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The Socio-Political and Governance Dimensions of Hunger:Exploring Ethiopia’s Crisis November 8, 2015

Posted by OromianEconomist in Uncategorized.
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???????????Famine in Ethiopia 2015Ethiopian-land-giveawayTigrean Neftengna's land grabbing and the Addis Ababa Master plan for Oormo genocide

Ironically, while Ethiopia is facing a hunger crisis and making urgent appeals for aid, tonnes of food are actually leaving the country. This illogical development is due to the fact that the regime in Addis has sold large tracts of arable land to a range of foreign investors and corporations in transactions described as “land grabs.” The process also involves “villagization,” a government-led program which entails the forcible relocation of indigenous communities from locations reserved for large, foreign-owned plantations. Reports by rights groups list a plethora of human rights violations, including murders, beatings, rapes, imprisonment, intimidation, and political coercion by the government and authorities. A report by the Oakland Institute (OI), a prominent international human rights organization, vividly describes how via “strongarm tactics reminiscent of apartheid South Africa, the Ethiopian regime has moved tens of thousands of people against their will to purpose-built communes that have inadequate food and lack health and education facilities to make way for large, foreign-owned commercial agricultural projects.”  Notably, the program has also led to food insecurity, a destruction of livelihoods and the loss of cultural heritage of ethnic groups.

The Socio-Political and Governance Dimensions of Hunger:Exploring Ethiopia’s Crisis

By Fikrejesus Amahazion,  africabusiness.com

Food insecurity is one of the most pressing humanitarian issues in the Horn of Africa, and the situation is expected to deteriorate further over the coming months. Ethiopia, in particular, is faced with a massive crisis. According to the European Commission, “the situation in Ethiopia is at present the most alarming, where the number of food insecure people has increased from 2.9 million at the beginning of the year to 8.2 million by early October. It is foreseen that these numbers will further rise up to 15 million by the end of 2015. Rates of acute under-nutrition are well above emergency thresholds in many parts of the country, while the response to this situation is hampered by an important shortage of nutrition supplies. In the worst affected areas in the Northern, Central and Eastern regions of the country hundreds of thousands of livestock deaths are reported.” Moreover, UNICEF warns that a large number of those facing hunger will be children; approximately 5 million children will “require relief food assistance during the last quarter of 2015,” with hundreds of thousands urgently requiring treatment for acute severe malnutrition.

The crisis is largely being attributed to the El Niño weather phenomenon and the underperformance of two consecutive rainy seasons, which have combined to negatively affect the country’s agricultural harvest cycle. During the last two months, prolonged, erratic and insufficient rainfall has led to poor vegetation conditions in southern Ethiopia, and widespread drought, which has severely impacted ground conditions.

However, although environmental factors have been significant, it is important to examine the crisis within a broader framework. The roots of hunger are multidimensional and complex; beyond immediate environmental causes, hunger involves a variety of factors including, amongst others, socio-political and governance dynamics. According to scholar Tim Hitchcock, “famines aren’t about the lack of food in the world. They aren’t about the lack of aid. We know that the harvest is going to fail in Eastern Africa once every 12 to 15 years. If you have a working state and your harvest fails, you raise the cash and you buy food and ship it in, and you make sure it is distributed. You don’t allow people to starve.” In Ethiopia, “[hunger and] food insecurity stems from government failures in addressing major structural problems” (Siyoum, Hilhorst, and Van Uffelen 2012).

The European Union (EU) has provided over €1 billion in humanitarian aid to the Horn of Africa since 2011, much of which has gone to Ethiopia. Annually, Ethiopia receives hundreds of millions of dollars in aid from a variety of bilateral and multilateral sources; across the 2004-2013 period, the country was the world’s 4thlargest recipient of foreign assistance, receiving nearly US$6 billion, while in 2011 alone, its share of total global official development assistance – approximately 4 percent – placed it behind only Afghanistan. However, even while it has long-been one of the leading recipients of foreign, humanitarian, and food aid in the world, the country continues to face crises. Why? One influential factor is the debilitating mix of domestic corruption and poor governance. According to prominent development scholar and international economist Dambisa Moyo (2009), aid is often closely linked to corruption and poor governance, and “aid flows destined to help the average African…[get] used for anything, save the developmental purpose for which they were intended.” Moreover, “a constant stream of ‘free’ money is a perfect way to keep an inefficient or simply bad government in power.” In the 1980s, during widespread famine and drought, Ethiopia’s brutal Dergue regime, led by Colonel Mengistu Hailemariam, diverted millions in humanitarian aid to the military, while under the despotic rule of Meles Zenawi, aid was frequently utilized as a political tool of manipulation and repression. Several months ago, leaked emails revealed that the Ethiopian regime, which is now making appeals for aid and external support, was paying the Italian surveillance firm, Hacking Team, to illegally monitor journalists critical of the government.

Corruption and poor governance remain deeply embedded within Ethiopia’s socio-political structure, and the country consistently scores extremely poorly on the World Bank’s Worldwide Governance Indicators, especially within the areas of corruption, rule of law, and governance (Kaufmann, Kraay, and Mastruzzi 2010; World Bank 2014). The indicators, based upon a variety of perceptions-based data sources, provide measures for various states, with scores ranging from around –2.5 (low) to around 2.5 (high). Table 1 illustrates that corruption, rule of law, and governance are significant problems within Ethiopia.

Another area of considerable concern is democracy and civil liberties. Ethiopia has been consistently criticized by an array of international rights groups for its broad range of human rights abuses including its harsh repression of minorities and journalists, press censorship, draconian anti-terror laws that are utilized to silence all forms of dissent, and brutal crackdowns upon opposition groups and protestors.

According to the Polity IV Project (Marshall and Gurr 2013), which is widely used in international comparative analyses of democracy, governance, and human rights practices, Ethiopia is one of the most authoritarian, autocratic states in the world. The Polity IV Project codes the political characteristics of states, using an array of data sources, to rank states from –10, representing least democratic and most autocratic states, to 10, representing most democratic states. Table 2 displays that Ethiopia’s scores place it within the autocratic, authoritarian category. The applicability of this categorization is underscored by the fact that, mere months ago, the government in Addis Ababa won 100 percent of parliamentary seats in a widely discredited national election that involved massive irregularities and intimidation, crackdowns, and arrests of the opposition.

Importantly, scholars and analysts have pointed to the existence of an intricate relationship between democracy, civil liberty, and hunger or famine. According to internationally renowned development and human rights scholar Amartya Sen, “no democracy has ever suffered a great famine” (1999: 180-181). Specifically, Sen notes that throughout history famines have been avoided in democratic states because these states’ promotion of political and civil rights afford people the opportunity to draw forceful attention to their general needs and to demand appropriate public action through voting, criticizing, protesting, and the like. Authoritarian states, which curtail democracy and free press, sustain much less pressure to respond to the acute suffering of their people and can therefore continue with faulty policies. Sen’s discussion of many of the great famines within recent history – including those in Ethiopia, Somalia, Sudan, China, the former USSR, and North Korea – helps emphasize the fundamental relationship between democracy, civil liberties, and widespread famine and hunger (Sen 1999).

Ironically, while Ethiopia is facing a hunger crisis and making urgent appeals for aid, tonnes of food are actually leaving the country. This illogical development is due to the fact that the regime in Addis has sold large tracts of arable land to a range of foreign investors and corporations in transactions described as “land grabs.” The process also involves “villagization,” a government-led program which entails the forcible relocation of indigenous communities from locations reserved for large, foreign-owned plantations. Reports by rights groups list a plethora of human rights violations, including murders, beatings, rapes, imprisonment, intimidation, and political coercion by the government and authorities. A report by the Oakland Institute (OI), a prominent international human rights organization, vividly describes how via “strongarm tactics reminiscent of apartheid South Africa, the Ethiopian regime has moved tens of thousands of people against their will to purpose-built communes that have inadequate food and lack health and education facilities to make way for large, foreign-owned commercial agricultural projects.”

Notably, the program has also led to food insecurity, a destruction of livelihoods and the loss of cultural heritage of ethnic groups.

Essentially, the Ethiopian regime’s participation in “land grabs” represents a dire lack of leadership, prioritization, and proper governance. It has caused terrible disruption to local communities and greatly harmed food security in the name of economic development. Such failure is reminiscent of previous humanitarian crises in the country. As described by Mosse (1993), during the 1960s and 1970s, the nomadic Afars of Ethiopia were displaced from their pasturelands in the Awash valley. The Awash River was controlled in the 1960s to provide irrigation for Dutch, Israeli, Italian, and British firms to grow sugar and cotton. Consequently, the annual flooding of the river, which covered the valley with rich soil and provided grazing lands for the Afars, was disrupted. The Afars went in search of new pastures and attempted to make a living on the ecologically fragile uplands, which were poorly suited to their nomadic lifestyle. Cattle found less to eat and the Afars began to starve. Subsequently, when drought struck Ethiopia’s Wollo region in 1972, between 25 and 30 percent of the Afars perished. The problem was not due to particular inadequacies of the Afars – who had flourished for centuries; rather, the problem was with the attempt to develop the Afar lands and bring them into the mainstream economy, without any regard for their actual needs. Ultimately, the pursuit of economic growth or development, if not sensitive or responsive to local needs, can so damage existing local populations and communities that substantial harm, poverty, deprivation, and hunger are created as a result (Mosse 1993).

Ethiopia’s hunger crisis is an important humanitarian issue meriting immediate attention and concern. In order to fully understand the crisis it is imperative to recognize that while the environment has been an important contributing factor, a range of other structural socio-political and governance dynamics, including corruption, the lack of rule of law or democracy, poor governance, failures in long-term planning, and misplaced national and development priorities have also been highly influential.

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Oromo Represented at International Indigenous Terra Madre-2015 in Shillong, capital and hill station of Meghalaya, India November 8, 2015

Posted by OromianEconomist in Uncategorized.
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Oromo Represented at International Indigenous Terra Madre-2015 in Shillong, capital and hill station of Meghalaya, India

Oromo representatives from Oromia (Ethiopia) and Kenya among the cultural crew showcasing their ingenious heritages on the international event.

http://www.ayyaantuu.net/oromo-represented-at-international-indigenous-terra-madre-2015-in-shillong-capital-and-hill-station-of-meghalaya-india/

International Indigenous Terra Madre-2015 (an international gathering of indigenous cultural communities organized by Indigenous Partnership) started in Shillong University, India. It brings over a 100 national groups and tribes from 58 countries across the world-already kicked off on 3rd November 2015 in Shillong, Meghalaya, India. The event will run till 7th of November 2015. Oromo representatives from Ethiopia and Kenya among the cultural crew showcasing their ingenious heritages on the international event.

oromo_rep1Oromo_rep2Oromo_rep3Oromo_rep4Oromo_rep5Oromo_rep6Oromo_rep7


600 International Delegates at Indigenous Terra Madre 2015, Including Ethiopian Tribes and Communities
23 Oct 15

Representatives of Ethiopian tribes and communities will contribute to the event by sharing their knowledge and experiences

A large delegation of representatives of indigenous communities from the Slow Food Terra Madre network and beyond will be participating in Indigenous Terra Madre (ITM 2015), which will take place from November 3 to 7, 2015 in Shillong (Meghalaya, India). The event is the result of a collaboration between Slow Food, the Indigenous Partnership for Agrobiodiversity and Food Sovereignty (Indigenous Partnership) and the North East Slow Food and Agrobiodiversity Society(NESFAS).

International representatives will be coming to the event from five continents, from 14 Africancountries, 17 Asian countries, 8 European countries, 12 American countries and 7 Oceaniancountries.

Representatives from several Ethiopian communities will be attending:

– the Konso community (south-central Ethiopia). The origins of Konso culture are intertwined with the domestication of the moringa tree and its introduction in the highlands. Moringa leaves have joined the Slow Food Ark of Taste. The trees provide shade for coffee, the most valuable cash crop in the highlands. In fact the association of the two plants, moringa and coffee, exists only in the Konso area as it is a specific cultural expression of the deep link between the Konso and their ecosystem.

– the Hor tribe (southwest Ethiopia, north of Lake Stephanie Basi). An agro-pastoral community with a population of 6,000, mainly pastoralists and fishers. They plant different type of sorghum and raise sheep, goats and cattle, acting as custodians of rare local varieties.

– the Guji-Oromo community (Guji zone in the Oromia region). They are among the indigenous Oromo tribes sharing borders with the Sidama, Gedeo and other ethnic groups in southeastern part of the country. The Guji people are pastoralists in lowland areas and farmers in the highlands. In the highlands they produce honey, coffee, cereals and other crops, whereas in lowland they raise camels, sheep, goat and cattle. They govern themselves using the Gada system.

– the Gedeo community (southern Ethiopia between the Sidama and Boran zone of the Oromia region). They are sedentary cultivators, focusing on a food crop, ensete (Ethiopian banana), and a cash crop, coffee. They are unique among the ensete-growing peoples, as they plant the ensete, elsewhere largely a homestead crop, in the fields. They are the only people to intercrop their ensete with coffee. The Gedeo are also renowned for their conservation of natural resources. Using ensete, the Gedeo are able to produce food, livestock feed and wood from the same plot.

– the Hadiya community. Mainly shifting cultivators.

– the Gamo community. They are agro-pastoralist people and grow cereals, root crops and livestock on a mountain landscape.

Representatives of several groups and organizations from Ethiopia will also attend the event, including the Woyera-Moringa Suppliers Association (a cooperative which unites mostly female members of the Konso community who work with moringa leaves); the Baaboo (a local NGO which focuses on ensete development—planting, processing, and marketing—and on Gedeo ensete cuisines; the Tena Agar Traditional Foods and Utensils Protection and Promotion Association (established in 2011, it studies, documents, promotes and supports the production, preparation, supply and distribution of traditional foods and drinks and their utensils); the Daanchee Gedeo Ensete Cuisines Baaboo Development & Relief Association (whose mission is to promote Gedeo ensete cuisines through food shows, cultural events and its mobile kitchen) and Addis Ababa University.

You can find the program of the event here: http://bit.ly/1LWZaxh

Indigenous Terra Madre 2015 gratefully acknowledges funding support from the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD), The Christensen Fund and the Government of Meghalaya. Indigenous Terra Madre 2015 is also thankful for the contributions made by Tamalpais Trust, Swift Foundation,AgroEcology Fund, Bread for the World and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). 

Terra Madre is a worldwide network, launched by Slow Food in 2004, which unites small-scale producers from 163 countries involved in the sustainable production of food. Among these, to date the Indigenous Terra Madre Network comprises 372 indigenous food communities, 41 indigenous Presidia projectsand308 indigenous Ark of Taste products.  For more information:http://slowfood.com/international/149/indigenous-terra-madre-network

Discover the stories of Indigenous Peoples from around the world on Slow Food website in the ‘Indigenous Voices’ section! http://www.slowfood.com/international/food-for-thought/slow-themes/260987

For further information, please contact the Slow Food International Press Office:

Paola Nano, +39 329 8321285 p.nano@slowfood.it 

Ajay Nayak, +91-9820535501 ajay@indigenousterramadre.org

Slow Food involves over a million of people dedicated to and passionate about good, clean and fair food. This includes chefs, youth, activists, farmers, fishers, experts and academics in over 158 countries; a network of around 100,000 Slow Food members linked to 1,500 local chapters worldwide (known as convivia), contributing through their membership fee, as well as the events and campaigns they organize; and over 2,500 Terra Madre food communities who practice small-scale and sustainable production of quality food around the world.

Oromia (Finfinnee): Ni Dandeenya:Tokkummaa Artiistoota Dubartoota Oromoo November 8, 2015

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???????????Tokkumaa Artiistoo Dubartoota Oromoo

Historic Reunion of the Raayyaa Oromo with the Rest of the Oromo NationTokkumaa Artiistoo Dubartoota Oromoo1Tokkumaa Artiistoo Dubartoota Oromoo2Tokkumaa Artiistoo Dubartoota Oromoo3Tokkumaa Artiistoo Dubartoota Oromoo4Tokkumaa Artiistoo Dubartoota Oromoo5Tokkumaa Artiistoo Dubartoota Oromoo 31 Onkoloolessa 31 bara 2015 @Finfinnee, Oromoota Raayyaa waliin

Guyyaa Seenaa Qabeessa: Historic Reunion of the Raayyaa Oromo with the Rest of the Oromo Nation

“Ani amma waggaa 45 ergaan dhaladhee Oromoo gurran dhaga’a malee takkaa argee hin beeku” Durbartii Rayyaa

Onkoloolessa 31 bara 2015,Sambata duraa darbee, Oromootni Finfinnee sirna howwaan galma Walga’ii Finfinnee jedhamu Caffee Tumaati argamuti walga’aniiru. Sababiin guddaan walitti nu qabee ammoo Gumaata eebba kilippii fi wallee haaraa Saliha Sami mata duree “Ni Dandeenya” jedhuun akkasumaas Qophii haadha Siqqee fi Sirna Ateetee Dubartootaa Artiistoota Oromootiin dawwachuuf ture. Anaafi Oromoota hedduuf garuu Oromoo fi Oromummaa dagaage arguun kayyoo keenya jalqabaati jedheen amana dhiyeenya kana Oromoon waliif owwachuu jalqabuun isaa bakka walgeetti Oromoon jira jedhame hundumaati namni fedhiidhaan hirmaachaa jira waan hedduu nama gammachiisuufi onnee nama keessatti horuudha. Guyyaa kanaas taateewwan ajaa’ibsiisoon adda addaa rawaatamanii jiru isaaniis yeroo hundumaa waltajjii hedduu irratti artiistoota dhiiraa qofaa argina turree guyyaa kana garuu artiistoota dubartoota qofaan tajaajila bashananaa guutuu argatanii galuun bayyee nama gammachiisa. Inni lammaffaa Oromoota Rayyaa takkaa ija keenyaan arginee hin beekne kudhanii ol Artiisti Saalihaan kiloomeetirii hedduu qaxaamuranii akka dhufaan taasisuudhan qaama sagantaa kana akka ta’aa gochuuniis waan dinqiidha. Sagantaa kana irratti haasawaa durbartiin Rayyaa tokko dubattee ana ajaa’ibe akkana jette “Ijjolee biyya keenyaa akkam ooltaan nuyii eegaa Oromoon hin jira jechuu gurraan dhaga’aa turre malee Obboleyyaan keenya jiraachuu ija keenyaan hin arginee amma eegaa isiin jallannee jira obboleeyyan keenya wajjin waliitti makamuu fi sirba Oromoos akkanatti dhaga’uun, Ani amma waggaa 45 ergaan dhaladhee Oromoo gurran dhaga’a malee takkaa argee hin beeku” hedduu ana ajaa’ibe ummata sanyii, qomoo fi dhiiga tokkoo biyya tokko keessa jiraachaa waggaa 45 oliif jiraachuu ummata kana ijaan argee hin beekne dinqiidha hundumti keenya of haa gaafannumee?
Sadaffaan sirni kabaajaa fi badhaasa durbartoota Oromoo gama hundaan shoora oolanaa taphataniis taasifamee waan ajaa’ibaati.
Durbartoota fakkeenyummaa cimaa taasisaan keessaa badhaasa fi kabajaa kan argataan keessaa isheen jalqabaa Artiistii Saalihaa Saamiidha kan ishee badhaasee koree dhimma kanaaf dhabbate yoo ta’uu waancaa urjii shan ofirraa qabu argattee jirti. Kana malees durbartootni kannen akka
Adde Makiyaa Ammayyuu dubartii Oromoo dinagdeen fakkeenyuummaa qabdu
Haadha Warraa Artiisti Doktoor Alii Birraa Aaddee Lillii fi
Haadha Warraa Artiisti Zaarihun Wadajoo Addee Olaantuu Artiistoota Oromoo kabajamoo kana kununsanii guyyaa har’aan ga’uu isaaniitiif
Haadha Caayaa dubartii Oromoo jabiinaa fi sabboonummaa guddaan ijjoleeshee barsiisuudhaan
Artiisti Haalloo Dawwee Umuurii ishee guutuu artii Oromoo keessatti dabarsuu isheetiif
Ayyoo Guddatuu Kabajaa ishee aadaa Oromoof qabduufi fakkeenya bareedina Oromoo waan taateef
Adde Fardoosaa Huccuu Aadaa Oromoo bifa ammayyaan dizaayinii gochuudhaan addunyaaf beeksisuudhaan
Dubree Lallistuu Toofik kitaaba Afaan Oromoo Imala Jireenyaa jedhu barreesuufi fakkeenya barreesituu Hogbarruu Oromoo ta’uudhaan
Artiist Hawwii/Caaltuu Eelaa Kabajaa fi tumsa isheen guddina aartii Oromoof gumaachiteen
Akkasumaas Kadhimamaa PHD Tafaarii Nigusee, Rayyaa Biiraa fi TV OBS tumsa isaan sagantaa kanaaf qabaniif badhaasa addaa argataniiru.
Sagantaa kana irrattis sirni siqqee walharkaa fuudhuu Artiisti Halloo Dawwee fi Artiisti Salihaa Saamii gidduutti taasifameera kuniis aartii Oromoo labata dhufuuti dabarsuu fi guddina inni amma agarsiisaa jiru kana jajjabeesuu hikkaa jedhu qaba.
Waan hundumaafuu Oromootni Finfinneefi Nannawaa ishee jirtaan tumsaa fi birmannaa artii keessan irratti taasisaa jirtaan olaanaa ta’uu fi akka layyoo kan hin ilaalamne ta’uu hubachuudhaan akkuma ammaleefanne bakka sagantaan Oromoo jira jedhame hundumaati argamne gumaacha lammummaa ba’uun dirqamaan jedha ammas kana malees yeroo akkanatti baanee hirmaannu diina garaan akka gubatuus hin dagatiinan dhamsa kooti.
Horaa Bulaa
Gammadaa Olaanaa
Rabador Art Promotion irraa

http://https://vimeo.com/144997339

Related:-

https://oromianeconomist.wordpress.com/2015/10/20/oromia-artist-saliha-sami-releases-raya-music-sanggawwee-raayyaagumaayyee-in-afan-oromo-the-national-language-of-raya-azebo/

https://www.facebook.com/gammadaa.olaanaa?pnref=story