataas view the earth as one of the major ingenious works of God. The earth is viewed inseparably from God. The image that followers of this religion have of the relationship between Waaqaa and the Earth “comes close to that of a human couple”[7]: ‘the earth is Waaqaa’s wife—Lafa niti Waaqaa,’[8] According to Bartels, there are four manifestations of the close connection between Waaqaa and the earth in four spheres of theWaaqeffannaa religious life:[9]

  1. Blessings

May the Waaqaa and the earth help you.

May Waaqaa and the earth cause you to grow up (a blessing for children.) …

  1. Curses

Be not blessed either by Waaqaa or the earth.

May Waaqaa and the earth burn [make dry] your kidneys and your womb (the curse is addressed to a woman).

  1. Oaths

The man who takes the oath breaks a dry stick, saying:

‘May the earth on which I walk and Waaqaa beneath whom I walk do the same to me, if I have done such and such a thing.’

  1. Rituals

There are rituals of slaughtering a bull or sheep for Waaqaa and making libation (dhibayyuu) under a tree for the earth.[10]

Waaqeffannaa rituals honor both God and the earth. Followers of the religion seem to take cue from God Himself, who created the earth, to inform their ways of relating to Waaqaa and earth (lafa). Evidence that suggests a relationship based on fears, intimidations or punishment between God and persons is less prevalent than those that are mostly based on respect for God, one another and for the earth. Waaqeffataas embrace and celebrate the egalitarian view of God and the diversity of names people call God. Despite some differences among people, research points to followers’ similar attitudes towards God. “… it has become clear that their attitude towards him [sic] is not only inspired by awe but also marked by familiarity and even, from time to time, by lack of respect. In his despair, a man may claim: ‘Waaqaa does not exist!’”[11] This just showsWaaqeffataas have a more liberal relationship with God. It does not mean that they are less pious as there is enough evidence to suggest many magnificent examples of humility, piety and obedience.

The question of Waaqeffataas’ acknowledgement of the oneness of God and the multiple names various religions call Him does not only show the openness of the concept of God to various interpretations, but it also shows the religion’s acceptance of religious diversity. It is easier to engage in interfaith or other conflict resolution activities when such an acknowledgement is extant than when religions claim “my way or the highway.” The ways some prayers are rendered testify to this progressive values of Waaqeffannaa: “O Black God who created the dark sky and the clean waters, who is one but called by multitudes of names, who has no competitor, the omniscient, the omnipotent, the omnipresent, who is eternal and ever powerful, whose power can never decline.”[12] Because of the view of God described here, Waaqeffataas believe that God is patient and that it is not in His nature to become angry if people believe in other things abandoning Him. Bokku holds the Waaqeffannaa God is too self-confident to be angered into punishing people who do not obey or defect to other religions.[13]

Prayers and Blessings

Boran society sometimes appears to float on a river of prayers and blessings…

Paul T. Baxter.[14]

Common to private, collective and family prayers is the focus of Oromo/Waaqeffataas’ prayers on the material conditions and well-beings of the self, the family and the group. Prayers mediate conditions of people to God so he can intervene and alter their current conditions.[15] The faithful pray for peace, health, deliverance from wrongdoing and harmful sprits and things, human and livestock fertility, growth of babies (little ones), long life for adults, for the goodness of the inside and the outside, rain, harvest and development, inter alia.

The Waaqeffannaa prayer is barely about inheriting the kingdom of heaven nor is it about seeking the help of God in a battle against Satan and sin. Evidence suggests that the concept of Devil/Satan does not exist in Waaqeffannaa while spirits that cause all kinds of suffering and misfortune or harm (ayyaana hamaa) are believed to exist.[16] Instances of talk about Devils by Waaqeffataas are generally understood as the borrowing of a religious vocabulary from the adjacent/co-existing major faiths, such as Christianity and Islam. For instance, Waaqeffataa pray to God to prevent them from wrongdoing and errors committed in ignorance. The religion has no room for addressing anxieties and fears arising from the imaginary realm of the devil/evil. For instance, words used in prayers include, “Prevent us from wrongdoing …” (dogogora nu oolchi). In terms of how people experience and understand misfortunes and fortunes (good things) Oromo proverbs capture the peoples’ dependence on Waaqaa. Indeed, the proverbs below indicate how Waaqaa is perceived as the source of good and bad things that happen in real life:[17]

A house that is built by Waaqaa will be completed.

It is Waaqaa who brings hunger;

It is Waaqaa who brings a full stomach.

The one Waaqaa clothes will not go naked.

Who trusts on Waaqaa will not lack anything.

Man wishes, Waaqaa fulfills.

Waaqaa is there [therefore] the sun rises.

It is Waaqaa who makes a person sick;

It is Waaqaa who restores him to health.

Waaqaa is never in a hurry;

But he is always there at the proper time.

There are standard prayers that have been codified in oral tradition and bequeathed down to generations. The codification of prayers, rituals and ceremonies in oral traditions serve the purpose of making Oromo worships definite and unarbitrary. The question of precise transmissions of spoken messages are always up for debates as there are obviously some room for improvisation and modification as the word of mouth (message) travels through time and space. I believe that the improvisation aspect of oral narratives will add an interesting dimension of dynamism to the hermeneutics of Waaqeffannaa.

De Salviac praises the endurance of Waaqeffannaa for many millennia in spite of the oral mode of transmission. De Salviac aptly critiques the West for generally believing that the sole sources of “valid” or “authentic” knowledge are written texts (books) as follows: “We, accustomed to the cycle of knowledge by turning pale over the books, our careless memory resting on the permanence of typography, we hardly take into account the power of tradition, which sufficed, for centuries, for the civilization of many peoples. With the Oromo, religious and secular traditions are formulated in thousands of short sentences …”[18]

What I understand from De Salviac is that Western or modern industrialized societies privilege written knowledge. His critique is on tangent because preference for written and formal communication in the West will certainly shape intervention policy-making, official diplomacy and the attitudes of interveners towards indigenous cultures. Third party interveners with fixed or rigid approaches are not only likely to disrespect and shun local knowledge systems, but they are also likely to impose rigid and unproductive conflict resolution processes developed in the context of limited civilizations.

One can only anticipate the stiff resistance that locals are likely to put up against Western models in today’s Africa where there is an increasing awareness about the importance of self-reliance and going back to the roots in order to solve indigenous problems. The true superficiality of strict Western models of dialogue, mediation, problem-solving workshop can be revealed by observing how in most of Africa’s peripheries cut of modern laws, bureaucracies and infrastructures, people thrive on the strong indigenous knowledge systems. This is how most conflicts are resolved and how people do communal work in either irrigating the land or protecting the environment. In the contexts of corrupt and partisan politics, these efforts by local people to overcome the daily challenges must be given credit because some of them are providing themselves important social services that that their governments have failed to provide them. In any effort of conflict resolution or peacemaking in such dire circumstances, it is imperative to bring local knowers (the wise men and women) into the sphere of diplomacy and peacemaking.

Prayers, sometimes synonymously called blessings or benedictions, in the form of litany and chants are integral parts of indigenous communities. Every communal activity whether it is weddings, funerals or dances and music begins with blessings or prayers. Eebba is aimed moderating the way people relate to each other at certain venues and beyond. They are about building constructive relationships even in times of wars. Here are some examples of Oromo prayers/blessings of different periods and crowds’ responses.

Pre-colonial prayers[19]:

Ya Waaq, have pity on us;              Yes, yes, have pity on us

Ya Waaq, bless us;                          Yes, yes, bless us.

Ya Waaq give us happy days;             Yes, yes, happy days.

Ya Waaq in our discussions inspire us;  Yes, yes, inspire us.

Ya Waaq in our counsel give us light;            Yes, yes, give us light.

Ya Waaq bring back rebellious son to his father; Yes, yes, bring back.

Ya Waaq bring back unruly son to his mother;   Yes, yes, bring back.

Ya Waaq to good man give cows;                  Yes, yes, give.

Ya Waaq preserve our house from ruin;                     Yes, yes preserve.

Contemporary prayers:[20]

Yes! Yes! Yes!

God of Nature and of Creations;

Waaqaa who created the Haroo Walaabuu (lake)[21];

Waaqaa who let us spend the night in peace;

Let us spend the day in peace;

Prevent us from entering into fatal errors;

Guard us against straying from the right path;

Guard us against mistakes/wrongdoings;

May the Creator we pray to hear us!

May Waaqaa guard us against the harmful!

May Waaqaa bring good things our way!

May children (the little ones) grow up!

May the grown-ups live longer!

May the ignorant know!

May experts/the wise last!

May Kormaa (uncustrated bull) reproduce!

May pregnancies stay healthy and hold!

Let Him keep away harmful things!

Gadaa (social system) is the system of rain and peace!

The year is the year of abundance/development and full stomach.

These contemporary prayers cited from the Waaqeffannaa magazine are powerful. They are usually used in order to open any public/communal gatherings secular and spiritual. This is how things are called to order. The religious prayers give authority or credibility to whatever event that is to take place. At the center of this messaging is reaching the hearts and minds of parties to an event by cleansing the air of any hard feelings and ensuring that the heart and minds are softened and ready for the secular or non secular events and exchanges that will proceed from that.

Historically, Oromos made ecumenical pilgrimages to holy sites of Abbaa Muudaa, Spiritual Father,[22] in order to receive blessings for them and to bring back blessings into their communities with them. Blessings are still considered serious religious activities that serve as glues of social life. Spiritual Fathers can give blessings to people on a range of personal and communal matters: such as long life, being alive, more property and wealth, peace in the household, on productions (calves, children, crops).

I have not come across modern mediation, negotiation or other third party intervention processes that start with prayers. Obviously, if blessings are not built into the processes, an attempt at conflict resolution in African societies, such as the Oromo, will be in vain. In the first place, people will not recognize what is not authorized and endorsed by their own knowledge system. Most importantly, empowering and funding Abbaa Mudaas or elders to engage in conflict resolution is likely to be accepted and bear fruit because of the tremendous reputations these people wield in society. They are highly regarded in society and leaving them out of official processes simply works against peace.

In Waaqeffannaa, one sees from the content of the payers and blessings above that most of them take on the nature of what Gopin succinctly characterizes as “Premordial prosocial moral/spiritual values.”[23] Although many of the conflicts in Ethiopia (Africa) are not religiously driven, the application of religious values will have a huge impact on conflicts driven by ethnicity, nationalisms and competition over resources and power. People listen when one reaches out and talks to them at their own level. Gopin provides a detailed critique of why current modern conflict resolution approaches fail to understand the importance of using prosocial religious values in the context of the Arab/Israel conflict in the Middle East, but his appraisal also holds true for the Horn of Africa region, where the volatility and intractability of conflicts are comparable to the ones in the Middle East. Among the important reasons Gopin cites are the West’s refusal to recognize non-Western models and knowledge systems. Gopin articulates the consequences of modern cultures failure to reckon with indigenous religious and cultural systems as follows:

As religion becomes more important in the lives of hundreds of millions of people, the political power generated by this commitment will either lead to a more peaceful world or to a more violent world, depending on how that power is utilized … Methods of peacemaking that continue to focus only on political and intellectual elites or that fail to address the broadest possible range of religious believers are leading to systematic and potentially catastrophic diplomatic failures in key areas of the world … [24]

Survival through Religious Diversification and Rituals

It is accurate that Waaqeffannaa and similar Africa indigenous religions are being reincarnated and are slowly starting to become explicitly important in the lives of so many people. Religious traditions, including those from indigenous religions, form the bedrock of the values of those Africans who converted to Christianity and Islam. Often these values moderate the foreign values associated with the cultures from which these major religions originated. It is not just the Waaqeffataas who only follow the indigenous religion, but a swathe peoples seem to have accepted double or triple religious lives. They shuttle between various religious and cultural values in their daily decision-makings so as to adapt to changing socio-economic circumstances. Pointing to the loose nature of individual’s and group’s negotiations between multiple religious identities, Aguilar[25] presents a case of the importance of “religious diversification for survival” among the Kenyan Boran/Oromo in northern Kenya. Aguilar provides the best illustration for survival and adaptation by accepting diverse religious values. He cites how Muslim and Waaqeffaannaa parents send their children to Catholic schools in northern Kenya and that the children do perfectly well shuttling between religious worldviews without facing physical dangers.[26] The same religious rituals performed by followers of Waaqeffannaa form the cores of the rituals and daily cultural practices of the followers of Islam and Christianity, as a mechanism of preserving and transmitting their identity. For instance, some of the religious traditions and rituals kept by Oromo communities who converted to major religions in north Kenya include similar types of blessings, prayers, and peacemaking through rituals of coffee beans-slaughtering and symbolic prayers.[27] These subtle practices of syncretism not only form the core identity of Oromo in north Kenya and connect them to the mainland (Oromia-Ethiopia), but they also play stabilizing roles in a families and communities there.[28]

The phenomenon of syncretism/ “religious diversification” serves as a survival strategy where minority communities cut off into another country from the mainstream because of colonial map-making try to cope with the alien majority they are swallowed up by. The case of Kenyan Oromos imitating the Waaqeffannaa values of the mainland is an example of such an essential survival strategy. Aguilar puts this as, “It is clear that the strategy of diversification provides the household (and a manyatta [place of settlement]) with security should something happen to either of the herds.”[29]

It is no accident that somebody whom an outsider may perceive as a follower of one religion is actually found at the crossroads of multiple religious values. It takes a deeper look to discern such subtle and significant dynamics. For an intervener who has no interest or who is not patient to take time and learn, the subtlety of the power of tradition will ever remain inaccessible. Because one has no access to the right cultural tools, the very people he/she trying to reach and help will become inaccessible and unresponsive, especially if one attempts to impose some ivory-tower (imported) conflict resolution framework or process on local situations. People have been handling their affairs everyday for centuries independently of outsiders. To assume that they somehow do not or their methods are not in par with modern approaches will defeat the purpose of thinking to help others in the first place.

Safuu in Peacemaking and Social Harmony

This section analyzes the role of Safuu as one of the key elements of Waaqeffannaa. Safuu is a prosocial variable that needs a deeper analysis to see its roles in indigenous peacebuilding. Safuu is a broad concept that governs relationship in and between families, communities, national groups and relationship between people and nature and things.

Bartels provides a nuanced anthropological definition of the term Safuu:[30]

Saffu is a fundamental and all-pervading concept in the Matcha’s [Oromo] life. It implies that all things have a place of their own in the cosmic and social order, and that they should keep this place. Their place is conditioned by the specific ayana [good spirit] each of them has received from Waaqaa. Every creature, and especially man, has to act according to its own ayana and to respect the others’ ayana. Saffu implies both rights and duties. In the people’s eyes wisdom is ‘knowing saffu and abide [sic] by it.’

Gemetchu Megerssa, a leading Oromo anthropologist and former research assistant to Lambert Bartels, probably influenced by Bartels himself, states that safuu is one of the key founding concepts in Oromo culture and Waaqeffannaa tradition.[31] Bartels’ definition is more encapsulating, while it shares one central common feature with Megerssa’s definition, “… the concept of saffu(mutual relationship between elements of the social and cosmic orders) which maintains practice obligatory [sic] through ethical conduct.” They both agree that safuu governs relationships between people and people, and people and nature, but Megersa introduces a newer and more specific idea of safuu as “an ethical conduct.”

Another leading expert on Waaqeffannaa, Bokku quotes Bartels directly and extends the concept of Safuu to broad areas of “morality”, “norm” and “laws” that govern social and ecological order.[32] Bokku states his extended definition building on Bartels: “Safuu is the understanding of differences and appreciation of differences for the peaceful coexistence of all natural things.” For Bokkuu, as opposed to man-made laws “safuu is not subject to change.” He concludes that safuu as laws of nature is necessary for the “smooth operation of life”, which is harmony. Everyone invokes the notions that Safuu owes its authority over social relationship because it derives from the will or the spirit of God (ayyaanaa). Thus, experts agree that Safuuis one of the fundamental principles of Oromo culture that governs relationships and keeps society together.

In Waaqeffannaa in particular and Oromo culture in general, it is believed that “breaking safuu would cause some sort of trouble.”[33] Breaking safuulaws is seen as committing sin. The consequences of breaking various categories of safuu are understood as generating unhappy reactions from God. In Waaqeffannaa when someone sins, God turns His back on him/her. The meaning behind this is that if one misses the face of God, it means that one lacks ayyana (a guardian, blessings or will of God). This core law encourages people to maintain friendly relationships between themselves and with nature. Safuu is a law of rights and obligations. Since Safuu is not something in people, but something between them, it is assumed to promote collective harmony. Paying attention to the concept of “sin” in the meaning system of Waaqeffannaa is important because it comes from the Oromo word, “‘balleessuu’, which actually means ‘to destroy, to damage, to spoil’”[34]

When one engages in destructive activities one is considered to be destroying, damaging, and spoiling relationships between at least three parties: God, creation (nature) and other human beings. In Oromo life, not damaging relationship between oneself and creations is given more importance than not damaging relationship between human and God.[35]

The Dynamisms of the Indigenous Faith System

It is hard to understand how one can be effective in conflict resolution in Africa without having at least the working knowledge of important key principles governing all-rounded relationships, such as safuu. Religious values of Waaqeffannaa may not require so much hermeneutic transformation because they already exist in pro-social form. Keeping natural and social orders is already a stringent requirement on top of acceptance for differences of any sort.

In Waaqeffannaa, destroying (for example killing humans in conflict) is prohibited by the religion’s laws. Those who violate traditional laws and destroy anything will face alienation and banning from God as well as from fellows humans. They are denied opportunities to sit and eat at a table with family members and others; they become social outcasts. My evidence does not suggest any anti-social principles/laws in the Waaqeffannaaworldview so far. Even some of the curses that are put on people have the goal of ensuring social harmony and can be viewed positively. If I had come across anything that says, “if you kill your enemy or someone, God will reward you with heaven or sainthood or some other rewards,” I would have paused and thought, this is a justification for war and destruction that needs to be hermetically transformed. Transformation may be due if violence is made into something sacred. In my opinion the values of this religion particularly those about safuu are poised to play important peacebuilding and relationship-building roles at least in Ethiopia and the Horn of Africa.

One can think of the lack of written scriptures (there are oral ‘scriptures’) for African religion as both advantages and disadvantages. In terms of the creativity and improvisation of transmissions of oral values/laws, the lack of written scriptures is an advantage because followers or leaders of indigenous religions will have the ability to interpret the concepts in ways that meet the physical and spiritual needs of their time. But that can also be a disadvantage since some lament that African could not have converted to Christianity and Islam if they had written scriptures and transformed their religions into organized faith systems.[36]

The question of whether Africans had concepts of God or not or whether they were ‘pagan hordes’ as the colonialists viewed them is now an outdated and irrelevant question because a number of scholars have produced research revealing that indeed Africans had believed in one God even before the advent of Middle Eastern religions.[37] Mbiti’s findings are credible because he stayed in Africa for 15 years and conducted studies on about 300 African communities and their belief systems.

Because indigenous African religions, including Waaqeffannaa, lack written scriptures, culturally biased scholars who judge everything according to Western standards may think religions, such as Waaqeffannaa, are inferior, static and things of the past. In rebuttal, one can respond to that arguing that oral mode of transmission makes African religions dynamic, ever-changing and ever-adapting to social changes even after some converted to other faiths. This happens because African religions do not punish defections and because their religious leaders are less likely to make claims to the permanence of specific oral texts or think of the values/traditions of their religion as the only “Truth” to die for.

About the locus of the existence of African religions, Mbiti writes, “Religion in African societies is written not on paper but in people’s heart, minds, oral history, rituals, and religious personages like the priests, rainmakers, official elders … African religions have neither founders nor reformers.”[38]Mbiti’s notion of the lack of founders and reformers can be contested because it could be that founders and reformers might have existed millennia ago and simply no written records were kept about them. The key point here is that words of mouth are dynamic. The best way to reach the hearts and minds of the vast peoples of rural Africa should be through oral traditions and spoken language. The prevalent practice by third party interveners shows an opposite tendency of bureaucratizing everything and transmitting messages via the written medium (forms and documents) through the agency of “rational professionals”.

Authors caution against viewing Waaqeffannaa religious traditions as part of a static tradition of the past[39], and encourage us to view them as dynamic traditions that are continually changing based on wider experiences that are part of their present. Aguilar is succinct about the advantages of the dynamism of Waaqeffannaa’s hermeneutics: “… traditions are transmitted, never as static forms but as changeable manifestations of an Oromo religion [Waaqeffannaa] that interacts [sic] with other traditions and other ethnic groups, and therefore becomes capable of reshaping society itself.”[40]

Lessons for Conflict Resolution

The values and laws of Waaqeffannaa identified and analyzed in this research suggest the importance of recognizing African indigenous religious systems and the prosocial contributions of their values and laws to conflict resolution.

I deliberately tried not to impose a theoretical framework over my analysis although my approach was influenced by hermeneutics.[41] Engaging in peacemaking in indigenous African communities requires the use of what Gopin, drawing on Lederach, calls “elicitive and cross-cultural methods.”[42] Concepts such as safuu, the Waaqeffannaa worldview, prayers, blessings, harmony are predominantly about building relationships between people and people, and them and nature. The most effective way of arriving at these principles and using them in interventions is to do one’s best to involve indigenous peoples, religious leaders, elders and parties to conflict and to elicit from them the best practices they have evolved over centuries in peacemaking.

Indigenous African religions are caught up in multipronged challenges, such as lack of recognition from interveners, states and richer and more organized religions despite their prevalence and appeal to many African communities. Established conflict resolution methods, such as mediation, negotiation, facilitation, problem-solving workshop and dialogue, are often too Western, rationalistic, elitist and foreign to accommodate other grassroots approaches to peacemaking, such as obeying safuu. If we look at official mediation, for instance, we find the reliance on rigid processes and professionals as its main features. Such formal stages may include collecting data, building hypothesis about a conflict, searching for theories, selecting theory, making intervention, and verifying and nullifying hypothesis.[43] It is not necessarily bad to prepare for mediation in stages, but when everything is prefigured, there is a danger of learning very little on the field while doing the intervention itself. In most rationalistic conflict resolution methods listed above, the immediate settlement of conflict is desired. This may turn out to be a shortcoming because long-term relationship-building and peacemaking, which is the hallmark of indigenous systems, are and sidelined.

Limitation of the Indigenous Religion

The most important limitation of many African indigenous religious values and traditions, including Waaqeffannaa, is that the practice of peacemaking is inbound to groups in which these traditions originated. There are also perceptions and tendencies to associate the good prosocial aspects of religious principles this religion with ethno-nationalist competitions of the day, and therefore, to readily dismiss them as unrepresentative of the whole. A much productive approach, however, is to see the commonalities of multiple African religious traditions and to take key principles from each of them and combine them in order to make everyone feel good about their faiths. There is so much to learn from this culture if one is willing to follow the elicitive path to conflict resolution.

The second obvious limitation is the lack of written scriptures and the challenges of accessing oral scriptures for outsiders due to language barriers, but which can still be overcome with translators and interpreters.

Thirdly, African indigenous religions have not been given the places they deserve in some continental interfaith organizations whose member religions tend to be organized and rich major religions. For instances, the United Religious Initiative (URI) Africa chapter, an international faith network that operates in 25 African countries, professes that it aims to look for solutions to Africa’s challenges at community levels in the areas of corruption, human rights violation, poverty and HIV/AIDs[44], but unfortunately no indigenous African religious tradition from any community is represented by such an important organization. The network carries it activities in Africa through major faiths, such as Christianity and Islam. Another domestic (Ethiopian) interfaith network, Interfaith Peace-building Initiative (IPI), a member of the URI, has no indigenous Ethiopian religions (Waaqeffannaaincluded) as its members.

The problem with URI and IPI is not only a simplistic and envious question of who is represented or who is not, but it appears that the mentioned interfaith networks have been systematically coopted and used to advance the interests of the Ethiopian state since Ambassador Mussie Hailu is serving simultaneously as the Regional Director of URI and the Board Chair of IPI.[45] The more intractable and absurd aspect of IPI is that it is an interfaith organization as far as the major religions are concerned, but the founders and its leaders are members of a single ethno-national group who are publicly known to lean toward the ruling party from the same group. This is a clear negative messaging to others in Ethiopia where the issues of ethnicity are sensitive. To be sure, it is possible to have an interfaith organization with wonderful goals like IPI, but with ethno-nationalist ideological agenda at same time. That will do more to keep peoples apart than bring them together.

Despite its growing popularity in Oromiya regional state, the most populous in Ethiopia, Waaqeffannaa’s attempts to transform itself into an organized religion have failed many times so far because the Ethiopian state has first denied and then revoked the license of the group citing that its leaders sympathize with the Oromo Liberation Front[46], a secular rebel group in conflict with the government on the question of autonomy and self- determination for Oromiya.

Conclusion

Waaqeffannaa’s pro-social principles, laws and values did and will contribute to building constructive relationships between communities. In addition to improving human relations, laws, such as safuu, that emphasize the need to maintain good relationship with nature, can be extended and used in areas of environmental conflict resolution, specially where climate change is threatening pastoralist and agrarian communities in many observable ways today.

I explored and discussed the ways in which the egalitarian but respectful views of God by Waaqeffataas can be helpful in curbing extremist tendencies. Neither oral scriptures of the religion nor its leaders condone acts of violence as something leading to rewards or sainthood. Prayers and blessings function as authoritative moderators and they can be used in opening and closing any intervention efforts. Waaqeffannaa is a very pragmatic religion whose most themes are linked to and earthbound to the material conditions of people. Therefore, people in conflict may have the same questions they want answered through prayers to be answered through interventions.

The potential and capacity of the religion in national or regional peacemaking is promising if it be recognized and the multi-pronged obstacles in its way are removed.

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References

Abu-Nimer, Mohammed. Nonviolence and Peace Building in Islam: Theory and Practice. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2003.

Aguilar, Mario I. The Politics of God in East Africa: Oromo Ritual and Religion. Trenton, N.J.: The Red Sea Press, 2009.

Appleby, Scott R. “Retrieving the Missing Dimension of Statecraft: Religious Faith in the Service of Peacebuilding.” In Faith-Based Diplomacy: Trumping Realpolitik, ed. Douglas Johnston, 2003. Oxford: OUP.

____ The Ambivalence of the Sacred: Religion, Violence and Reconciliation. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2000.

Bartels, Lambert. Oromo Religion: Myths and Rites of the Western Oromo of Ethiopia-An Attempt to Understand. Berlin: Dietrich Reamer Verlag, 1983.

Bokku, Dirribi Demissie. Oromo Wisdom in Black Civilization. Finfinne, Ethiopia: Finfinne Printing & Publishing S.C., 2011.

De Salviac, Martial. An Ancient People: Great African Nation: the Oromo. Translation from the 1901 original French edition by Ayalew Kanno. Paris, the French Academy, 2005.

Douglas, Johnston. Faith-Based Diplomacy: Trumping Realpolitik. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003.

Gopin, Marc. Between Eden and Armageddon: The Future of World Religions, Violence and Peacemaking. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000.

____ Holy War, Holy Peace: How Religion Can Bring Peace to the Middle East. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002.

Megerssa, Gemetchu. “Oromumma: Tradition, Consciousness and Identity.” In Being and Becoming Oromo: Historical and Anthropological Enquiries, Edited by P.T.W. Baxter, Jan Hultin and Alessandro Triulzi. Lawrenceville, N.J.: The Red Sea Press, 1996.

Montville, Joseph V. “Psychoanalytic Enlightenment and the Greening of Diplomacy.” In The Psychodynamics of International Relationships, Eds. Vamik D. Volkan, Demetrios A. Julius, and Joseph V. Montville. Lexington Mass.: Lexington Books (1990-1991): 177-192.

Moore, Christopher W. The Mediation Process: Practical Strategies for Resolving Conflict. 3rd Ed. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2003.

MTA. Waaqeffannaa: Ayyaana Irreechaa Birraa, 2010.Vol. V. No. 1. Finfinnee: MTA, 2010. (trans. Waaqeffannaa: Thanksgiving Holiday of Fall 2010.)

Sandole, Dennis J.D. “Paradigm, Theories, and Metaphors in Conflict and Conflict Resolution: Coherence or Confusion?” In Conflict Resolution Theory and Practice, Ed., Dennis Sandole. Manchester and New York: Manchester University Press, (1993): 3-24.

Stenger, Mary Ann. “Gadamer’s Hermeneutics as a Model for Cross-Cultural Understanding and Truth in Religion.” In Religious Pluralism and Truth: Essays on Cross-Cultural Philosophy of Religion, Ed., Thomas Dean. New York: State University of New York Press, (1995): 151-168.

Volkan, Vamik D. “Psychological Processes in Unofficial Diplomacy Meetings.” In The Psychodynamics of International Relationships, Eds. Vamik D. Volkan, Demetrios A. Julius, and Joseph V. Montville. Lexington Mass.: Lexington Books (1990-1991): 207-219.

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Footnotes

[1] De Salviac, 1901:43; Bartels, 1983:89; Bokku, 2011: 54). The two previous books on Oromo religion (now named Waaqeffannaa) by European missionaries are widely regarded as authoritative secular scholarly sources closest to the source ever to be published on an indigenous African religion of antiquity. Bokku adds his own recent perspectives on the religion and revises his predecessors’ perspectives without altering the essence of their work.

[2] Bokku, 2011:54.

[3] Bartels, 1983:91.

[4] Bokku,2011:73.

[5] De Selviac, 1901;155.

[6] De Selviac, 1901:173, emphasis in the original.

[7] Bartels, 1983:108

[8] Haberland 1963 in Bartels, 1983:108.

[9] Bartels, 1983:108-109.

[10] Bartels, 1983: 109.

[11] Bartels, 1983;107

[12] Bokku, 2011: 66. The quote was an English translation the author provides from the Afaan Oromoo (Oromo language) version, which runs:“Gurraacha garaa garbaa, leemmoo garaa taliilaa, tokkicha maqaa dhibbaa, guddicha hiriyaa hinqabne, kan waan hundaa beeku, kan waan hundaa gochuu danda’u, kan bakka maraa jiru, kan hinkufine, kan hinduuneefi kan hincabne.”

[13] see footnote number 11.

[14] P.T.W. Baxter, Age, Generation and Time, 155 in Aguilar, 2009:13).

[15] De Salviac, 1901:153, 163; Bartels, 1983:96; Bokku, 2011:66-67; Megerssa, 1996:92-103.

[16] De Salviac, 1983:120; Bokku, 2011: 67.

[17] Bartels, 1983:95.

[18] De Salviac

[19] De Salviac, 1901:163.

[20] Translated by me from Afaan Oromoo into English from the Waaqeffannaa magazine, p i.

[21] Haroo Walaabuu is considered the origin of Oromo community and the source of all walking humans on earth. It plays an important symbolic/mythic role in standard prayers. Water bodies are considered sources of life.

[22] De Salviac, 1901:177.

[23] Gopin, 2000:84.

[24] Gopin, 2000:35.

[25] Aguilar, 2009:13-32.

[26] Aguilar, 2009:28.

[27] See footnote 24

[28] Augilar, 2009:

[29] Ibid., p.27.

[30] Bartels, 1983:170.

[31] Megersa, 1996:96-97.

[32] Bokku, 2011:75.

[33] See footnote 31.

[34] Bartels, 1983:339, Bokku, 2011:76.

[35] Bartels, 1983:339.

[36] Bokku, 2011: 61.

[37] Mbiti, 1992:29.

[38] Mbiti, 1992:4.

[39] Megerssa, 1996:98; Aguilar, 2009:5.

[40] Aguilar, 2009:5

[41] Stenger, 1995.

[42] Gopin, 2000:60-61.

[43] Moore,2003:66

[44] URI. “Purposes and Activities.” http://www.uri.org/cooperation_circles/explore_cooperation_circles/region/africa

[45] IPI Ethiopia. http://www.ipiethiopia.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=111&Itemid=110

[46] U.S. Department of State on Religious Freedom in Ethiopia, 2010: 4.